Sample records for atlantic igneous province

  1. Timing and duration of volcanism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Duncan, Robert A.; Tegner, Christian


    We combine new and published 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from incremental heating experiments on whole rocks and mineral separates to assess the timing, duration and distribution of volcanic activity during construction of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. We use these ages together with volume...

  2. The pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province and the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle (United States)

    Tegner, Christian; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre; Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Torsvik, Trond H.


    Magmatism of the first known rifting phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle is surprisingly well preserved in the Caledonian nappes of central Scandinavia. The Särv and Seve Nappes are characterised by spectacular dyke complexes originally emplaced into continental sediments along the rifted margin of Iapetus. The intensity and structure of the pre-Caledonian Dyke Complex is comparable to that of the present passive margins of the North Atlantic large igneous province (NALIP) and U-Pb ages of 610-590 Ma suggest magmatism was short-lived. It can be described as a pre-Caledonian large igneous province (CLIP). To constrain the origin of CLIP magmatism we: (1) re-visited the dyke complexes of the Sarek, Kebnekaise and Tornetrask mountains of North Sweden; (2) compiled new and published geochemical data for the more than 950 km long, magma-rich segment of the Scandinavian Caledonides; and (3) extended reconstructions of the paleo-position of Baltica back to 600 Ma. Although the appearance of the dykes ranges from garnet amphibolite gneiss to pristine magmatic intrusions, all bulk rock compositions largely reflect the original magmatic rock. The compiled dataset includes 584 analyses that essentially forms a coherent suite of tholeiitic ferrobasalt (2-12 wt% MgO, 45-54 wt% SiO2; 6-16 wt% FeOtot; 0.7-4.0 wt% TiO2) akin to LIP basalts such as those of NALIP (61-54 Ma). A few samples (Kebnekaise, Tornetrask). The few available rare earth element data support this distribution of geochemical enrichment. We conclude that the compositions of the pre-Caledonian dykes are similar to LIP basalts dominated by asthenospheric mantle melts in general, and strikingly similar to basalts that erupted at 61-54 Ma (NALIP) in the subsequent rift-phase of the North Atlantic Wilson Cycle. It is also interesting that the paleo-positions of CLIP and NALIP appear to overly the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces mapped today at the core-mantle boundary below the Pacific

  3. Influences of Source Heterogeneity and Potential Temperature on the Generation of Basalts from the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Brown, E. L.; Lesher, C. E.


    Source heterogeneity and mantle potential temperature are important factors affecting the mantle melting process and must be adequately accounted for to interpret the compositions of mantle-derived melts derived from a variety of tectonomagmatic settings. Several previous studies have attempted to simplify the problem by modeling the melting of a homogeneous source, or by creating 1-D melting models of a heterogeneous source (i.e. solid-solid source mixing). The results of these studies are limited as the latter approach places no constraints on pressures and extents of melting while the former approach does not account for the role of non- peridotite lithologies in the source. We have begun investigating 2-D models using a modified version of the REEBOX polybaric melting model of [1] in an attempt to gain insight into melt compositions related to the effects of the melting process (related to potential temperature) while simultaneously identifying the chemical effects of source heterogeneity. This new model incorporates experimentally - determined melt productivity functions, melting reactions and solidus pressures for eclogite and peridotite source lithologies. At a given potential temperature, model outputs produce grids in trace element and isotope space that reflect variable mixing of melts derived from eclogite and peridotite source lithologies at different segregation pressures from the melting column. Consequently, we are able to qualitatively assess relative pressures and extents of melting within the melting column for comparison with basalt compositions. To better understand the influences of source heterogeneity and potential temperature within the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province, we apply this model to volcanic products from the Paleocene rifted margin of Greenland and the modern ridge system. In the case of the east Greenland flood basalts, variations in contributions from a source involving highly depleted peridotite and eclogite and changes in

  4. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.


    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  5. Breakup magmatism on the North Atlantic Igneous Province: what could we learn about the extension/breakup processes from the Norwegian Margin? (United States)

    Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Planke, Sverre; Faleide, Jan Inge; Myklebust, Reidun; Gernigon, Laurent; Horni, Jim; Wong, Po-Wan


    The early continental breakup and initial seafloor spreading in the northeast Atlantic area was accompanied by widespread intrusive and extrusive volcanism. New and reprocessed seismic reflection allow for detailed seismic volcanostratigraphy interpretation of the breakup complex and sub-basalt sequences. Several distinct volcanic seismic facies units have been identified: (1) Landward Flows, (2) Lava Delta, (3) Inner Flows, (4) Inner Seaward Dipping Reflectors (Inner SDR), (5) Outer High, (6) Outer SDR. Such facies succession represents a typical volcanic rifted margin and defines the extent of the breakup extrusive complex landward of the first magnetic seafloor spreading anomaly. We present an updated map of the volcanic seismic facies units in the northeast Atlantic area based on high-quality geophysical data combined with the newest published and unpublished data. The Norwegian margin shows an along-strike segmentation that seems to be in relation with the margin inheritance. We notice that this segmentation affect also melt production in the area and LCB (lower Crustal Bodies) extent. The lateral variation of LCB thickness could be interpreted as a variation of melt supply during the extension/breakup process which is also controlled by the crustal inheritance. The updated imaging of the sub-basalt facies and the deep crustal mapping provides important constrain on the pre-volcanic basin configuration, margin subsidence history, and the volume of igneous rocks. These constraints lead to a better understanding of the melt supply from the upper mantle and the relationship between tectonic setting and volcanism. The result gives key boundary conditions for understanding the processes forming volcanic margins and constraints on the thermal evolution of associated prospective volcanic basins.

  6. Magnetostratigraphy of the Etendeka Large Igneous Province, Namibia. (United States)

    Dodd, S. C.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Mac Niocaill, C.


    The Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province (≈ 135 Ma) has not been linked to a known mass extinction event, despite large igneous provinces being postulated as a cause. The reason why some large igneous provinces appear the cause of huge fluctuations in the global biosphere, an example being the link between Siberian trap volcanism and the Permo-Triassic boundary, while others seem to have only a minor effect is still debated. Establishing detailed histories of these large igneous provinces is important for understanding why such variations in effect may occur. Why does the volume of the province not reflect the magnitude of the effects seen? During the early Cretaceous, reversals of Earth's magnetic field were more frequent than at other times in Earth's history. Magnetostratigraphy is therefore a tool capable of providing high resolution constraints on the history and duration of the Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province volcanism. Detailed sampling of the Etendeka volcanic stratigraphy, followed by progressive demagnetisation of 893 specimens, yields 70 individual polarities gained from throughout the central volcanic succession. Correlation of the individual sections sampled reveals a minimum of 16 separate polarities are recorded. Subsequent links to the geomagnetic polarity timescale suggest a minimum province duration of > 1 Myrs, with no obvious period of short, high volume volcanism as is often suggested. A protracted duration (>1Myr) may therefore provide the reason why at least the Paraná - Etendeka appears to have no associated extinction event.

  7. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov


    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can

  8. The Emeishan large igneous province: A synthesis

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    J. Gregory Shellnutt


    Full Text Available The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone. The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040–0.7132, Nd (ɛNd(t ≈ −14 to +8, Pb (206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9–20.6 and Os (γOs ≈ −5 to +11 isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2-rich fluids

  9. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.


    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  10. Timescales and mechanisms of plume-lithosphere interactions: 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology and geochemistry of alkaline igneous rocks from the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (United States)

    Gibson, S. A.; Thompson, R. N.; Day, J. A.


    We have determined high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar ages for alkaline igneous rocks from the western margin of the Early-Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (Paraguay). These show that small-fraction melt generation occurred beneath the region in two phases; at 145 Ma and 127.5 Ma, i.e. before and at the end of the 139-127.5 Ma Paraná-Etendeka flood-basalt eruptions. Previously published 40Ar/ 39Ar ages for alkaline igneous rocks on the proto-Atlantic coastal margins range from 134 to 128 Ma and indicate that small-fraction melt generation in the east of the province was either synchronous or slightly later than the main pulse of tholeiitic volcanism (between 134 and 132 Ma). Our new 40Ar/ 39Ar phlogopite ages confirm that: (i) the earliest melts associated with the initial impact of the Tristan plume were generated in the west of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province and (ii) igneous activity was long lived and immediately predates continental break-up. The Early-Cretaceous Paraguayan alkaline magmas are silica-undersaturated, enriched in incompatible-trace elements, have very-low initial ɛNd values and probably represent melts of phlogopite-bearing, carbonate-metasomatised peridotite in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our simple one-dimensional, conductive-heating models suggest that the early-phase (145 Ma) alkaline magmas were emplaced on the margins of the Rio de La Plata craton at the time of sublithospheric impact of the proto-Tristan plume. The late phase (127.5 Ma) of Paraguayan alkaline magmatism is concentrated in an intra-cratonic rift zone and melt generation appears to have been triggered by lithospheric extension, perhaps facilitated by conductive heating and thermal weakening associated with the upwelling Tristan plume. The location and timing of both alkaline and tholeiitic melt generation in the Paraná-Etendeka province appear to have been significantly influenced by the non-uniform composition and thickness of the South

  11. Building and breaking a Large Igneous Province: An example from the High Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Gaina, Carmen; Brozena, John M.


    The genesis of the Amerasia Basin in the Arctic Ocean has been difficult to discern due to overprint of the Cretaceous High-Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). Based on detailed analysis of bathymetry data, new Arctic magnetic and gravity compilations, and recently published radiometric...

  12. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056


    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  13. Geochemistry of the Kalkarindji Magmas: Insights into the Source of the Oldest Phanerozoic Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Ware, B. D.; Jourdan, F.; Hodges, K.; Tessalina, S.; Chiaradia, M.; Evins, L.; Gole, M.


    The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province (CFBP) of northern Australia is the oldest Phanerozoic large igneous province (LIP) in the world. The extent of this Middle Cambrian LIP has been estimated to at least 2.1 x 106 km2 with exposures in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland, and South Australia. The research into Kalkarindji is still in its infancy with only a handful of studies published. The rocks of the Kalkarindji province occur as lava flows, sills, dykes, and volcanic tuffs. Kalkarindji has been linked to an extinction event at the Early-Middle Cambrian boundary. The Kalkarindji province displays Low-Ti values and high SiO2 values compared to other large igneous provinces, enriched 87Sr/86Sr values, and low 187Os/188Os. This project presents a large data set of new geochemical analyses of the various constituents of the Kalkarindji CFBP. Source mixing calculations, assimilation and fractionation models, coupled with Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to understand the petrogenesis of the province. The trace element and 87Sr/86Sr values indicate a contribution of enriched crustal-like material into the source region; however, the Os values fall into typical mantle ranges. These geochemical patterns suggest that the mantle source(s) of the Kalkarindji CFBP has been directly enriched at some stage of history, before the emplacement of the province. This study will provide further insights into the magma source and origin processes needed to create one of the world's largest and oldest Phanerozoic large igneous provinces.

  14. Investigating Large Igneous Province Formation and Associated Paleoenvironmental Events: A White Paper for Scientific Drilling

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    Michael R. Rampino


    Full Text Available Earth’s history has been punctuated over at least the last 3.5 billion years by massive volcanism on a scale unknown in the recent geological past. Largely unknown mechanical and dynamic processes, with unclear relationships to seafloor spreading and subduction, generated voluminous, predominately mafic magmas that were emplaced into the Earth’s lithosphere. The resultant large igneous provinces (LIPs; Coffin and Eldholm, 1994; Ernst and Buchan, 2001; Bryan and Ernst, 2008 were at times accompanied by catastrophic environmental changes. The interaction of the LIP-associated mantle processes with the Earth’s crust have produced a variety of surface expressions (Fig. 1a and 1b; the most common present-day examples are oceanic plateaus (e.g., Kerguelen/Broken Ridge, Ontong Java, Manihiki, Hikurangi, Shatsky, ocean basin flood basalts (e.g., Caribbean, Nauru, magma-dominated divergent continental margins (e.g., theNorth Atlantic, and continental flood basalts (e.g., Columbia River, Deccan Traps, Siberian Traps. Environmental effects associated with LIP formation include climate changes, mass and other extinctions, variations in ocean and atmospheric chemistry, and Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs. Therefore, the geodynamic processes in the mantle that produce LIPs have potentially profoundly affected the Earth’s environment, particularly the biosphere and climate. The IntegratedOcean Drilling Program (IODP affords unique opportunities to investigate LIPs and associated environmental effects, building upon results from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP (Coffin et al., 2006. To this end, a workshop on LIPs, sponsored by IODP Management International (IODP-MI and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, was held at the University of Ulster in Coleraine, Northern Ireland, U.K. on 22–25 July 2007 (Coffinet al., 2007.

  15. Seismic volcanostratigraphy of the western Indian rifted margin: The pre-Deccan igneous province


    Calvès, Gérôme; Schwab, Anne M.; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Gaina, Carmen; Jolley, David; Tabrez, Ali R.; Inam, Asif


    The Indian Plate has been the focus of intensive research concerning the flood basalts of the Deccan Traps. Here we document a volcanostratigraphic analysis of the offshore segment of the western Indian volcanic large igneous province, between the shoreline and the first magnetic anomaly (An 28 ∼63 Ma). We have mapped the different crustal domains of the NW Indian Ocean from stretched continental crust through to oceanic crust, using seismic reflection and potential field data. Two volcanic s...

  16. A satellite magnetic perspective of subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones (United States)

    Purucker, M. E.; Whaler, K. A.


    Large and intermediate-scale tectonic features such as subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones are often seen to have a magnetic signature visible from the perspective of near-Earth magnetic field satellites such as CHAMP and Orsted. Why do these tectonic features have a magnetic signature, while others do not? A new model of the lithospheric field (MF-6, Maus et al., 2008) extending to spherical harmonic degree 120 (333 km wavelength) has been used to evaluate the magnetic state of the lithosphere under the assumption that the magnetization is either induced (with a seismic starting model), or remanent (with a minimum norm approach). Some of the features identified from these images include the Tethyan and NE Siberian diffuse plate boundary zones, the Red Sea rift, and Cretaceous rift basins developed on the West African shield. Almost without exception, subduction zones exhibit a magnetic signature, as do many large igneous provinces. In this talk we discuss some of the new insights this magnetic perspective provides, and speculate on the controls which determine whether tectonic features will be expressed magnetically.

  17. Unusually thickened crust beneath the Emeishan large igneous province detected by virtual deep seismic sounding (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Tian, Xiaobo; Chen, Yun; Xu, Tao; Bai, Zhiming; Liang, Xiaofeng; Iqbal, Javed; Xu, Yigang


    The Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwest China represents the erosional remnant of a vast basalt field emplaced during the Permian Period. Spanning 0.25 million km2, the ELIP occupies a relatively small area relative to other Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) such as the Siberian Traps and Ontong Java Plateau. The original volume of an ancient LIP can be constrained from estimates of its intrusive component. We used virtual deep seismic sounding (VDSS) to detect the boundary between the crust and the upper mantle (Moho) beneath the ELIP. A strong set of reflections from depths of 60-70 km indicate an unusually thick crust having a P-wave velocity of 7.0-7.4 km/s located beneath the inner zone of the ELIP. A high-velocity lower crustal body (HVLCB) of this thickness may have been formed by ponding magmas derived from the Emeishan mantle plume and associated fractionated materials. Combined images of crustal structure allow re-estimation of Emeishan magmatic volume. With a total estimated volume of 1.76-3.2 × 106 km3, the ELIP appears to have been a typical sized plume-generated LIP relative to other global examples.

  18. A Mesoproterozoic continental flood rhyolite province, the Gawler Ranges, Australia: the end member example of the Large Igneous Province clan

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    M. J. Pankhurst


    Full Text Available Rhyolite and dacite lavas of the Mesoproterozoic upper Gawler Range Volcanics (GRV (>30 000 km3 preserved, South Australia, represent the remnants of one of the most voluminous felsic magmatic events preserved on Earth. Geophysical interpretation suggests eruption from a central cluster of feeder vents which supplied large-scale lobate flows >100 km in length. Pigeonite inversion thermometers indicate eruption temperatures of 950–1100 °C. The lavas are A-type in composition (e.g. high Ga/Al ratios and characterised by elevated primary halogen concentrations (~1600 ppm fluorine, ~400 ppm chlorine. These depolymerised the magma such that temperature-composition-volatile non-Arrhenian melt viscosity modelling suggests they had viscosities of <3.5 log η (Pa s. These physicochemical properties have led to the emplacement of a Large Rhyolite Province, which has affinities in emplacement style to Large Basaltic Provinces. The low viscosity of these felsic magmas has produced a unique igneous system on a scale which is either not present or poorly preserved elsewhere on the planet. The Gawler Range Volcanic Province represents the erupted portion of the felsic end member of the family of voluminous, rapidly emplaced terrestrial magmatic provinces.

  19. Mantle hydration and the role of water in the generation of large igneous provinces. (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Xia, Qun-Ke; Kuritani, Takeshi; Hanski, Eero; Yu, Hao-Ran


    The genesis of large igneous provinces (LIP) is controlled by multiple factors including anomalous mantle temperatures, the presence of fusible fertile components and volatiles in the mantle source, and the extent of decompression. The lack of a comprehensive examination of all these factors in one specific LIP makes the mantle plume model debatable. Here, we report estimates of the water content in picrites from the Emeishan LIP in southwestern China. Although these picrites display an island arc-like H 2 O content (up to 3.4 by weight percent), the trace element characteristics do not support a subduction zone setting but point to a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle. Combining with previous studies, we propose that hydrous and hot plumes occasionally appeared in the Phanerozoic era to produce continental LIPs (e.g., Tarim, Siberian Trap, Karoo). The wide sampling of hydrous reservoirs in the deep mantle by mantle plumes thus indicates that the Earth's interior is largely hydrated.

  20. On the origin of the Amerasia Basin and the High Arctic Large Igneous Province-Results of new aeromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Jackson, H.R.; Matzka, Jürgen


    of the Basin remain unaddressed. The difficulty lies in the geodynamic evolution and signature of the Basin being overprinted by excess volcanism of the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge complex, part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) and one of the largest (>1 million km2) and most intense magmatic...

  1. Correlating Large Igneous Provinces with Lower Mantle Seismic Structure - Where Is the Plume Generation Zone? (United States)

    Austermann, J.; Kaye, B. T.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P. J.


    Deep mantle seismic structure is dominated by two large, low shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) below Africa and the Pacific. While different tomography models have come to a consensus over the general geometry of these provinces, the degree of thermal versus chemical heterogeneity that defines them is contentious. The location of plumes that rise from these large structures may provide insight into this question. Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are thought to be the surface expression of plumes that formed in the deep mantle and subsequently rose through the mantle and erupted at the surface. When restored to their original location of eruption, these LIPs appear to lie approximately above the margins of LLSVPs. This spatial correlation has been used to argue that plumes are preferentially generated at margins of LLSVPs, a notion that would tend to favor a significant chemical gradient at this margin. We assessed the robustness of this correlation by performing a series of Monte Carlo-based statistical tests (Austermann et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2014). These tests confirm that the reconstructed locations of LIPs are spatially correlated with margins of LLSVPs, but they also show that LIPs are correlated with the full areal extent of LLSVPs (parameterized as regions of slower-than-average shear wave velocity). These two correlations cannot be statistically distinguished, which means the areal extent of LLSVPs is an equally likely zone for plume generation. Therefore, based on current tomography models and reconstructed locations of LIPs, we cannot distinguish whether LIPs originated preferentially at the margins of LLSVPs or whether this correlation is merely an outcome of their origin across the full areal extent of these large scale, deep mantle structures. We will discuss the implications of our findings on the growing debate over the relative contributions of thermal and chemical effects on the net buoyancy of the LLSVPs, a factor that ultimately controls

  2. Silicic ash beds bracket Emeishan Large Igneous province to < 1 m.y. at ~ 260 Ma (United States)

    Huang, Hu; Cawood, Peter A.; Hou, Ming-Cai; Yang, Jiang-Hai; Ni, Shi-Jun; Du, Yuan-Sheng; Yan, Zhao-Kun; Wang, Jun


    Claystone beds directly below and above the Emeishan basalts in SW China formed around the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G - L) boundary. Zircons from both levels give U-Pb ages of 260 Ma, and are identical within-error to ages reported for the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP). The claystones lack Nb - Ta anomalies on primitive mantle normalized elemental diagrams; zircons from these claystones have a geochemical affinity to within-plate-type magmas. These features, combined with the strong negative Eu anomalies in the zircons and high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios, indicate that claystones around the G - L boundary have a silicic volcanic component related to Emeishan LIP. Zircons from the underlying claystone bed have much higher U/Yb and Th/Nb ratios and lower εHf(t) values than those overlying the LIP, suggesting that early-stage silicic volcanic rocks had a higher crustal contamination or assimilation during magmatic processes. In terms of stratigraphic correlation, our data demonstrate that silicic eruptions occurred not only at the end, but also at the beginning of the Emeishan LIP, and the overall duration of the main basaltic phase was short (< 1 m.y).

  3. The Jiaodong gold district, northeastern China, in the context of the Late Paleozoic and Late Mesozoic large igneous provinces, orogeny and metallogeny in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, Hugo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056

    The Permo-Triassic continental large igneous provinces (LIPs) of Eurasia linked in to orogenic systems in decay. Their bulk appearance varies from the massive flood-basalts and (ultra)mafic intrusives to the groups of coeval, widely spread, diverse intrusions and extrusions of the Scattered Igneous

  4. Paleomagnetic directional groups and paleointensity from the flood basalt in the Tarim large igneous province: implications for eruption frequency (United States)

    Usui, Yoichi; Tian, Wei


    We present paleomagnetic secular variation and paleointensity from the Early Permian Tarim large igneous province, NW China. The studied sections comprise a total of 400 m of basaltic flows. Paleomagnetic directions were determined for 11 flows. Four successive flows with a cumulative thickness of 150 m showed a statistically identical paleomagnetic direction. Assuming a paleosecular variation speed similar to that of the present day, the 150-m-thick basalt was estimated to have erupted within the past few centuries. Paleointensity experiments were performed on both whole-rock and single plagioclase samples. Although alterations during the experiment and/or weak remanence degraded the data quality, the flows with the same paleomagnetic direction revealed similar paleointensity estimates, supporting the hypothesis that the eruption of these flows was rapid. More generally, flows from the Lower Kupukuziman Formation seem to record lower paleointensity compared to flows from the overlying Kaipaizileike Formation. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: Left the extent of the Tarim large igneous province. Center in-situ paleomagnetic directions obtained from the Tarim large igneous province. Subashi and Yingan represents directions reported in a previous research. Right tilt-corrected paleomagnetic directions. Tight clustering of the direction indicate fast eruption relative to the paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) speed.

  5. Genesis of Soils Formed from Mafic Igneous Rock in the Atlantic Forest Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailde do Carmo Santos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Different parent materials participate in the formation of soils in the hilly landscape of “Mar de Morros” in the Atlantic Forest environment. Those derived from mafic igneous rock (gabbro frequently show erosion problems because of land use, which is aggravated by the mountainous relief and soil attributes. This study evaluated the main pedogenic processes of soils formed from mafic igneous rock (gabbro in a toposequence in Pinheiral (RJ by characterizing physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological attributes. The profiles are located at different sections in the toposequence: summit (P1, shoulder (P2, backslope (P3 and footslope (P4.They were classified according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SiBCS and correlated to Soil Taxonomy. The soil morphology of profiles P2, P3 and P4 is expressed by a brownish-red color, blocky structure with high to moderate development, clay films and clay loam to clay texture, with a textural B horizon. P1 shows less development, with a shallow profile and the sequence of horizons A-C-Cr. The soils have a slightly low degree of weathering, identified by the presence of pyroxenes and feldspars in the sand fraction and montorillonite in the clay fraction; the sum of bases is from 15 to 24 cmolc kg-1; and cation exchange capacity (CEC is from 12 to 22 cmolc kg-1. A significant presence of clay skins was observed in the field and was confirmed by thin section analysis, which showed features such as argillans, ferriargillans and iron nodules. The soil profile at the summit (P1 was classified as Neossolo Regolítico Órtico (Typic Udorthents, and the other profiles as Chernossolo Argilúvicos Órticos (Typic Argiudolls.

  6. Atmospheric PCO2 Perturbations Associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (United States)

    Schaller, Morgan F.; Wright, James D.; Kent, Dennis V.


    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO2) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO2 from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO2 values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO2 increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO2 after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO2 by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics.

  7. Did volcanic activity of the Emeishan large igneous province expand in Wuchiapingian times? (United States)

    Bagherpour, Borhan; Bucher, Hugo; Yuan, Dong-Xun; Shen, Shu-zhong; Leu, Marc; Zhang, Chao


    Emplacement of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in the Capitanian (Middle Permian) is associated with several environmental changes (e.g. facies change, carbon cycle perturbation and temperature rise) across the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G-L) interval in South China. However, most of the reported changes are within the Capitanian stage or close to the G-L boundary. Here, we report an episode of drastic environmental changes from the Pingtang syncline (S. Guizhou) that is similar with the previously known ones but which is significantly younger. The studied section represents a protracted and stepwise facies change from a benthos rich, thick-bedded and light grey shallow water limestone (Unit A) to a 30 m-thick unit with thin-bedded dark (OM-rich) radiolarian-spiculitic facies (Unit B). The latter is overlain by an 8 m-thick unit of volcaniclastic sandstone and silts defining a succession of decimetric, cyclic and thinning upward layers (Unit C). The base of the overlying medium-bedded limestone unit (Unit D) contain radiolarian and sponge spicules whose abundance progressively decrease up section with a progressive replacement by abundant benthic faunas concomitant with the transition to thick bedded limestone. A total of five conodont index species (assigned to Clarkina) of early Wuchiapingian age were recognized from Unit A and Unit B. The observed facies transition from Unit A to Unit B indicates a drastic drowning event. Unit C represents a distal turbiditic succession and the overlying Unit D shows an upward shallowing trend back to the initial shallow marine condition. Compilation of sedimentary records across G-L in South China reveals that such drowning events tend to cluster within three discrete time intervals. The drowning events may or may not end with deposition of either volcanics or volcaniclastics. Two first clusters display drowning events overlain by ELIP volcanic rocks or volcaniclastics of ELIP origin and are of Capitanian age. Only the

  8. Kimberlites, flood basalts and mantle plumes: New insights from the Deccan Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Lehmann, B.


    A clear-cut temporal and spatial relationship between small-volume, volatile-rich and highly potassic continental melt fractions, such as kimberlites and related rocks, and large-volume continental flood basalts exists in several Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Many of these LIPs are also widely regarded as products of mantle plume-lithosphere interactions. The small-volume melts either immediately pre-date or post-date or even are co-eval with the main flood basalt event. The overlap of ages between the flood basalts and the kimberlites very likely reflects a cause and effect relationship via mantle plumes. Recently discovered end-Cretaceous diamondiferous kimberlites (orangeites) in the Bastar craton of central India which are synchronous with the flood basalts, carbonatites, lamprophyres and alkaline rocks of the Deccan LIP provide an opportunity to re-evaluate the role of mantle plume-lithosphere interactions in the generation of these disparate magmas. The geographical zonation of the kimberlite-lamprophyre-carbonatite-alkaline rock spectrum in the Deccan LIP is inferred to reflect variable thickness of the pre-Deccan Indian lithosphere with a thinner lithosphere along the known rift zones of northwestern and western India and a thickened lithosphere underlying the Bastar craton of central India. This heterogeneity is thought to have controlled the volume of melt generation and melt ascent, as well as the ultimate alkaline magma type. These findings are supported by the regional lithospheric thickness map, generated from converting seismic shear wave velocities into temperature profiles, which clearly depicts that the present-day lithosphere beneath the Bastar craton is thicker than that in western and NW India where the centre of the Deccan plume-head was located. Thermal weakening of the sub-Bastar craton due to mantle plume-lithosphere interaction at the end-Cretaceous resulting in a thin-spot is suggested to have controlled the Deccan-related mafic dyke

  9. The Late Ordovician crisis: the Large Igneous Province hypothesis tested by global carbon cycle modeling. (United States)

    Lefebvre, Vincent; Servais, Thomas; François, Louis; Averbuch, Olivier


    The causes of the well-known Late Ordovician-Hirnantian glaciation remain largely debated. This global cooling event is generally attributed to a severe decrease of atmospheric pCO2 during a time of general greenhouse climate but its duration is not fully determined. The climate perturbation is synchronous with one of the biggest biotic crisis of the Earth history. Some authors have shown that, considering the Ashgillian paleogeography, a drop in pCO2 below a threshold of 8x to 10x PAL (Present Atmospheric Level) may induce a decrease in temperature in high latitudes so that the installation of an ice-sheet on Gondwana could be possible. Such a process requires an intensification of silicate weathering and/or organic carbon burial that are the two major processes potentially driving a decrease in atmospheric pCO2 at the geologic time scale. The Late Ordovician is known to be a period of high mantellic activity marked by a lack of reversal magnetic field and high volcanic activity. Barnes (2004) and Courtillot and Olson (2007) link this process to a superplume event that may give rise to continental basalt flooding. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis with a global carbon cycle numerical box-model coupled with an Energy Balance Climate Model. The Model is an upgrade of that used by Grard et al. (2005) to simulate the environmental impact of the Siberian traps at the P/T boundary. The configuration of the box-model has been set using the Late Ordovician paleogeography. In each oceanic box, the model calculates the evolution of carbon, phosphorus and oxygen concentrations and alkalinity. It also calculates atmospheric pCO2, atmospheric and oceanic δ13C. We tested different scenarios of Large Igneous Province (LIP) emplacements and organic carbon cycle interactions simulating atmospheric pCO2 drops of amplitude large enough to produce the Hirnantian glaciation. We show that the hypothesis of low latitude LIP well accounts for the Late Ordovician climate

  10. Mixing - Mingling and Modification of Magmas in a Giant Deep Crustal Magmatic Reservoir: The Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway (United States)

    Larsen, R. B.; Grant, T.; Sorensen, B. E.; McEnroe, S. A.


    The Seiland Igneous Province (SIP) comprises a giant magmatic reservoir with > 50 .000 km3 of mafic, ultramafic and alkaline rocks emplaced at 25-35 km depth in Igneous Province (LIP), making the region a key location in which to study the ascent, emplacement and modification of dense mantle melts before progressing upwards. 1/5 of SIP comprises ultramafic complexes interpreted to be the de facto conduits along which picritic-komatiitic magmas migrated through the continental lithosphere. As an example, the Reinfjord complex in SIP features a major conduit accommodating picritic-komatiitic melts that were emplaced into gabbros in three major pulses, punctuated by several smaller replenishment events and forming three distinct layered ultramafic series. The final series, the central series (CS), comprises dunitic cumulates in the centre of the intrusion. The CS intruded into a wehrlitic crystal-melt mush where cpx was assimilated under the formation of discordant replacive dunites. Super-imposed upon these major events, cryptical zonation of ol and cpx reveal 15 recharge events over only 700 metres of cumulates. Field observations document smaller replenishment events of pyroxenitic melts. They occur as irregular dykes that intersect semisolid cumulates before dissipating in mushy melts higher up in the stratigraphy. We also observe that the melt-mushes of CS were intruded by several episodes of alkaline CO2-H2O rich melts forming patches and veinlets of feldspars, amphibole, carbonates, opx and cpx. Trace-element modelling on cpx-compositions imply that picritic-komatiitic parental melts formed by 11 - 20 % partial melting of a carbonate metasomatised peridotitic mantle. Together, this rich diversity of igneous rocks documents the complexity of melts that are produced during plume assisted emplacements of very large volumes of mafic-ultramafic melts and also demonstrates the importance of intermittent reservoirs where melts are mixed and modified before further

  11. Reservoir quality of intrabasalt volcaniclastic units onshore Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province, northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole


    . Onshore samples are used as Faroese offshore volcaniclastic intervals are represented by a few confidential samples where the stratigraphic level is uncertain. The onshore samples have been taken from 29 geotechnical (made related to tunnel building, etc.) and 2 scientific (made related to research of the geology...

  12. 3D seismic interpretation of subsurface eruptive centers in a Permian large igneous province, Tazhong Uplift, central Tarim Basin, NW China (United States)

    Yang, Jiangfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Guan, Da; Zhu, Beibei; Yuan, Liansheng; Xiang, Xuemei; Su, Jinbao; He, Jingwen; Wu, Xinhui


    A 1445-km2 high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset is used to analyze the Permian large igneous province in the subsurface of the Tazhong area in the central Tarim Basin in northwestern China. Constrained by the synthetic seismograms of four wells, the top and base of the igneous rocks were identified in the seismic data. Seven large volcanic craters, each >10 km2 in area, have been discovered via the application of coherency and amplitude attributes. The thickness and volume of the igneous rocks were obtained by time-depth transformation. In the study area, all of the igneous rocks, with thicknesses from 120 to 1133 m, were formed by eruptions in the Early Permian. These events produced huge erupted volumes (178 km3) and multiple closely spaced volcanic edifices (Tarim Basin.

  13. A failure to reject: Testing the correlation between large igneous provinces and deep mantle structures with EDF statistics (United States)

    Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H.


    Absolute reconstructions of large igneous provinces (LIPs) for the past 300 Ma reveal a remarkable spatial pattern suggesting that almost all LIPs have erupted over the margins of the two large-scale structures in the Earth's lower mantle commonly referred to as the Large Low Shear-wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs). This correlation suggests that mantle plumes that have triggered LIP eruptions rose from the margins of LLSVPs, implying long-term stability of these structures and suggesting that they may be chemically distinct from the bulk of the mantle. Yet, some researchers consider the LLSVPs to be purely thermal upwellings, arguing that the observed distribution of LIPs can be explained by plumes randomly forming over the entire areas of LLSVPs. Here we examine the correlation between the LIPs and LLSVPs using nonparametric statistical tests, updated plate reconstructions, and a large number of alternative definitions of LLSVPs based on seismic tomography. We show that probability models assuming plume sources originating at the margins of LLSVPs adequately explain the observed distribution of reconstructed LIPs. In contrast, we find strong evidence against the models seeking to link LIPs with plumes randomly forming over the entire LLSVP areas. However, the hypothesis proposing that the correlation can be explained by plumes randomly forming over a larger area of slower-than-average shear wave velocities in the lowermost mantle cannot be ruled out formally. Our analysis suggests that there is no statistically sound reason for questioning the hypothesis that the LIPs correlate with the margins of LLSVP globally.

  14. A record of igneous evolution in Elysium, a major martian volcanic province. (United States)

    Susko, David; Karunatillake, Suniti; Kodikara, Gayantha; Skok, J R; Wray, James; Heldmann, Jennifer; Cousin, Agnes; Judice, Taylor


    A major knowledge gap exists on how eruptive compositions of a single martian volcanic province change over time. Here we seek to fill that gap by assessing the compositional evolution of Elysium, a major martian volcanic province. A unique geochemical signature overlaps with the southeastern flows of this volcano, which provides the context for this study of variability of martian magmatism. The southeastern lava fields of Elysium Planitia show distinct chemistry in the shallow subsurface (down to several decimeters) relative to the rest of the martian mid-to-low latitudes (average crust) and flows in northwest Elysium. By impact crater counting chronology we estimated the age of the southeastern province to be 0.85 ± 0.08 Ga younger than the northwestern fields. This study of the geochemical and temporal differences between the NW and SE Elysium lava fields is the first to demonstrate compositional variation within a single volcanic province on Mars. We interpret the geochemical and temporal differences between the SE and NW lava fields to be consistent with primary magmatic processes, such as mantle heterogeneity or change in depth of melt formation within the martian mantle due to crustal loading.

  15. Sedimentary Mercury Enrichments as a Marker for Submarine Large Igneous Province Volcanism? Evidence From the Mid-Cenomanian Event and Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous) (United States)

    Scaife, J. D.; Ruhl, M.; Dickson, A. J.; Mather, T. A.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Percival, L. M. E.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Cartwright, J.; Eldrett, J. S.; Bergman, S. C.; Minisini, D.


    Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2), during the Cenomanian-Turonian transition (˜94 Ma), was the largest perturbation of the global carbon cycle in the mid-Cretaceous and can be recognized by a positive carbon-isotope excursion in sedimentary strata. Although OAE 2 has been linked to large-scale volcanism, several large igneous provinces (LIPs) were active at this time (e.g., Caribbean, High Arctic, Madagascan, Ontong-Java) and little clear evidence links OAE 2 to a specific LIP. The Mid-Cenomanian Event (MCE, ˜96 Ma), identified by a small, 1‰ positive carbon-isotope excursion, is often referred to as a prelude to OAE 2. However, no underlying cause has yet been demonstrated and its relationship to OAE 2 is poorly constrained. Here we report sedimentary mercury (Hg) concentration data from four sites, three from the southern margin of the Western Interior Seaway and one from Demerara Rise, in the equatorial proto-North Atlantic Ocean. We find that, in both areas, increases in mercury concentrations and Hg/TOC ratios coincide with the MCE and the OAE 2. However, the increases found in these sites are of a lower magnitude than those found in records of many other Mesozoic events, possibly characteristic of a marine rather than atmospheric dispersal of mercury for both events. Combined, the new mercury data presented here are consistent with an initial magmatic pulse at the time of the MCE, with a second, greater pulse at the onset of OAE 2, possibly related to the emplacement of LIPs in the Pacific Ocean and/or the High Arctic.

  16. Mafic subvolcanic intrusions and their petrologic relation with the volcanism in the south hinge Torres Syncline, Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province, southern Brazil (United States)

    Sarmento, Carla Cecília Treib; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes


    The hypabyssal intrusions investigated in this study are located in the east-central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south hinge of the Torres Syncline. The intrusions comprise twenty-four dikes and ten sills, intruding in ponded pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, rubbly and acidic lava flows of the south sub-Province of the Paraná Igneous Province and the sedimentary rocks of the Botucatu, Pirambóia, Santa Maria and Rio do Rasto Formations, on the edge of the Paraná Basin. The intrusive dikes in the flows have preferred NNW-SSE direction and the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks have preferred NE-SW direction. Regarding the morphology, the dikes were separated into two different groups: symmetrical and asymmetrical. The small variation in facies is characterized by fine to aphanitic equigranular rocks. The rocks were divided into two types: Silica Supersaturated Tholeiite (SST) - dikes and sills consisting of plagioclase and clinopyroxene as essential minerals, with some olivine and felsic mesostasis, predominant intergranular texture and subordinate subophitic texture; and Silica Saturated Olivine Tholeiite (SSOT) - dikes consisting mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, and predominant ophitic texture. The major and trace element geochemistry allows classifying these hypabyssal bodies as basalts (SSOT), basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (TSS) of tholeiitic affinity. The mineral chemistry data and the REE behavior, combined with the LILE and HFSE patterns, similar to the flows and low-Ti basic intrusions of southern Brazil and northwestern Namibia allow suggesting that these dikes and sills were part of a feeder system of the magmatism in the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province. The preferred direction of the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks of the Paraná Basin coincides with tectonic-magmatic lineaments related to extensional processes and faulting systems that served as vents for dike swarms parallel to the Brazilian

  17. Anatomy of a deep crustal volcanic conduit system; The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway (United States)

    Grant, Thomas B.; Larsen, Rune B.; Anker-Rasch, Lars; Grannes, Kim Rune; Iljina, Markku; McEnroe, Suzanne; Nikolaisen, Even; Schanche, Mona; Øen, Endre


    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province represents a lower crustal magma chamber (25-30 km depth) that likely records a deep conduit system for mantle derived melts ascending through the continental crust. It consists of cumulates of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxene as well as subordinate lherzolite and websterites, intruded into gabbro-norite and metasediment gneisses. Field, petrographic and geochemical data show that the intrusion developed through fractional crystallization and interactions between new batches of magma and partially solidified cumulates. This resulted in a 'reverse fractionation sequence' whereby cumulates became progressively more MgO and olivine rich with time. Contamination by partial melting of the gabbro-norite is evident in the marginal zones, but is limited in the central parts of the intrusion. Interrupted crystallization sequences of olivine → olivine + clinopyroxene and the absence of significant amounts of more evolved melts, suggests that large volumes of melt passed through the system to shallower levels in the crust leaving behind the cumulate sequences observed at Reinfjord. Therefore, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex represents a deep crustal conduit system, through which mantle derived melts passed. The parent melts are likely to have formed from partial melting of mantle with residual garnet and clinopyroxene.

  18. Alkali feldspar syenites with shoshonitic affinities from Chhotaudepur area: Implication for mantle metasomatism in the Deccan large igneous province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Hari


    Full Text Available Two petrologically distinct alkali feldspar syenite bodies (AFS-1 and AFS-2 from Chhotaudepur area, Deccan Large Igneous Province are reported in the present work. AFS-1 is characterized by hypidiomorphic texture and consists of feldspar (Or55Ab43 to Or25Ab71, ferro-pargasite/ferro-pargasite hornblende, hastingsite, pyroxene (Wo47, En5, Fs46, magnetite and biotite. AFS-2 exhibits panidiomorphic texture with euhedral pyroxene (Wo47-50, En22-39, Fs12–31 set in a groundmass matrix of alkali feldspar (Or99Ab0.77 to Or1.33Ab98, titanite and magnetite. In comparison to AFS-1, higher elemental concentrations of Ba, Sr and ∑REE are observed in AFS-2. The average peralkaline index of the alkali feldspar syenites is ∼1 indicating their alkaline nature. Variation discrimination diagrams involving major and trace elements and their ratios demonstrate that these alkali feldspar syenites have a shoshonite affinity but emplaced in a within-plate and rifting environment. No evidence of crustal contamination is perceptible in the multi-element primitive mantle normalized diagram as well as in terms of trace elemental ratios. The enrichment of incompatible elements in the alkali feldspar syenites suggests the involvement of mantle metasomatism in their genesis.

  19. Magmatism and Eurekan deformation in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province: 40Ar–39Ar age of Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegner, Christian; Storey, Michael; Holm, Paul Martin


    The High Arctic Large Igneous Province is unusual on two counts: first, magmatism was prolonged and has been suggested to include an initial tholeiitic phase (130–80 Ma) and a second alkaline phase (85–60 Ma); second, it was subsequently deformed during the Eurekan Orogeny. New 40Ar–39Ar dating...... the Kap Washington Group volcanics. The formation of the tholeiitic suite (130–80 Ma) is linked to the opening of the Canada Basin and may involve mantle plume action. Formation of the alkaline suite (85–60 Ma) is attributed to continental rifting in the Lincoln Sea area linked to seafloor spreading...... in the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay, and to eastwards displacement of Greenland relative to North America. The alkaline suite, therefore, may be unrelated to the main tholeiitic phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. The subsequent initiation of continental rifting and ensuing seafloor spreading...

  20. F, Cl, and S concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from mafic dikes in NW Namibia and implications for the environmental impact of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Marks, Linda; Keiding, Jakob; Wenzel, Thomas; Trumbull, Robert B.; Veksler, Ilya; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Markl, Gregor


    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been proposed to trigger mass-extinction events by the release of large quantities of volcanic gases which results in major climatic perturbations causing worldwide ecological stress and collapse. A prerequisite for understanding the proposed link between LIP volcanism and biological crisis is reliable information about the total gas emissions during these events. In this paper we present the first estimations of total F, Cl and S emissions from the Paraná-Etendeka LIP in the South Atlantic. Data from this province are of special interest because it is among the world's largest LIPs but is not associated with a mass extinction event. We have determined pre-eruption concentrations of F, Cl and S by in situ analysis of melt inclusions preserved in olivine phenocrysts from basaltic dikes in the Etendeka province of NW Namibia. The melt inclusions have Mg-rich basaltic bulk compositions with about 8 to 18 wt.% MgO, overlapping the compositional range of the host rocks. A major feature of the melt inclusions is their wide variation in major and minor element concentrations, including F, Cl and S. This is attributed to trapping of variably-mixed melt fractions during crystallization of olivine in the roots of the dike system. Fluorine concentrations vary from about 190 to 450 μg/g, Cl from destruction of the ozone layer.

  1. Carbonatites of Tarim (NW China): First evidence of crustal contribution in carbonatites from a large igneous province (United States)

    Song, WenLei; Xu, Cheng; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Kynicky, Jindrich; Huang, KangJun; Zhang, ZhenLiang


    Many carbonatites are associated both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), and considered to originate from a mantle plume source lacking any contribution from recycled crustal materials. Here, we report an occurrence of carbonatite enriched in rare-earth elements (REE) and associated with the Tarim LIP in northwestern China. The Tarim LIP comprises intrusive and volcanic products of mantle plume activity spanning from 300 to 280 Ma. The carbonatites at Wajilitage in the northwestern part of Tarim are dominated by calcite and dolomite varieties, and contain abundant REE minerals (principally, monazite and REE-fluorcarbonates). Th-Pb age determination of monazite yielded an emplacement age of 266 ± 5.3 Ma, i.e. appreciably younger than the eruption age of flood basalts at 290 Ma. The carbonatites show low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7037-0.7041) and high εNd(t) (1.2-4) values, which depart from the isotopic characteristics of plume-derived basalts and high-Mg picrites from the same area. This indicates that the Wajilitage carbonatites derived from a mantle source isotopically distinct from the one responsible for the voluminous (ultra)mafic volcanism at Tarim. The carbonatites show δ26MgDSM3 values (- 0.99 to - 0.65‰) that are significantly lower than those in typical mantle-derived rocks and rift carbonatites, but close to marine sediments and orogenic carbonatites. We propose that the carbonatites in the Tarim LIP formed by decompressional melting of recycled sediments mixed with the ambient mantle peridotite. The enriched components in the Tarim plume could be accounted for by the presence of recycled sedimentary components in the subcontinental mantle.

  2. Periodicities in the emplacement of large igneous provinces through the Phanerozoic: Relations to ocean chemistry and marine biodiversity evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Prokoph


    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs are considered a relevant cause for mass extinctions of marine life throughout Earth’s history. Their flood basalts and associated intrusions can cause significant release of SO4 and CO2 and consequently, cause major environmental disruptions. Here, we reconstruct the long-term periodic pattern of LIP emplacement and its impact on ocean chemistry and biodiversity from δ34Ssulfate of the last 520 Ma under particular consideration of the preservation limits of LIP records. A combination of cross-wavelet and other time-series analysis methods has been applied to quantify a potential chain of linkage between LIP emplacement periodicity, geochemical changes and the Phanerozoic marine genera record. We suggest a mantle plume cyclicity represented by LIP volumes (V of V=−(350–770 × 103 km3sin(2πt/170 Ma+(300–650 × 103 km3sin(2πt/64.5 Ma+2.3 for t=time in Ma. A shift from the 64.5 Ma to a weaker ∼28–35 Ma LIP cyclicity during the Jurassic contributes together with probably independent changes in the marine sulfur cycle to less ocean anoxia, and a general stabilization of ocean chemistry and increasing marine biodiversity throughout the last ∼135 Ma. The LIP cycle pattern is coherent with marine biodiversity fluctuations corresponding to a reduction of marine biodiversity of ∼120 genera/Ma at ∼600×103 km3 LIP eruption volume. The 62–65 Ma LIP cycle pattern as well as excursion in δ34Ssulfate and marine genera reduction suggest a not-yet identified found LIP event at ∼440–450 Ma.

  3. Heat flow study of the Emeishan large igneous province region: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing


    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is widely considered to be a consequence of a mantle plume. The supporting evidence includes rapid emplacement, voluminous flood basalt eruptions, and high mantle potential temperature estimates. Several studies have suggested that there was surface uplift prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts. Additionally, the plume's lateral extent is hard to constrain and has been variously estimated to be 800-1400 km in diameter. In this study, we analyzed present-day heat flow data and reconstructed the Permian paleo-heat flow using vitrinite reflectance and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology data in the ELIP region and discussed implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume. The present-day heat flow is higher in the inner and intermediate zones than in the outer zone, with a decrease of average heat flow from 76 mW/m2 to 51 mW/m2. Thermal history modeling results show that an abnormal high paleo-heat flow of 90-110 mW/m2 was caused by the Emeishan mantle plume activity. Based on the present-day heat flow data, we can calculate that there is lithospheric thinning in the central ELIP region, which may be due to the destruction of the lithosphere by mantle plume upwelling and magmatic underplating. The Permian paleo-heat flow anomaly implies that there was a temperature anomaly in the mantle. The ascending high-temperature mantle plume and the thinned lithosphere may have induced the large-scale uplift in the ELIP region. According to the range of the surface heat flow anomaly, it can be estimated that the diameter of the flattened head of the Emeishan mantle plume could have reached 1600-1800 km. Our research provides new insights into the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume through study of heat flow.

  4. Crustally derived granites in Dali, SW China: new constraints on silicic magmatism of the Central Emeishan Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Zhu, Bei; Peate, David W.; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Du, Wei


    We have identified a new crustally derived granite pluton that is related to the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP). This pluton (the Wase pluton, near Dali) shows two distinct SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age groups ( 768 and 253 Ma). As it has an intrusive relationship with Devonian limestone, the younger age is interpreted as its formation, which is related to the ELIP event, whereas the 768 Ma Neoproterozoic-aged zircons were inherited from Precambrian crustal component of the Yangtze Block, implying the pluton has a crustally derived origin. This is consistent with its peraluminous nature, negative Nb-Ta anomaly, enrichment in light rare earth elements, high 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratio (0.7159-0.7183) and extremely negative ɛ(Nd)(i) values (-12.15 to -13.70), indicative of melts derived from upper crust materials. The Wase pluton-intruded Devonian strata lie stratigraphically below the Shangcang ELIP sequence, which is the thickest volcanic sequence ( 5400 m) in the whole ELIP. The uppermost level of the Shangcang sequence contains laterally restricted rhyolite. Although the rhyolite has the same age as the Wase pluton, its geochemical features demonstrate a different magma origin. The rhyolite displays moderate 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.7053), slightly negative ɛ(Nd)(i) (-0.18) and depletions in Ba, Cs, Eu and Sr, implying derivation from differentiation of a mantle-derived mafic magma source. The coexistence of crustally and mantle-derived felsic systems, along with the robust development of dike swarms, vent proximal volcanics and thickest flood basalts piles in Dali, shows that the Dali area was probably where the most active Emeishan magmatism had once existed.

  5. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy and geochronology of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) from the Middle Atlas and Western Meseta, Morocco (United States)

    Brownlee, S. J.; Renne, P. R.; Marzoli, A.; Callegaro, S.; Cuppone, T.; Mahmoudi, A.; Youbi, N.; Bertrand, H.


    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest igneous provinces (LIPs) on earth, and was emplaced as part of the pre-rift stage of the Central Atlantic Ocean at ~200 Ma. Like other LIPs, CAMP coincided closely with a mass extinction event. In order to further test the temporal correlation between the CAMP and the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary, four new sections of CAMP lavas in central and northern Morocco, each 110-140m thick with 14-16 flows, were sampled for paleomagnetic stratigraphy and geochronology. Preliminary paleomagnetic data are consistent with previous results (Knight et al. 2004) and record dominantly if not exclusively normal polarity, and also appear to record distinct pulses of magmatism with at least 4 directional groupings with discrete declinations and inclinations. 40Ar/39Ar analyses of plagioclase from 2 sections near Maaziz and Agourai yield plateau ages that are mutually indistinguishable and consistent with previous results. Collectively, these new paleomagnetic and geochronologic data provide further evidence of the brevity and synchrony of CAMP magmatism at the T-J boundary throughout Morocco.

  6. The role of mantle plumes in the formation of Large Igneous Provinces: A noble gas isotope study from the Etendeka province of Namibia (United States)

    Stroncik, Nicole A.; Krienitz, Marc-Sebastian; Niederman, Samuel; Trumbull, Robert B.; Harris, Chris


    The magmatic history of the Earth is characterised by the episodic appearance of enormous magmatic events, during which large volumes of mainly mafic magmas are generated and emplaced by processes distinct from seafloor spreading or subduction. The so-called Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) produced during these events are mainly created within less than 10 Ma, with the bulk of magmatism occurring in the first Ma. The favoured explanation for LIP formation is magmatism resulting from plume head decompressional melting. However, the evidence for this theory is mixed and has been challenged lately. Conventional geochemical tracers (Sr, Nd or Pb isotopes or trace elements) generally used to characterise the mantle sources of a magmatic sample are relatively ambiguous in this context, because (1) various mantle reservoirs can contribute to LIP formation and it is unclear which of them are located in the deep mantle, (2) magmas can be contaminated during their ascent through the lithosphere and crust and (3) trace element patterns are also controlled by the degree and depth of melting. In this respect, the principal advantages of noble gases as geochemical tracers for magmatic processes are related to (1) their chemical inertness - they are only modified by nuclear, melting and degassing processes, (2) the large and indicative isotope variations between the various terrestrial reservoirs and (3) their relatively low abundance in the solid Earth. Here we present He, Ne, and O-isotope data from fresh olivines as well as REE and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope whole rock data derived from dolerite dykes and related rocks from the southern Etendeka province of Namibia. The He-isotope data show a range from radiogenic values of 0.15 ± 0.01 RAto mantle values of 12.03 ± 0.28 RA. The radiogenic He isotope ratios are indicative of crustal contamination during magmatic evolution, which is generally supported by the Ne and O isotope data. The upper range of the He isotope data is higher

  7. Origin of Siletzia, an Accreted Large Igneous Province in the Cascadia Forearc, and the Early History of the Yellowstone Hotspot (United States)

    Wells, R. E.; Bukry, D.; Friedman, R. M.; Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Wooden, J.


    Siletzia as named by Irving (1979) is a Paleogene large igneous province forming the oceanic basalt basement of coastal OR, WA and S. BC that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. U-Pb (magmatic, detrital zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by mapping, global coccolith (CP) zones, and magnetic polarities permit correlation of basalts with the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Gradstein et al. (2012). Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56-49 Ma (Chron 25-22), and accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon. Magmatism continued until ca. 46 Ma with emplacement of a basalt sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Siletzia's great crustal thickness, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with formation as an oceanic plateau. Eight m.y. after accretion, margin-parallel extension and regional dike swarms mark the Tillamook magmatic episode in the forearc (41.6 Ma; CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examined the origin of Siletzia and the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) in an open source plate modeling program. In most reference frames, the YHS is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula- Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge 60 to 50 Ma. The YHS thus could have provided a 56-49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time. Following accretion of Siletzia, the leading edge of North America overrode the YHS ca. 42 Ma. The encounter with an active YHS may explain the voluminous high-Ti tholeiitic to alkalic magmatism of the 42-34 Ma Tillamook episode and extension in the forearc. Clockwise rotation of western Oregon about a pole in the backarc has since moved the Tillamook center and underlying Siletzia northward ~250 km from the probable hotspot track on North

  8. Origin of Siletzia, a Large Igneous Province in the Cascadia Forearc, and the Early History of the Yellowstone Hotspot (United States)

    Wells, R. E.; Bukry, D.; Friedman, R. M.; Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Haeussler, P. J.


    Siletzia is a Paleogene large igneous province (LIP) forming the oceanic basement of coastal OR, WA and S. BC that was accreted to North America (NAM) in the early Eocene. Crustal thickness from seismic refraction ranges from 10 to 32 km, with 16 km of pillow and subaerial basalt exposed on the Olympic Peninsula. At 1.7-2.4 x 106 km3, Siletzia is at least 10 times the volume of the Columbia River flood basalts. U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages, global coccolith (CP) zones, and magnetostratigraphy allow correlation of Siletzia with the 2012 geomagnetic polarity time scale. Siletzia was erupted 56-49 Ma (Chron 25-22), and accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon. Siletzia's composition, great crustal thickness, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with formation as an oceanic plateau. Eight m.y. after accretion, margin-parallel extension and regional dike swarms accompanied the voluminous tholeiitic to highly alkalic Tillamook magmatic episode in the forearc (41.6 Ma; CP14a; Chron 19r). We examined the origin of Siletzia and the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) in GPlates. In most reference frames, the YHS is ~ 500km offshore S. OR, near an inferred northeast-striking Kula- Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge 60 to 50 Ma. The YHS could have provided the 56-49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which in the model accretes to NAM by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, may have formed on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to British Columbia at about the same time. Following accretion, the leading edge of NAM overrode the YHS ca. 42 Ma. The encounter with an active YHS may explain the voluminous 42-34 Ma Tillamook episode and forearc extension. Clockwise rotation of western Oregon about a pole in the backarc has since moved the Tillamook center and underlying Siletzia northward ~250 km from the likely hotspot track on NAM.

  9. The Large Igneous Province (LIP) Record during the Archean-Proterozoic Transition Between 2.5 Ga and 2.0 Ga (United States)

    Ernst, R. E.; Bleeker, W.


    A review of the large igneous province (LIP) record reveals numerous events between 2500 and 2000 Ma with a potential gap between 2370 Ma and 2230 Ma. The distribution is uneven with some blocks, such as Superior and Karelia, being well populated, while others, such as Kaapvaal, Amazonia and Yilgarn, having few well-dated LIP events in this time interval; however, the relative paucity of dated events on some blocks may at present simply reflect severe undersampling. LIP events in the 2.5-2.0 Ga interval are thought to be linked to progressive rifting and breakup of late Archean supercratons (e.g., Bleeker 2003, Lithos), or possibly a large supercontinent. Some of these LIPs may also be linked to major environmental changes including iron formation deposition (e.g., Bekker et al. 2010, Econ. Geol.). In terms of understanding the changing geodynamic setting in the 2.5-2.0 Ga interval it is critical to discriminate between LIPs that perhaps were global in extent and those that were more regional in scale but have been widely scattered through subsequent supercontinent fragmentation. Thus, determining the paleogeography of latest Archean supercratons is key. This can be achieved most efficiently by completing the LIP records (magmatic “barcodes”) for all major crustal blocks. Craton-scale blocks that were nearest neighbours in a preexisting landmass will share essential elements of their barcodes, and geometrical information inherent in giant dyke swarms, the plumbing systems of LIPs, can constrain likely configurations. Comparison of paleomagnetic poles and matching of geochemical fingerprints from coeval LIPs on different crustal blocks will provide additional constraints. Using the 2.5-2.0 Ga LIP record, it has been determined that the Superior craton was bordered on its southern-southeastern margin, from west to east, by the Wyoming, Hearne, Karelian, and Kola cratons (Bleeker and Ernst 2006 in Hanski et al. (eds.) Dyke swarms — time markers of crustal

  10. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil (United States)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre


    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 < 2 wt.%), with the exception of four samples (with 2.2 - 3.3 wt.% TiO2). The low-Ti rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  11. Risk for commercial fishing deaths in Canadian Atlantic provinces. (United States)

    Hasselback, P; Neutel, C I


    The risk of mortality related to occupation was determined for commercial fishermen in the Canadian Atlantic coast provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The subjects were a cohort of 31,415 fishermen licensed by the Canadian Department of Fisheries during 1975-83. Mortality and cause of death were obtained from the Canada Mortality Data Base and the Marine Casualty Investigation Unit (MCI), and were confirmed by examination of death certificates. Eighty four deaths likely to be related to fishing were recorded over 183,378 person-years of exposure for an annual mortality of 45.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0-55.6) per 100,000 fishermen. The rate of potential years of life lost up to age 75 was 1583 per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Inclusion of 14 additional deaths, which were possibly related to occupation, would increase these rates further. Bias in this study is likely to underestimate the risks. It is concluded that fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of mortality related to work.

  12. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.


    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  13. Silicic magmas from the Emeishan large igneous province, Southwest China: Petrogenesis and their link with the end-Guadalupian biological crisis (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Chung, Sun-Lin; Shao, Hui; He, Bin


    The Emeishan large igneous province in SW China comprises a bimodal mafic-silicic suite with the silicic rocks occurring at the uppermost part of the thick lava sequence. The silicic rocks have an age of 257-263 Ma, and are thus roughly coeval with the Guadalupian-Loping (G-L) boundary event. Most silicic rocks (trachyte and rhyolite) from the Emeishan province have rather uniform ɛNd values (+ 1 to + 2.9) that are comparable with the uncontaminated high-Ti basalts. This fact and the remarkably narrow ranges of incompatible element ratios (e.g., Zr/Nb) of the basalt-silicic suite indicate a genetic relationship between basalt and silicic members. The significant difference between the Emeishan rocks and the experimental melts of hydrated basaltic crust, suggests the fractional crystallization of basaltic magma, rather than crustal melting, as the major petrogenetic process for the formation of silicic rocks. Indeed, their major and trace element trends can be modeled by fractionation of the observed mineral phases (feldspar, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxide and apatite). In contrast to the virtually closed system differentiation processes associated with trachytes, the rhyolites may have experienced interaction with upper crustal material during ascent. The geochemical characteristics and recent assessment of timing of the Emeishan volcanism suggest the Emeishan rhyolites as the potential source of the widespread clay bed at the G-L boundary in south China. This enhanced the causal link between the Emeishan eruption and the end-Guadalupian biological crisis.

  14. Igneous Rocks (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  15. Mapping and characterization from aeromagnetic data of the Foum Zguid dolerite Dyke (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) a member of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) (United States)

    Bouiflane, Mustapha; Manar, Ahmed; Medina, Fida; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim


    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Anti- Atlas, Morocco covering the main areas traversed by the Great CAMP Foum Zguid dyke (FZD). This ;doleritic; dyke belongs to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), a Large Igneous Province which is associated with the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangaea and the initial stages of rifting of the Central Atlantic Ocean. It also coincides in time with the mass extinction of the Triassic - Jurassic boundary. Based on the study of geological maps and Google Earth satellite images, it appears that the FZD is poorly exposed and, often covered by Quaternary deposits. This work proposes aeromagnetic modelling and interpretation of the FZD in order to better constrain its structural extent. The data have allowed (i) mapping of the dyke over great distances, under the Quaternary deposits and through areas where it was poorly characterized on the geological map; (ii) identifying major tectonic lineaments interpreted as faults; (iii) recognizing magnetic anomalies related to mafic intrusive bodies; and (iv) informing about regional structural context.

  16. Modeling the consequences on late Triassic environment of intense pulse-like degassing during the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province using the GEOCLIM model (United States)

    Paris, G.; Donnadieu, Y.; Beaumont, V.; Fluteau, F.; Goddéris, Y.


    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB) is associated with one of the five largest mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic. A deep carbon cycle perturbation and a carbonate production crisis are observed during the late Triassic. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), one of the most important large igneous provinces of the Phanerozoic, emplaced at the TJB. To understand the carbon cycle perturbations observed at the TJB, we investigate the consequences of CO2 degassing associated to the CAMP emplacement on atmospheric and oceanic carbon cycle. The CO2 input within the atmosphere due to volcanism has been modeled using a global biogeochemical cycle box model (COMBINE) coupled with a climate model (FOAM). Weathering fluxes and CO2 equilibrium are constrained by the Rhaetian paleogeography and different scenarios of the CAMP emplacement are modeled. The study focuses (1) on the geological record and the carbonate productions crisis and (2) on the sedimentary carbon isotope record. For point (1), comparison of different modeling scenarios shows that a Gaussian CO2 emission distribution over the duration of the main activity phase of the CAMP fails in reproducing any of the geological observations, mainly the carbonate production crisis observed in the late Rhaetian sediments. Contrastingly, intense degassing peaks lead to successive decrease in carbonate production as observed in the geological record. For point (2), the perturbations of carbon cycle due to the degassing of CO2 with a mantellic carbon isotopic composition of -5‰ do not reproduce the intensity of the observed carbon isotope excursions. This was achieved in our model by assuming a mantellic carbon isotopic composition of -20‰. Even if this hypothesis requires further investigations, such low values may be associated to degassing of carbon from pools of light isotopic carbon located at the transition zone (Cartigny, 2010), possibly linked to setting of large igneous provinces (LIP's). Breakdown of

  17. Dolerites of Svalbard, north-west Barents Sea Shelf: age, tectonic setting and significance for geotectonic interpretation of the High-Arctic Large Igneous Province

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    Zoltán Pécskay


    Full Text Available The dolerites of Svalbard are mineralogically and geochemically homogeneous with geochemical features typical of continental within-plate tholeiites. Their geochemistry is similar to tholeiites belonging to a bimodal suite defined as the High-Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP. K–Ar dating of numerous dolerites sampled from many locations across Svalbard define a narrow time span of this magmatism from 125.5±3.6 to 78.3±2.6 Mya. Discrete peaks of intensive activity occurred at 115.3, 100.8, 91.3 and 78.5 Mya corresponding to (1 breakup of the continental crust and formation of an initial rift as a result of mantle plume activity, located in the southern part of the Alpha Ridge; (2 magmatic activity related to spreading along the Alpha Ridge that led to the development of the initial oceanic crust and (3 continuation of spreading along the Alpha Ridge and termination of magmatic activity related to HALIP (last two peaks at 91.3 and 78.5 Mya.

  18. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Subramanyam K.S.V.


    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  19. The geochemical effects of olivine slurry replenishment and dolostone assimilation in the plumbing system of the Franklin Large Igneous Province, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bédard, Jean H.; Beard, Charlie


    The Neoproterozoic (~723-716 Ma) Franklin Large Igneous Province exposed on Victoria Island in the Canadian Arctic is comprised of a sill-dominated magma plumbing system overlain by the coeval Natkusiak flood basalts. We have investigated three sections, separated by a total of >50 km of distance, of a sill (the Fort Collinson Sill Complex) emplaced just above a prominent sedimentary marker unit. The sill is characterized by a basal olivine-enriched layer (OZ: up to 55 % olivine) and an upper gabbroic unit. The observed diversity of olivine compositions in the OZ implies that bulk-rock MgO versus FeO arrays reflect accumulation of a heterogeneous olivine crystal cargo. We suggest that the OZ was formed as a late olivine slurry replenishment in a partially crystallized gabbroic sill, propagating for over 50 km along strike. This interpretation is consistent with Pb-isotope data, which show that at least three geochemically distinct magmas were emplaced into the Fort Collinson Sill Complex. The OZs exhibit a gradual westward evolution toward more Fe-rich bulk compositions. This is best explained by progressive mixing of the replenishing olivine slurry with a resident gabbroic mush during westward flow. Pb-isotopic signatures suggest that magmas near the inferred conduit feeder assimilated small amounts (rock, which may have locally buffered olivine compositions to high-Fo contents.

  20. Magnetostratigraphy of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic (?) Beaufort Group Strata, Karoo Basin, South Africa: Can We "See Through" the Karoo Large Igneous Province event? (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; Gastaldo, R. A.; Neveling, J.


    A multifaceted effort to understand the timing of inferred environmental changes in the Karoo Basin, from Late Permian to possibly Early Triassic (?) time, as recorded in Beaufort Group strata, includes work to establish robust magnetic polarity records for sections previously interpreted to encompass end-Permian extinction events. Demonstrating preservation of early-acquired RM in Karoo strata is challenging, due to thermochemical effects related to the Early Jurassic (ca. 183 Ma) Karoo Large Igneous Province (LIP), the fact that Early Jurassic field directions are similar to those of Late Permian age (and the PDF!), and the NE to SW increase in burial diagenesis attending Cape Fold Belt tectonism. The response of Beaufort strata to such thermal effects bears on extracting meaningful polarity records. We obtain 7-10+ independent samples per individual horizon to assess ChRM uniformity. Eastern Cape Province sections yield a NNW seeking, moderate to steep negative inclination ChRM (normal polarity); NRM intensities are 1 to 5 mA/m. This ChRM persists in progressive thermal demagnetization to about 580o C, the magnetite maximum laboratory unblocking temperature (Tlub). Some beds show unblocking of a normal ChRM by 450oC and then the isolation of a SSE, moderate to steep positive (reverse) ChRM, which is inferred to indicate that any ChRM persisting above Tlub of 425oC is pre-Karoo LIP in origin, and likely primary. If the RM unblocked below about 425oC is thermoviscous, then, based on theoretical relaxation time/magnetization blocking relations, the rocks were heated to 150-300o C for ca. 1 Ma (+/-) (T estimates vary by relaxation time/RM blocking relations). The Bethulie section, Free State Province, is cut by many temperatures (i.e., 100 to 250oC+) for ca. 1 Ma (+/-). Contact tests are positive but complicated. Host strata within less than 1-2 dike widths from dikes have been thermally remagnetized and show high NRM intensities (> 50 mA/m). Documentation of a

  1. Petrogenesis of nephelinites from the Tarim Large Igneous Province, NW China: Implications for mantle source characteristics and plume-lithosphere interaction (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Hou, Tong; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Dongyang; Ke, Shan


    The nephelinite exposed in the Wajilitage area in the northwestern margin of the Tarim large igneous province (TLIP), Xinjiang, NW China display porphyritic textures with clinopyroxene, nepheline and olivine as the major phenocryst phases, together with minor apatite, sodalite and alkali feldspar. The groundmass typically has cryptocrystalline texture and is composed of crystallites of clinopyroxene, nepheline, Fe-Ti oxides, sodalite, apatite, rutile, biotite, amphibole and alkali feldspar. We report rutile SIMS U-Pb age of 268 ± 30 Ma suggesting that the nephelinite may represent the last phase of the TLIP magmatism, which is also confirmed by the field relation. The nephelinite shows depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions with age-corrected 87Sr/86Sr and εNd(t) values of 0.70348-0.70371 and + 3.28 to + 3.88 respectively indicating asthenospheric mantle source. Based on the reconstructed primary melt composition, the depth of magma generation is estimated as 115-140 km and the temperatures of mantle melting as 1540-1575 °C. The hotter than normal asthenospheric mantle temperature suggests the involvement of mantle thermal plume. The Mg isotope values display a limited range of δ26Mg from - 0.35 to - 0.55‰, which are lower than the mantle values (- 0.25‰). The Mg isotopic compositions, combined with the Sr-Nd isotopes and major and trace element data suggest that the Wajilitage nephelinite was most likely generated by low-degree partial melting of the hybridized carbonated peridotite/eclogite source, which we correlate with metasomatism by subducted carbonates within the early-middle Paleozoic convergent regime. A plume-lithosphere model is proposed with slight thinning of the lithosphere and variable depth and degree of melting of the carbonated mantle during the plume-lithosphere interaction. This model also accounts for the variation in lithology of the TLIP.

  2. The Fragmented Manihiki Plateau - Key Region for Understanding the Break-up of the "Super" Large Igneous Province Ontong Java Nui (United States)

    Hochmuth, K.; Gohl, K.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Werner, R.


    The Manihiki Plateau of the western Pacific is one of the world - wide greatest Large Igneous Province (LIP) on oceanic crust. It is assumed that the Manihiki Plateau was emplaced as the centerpiece of the "Super-LIP" Ontong Java Nui by multiple volcanic phases during the Cretaceous Magnetic Quiet Period. The subsequent break-up of Ontong Java Nui led to fragmentation of the Manihiki Plateau into three sub-plateaus, which all exhibit individual relicts of the "Super-LIP" break-up. We examine two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles crossing the two largest sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau, the Western Plateaus and the High Plateau. Modeling of P- and S-wave velocities reveals surprising differences in the crustal structure between the two sub-plateaus. Whereas the High Plateau shows a constant crustal thickness of 20 km, relicts of multiple volcanic phases and break-up features at its margins, the model of the Western Plateaus reveals a crustal thickness decreasing from 17 km to only 9 km. There is only little evidence of secondary phases of volcanic activity. The main upper crustal structure on the Western Plateaus consists of fault systems and sedimentary basins. We infer that the High Plateau experienced phases of strong secondary volcanism, and that tectonic deformation was limited to its edges. The Western Plateaus, on the contrary, were deformed by crustal stretching and underwent only little to no secondary volcanism. This indicates that the two main sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau experienced a different geological history and have played their individual parts in the break-up history of Ontong Java Nui.

  3. Triggers on sulfide saturation in Fe-Ti oxide-bearing, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the Tarim large igneous province, NW China (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Wang, Christina Yan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Xing, Chang-Ming; Ren, Ming-Hao


    Three Fe-Ti oxide-bearing layered intrusions (Mazaertag, Wajilitag, and Piqiang) in the Tarim large igneous province (NW China) have been investigated for understanding the relationship of sulfide saturation, Platinum-group element (PGE) enrichment, and Fe-Ti oxide accumulation in layered intrusions. These mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions have low PGE concentrations (rocks are mainly attributed to PGE-depleted, parental magma that was produced by low degrees of partial melting of the mantle. The least contaminated rocks of the Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have slightly enriched Os isotopic compositions with γOs(t = 280 Ma) values ranging from +13 to +23, indicating that the primitive magma may have been generated from a convecting mantle, without appreciable input of lithospheric mantle. The Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have near-chondritic γOs(t) values (+13 to +60) against restricted ɛ Nd(t) values (-0.4 to +2.8), indicating insignificant crustal contamination. Rocks of the Piqiang intrusion have relatively low ɛ Nd(t) values of -3.1 to +1.0, consistent with ˜15 to 25 % assimilation of the upper crust. The rocks of the Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have positive correlation of PGE and S, pointing to the control of PGE by sulfide. Poor correlation of PGE and S for the Piqiang intrusion is attributed to the involvement of multiple sulfide-stage liquids with different PGE compositions or sulfide-oxide reequilibration on cooling. These three layered intrusions have little potential of reef-type PGE mineralization. Four criteria are summarized in this study to help discriminate between PGE-mineralized and PGE-unmineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions.

  4. Denudational and thermal history of the Early Cretaceous Brandberg and Okenyenya igneous complexes on Namibia's Atlantic passive margin (United States)

    Raab, M. J.; Brown, R. W.; Gallagher, K.; Weber, K.; Gleadow, A. J. W.


    The Early Cretaceous Brandberg and Okenyenya igneous complexes provide ideal locations to quantify the postbreakup denudation history of the continental margin of central Namibia. Apatite fission track analysis has been applied to vertical sample profiles extending over 1-2 km of relief to constrain the denudation history of this region. An advantage of vertical profiles is that they allow the inference of the paleogeothermal gradient directly from the data. An independent, data-consistent thermal gradient estimate is essential to determine the amount of denudation as well as to resolve phases of slow and accelerated denudation. We obtained independent paleogeothermal gradient estimates for the two vertical profiles from 26 ± 32°C to 23 ± 16°C. The uncertainties are large but are considered pessimistic. The best fit values agree well with each other, and the present-day gradients of 22°C. The total amount of denudation since the Late Cretaceous has been estimated as 5 km in the Brandberg area and 4 km for the Okenyenya area. The data from the two vertical profiles imply a phase of rapid exhumation in the Late Cretaceous between 80 and 60 Ma, at rates between 0.2 and 0.125 km/m.y. These decline rapidly in the Early Tertiary to a maximum denudation rate between 0.023 and 0.015 km/m.y. The denudation chronology inferred from the new apatite fission track data is consistent with the observation of a major influx of clastic sediment to offshore basins about 50 m.y. after continental breakup. The study shows that vertical fission track profiles provide key insights into postbreakup tectonic and geomorphic processes in the Central Damara Zone in Namibia, where no Phanerozoic sedimentary record has been preserved.

  5. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas (United States)

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.


    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  6. The Triassic-Liassic volcanic sequence and rift evolution in the Saharan Atlas basins (Algeria). Eastward vanishing of the Central Atlantic magmatic province

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    Meddah, A.; Bertrand, H.; Seddiki, A.; Tabeliouna, M.


    We investigate the Triassic-Liassic sequence in ten diapirs from the Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Based on detailed mapping, two episodes are identified. The first one consists of a volcano-sedimentary sequence in which three volcanic units were identified (lower, intermediate and upper units). They are interlayered and sometimes imbricated with siliciclastic to evaporitic levels which record syn-sedimentary tectonics. This sequence was deposited in a lagoonal-continental environment and is assigned to the Triassic magmatic rifting stage. The second episode, lacking lava flows (post magmatic rifting stage), consists of carbonate levels deposited in a lagoonal to marine environment during the Rhaetian-Hettangian. The volcanic units consist of several thin basaltic flows, each 0.5 to 1m thick, with a total thickness of 10–15m. The basalts are low-Ti continental tholeiites, displaying enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements [(La/Yb)n= 2.5-6] with a negative Nb anomaly. Upwards decrease of light-rare-earth-elements enrichment (e.g. La/Yb) is modelled through increasing melting rate of a spinel-bearing lherzolite source from the lower (6–10wt.%) to the upper (15–20wt.%) unit. The lava flows from the Saharan Atlas share the same geochemical characteristics and evolution as those from the Moroccan Atlas assigned to the Central Atlantic magmatic province. They represent the easternmost witness of this large igneous province so far known.

  7. Petrology, geochronology and emplacement model of the giant 1.37 Ga arcuate Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm on the margin of a large igneous province in eastern Africa (United States)

    Mäkitie, Hannu; Data, Gabriel; Isabirye, Edward; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Huhma, Hannu; Klausen, Martin B.; Pakkanen, Lassi; Virransalo, Petri


    A comprehensive description of the petrography, geochemical composition, Sm-Nd data and intrinsic field relationships of a giant arcuate Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarm in SW Uganda is presented for the first time. The swarm is ∼100 km wide and mainly hosted in the Palaeoproterozoic Rwenzori Belt between the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole Belt and the Archaean Uganda Block. The dykes trend NW-SE across Uganda, but can be correlated across Lake Victoria to another set of arcuate aeromagnetic anomalies that continue southwards into Tanzania, resulting in a remarkably large semi-circular swarm with an outer diameter of ∼500 km. We propose that this unique giant dyke structure be named the Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm (LVDS). The dykes are tholeiites with Mg numbers between 0.69 and 0.44, and with inherited marked negative Nb and P anomalies in spider diagrams. Two dykes provide Sm-Nd mineral ages of 1368 ± 41 Ma and 1374 ± 42 Ma, with initial εNd values of -2.3 and -3.2, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ∼0.706-0.709. Geotectonic discrimination diagrams for the swarm exhibit more arc type than within-plate tectonic signatures, but this is in accordance with systematic enrichments in LREE, U and Th in the dolerites, more likely due to the involvement of the continental lithosphere during their petrogenesis. The LVDS is coeval with a regional ∼1375 Ma bimodal magmatic event across nearby Burundi, Rwanda and NW Tanzania, which can collectively be viewed as a large igneous province (LIP). It also indicates that the nearby Karagwe-Ankole Belt sequences - bracketed between 1.78 and 1.37 Ga and assumed by some to have been deposited within intracratonic basins - were capped by flood basalts that have subsequently been removed by erosion. Different geochemical signatures (e.g. LaN/SmN) suggest that most of the arcuate swarm was derived from an enriched SCLM, whereas related intrusions in the centre of this semi-circular segment have more or less enriched asthenospheric mantle

  8. Origin of two types of rhyolites in the Tarim Large Igneous Province: Consequences of incubation and melting of a mantle plume (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Quan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Tian, Wei; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Mundil, Roland; Li, Xian-Hua; Yang, Yue-Heng; Luo, Zhen-Yu; Shang-Guan, Shi-Mai


    The Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province (LIP) in northwestern China contains a large area of silicic volcanics (~ 48,000 km2) which are spatially and temporally associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks. In order to understand the behavior of crust above a mantle plume, selected rhyolitic samples are investigated in terms of U-Pb zircon dating, geochemical and isotopic analyses. The Tarim rhyolites have high A/CNK ratios (= molar Al2O3/CaO + Na2O + K2O), Fe#, Ga/Al ratios, concentrations of high field strength elements (HFSEs) such as Zr and Nb, and rare earth elements (REEs), along with high zircon saturation temperatures (872-940 °C), typical of aluminous A-type granitoids. Two contrasting rock types have been recognized. The low Nb-Ta type rhyolites are mainly associated with the first phase of the Tarim flood basalt magmatism at ~ 290 Ma. They are characterized by negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low εNd(t) and εHf(t) values, and high 87Sr/86Sr(t) and δ18Ozircon values, consistent with a derivation from continental crustal source. The high Nb-Ta type rhyolites and their plutonic equivalents are associated with the second episode of Tarim magmatism (283-272 Ma). They are characterized by small negative to positive Nb-Ta anomalies, oceanic island basalt (OIB)-like trace element ratios, low 87Sr/86Sr(t) and high εNd(t) and εHf(t) values. These high Nb-Ta rhyolites are best interpreted as hybrid products of crystal fractionation of mafic magmas, coupled with crustal assimilation. The temporal and compositional evolution of the Tarim rhyolites reflects various extents of thermal and mass exchange between mantle-derived basaltic magma and crustal material above a mantle plume. When the plume head rises to the base of the Tarim craton, it first melts enriched components in the lithospheric mantle (~ 290 Ma), part of which may have ponded near the crust-mantle boundary and induced crustal anatexis leading to the formation of the low Nb-Ta type rhyolites. At ~ 280 Ma

  9. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in amphibole-bearing granites of the Bintang batholith, Main Range granite province: Evidence for a meta-igneous basement in Western Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Quek, Long Xiang; Ghani, Azman A.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Li, Shan; Lai, Yu-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Amir Hassan, Meor H.; Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Afiq; Badruldin, Muhammad Hafifi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid


    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with varying sizes are a common occurrence in porphyritic amphibole-bearing granite of the Bintang batholith, which is part of the Main Range granite province. The MMEs of the amphibole-bearing granite are significant as they are related to the I-type granitoids within the Main Range granite province. Petrographic observations indicate the MMEs are mantled with coarse mafic crystals on the rim and contain similar minerals to the host (biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + pyroxene + amphibole), but in different proportions. Geochemical analyses indicate the MMEs are shoshonitic with mg# comparable to the granite host. Substantial similarities exist between the MMEs and granite with regards to the normalized rare earth element patterns and trace elements variation diagrams. The MMEs and granite are not completely coeval as the MME zircon U-Pb age (224.3 ± 1.2 Ma) is slightly older than its granite host zircon U-Pb age (216.2 ± 1.0 Ma). The age difference is also observed from the unusual 500 m-long Tiak MME and another amphibole-bearing granite sample from the south of the pluton, which yield 221.8 ± 1.1 Ma and 217.4 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. The oldest inherited zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.0 Ga and 1.3 Ga respectively, while the oldest xenocrystic zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.5 Ga and 1.5 Ga respectively. Identical negative εHf(t) values from zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analysis for a MME-granite pair indicates the rocks were generated from a similar, ancient source in the basement. Combining the results, we suggest that incongruent melting of an ancient protolith played an important part in the evolution of the MMEs and granite and the MMEs characteristics are best explained as restite. The zircon Hf model age (two-stage) and the I-type peritectic and restitic mineral assemblages in the MMEs further describe the protolith as Early Proterozoic-Late Archean (≈2.5 Ga) meta-igneous rock. This shows the

  10. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

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    Christine Newton

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  11. Geophysical modeling of the impact of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province emplacement on sea-level changes at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (United States)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Bachan, Aviv; Eyster, Athena


    Mass extinctions have been linked to the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). While increasing precision in the dating of LIPs indicates that extinctions are often synchronous with LIP eruptions, the complete causal chain of events - including impacts on climate, ocean chemistry, and sea level - remains incompletely understood. Here we utilize a numerical modeling approach to examine one possible link in this chain: the capacity of LIP emplacement to drive sea-level changes. We focus on the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, an interval encompassing the end-Triassic mass extinction and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Excursions in sea level are also well documented at this time and in many places indicate a rapid fall followed by a sea-level rise coincident with the extinction. To explore the impact of CAMP on sea-level changes we use a geophysical model of solid-Earth deformation together with a reconstructed paleotopography during the end-Triassic. We perturb the model in two steps, corresponding to two phases of LIP emplacement: (1) Uplift associated with the ascending plume that leads to the CAMP eruption; and (2) loading and flexure of the lithosphere associated with the emplaced magma. We model the former process with a mantle convection code to assess the tempo-spatial behavior of dynamic uplift for varying plume sizes. The latter process is modeled as a viscoelastic loading problem that allows us to isolate contributions from the initial elastic and subsequent viscous response. Both mechanisms are combined in a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory that accounts for loading effects associated with displaced water, as well as shoreline migration and perturbations in Earth rotation. We compare model outputs to geological data from a set of sites in which the direction, magnitude, and age of sea level changes have been estimated for the end-Triassic period. Our calculations place bounds on the magnitude and

  12. Revisiting the magnetostratigraphy of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in Morocco (United States)

    Font, E.; Youbi, N.; Fernandes, S.; El Hachimi, H.; Kratinová, Z.; Hamim, Y.


    The origin of the Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) mass extinction is still a matter of debate: proponents of the idea that continental flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) are responsible for the crisis are opposed by those who favor an extraterrestrial origin linked to the impact of meteorite. Principal limitations reside in the difficulty to date and correlate CAMP lavas with the marine realm turnover. One argument widely used to suggest that CAMP lavas pre-dated the Tr-J boundary in Morocco is based on the presence of two brief magnetic reversals in the intermediate units of the Tiourjdal and Oued Lahr sections (Morocco) that were correlated to the E23r chron from the Newark basin and to the SA5n.2r/3r and SA5r chrons of the Saint Audrie Bay [Knight, K.B., Nomade, S., Renne, P.R., Marzoli, A., Betrand, H., Youbi, N., 2004. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: paleomagnetic and 40Ar/ 30Ar evidence from Morocco for brief, episodic volcanism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 228, 143-160]. However the primary origin for these negative (reverse) magnetic components is questionable since no field or reversal test was provided to constrain the primary character of the remanence as well as because the small number of samples. Here we have conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and magnetic mineralogy study of the interbedded limestones of the Tiourjdal section and of other CAMP lavas sections where the intermediate unit is complete, namely the Tizi El Hajaj, Jbel Imzar and Aït Ourir sections, to better constrain the origin and stratigraphic location of these negative magnetic components. We show that the interbedded limestones of the Tiourjdal section were entirely remagnetized by chemical processes via acid and oxidizing hydrothermal fluids generated by eruptions of CAMP lavas. In addition, magnetostratigraphic data of the Tizi El Hajaj, Jbel Imzar and Aït Ourir sections show that the entire intermediate unit

  13. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Age Comparison Between the South Carolina Dykes and Morocco Lava Flows (United States)

    Youbi, N.; Nomade, S.; Breutel, E.; Knight, K.


    Believed to be the largest volcanic province on Earth at more than 6000 km long and 2000 km wide, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) stretches from Eastern Canada to Brazil and from Western Spain to the Ivory Coast. Due to the massive erosion and subsequent in filling of these areas since the 200 Ma rifting event, dikes and sills constitute the majority of the exposed CAMP volcanics. However, well preserved lava flows have been found in the Triassic basins of the Northeastern United States and Morocco. Despite numerous 40Ar/39Ar dating attempts, very few of the exposed CAMP volcanics have been successfully dated due to a variety of factors including; excess argon and alteration. Especially no age is available in the well-mapped but structurally complex South and North Carolina dykes swarm as well as only few scattered ages in the Moroccan Trias-Liassic basins. Our goal is to better constrain the emplacement timing of the dykes swarm but also to compare age of both intrusive and effusive rocks from the same magmatic event but separated from more than 1000 km, 200 Mys ago. Several questions continue to surround the CAMP volcanic province including its cause and emplacement mechanism. Toward that end we have collected and dated dyke samples from the Carolinas and flows in Morocco, 1000 km away and across the rift. We anticipate that a comparison of these dates will enable us to understand more about the timing between the emplacement of the flows and dykes. We have collected in South Carolina and High Atlas in Morocco 7 and 9 hand samples respectively. Specimens from South Carolina correspond to the three distinct dykes' direction NE-SW, NW-SE and NS. In Morocco, samples were collected in four sections (100 to 300 m thick) located in the High Atlas between Marrakech and Ouarzazate. From each hand sample two different transparent plagioclase fractions, 250-180 and 180 to 100 microns, were separated. We have performed step heating experiments at the Berkeley

  14. Petrology and U-PB geochronology of the Robertson River Igneous Suite, Blue Ridge province, Virginia - Evidence for multistage magmatism associated witn an early episode of Laurentian rifting (United States)

    Tollo, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.


    The Late Neoproterozoic (735-702 Ma) Robertson River Igneous Suite includes at least eight plutons ranging in composition from syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite to alkali feldspar syenite. These plutons intruded Mesoproterozoic (1.2-1.0 Ga) gneissic basement of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium in northern and central Virginia during an early episode of Laurentian rifting. Robertson River plutons range in composition from metaluminous to peralkaline and, relative to other granite types, exhibit compositional characteristics of A-type granitoids including (1) marked enrichment in Nb, Zr, Y, REE (except Eu), and Ga, (2) high Ga/Al and FeO(total)/MgO, and (3) depletion of Ba and Sr. High Ga/Al ratios are particularly diagnostic of the suite and serve as an effective discriminant between originally metaluminous and peralkaline bulk compositions, providing a useful proxy for widely used indicators based on major elements that are prone to remobilization. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate that the suite was emplaced in two pulses, occurring at 735 to 722 and 706 to 702 Ma. Metaluminous magmas were emplaced during both pulses, formed most of the main batholith, and fractionated as independent, time-correlative groups. Peralkaline magmas were emplaced only during the final pulse, formed a volcanic center that erupted unknown quantities of rhyolite, and experienced a style of fractionation similar to the metaluminous types. Differences in Ce/Nb, Y/Nb, and Yb/Ta ratios suggest that the metaluminous and peralkaline magmas were derived from different sources. The Robertson River Igneous Suite is part of a regional group of Late Neoproterozoic (760-700 Ma) plutons including at least 20 other A-type granitoid bodies exposed throughout the Laurentian terrane of Virginia and northwestern North Carolina. Like the Robertson River, most of the other granitoids are metaluminous in composition, typically form multi-intrusive, elongate plutons, and are not geographically

  15. Two new Mycale (Naviculina Gray (Mycalidae, Poecilosclerida, Demospongiae from the Paulista Biogeographic Province (Southwestern Atlantic

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    Cléa Lerner


    Full Text Available Two new Mycale (Naviculiiia Gray, 1867 are described, M. (N. arcuiris sp. n. and M. (N.purpurata sp. n., from the Paulista Biogeographic Province (Southwestern Atlantic. They both occur in the São Sebastião Channel area (São Paulo stale coast, the former extending its known distribution to "Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve" (Santa Catarina state coast. The new species are sibling and differ from each other by a series of very small traits, the most notorious being live-color: yellow, orange, green, white, grey and beige, always light, in M. (N. arcuiris sp. n. and bordeaux in M. (N. purpúrala sp. n. Both species are compared with other known M. (Naviculiiia. Mycale (Aegogropila henlscheli Sim & Lee, 2001 is transferred to subgenus Naviculiiia and given a new name, viz. M. (N. chungue nom. n., as the specific name was preoccupied by M. (Curmia henlscheli Bergquist & Fromont, 1988. An identification key for all the species hitherto assigned to the subgenus is provided.

  16. Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for the low-δ18O magmatism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone hotspot and other low-δ18O large igneous provinces (United States)

    Blum, Tyler B.; Kitajima, Kouki; Nakashima, Daisuke; Strickland, Ariel; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Valley, John W.


    The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone (SRP-Y) hotspot track represents the largest known low-δ18O igneous province; however, debate persists regarding the timing and distribution of meteoric hydrothermal alteration and subsequent melting/assimilation relative to hotspot magmatism. To further constrain alteration relations for SRP-Y low-δ18O magmatism, we present in situ δ18O and U-Pb analyses of zircon, and laser fluorination δ18O analyses of phenocrysts, from the Lake Owyhee volcanic field (LOVF) of east-central Oregon. U-Pb data place LOVF magmatism between 16.3 and 15.4 Ma, and contain no evidence for xenocrystic zircon. LOVF δ18O(Zrc) values demonstrate (1) both low-δ18O and high-δ18O caldera-forming and pre-/post-caldera magmas, (2) relative increases in δ18O between low-δ18O caldera-forming and post-caldera units, and (3) low-δ18O magmatism associated with extension of the Oregon-Idaho Graben. The new data, along with new compilations of (1) in situ zircon δ18O data for the SRP-Y, and (2) regional δ18O(WR) and δ18O(magma) patterns, further constrain the thermal and structural associations for hydrothermal alteration in the SRP-Y. Models for low-δ18O magmatism must be compatible with (1) δ18O(magma) trends within individual SRP-Y eruptive centers, (2) along axis trends in δ18O(magma), and (3) the high concentration of low-δ18O magmas relative to the surrounding regions. When considered with the structural and thermal evolution of the SRP-Y, these constraints support low-δ18O magma genesis originating from syn-hotspot meteoric hydrothermal alteration, driven by hotspot-derived thermal fluxes superimposed on extensional tectonics. This model is not restricted to continental hotspot settings and may apply to several other low-δ18O igneous provinces with similar thermal and structural associations.

  17. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of alkaline silicic magmatic rocks in the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region, northern Vietnam: Identification of a displaced western extension of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (United States)

    Usuki, Tadashi; Lan, Ching-Ying; Tran, Trong Hoa; Pham, Thi Dung; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Shellnutt, Gregory J.; Chung, Sun-Lin


    In-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope analyses were carried out for alkaline silicic magmatic rocks from the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region in northern Vietnam to constrain their possible sources and to determine their petrogenetic relationship with the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), SW China. Nine granites and nine rhyolites yield zircon 206Pb/238U ages from 262 Ma to 249 Ma, coinciding with the timing of silicic magmatism in the Panxi area of the ELIP. The zircon εHf(t) values (+14 to +3) of these granites and rhyolites suggest a moderately depleted mantle source and overlap with those of peralkaline and metaluminous granites in the Panxi area [i.e. εHf(t) = +14 to +4]. The zircon Hf isotope ratios show that the zircons probably record the original source characteristics whereas whole-rock Nd isotope data indicate an evidence for crustal contamination that may have occurred at lower temperatures during magma emplacement. The synchroneity, coupled with petrological and geochemical similarities, indicate that silicic rocks from the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region are cogenetic with the Panxi silicic plutonic rocks and that they are likely derived by similar petrogenetic processes (i.e. fractionation of mafic magmas or partial melting of mafic rocks). Therefore, we propose that the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region represents a displaced portion of the ELIP inner zone.

  18. Reaction microtextures in entrapped xenoliths in alkali basalts from the Deccan large igneous province, India: Implications to the origin and evolution (United States)

    Chattopadhaya, Soumi; Ghosh, Biswajit; Morishita, Tomoaki; Nandy, Sandip; Tamura, Akihiro; Bandyopadhyay, Debaditya


    The onset of the end-Mesozoic continental rift magmatism in the Deccan volcanic province (DVP), India is marked by alkali magmatism. Lithospheric fragments occurring as xenoliths/xenocrysts entrapped in alkaline basalts from the Kutch area of the DVP preserve reaction microtextures giving an insight into the processes linked to their origin. We interpret the flower texture, an aggregate of systematically arranged tiny diopside crystals, as a product of interactions between ghost quartz xenocrysts with alkaline silica-undersaturated melt. The mantle xenoliths, mostly represented by spinel lherzolites and wehrlites have been infiltrated by melt. The orthopyroxenes present at the margin of the xenoliths or in contact with infiltrated melt exhibit a coronal texture composed of olivine, clinopyroxene and glass around them. The compositions of cores of primary olivines at places retain mantle signatures, whereas, the margins are reequilibrated. Secondary olivines and clinopyroxenes at reaction coronas have a wide range of compositions. Primary clinopyroxenes and spinels in close vicinity to the orthopyroxene corona display a sieve texture defined by clear inclusion-free cores and a compositionally different spongy altered rim with worm-shaped or bubbly inclusions dominantly filled with glass. The rims are marked with higher Ca, Mg-lower Na, Al for clinopyroxenes and higher Ti, Cr-lower Mg, Al for spinels in comparison to their cores. The coronal texture around orthopyroxenes and spongy texture in clinopyroxenes and spinels in these xenoliths are interpreted to be genetically linked. The silicate glasses in the xenoliths show large compositional variations and they are much more siliceous and alkali-rich in comparison to the host basalts. The petrography and mineral chemistry suggest host magma-peridotite interaction during or after the entrainment of the xenoliths, corroborating well with the experimental findings.

  19. An olivine-free mantle lithology as a source for mantle-derived magmas: the role of metasomes in the Ethiopian-Arabian large igneous province. (United States)

    Rooney, T. O.; Nelson, W. R.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.; Herzberg, C. T.; Hanan, B. B.


    Peridotite constitutes most of the Earth's upper mantle, and it is therefore unsurprising that most mantle-derived magmas exhibit evidence of past equilibrium with olivine-dominated source. There is mounting evidence, however, for the role of pyroxenite in magma generation within upwelling mantle plumes; a less documented non-peridotite source of melts are metasomatic veins (metasomes) within the lithospheric mantle. Melts derived from metasomes may exhibit extreme enrichment or depletion in major and trace elements. We hypothesize that phenocrysts such as olivine, which are commonly used to probe basalt source lithology, will reflect these unusual geochemical signals. Here we present preliminary major and trace element analyses of 60 lavas erupted from a small Miocene shield volcano located within the Ethiopian flood basalt province. Erupted lavas are intercalated with lahars and pyroclastic horizons that are overlain by a later stage of activity manifested in small cinder cones and flows. The lavas form two distinctive petrographic and geochemical groups: (A) an olivine-phyric, low Ti group (1.7-2.7 wt. % TiO2; 4.0-13.6 wt. % MgO), which geochemically resembles most of the basalts in the region. These low Ti lavas are the only geochemical unit identified in the later cinder cones and associated lava flows. (B) a clinopyroxene-phyric high Ti group (1-6.7 wt. % TiO2; 1.0-9.5 wt. % MgO), which resembles the Oligocene HT-2 flood basalts. This unit is found intercalated with low Ti lavas within the Miocene shield. In comparison to the low Ti group, the high Ti lavas exhibit a profound depletion in Ni, Cr, Al, and Si, and significant enrichment in Ca, Fe, V, and the most incompatible trace elements. When combined with a diagnostic negative K anomaly in primitive-mantle normalized diagrams and Na2O>K2O, the geochemical data point towards a source which is rich in amphibole, devoid of olivine, and perhaps containing some carbonate. Our preliminary results have identified

  20. Contrasting extracellular enzyme activities of particle-associated bacteria from distinct provinces of the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol eArnosti


    Full Text Available Microbial communities play a key role in the marine carbon cycle, processing much of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The composition of these communities varies by depth, season, and location in the ocean; the functional consequences of these compositional variations for the carbon cycle are only beginning to be explored. We measured the abilities of microbial communities in the large particle fraction (retained by a 10 μm pore size cartridge filter to enzymatically hydrolyze high molecular weight substrates, and therefore initiate carbon remineralization in four distinct oceanic provinces: the boreal polar (BPLR, the Arctic oceanic (ARCT, the North Atlantic drift (NADR, and the North Atlantic subtropical (NAST provinces. Since we expected the large particle fraction to include phytoplankton cells, we measured the hydrolysis of polysaccharide substrates (laminarin, fucoidan, xylan, and chondroitin sulfate expected to be associated with phytoplankton. Hydrolysis rates and patterns clustered into two groups, the BPLR/ARCT and the NADR/NAST. All four substrates were hydrolyzed by the BPLR/ARCT communities; hydrolysis rates of individual substrate varied by factors of ca. 1 to 4. In contrast, chondroitin was not hydrolyzed in the NADR/NAST, and hydrolytic activity was dominated by laminarinase. FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization of the large-particle fraction post-incubation showed a substantial contribution (15-26% of CF319a-positive cells (Bacteroidetes to total DAPI-stainable cells. Concurrent studies of microbial community composition and of fosmids from these same stations also demonstrated similarities between BPLR and ARCT stations, which were distinct from the NADR/NAST stations. Together, these data support a picture of compositionally as well as functionally distinct communities across these oceanic provinces.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011 (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  2. Variations of trace element concentration of magnetite and ilmenite from the Taihe layered intrusion, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China: Implications for magmatic fractionation and origin of Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits (United States)

    She, Yu-Wei; Song, Xie-Yan; Yu, Song-Yue; He, Hai-Long


    In situ LA-ICP-MS trace elemental analysis has been applied to magnetite and ilmenite of the Taihe layered intrusion, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China, in order to understand better fractionation processes of magma and origin of Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits. The periodic reversals in Mg, Ti, Mn in magnetite and Mg, Sc in ilmenite are found in the Middle Zone of the intrusion and agree with fractionation trends as recorded by olivine (Fo), plagioclase (An) and clinopyroxene (Mg#) compositions. These suggest the Taihe intrusion formed from open magma chamber processes in a magma conduit with multiple replenishments of more primitive magmas. The V and Cr of magnetite are well correlated with V and Cr of clinopyroxene indicating that they became liquidus phases almost simultaneously at an early stage of magma evolution. Ilmenite from the Middle and Upper Zones shows variable Cr, Ni, V, Mg, Nb, Ta and Sc contents indicating that ilmenite at some stratigraphic levels crystallized slightly earlier than magnetite and clinopyroxene. The early crystallization of magnetite and ilmenite is the result of the high FeOt and TiO2 contents in the parental magma. The ilmenite crystallization before magnetite in the Middle and Upper Zones can be attributed to higher TiO2 content of the magma due to the remelting of pre-existing ilmenite in a middle-level magma chamber. Compared to the coeval high-Ti basalts, the relatively low Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta contents in both magnetite and ilmenite throughout the Taihe intrusion indicate that they crystallized from Fe-Ti-(P)-rich silicate magmas. Positive correlations of Ti with Mg, Mn, Sc and Zr of magnetite, and Zr with Sc, Hf and Nb of ilmenite also suggest that magnetite and ilmenite crystallized continuously from the homogeneous silicate magma rather than an immiscible Fe-rich melt. Therefore, frequent replenishments of Fe-Ti-(P)-rich silicate magma and gravitational sorting and settling are crucial for the formation the massive and

  3. Timing and duration of the Central Atlantic magmatic province in the Newark and Culpeper basins, eastern U.S.A. (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Jourdan, Fred; Puffer, John H.; Cuppone, Tiberio; Tanner, Lawrence H.; Weems, Robert E.; Bertrand, Hervé; Cirilli, Simonetta; Bellieni, Giuliano; De Min, Angelo


    New major and trace element data and 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages constrain the timing, duration and time-related geochemical evolution of the Central Atlantic magmatic province in the U.S.A. (Newark and Culpeper basins) and refine correlations with basaltic lava flows from other Late Triassic-Early Jurassic circum-Atlantic basins. The precise, statistically robust 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages were obtained on biotite and on fresh plagioclase and calculated using the latest 40K decay constants. These ages are supported by a general consistency of the Ca/K calculated from 37Ar/ 39Ar of the plateau steps and the Ca/K obtained by detailed electron microprobe analyses on plagioclase phenocrysts. The ages of five analyzed basalt lava flows, from all three lava flow units in the Newark basins, and the ages of two sill samples are indistinguishable, indicating a brief magmatic peak phase at 201.8 ± 0.7 Ma. Recalibrated 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages from the entire province indicate a near-synchronous onset and peak volcanic activity at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary within the circum-Atlantic basins from the U.S.A., Canada and Morocco. The early erupted magmas (Moroccan Lower to Upper basalts, the Fundy basin North Mountain Basalt, and Orange Mountain and equivalent U.S.A. flows) yield an enriched geochemical signature (e.g., with relatively high La/Yb), whereas late magmas in the U.S.A. (Hook Mountain and Hampden basalts) and Morocco (Recurrent basalt) yield relatively depleted geochemical compositions (low La/Yb). A slight, but significant age difference for eruption of Hook Mountain and Hampden basalts (200.3 ± 0.9 Ma) and Recurrent basalts (198.2 ± 1.1 Ma) is interpreted as evidence of a diachronous northward rift-drift transition during break-up of Pangea. Our data indicate also a prolonged intrusive sequence that continued until about 195 Ma at the Palisades sill and is consistent with sporadic late CAMP magmatism for dykes from the south-eastern U.S.A. and for intrusions from

  4. Degassing-induced crystallization in silicate melt inclusion: evaluating the role of post-entrapment changes in melt inclusion from the SW volcanic flows of Deccan Large Igneous Province (Deccan LIP) lava. (United States)

    Rani Choudhary, Babita


    Melt inclusions represent sampling of magma during their growth in magma chambers and during ascent to the surface. Several studies of melt inclusions in Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in different parts of the world have been documented in the literature (Sobolev et al. 2011; Kamenetsky et al. 2012). Melt inclusions study from Deccan LIP can provide new insights into the physio-chemical conditions and evolution of this important LIP. The Deccan LIP was fissure eruption mainly emplaced over a very short duration at 66 Ma (Schoene et al. 2015). To better characterize and explain the diversity in geochemical composition, petrogenesis and volatile degassing, melt inclusions studies have been carried out in clinopyroxene and plagioclase feldspar from a suite of samples in the Western Ghats section. Samples were obtained from the upper three formations (the Wai subgroup). The inclusions are primary and range in shape and size varies from a few microns, up to 100 microns. The inclusions are crystalline, and contain daughter phases. Some are glassy, with or without a shrinkage bubble. The melt inclusions show substantial variations in major element composition. Inclusions are significantly enriched in TiO2 (3.68 to 0.08 wt%) and FeO (18.3 to 2.63 wt%). SiO2 ranges from 43.4-66.8 wt% and classification diagrams of total alkali (Na2O+K2O) Vs. silica melt inclusions show that most inclusions are of sub-alkaline to mildly alkaline composition. Al2O3 ranges from 9.7- 22.4wt % and MgO 18.3-1.6. EPMA measurements demonstrated the presence of daughter crystals, such as magnetite and titanomagnetite, and high FeO, TiO2 and CaO within melt inclusions among the silicate daughter crystal clusters. Volatiles are determined have wide range in composition in both plagioclase- and pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions by using FTIR technique, values up to 2wt% H2Ototal and 1808 ppm CO2. Moreover the variability in composition and volatiles the melt from the samples in a single flow suggests

  5. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (United States)

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter; Wooden, Joe


    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  6. Morphological characteristics and sand volumes of different coastal dune types in Essaouira Province, Atlantic Morocco (United States)

    Flor-Blanco, Germán; Flor, Germán; Lharti, Saadia; Pando, Luis


    Altogether three coastal dune fields, one located north and two south of the city of Essaouira, Atlantic Morocco, have been investigated to establish the distribution and overall sand volumes of various dune types. The purpose of the study was to characterize and classify the aeolian landforms of the coastal dune belt, to estimate their sand volumes and to assess the effectiveness of coastal dune stabilization measures. The northern dune field is 9 km long and lined by a wide artificial foredune complex fixed by vegetation, fences and branches forming a rectangular grid. Active and ephemeral aklé dunes border the inner backshore, while some intrusive dunes have crossed the foredune belt and are migrating farther inland. The total sand volume of the northern dune belt amounts 13,910,255 m3. The central coastal sector comprises a much smaller dune field located just south of the city. It is only 1.2 km long and, with the exception of intrusive dunes, shows all other dune types. The overall sand volume of the central dune field amounts to about 172,463 m3. The southern dune field is characterized by a narrower foredune belt and overall lower dunes that, in addition, become progressively smaller towards the south. In this sector, embryonic dunes (coppice, shadow dunes), tongue-like and tabular dunes, and sand sheets intrude from the beach, the profile of which has a stepped appearance controlled by irregular outcrops of old aeolianite and beach rock. The total volume of the southern dune field amounts 1,446,389 m3. For the whole study area, i.e. for all three dune fields combined, a sand volume of about 15,529,389 m3 has been estimated. The sand of the dune fields is derived from coastal erosion and especially the Tensift River, which enters the sea at Souira Qedima some 70 km north of Essaouira. After entering the sea, the sand is transported southwards by littoral drift driven by the mainly north-westerly swell climate and the Trade Winds blowing from the NNE. This

  7. Low-Ti melts from the southeastern Siberian Traps Large Igneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (STLIP) is one of the most voluminous volcanic provinces on Earth. The dominant erupted rocks are low-Ti basalts, which make up 80% by volume of the classical Noril'sk lava sequence. In the west Siberian basin and Maymecha-Kotuy area, the low- Ti basalts make up about 99% ...

  8. Linking benthic dynamics and cold-water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three carbonate mound provinces in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Grehan, Anthony

    We used the 3-D ocean circulation model with grid refinement ROMS-AGRIF to describe the hydrodynamic conditions at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic (Logachev Mounds, Arc Mounds and Belgica Mounds). Modelled fields of currents, temperature and salinity were analysed for observed....... The model bathymetry was taken from highresolution INSS (Irish National Seabed Survey) seafloor mapping data. The model output of 6 hourly benthic currentsm, temperature and salinity was validated against in-situ measurements and compared with main coral assemblage patterns from in-situ Coral...

  9. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: paleomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar evidence from Morocco for brief, episodic volcanism (United States)

    Knight, K. B.; Nomade, S.; Renne, P. R.; Marzoli, A.; Bertrand, H.; Youbi, N.


    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), one of the largest known flood basalt provinces formed in the Phanerozoic, is associated with the pre-rift stage of the Atlantic Ocean at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary ca. 200 Ma. Paleomagnetic sampling targeted packages of CAMP lava flows in Morocco's High Atlas divided into four basic units (the lower, intermediate, upper, and recurrent units) from sections identified on the basis of field observations and geochemistry. Oriented cores were demagnetized using both alternating field (AF) and thermal techniques. Paleomagnetic results reveal wholly normal polarity interrupted by at least one brief reversed chron located in the intermediate unit, and reveal distinct pulses of volcanic activity identified by discrete changes in declination and inclination. These variations in magnetic direction are interpreted as a record of secular variation, and they may provide an additional correlative tool for identification of spatially separated CAMP lava flows within Morocco. 40Ar/39Ar analyses of Moroccan CAMP lavas yield plateau ages indistinguishable within 2σ error limits, sharing a weighted mean age of 199.9±0.5 Ma (2σ), reinforcing the short-lived nature of these eruptions despite the presence of sedimentary horizons between them. Correlation of our sections with the E23n, E23r, E24 sequence reported in the Newark basin terrestrial section and St. Audrie's Bay marine section is suggested. Brief volcanism in sudden pulses is a potential mechanism for volcanic-induced climatic changes and biotic disruption at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Combination of our directional group (DG) poles yields an African paleomagnetic pole at 200 Ma of λ(°N)=73.0°, ϕ(°E)=241.3° (Dp=5.0°, Dm=18.5°).

  10. Igneous Graphite in Enstatite Chondrites (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.


    Igneous graphite. a rare constituent in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks. occurs in three EH and one EL enstatite chondrite impact-melt breccias as 2-150 Ilm long euhedrallaths. some with pyramidal terminations. In contrast. graphite in most enstatite chondrites exsolved from metallic Fe-Ni as polygonal. rounded or irregular aggregates. Literature data for five EH chondrites on C combusting at high temperatures show that Abee contains the most homogeneous C isotopes (i.e. delta(sup 13)C = -8.1+/-2.1%); in addition. Abee's mean delta(sup l3)C value is the same as the average high-temperature C value for the set of five EH chondrites. This suggests that Abee scavenged C from a plurality of sources on its parent body and homogenized the C during a large-scale melting event. Whereas igneous graphite in terrestrial rocks typically forms at relatively high pressure and only moderately low oxygen fugacity (e.g., approx. 5 kbar. logfO2, approx. -10 at 1200 C ). igneous graphite in asteroidal meteorites formed at much lower pressures and oxygen fugacities.

  11. Mesozoic Igneous Activity In Egypt


    Meneisy, M. Y. [محمد يسري منيسي


    A geochronological sequence of the main phases of igneous activity in Egypt during the Mesozoic is presented in this paper. This is essentially based on scrutinized isotopic age data. New K / Ar ages are also included. Three main phases are outlined: 1. Early Triassic- Late Permian (230 ± 10 Ma). 2. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous (140 ± lOMa). 3. Late Cretaceous (90 * lOMa). An attempt is made to relate these phases with tectonic events. يقدم هذا البحث تتابعا زمنيا للمراحل...

  12. On the Basic Principles of Igneous Petrology (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    How and why Differentiation occurs has dominated Igneous Petrology since its beginning (~1880) even though many of the problems associated with it have been thoroughly solved. Rediscovery of the proverbial wheel with new techniques impedes progress. As soon as thin section petrography was combined with rock and mineral chemistry, rock diversity, compositional suites, and petrographic provinces all became obvious. The masterful 1902 CIPW norm in a real sense solved the chemical mystery of differentiation: rocks are related by the addition and subtraction of minerals in the anciently appreciated process of fractional crystallization. Yet few believed this, even after phase equilibria arrived. Assimilation, gas transfer, magma mixing, Soret diffusion, immiscibility, and other processes had strong adherents, even though by 1897 Becker conclusively showed the ineffectiveness of molecular diffusion in large-scale processes. The enormity of heat to molecular diffusion (today's Lewis no.) should have been convincing; but few paid attention. Bowen did, and he refined and restated the result; few still paid attention. And in spite of his truly masterful command of experiment and field relations in promoting fractional crystallization, Fenner and others fought him with odd arguments. The beauty of phase equilibria eventually dominated at the expense of knowing the physical side of differentiation. Bowen himself saw and struggled with the connection between physical and chemical processes. Progress has come from new concepts in heat transfer, kinetics, and slurry dynamics. The key approach is understanding the dynamic competition between spatial rates of solidification and all other processes. The lesson is clear: Scholarship and combined field, laboratory and technical expertise are critical to understanding magmatic processes. Magma is a limitlessly enchanting and challenging material wherein physical processes buttressed by chemistry govern.

  13. Determining the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMPS)'s Role in the Increased Flux of CO2 in the end-Triassic Mass Extinction (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. S.; Bachan, A.; Stanford School of Earth Sciences Department of Paleobiology


    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest flood basalt provinces known. Its empacement coincided with a period of major plant and animal extinctions-the end-Triassic mass extinction. It is postulated that the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from the volcanics was one of the causes of this mass extinction. However,the magnitude of impact on ocean chemistry, and timescales involved remain unclear. To determine CAMP's role in this increased flux of CO2, we studied the geochemistry of samples of rock from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in northern Italy. Specifically, by observing the ratios of carbon isotopes 12 and 13 in the organic carbon found in these limestone sedimentary rocks, we could determine the ratio of carbonate to organic burial fluxes globally. We drilled limestone rocks from two different sections in the Southern Alps-- Pozzo Glaciale and Val Adrara. Once they were drilled to a fine powder-like form, we acidified the CaCO3 with HCl to isolate the organic carbon. Then, the organic matter was cleaned to rid the acid, and eventually was placed into tin foil to be placed into the Elemental Analyzer, which determined the percent Carbon in each sample. We tested about 200 samples, and placed them into the Mass Spectrometer machine to determine the isotopic ratios of C12 and C13. According to the data, there was a positive excursion for both sample sets, which means that there was an increase in the amount of C13 in the organic matter. The duration of this excursion was at least a few hundred thousand years. This suggests a protracted increase in the burial flux of organic carbon globally, which is consistent with the hypothesized volcanically driven increase in CO2. This further bolsters the contention that CAMP was responsible, in part, for this mass extinction. By studying the earth's recovery from increased carbon fluxes in the past, we can predict the recovery path that our anthropogenically

  14. Long-term baited lander experiments at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic) (United States)

    Lavaleye, Marc; Duineveld, Gerard; Bergman, Magda; van den Beld, Inge


    A long-term lander employing a baited camera system was developed to study temporal variation in the presence of scavenging fish and invertebrates at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic). The camera system was tested during two successful long-term deployments for periods of 6 and 12 months respectively. The baited system, consisting of two separate video cameras with infrared lights and a bait dispenser with 24 bait positions, recorded more than 15,500 clips of 17 s, regularly spread over both periods. New bait, consisting of sardines in oil, was offered at regular time intervals, and attracted scavengers over the whole period of deployment, and especially the crab Chaceon affinis did still eat from it till the end of the deployments. However, the attractiveness for some scavengers, i.e. amphipods, diminished quite quickly. In addition to invertebrate scavengers, namely C. affinis, two other crab species, amphipods, a shrimp and a starfish, also 7 species of fish were recorded near the bait, of which Lepidion eques was by far the most common. Though there was no concrete evidence for seasonal patterns, the observations showed substantial temporal variation in the abundance of several species, especially the crabs C. affinis and Bathynectes maravigna and the fish Phycis blennoides. It is concluded that long-term deployments of such a baited camera system can produce novel data. For instance such a system could be employed for monitoring impacts of disturbances on the deep-sea floor (e.g. mining), as we infer that mobile scavengers will be among the first organisms to show a visible reaction to any chemically and physically (noise, vibrations) alteration of the environment similar to a mine canary.

  15. Field and geochemical constraints on the relationship between the Apoteri basalts (northern Brazil, southwestern Guyana) and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (United States)

    Pinto, Viter M.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Hartmann, Léo A.; Bicudo, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Vladimir


    In northern Brazil, Roraima state and southwestern Guyana, basalt flows characterized by inflated pahoehoe structure occur along the margins of the Tacutu Rift Valley, dykes intrude the Paleoproterozoic basement close to the boundary of the rift system with concordant, NE-trend. The dykes and flows belong to Apoteri magmatism. New field, geochemical data (major, trace and rare-earth elements) and chemical stratigraphy of the Apoteri magmatism indicate petrographic and chemical homogeneity characteristic of continental tholeiitic basalts. The basalt flows of Morro Redondo and Nova Olinda sites show two distinct chemical groups: a) the lower flows with intermediate TiO2 content (ITi group) ranging from 1.09 to 1.41 wt%, MgO (5.64-6.46 wt%) and Ni (43-53 ppm) contents; and b) the upper flows with lower TiO2 content (LTi group) = 0.75 to 0.78 wt%, higher MgO = 7.95-8.85 wt% and Ni = 105-115 ppm. The two magma types share many characteristics in high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE), but in detail significant differences exist in REE ratios, e.g. (La/Yb)N of ∼4.0 for ITi and 3.2 for LTi and this may be explained by fractional crystallization. The chemical compositions of the Apoteri dykes are similar the ITi group analyses, suggesting that they have the same origin. The La/Ba versus La/Nb diagram is indicative of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and LILE/HFSE fractionation in the mantle source, and the data favor a dominant subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) component in the origin of the Apoteri flows and dykes. These data show consistent similar chemical characteristics and correspond to other tholeiitic flows from the large Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), especially eastern USA.

  16. Duration of and decoupling between carbon isotope excursions during the end-Triassic mass extinction and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province emplacement (United States)

    Yager, Joyce A.; West, A. Joshua; Corsetti, Frank A.; Berelson, William M.; Rollins, Nick E.; Rosas, Silvia; Bottjer, David J.


    Changes in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from marine strata occur globally in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) during the break up of Pangea. As is typical in deep time, the timing and duration of these isotopic excursions has remained elusive, hampering attempts to link carbon cycle perturbations to specific processes. Here, we report δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic strata near Levanto, Peru, where intercalated dated ash beds permit temporal calibration of the carbon isotope record. Both δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg exhibit a broad positive excursion through the latest Triassic into the earliest Jurassic. The first order positive excursion in δ13Corg is interrupted by a negative shift noted in many sections around the world coincident with the extinction horizon. Our data indicate that the negative excursion lasts 85 ± 25 kyrs, longer than inferred by previous studies based on cyclostratigraphy. A 260 ± 80 kyr positive δ13Corg shift follows, during which the first Jurassic ammonites appear. The overall excursion culminates in a return to pre-perturbation carbon isotopic values over the next 1090 ± 70 kyrs. Via chronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic correlation to other successions, we find that δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg return to pre-perturbation values as CAMP volcanism ceases and in association with the recovery of pelagic and benthic biota. However, the initiation of the carbon isotope excursion at Levanto predates the well-dated CAMP sills from North America, indicating that CAMP may have started earlier than thought based on these exposures, or that the onset of carbon cycle perturbations was not related to CAMP.

  17. On the radiogenic heat production of igneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hasterok


    Full Text Available Radiogenic heat production is a physical parameter crucial to properly estimating lithospheric temperatures and properly understanding processes related to the thermal evolution of the Earth. Yet heat production is, in general, poorly constrained by direct observation because the key radiogenic elements exist in trace amounts making them difficulty image geophysically. In this study, we advance our knowledge of heat production throughout the lithosphere by analyzing chemical analyses of 108,103 igneous rocks provided by a number of geochemical databases. We produce global estimates of the average and natural range for igneous rocks using common chemical classification systems. Heat production increases as a function of increasing felsic and alkali content with similar values for analogous plutonic and volcanic rocks. The logarithm of median heat production is negatively correlated (r2 = 0.98 to compositionally-based estimates of seismic velocities between 6.0 and 7.4 km s−1, consistent with the vast majority of igneous rock compositions. Compositional variations for continent-wide models are also well-described by a log-linear correlation between heat production and seismic velocity. However, there are differences between the log-linear models for North America and Australia, that are consistent with interpretations from previous studies that suggest above average heat production across much of Australia. Similar log-linear models also perform well within individual geological provinces with ∼1000 samples. This correlation raises the prospect that this empirical method can be used to estimate average heat production and natural variance both laterally and vertically throughout the lithosphere. This correlative relationship occurs despite a direct causal relationship between these two parameters but probably arises from the process of differentiation through melting and crystallization.

  18. Petrología y Estructura del Complejo Ígneo-Metamórfico Aluminé, Provincia de Neuquén, Argentina Petrology and Structure of the Aluminé Igneous-Metamorphic Complex, Neuquén province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana A Urraza


    andinas (cretácicas o más modernas y el sector sur donde dominan los granitoides preandinos de edades permotriásicas-jurásicas, emplazados en un basamento paleozoico. Si bien los diagramas geoquímicos permiten diferenciar los diferentes petrotipos definidos petrográficamente y sus tendencias evolutivas podrían indicar procesos de cristalización fraccionada, la distribución areal de los mismos, sus características petrográfico-microestructurales y la geocronología, indican que podrían corresponder a diferentes pulsos-eventos magmáticos separados en el tiempo, aunque desarrollados en un contexto de características tectónicas similares.In the present contribution, the partial results of a detailed study of the magmatic, metamorphic and tectonic events developed in the Aluminé Igneous-Metamorphic Complex (AIMC are given. We define the AIMC as the set of pre-andean and andean intrusive igneous and metamorphic rocks, outcropping in the área located between the Aluminé, Moquehue, Ñorquinco and Pulmarí lakes in the Neuquén province, Argentina. Based on field and petrographic observations and geochemical characteristics, the granitic rocks forming part of the AIMC have been classified as: 1. quartz diorites, 2. tonalites-granodiorites, 3. granodiorites and 4. granites. The geochemical parameters indícate that the defined lithologies derive from calcic to weakly calcalkaline magmas of metaluminous composition, typical of Type I Cordilleran batholiths associated with active continental margins. Intercalated between the magmatic rocks, some outcrops of metamorphic basement composed mainly of schists, gneisses, amphibolites and scarce quartzose sandstones. Andesites, tuffs and basalts cover in part the metamorphites and granitoids are exposed. The structure of the sector is characterized by the presence of three main sets of regional lineaments, with NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S orientations. These directions coincide with the orientations of the three groups of

  19. Protracted felsic magmatic activity associated with the opening of the South Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirstein, L.A.; Kelley, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Turner, S; Mantovani, M.; Wijbrans, J.R.


    Felsic magmatism is often observed in the final stages of the eruption of continental large igneous provinces. The occurrence of these felsic extrusive igneous rocks potentially provides key information on the complex interplay of magmatism and tectonics. In this paper we investigate the timing of

  20. Magnetic Susceptibility as a Tool for Investigating Igneous Rocks—Experience from IODP Expedition 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger C. Searle


    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of magnetic susceptibility have been commonly used on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODPexpeditions to study minor lithological variations (forexample, those related to climatic cycles in sedimentary rocks, but they have been less frequently used on igneous rocks, although important post-cruise studies have utilized them (e.g., Ildefonse and Pezard, 2001. Here I report its use (and that of the closely related electrical conductivity on IODP Expedition 304 to examine igneous crustal rocks. Expedition 304/305 targeted the Atlantis Massif, an oceanic core complex on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and recovered a suite of igneous rocks comprising mainly gabbros, troctolites, and some diabases (Blackman et al., 2006; Ildefonse et al., 2006, 2007; IODP Expeditions 304 and 305 Scientists, 2005. Shipboard measurements (on D/V JOIDES Resolution of physical properties were made to characterize lithological units and alteration products, to correlate cored material with down-hole logging data, and to interpret broader-scale geophysical data.

  1. Baited camera survey of deep-sea demersal fishes of the West African oil provinces off Angola: 1200-2500m depth, East Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Jamieson, Alan J; Linley, Thomas D; Craig, Jessica


    Deep-sea demersal fish surveys using baited cameras were undertaken in the West African oil provinces between 1297 m and 2453 m depth in 2002, 2005 and 2008. A total of 29 deployments amounting to 16,175 images encountered 31 species of bait attending deep-sea fish from 17 families. The extrapolated species richness was 34, indicating that the survey encountered over 90% of bait attending fish species in this area. The dominant species in the area were the morid Antimora rostrata, the synaphobranchids Synaphobranchus cf. kaupii and Simenchelys parasitica, the somniosid Centroscymnus coelolepis and the zoarcid Pachycara crassiceps. An unusually high diversity of bait attending macrourids was observed in addition to patchy aggregations of zoarcids. This study serves as baseline survey data on which to base future long-term environmental monitoring of fish populations in the vicinity of the West African oil provinces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlating the end-Triassic mass extinction and basalt volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the 100,000-year level by high-precision U-Pb age determinations (United States)

    Schoene, Blair; Guex, Jean; Bartolini, Annachiara; Schaltegger, Urs; Blackburn, Terrence J.


    The end-Triassic mass extinction is one of the five largest extinctions in Earth history, though considerable uncertainty remains in terms of its duration, causes and effects. Many workers suggest that the extinction was related directly or indirectly to adverse climate following the onset of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), which erupted > 2.5x106 km3 of basalt in less than 1 Ma. However, there remains a need for precise and accurate geochronology to correlate the onset of CAMP volcanism, recorded uniquely in terrestrial sections, with the well-documented marine extinction event. We provide new chemical abrasion ID-TIMS U-Pb age determinations on ash bed and basaltic zircons using the well-calibrated EARTHTIME 202Pb-205Pb-233U-235U tracer solution, yielding data that are up to 70% more precise compared to single-Pb/single-U tracers. We show that the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB) and end-Triassic biological crisis from two independent marine stratigraphic sections in northern Peru and in Nevada (USA) correlate with the onset of terrestrial flood volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) to <150 ka. Ash bed samples reveal complicated U-Pb systematics, showing ranges in 206Pb/238U zircon dates of up to 2 Ma, representing a range of growth histories prior to eruption. Therefore, we use the youngest single closed-system zircon to approximate the eruption date. Three volcanic ash beds from the Pucara basin, northern Peru, bracket the TJB to a 206Pb/238U age of 201.31 ± 0.18/0.31/0.43 Ma (internal uncertainties/ with tracer calibration uncertainty/ with decay constant uncertainties). The first discovered ash bed from the New York canyon, Nevada, 1.5 m above TJB requires a boundary age of less than 201.33 ± 0.13 Ma. We also provide data from two laboratories which yield a new 206Pb/238U zircon age of 201.28 ± 0.02/0.22/0.31 Ma for the North Mtn. basalt, the lowest CAMP basalt from the Fundy basin, Nova Scotia. This narrows the

  3. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wallace


    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios.

  4. A study of radioactive elements of various rocks in Pattani Province with gamma ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewtubtim, P.


    Full Text Available The radioactivity of the three elements, potassium, uranium and thorium, in rocks of various types in Pattani Province was investigated by using a gamma ray spectrometer. It was found that potassium contents in igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were 6.29 %, 2.21% and 1.54 % respectively. Uranium equivalent contents in igneous rock, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were found to be 22.51 ppm, 11.25 ppm and 14.13 ppm, while thorium contents in these rocks were 21.78 ppm, 18.88 ppm and 18.15 ppm respectively. The results obtained were similar to those reported by Pungtip Ranglek (1995 for igneous rock at Liwong Pluton site in Thepha, Na Thawi, Chana and Saba Yoi Districts, Songkhla Province, and were about six times higher than those reported by Kittichai Wattananikorn (1994 for igneous rock in the northern part of Thailand.

  5. Selected references on alkalic igneous rocks of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.R. (comp.)


    A compilation of references is presented providing background information on rock and mineral associations, geochemistry, geophysics, structural relationships, and geochronology of sialic, feldspathoidal, and some mafic alkalic igneous rock exposures in the US. Their locations and major characteristics are cited. No implication regarding U potential in these areas is intended. The first part of the bibliography provides general references to overall features of alkaline igneous rocks by region. The second part is a compilation of references on alkalic igneous rocks by state or groups of states. The third part provides information on rock type, age, and location for most of the references cited in part two. (JSR)

  6. Translation and rotation of small crustal blocks in the southernmost Atlantic-Weddell Sea region prior to seafloor spreading: in search of a mechanism (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W. D.; Norton, I. O.; Lawver, L. A.; Lavier, L.; Davis, J. K.; Gahagan, L.


    Geological and paleomagnetic data indicate that initial fragmentation of the Gondwanaland supercontinent in the southernmost Atlantic-Weddell Sea region involved translation and rotation of two small crustal blocks. The Falkland/Malvinas block on the South American plate (F/M) and the Ellsworth-Whitmore mountains block in West Antarctica (EWM) both contain segments of the earliest Mesozoic Gondwana fold belt. The blocks originated in the Natal embayment between the Cape Mountains of southernmost Africa and the Pensacola Mountains of the East Antarctic craton margin. Shortly after emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) at ca. 182Ma, the F/M block was rotated clockwise 150 ° and the EWM block counter¬clockwise 90°, while both were translated several hundred kilometers towards the Panthalassic/Pacific Ocean. As indicated by absence of shortening in the sedimentary basins of the F/M Plateau and Weddell embayment, the motions of the crustal blocks relative to the major continents happened during extreme extension accompanied by widespread silicic magmatism that preceded seafloor spreading. We propose a new reconstruction of the Gondwana craton margin, suggesting an original embayment between the Kalahari and East Antarctic cratons, and subsequent mirror-image clockwise (South America-F/M) and counterclockwise (Antarctic Peninsula-EWM) rotations prior to seafloor spreading in the Weddell Sea and South Atlantic.What geodynamic processes were involved in the significant rotations and translations of continental lithosphere prior to ocean basin formation? Our conclusion, based on the geologic and geophysical data and on geodynamic modeling, is that the motions were driven by the distributed crustal thinning of warm continental lithosphere and by mantle flow towards a retreating Panthalassic margin subduction zone associated with the formation of the Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province between the East Antarctic, Kalahari and Rio de la Plata cratons.

  7. Exploring the pre-eruptive history of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the link with the end Triassic extinction using high precision U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite geochronology (United States)

    Davies, Joshua; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Schaltegger, Urs


    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is a massive outpouring of basaltic lava, dykes and sills that was predominantly emplaced into the Triassic-Jurassic basins of North and South America, Europe and Africa. These basins were, at the time, in the center of the paleo-supercontinent Pangea, and the CAMP flood basalts are associated with Pangea's break-up and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The global climatic and environmental impact of the basalt eruption has been temporally linked with the end-Triassic mass extinction, although the extinction horizon, defined by a carbon isotope excursion, is stratigraphically below the first basaltic flows in all of the currently identified basins. Therefore, if the extinction is related to the CAMP, it must be related to a process that occurred before the eruption of the first basalt flow, or is co-incident with a currently unidentified older basalt flow. Here we present high precision TIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology on zircons from the North Mountain basalt (NMB) in the Fundy basin, Canada, and also baddeleyite from the Foum Zuid dyke (FZD) in the Anti-Atlas, Morocco. The NMB zircons have been separated from the lowermost accessible basalt flow of the NMB sequence in a coarse-grained section, rather than from a felsic residual melt pod, which is the usual target for zircon geochronology in basalts. The baddeleyites from the FZD were also separated from a coarse-grained section of the dyke. The zircons and baddeleyites from the NMB and FZD samples contain an antecrystic population with ages more than 1 Ma older than the emplacement of the basalts. The U-Pb ages presented here suggest that there was magmatic activity relating to the CAMP before the eruption of the first basalts. There are a number of possible explanations for the old zircons 1) recycling of zircon from earlier phases of magmatism, which then would have to have been re-molten and entrained into the NMB and FZD magmas. 2) Recycling of crystal mush from

  8. Mg Isotopes of USGS Igneous Rock Standards (United States)

    Huang, F.; Glessner, J. J.; Lundstrom, C. C.


    Magnesium has three stable isotopes, 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg with abundances of 78.99%, 10.00%, and 11.01%, respectively. It is one of the most abundant elements in the crust and mantle. As advancements of analytical techniques using MC-ICP-MS have dramatically advanced our ability to measure isotope ratios of Mg with greater precision, Mg isotopes can now be applied to study a variety of fundamental geological processes, such as continental crust weathering, chemical diffusion, and chondrule formation. Therefore the need for well characterized Mg isotope ratios for geological materials is increasingly important. Routine measurement of readily-available USGS rock standards is a viable way for inter-lab comparison to show the quality of data. However, the Mg isotope data for USGS standards reported in the literature are limited and inconsistent. USGS standards reported by different MC-ICP-MS labs have a range of Mg isotopic data outside of the normal external error of 0.1‰ (2σ). Mg isotopes of USGS igneous rock standards (dunite, DTS-1; basalts, BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1; and andesite, AGV-1) were measured by a sample-standard bracketing method using a low resolution MC-ICP- MS (Nu-Plasma HR). The method has a large tolerance of matrix bias with Na/Mg and Al/Mg > 100% only changing the δ26Mg by less than 0.1‰. Dilution effects do not cause significant error (99.5%) and acceptable concentrations of matrix (mainly Na, Al, Ca, and Fe) are included in these results. Duplicate analyses of independently processed standards yielded the following results (δ26MgDSM-3 (‰)): BCR-2 (-0.306±0.144, - 0.290±0.116, -0.283±0.048, -0.288±0.057), BCR-1 (-0.399±0.079, -0.346±0.046), AGV-1 (-0.295±0.110, -0.307±0.086, -0.339±0.068), BHVO-1 (-0.308±0.076, - 0.299±0.103), and DTS-1 (-0.299±0.163, -0.368±0.059). δ26MgDSM-3 of measured USGS standards are consistent within error (2σ).

  9. Igneous rocks of the Indian ocean floor (United States)

    Engel, C.G.; Fischer, R.L.; Engel, A.E.J.


    Four dredge hauls from near the crest and from the eastern flank of the seismically active Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge at 23?? to 24??S, at depths of 3700 to 4300 meters, produced only low-potassium tholeiitic basalt similar in chemical and mineralogic composition to basalts characteristic of ridges and rises in the Atlantic and Pacific oceansA fifth haul, from a depth of 4000 meters on the lower flank of a seamount on the ocean side of the Indonesian Trench, recovered tholeiitic basalt with higher concentrations of K and Ti and slightly lower amounts of Si and Ca than the typical oceanic tholeiite of the ridgeThe last sample is vesicular, suggesting depression of the area since the basalt was emplacedMany of the rocks dredged are variously decomposed and hydrated, but there is no evidence of important chemical modification toward conversion of the lava flows to spilite during extrusion or solidification.

  10. A Precise U-Pb Zircon age for the Skaergaard Intrusion: Magmatic Cooling History Refinement and Palaeogene Igneous Correlations, East Greenland (United States)

    Hamilton, M. A.; Brooks, C. K.


    A cooling curve for the Skaergaard intrusion was first established by Norton & Taylor [1] using oxygen isotopes and transport theory. Subsequently, Hirschmann et al. [2] located a cooling curve in absolute time using 40Ar/39Ar ages on biotite and hornblende. Here, we present new, high-precision U-Pb results for zircon recovered from the Sandwich Horizon on Basistoppen. Our (concordant) age of 55.59±0.13 Ma (2σ ) is fully consistent with these earlier results, thereby confirming the validity of both the cooling model, temperatures deduced from mineral equilibria, and the standardization used in the Ar-Ar system. It is, however, at variance with a recent WR-apatite Lu-Hf age for the intrusion [3]. Furthermore, knowledge of the thickness of lava overburden at the time of intrusion also constrains the pressure in the cooling intrusion, and this is in turn consistent with existing estimates of 60±15 MPa. Andreasen et al. [4] recently demonstrated that lavas with compositions corresponding closely to deduced Skaergaard magmas are found relatively high up in the adjacent lava plateau. The new zircon age thereby allows us to precisely date this level; a result in general agreement with the 40Ar/39Ar stratigraphy of Storey et al. [5]. Moreover, the Skaergaard age reported here represents the first precise and accurate zircon age for Tertiary (Palaeogene) magmatism in Greenland, and serves as a useful reference point for assessing Ar-Ar ages determined on numerous lavas, sills, dykes and gabbros elsewhere in the North Atlantic Igneous Province. The 55.59 Ma U-Pb age reaffirms earlier conclusions that the Skaergaard intrusion was emplaced contemporaneously with continental flood basalts erupted during late Paleocene-early Eocene time, in the middle stages of Palaeogene NAIP magmatism. The timing was synchronous with incipient rifting of Greenland and northern Europe as reflected in the formation of new ocean crust (Chron 24r), but distinctly postdates basic central

  11. Igneous-sedimentary petroleum systems; Sistemas petroliferos igneo-sedimentares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Jaime Fernandes [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios-BSOL]. E-mail:


    Igneous-sedimentary petroleum systems are mixed systems in which one or more essential elements or processes are related to magmatic events. Many examples worldwide are presented to show the importance of igneous rocks in the exploratory activities, as well as in the petroleum occurrence. Volcanic ash layers are of great importance in stratigraphic correlation and elucidation of structures, particularly when they occur in thick nonfossiliferous strata. They are also good indicators of turbidite deposition where turbidity currents are related to earthquakes generated by magmatic events. Unconventional reservoirs can be created by volcanic eruptions or intrusions, crystallization, reworking, and fracturing. Unaltered igneous rocks can seal vertically and laterally conventional reservoirs due to its excellent cap capacity. Abnormal thermal effect of igneous rocks can compensate the lack of overburden in shallow basins. Structural or combined traps can be formed due to intrusions, such as folded, faulted, and unconformity traps. Porosity can be either primary or secondary, or both. Primary porosity mainly consists of cavities produced by gas volatilization during eruption and cooling. Secondary porosity refers to those pores that result from hydrothermal alteration, recrystallization, and dissolution by groundwater, and tectonic stress. It includes intercrystalline pores formed by crystallization of various secondary minerals, dissolution pores, and tectonic fractures. New technologies of petroleum development and production are encouraging to search for oil and gas within igneous rocks, and new discoveries are expected. (author)

  12. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue


    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  13. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.


    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity.

  14. Formation of Hadean granites by melting of igneous crust (United States)

    Burnham, A. D.; Berry, A. J.


    The oldest known samples of Earth, with ages of up to 4.4 Gyr, are detrital zircon grains in meta-sedimentary rocks of the Jack Hills in Australia. These zircons offer insights into the magmas from which they crystallized, and, by implication, igneous activity and tectonics in the first 500 million years of Earth’s history, the Hadean eon. However, the compositions of these magmas and the relative contributions of igneous and sedimentary components to their sources have not yet been resolved. Here we compare the trace element concentrations of the Jack Hills zircons to those of zircons from the locality where igneous (I-) and sedimentary (S-) type granites were first distinguished. We show that the Hadean zircons crystallized predominantly from I-type magmas formed by melting of a reduced, garnet-bearing igneous crust. Further, we propose that both the phosphorus content of zircon and the ratio of phosphorus to rare earth elements can be used to distinguish between detrital zircon grains from I- and S-type sources. These elemental discriminants provide a new geochemical tool to assess the relative contributions of primeval magmatism and melting of recycled sediments to the continents over geological time.

  15. Effects of igneous intrusions on the petroleum system: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, Kim; Millett, John; Planke, Sverre; Ogata, Kei; Eide, Christian Haug; Festøy, Marte; Galland, Olivier; Jerram, Dougal A.


    Igneous intrusions feature in many sedimentary basins where hydrocarbon exploration and production is continuing. Owing to distinct geophysical property contrasts with siliciclastic host rocks (e.g., higher Vp, density and resistivity than host rocks), intrusions can be easily delineated within data

  16. Assessing the variation in mercury deposition around the North Atlantic during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (United States)

    Jones, Morgan; Percival, Lawrence; Frieling, Joost; Mather, Tamsin; Svensen, Henrik


    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a widely studied extreme global warming event that occurred 55.8 Ma. The PETM is marked by a sharp and sustained negative δ13C excursion, indicating a voluminous and rapid release of isotopically light carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system. The source(s) of carbon that instigated this global warming event remain heavily debated. The PETM is broadly contemporaneous with the second major pulse of activity (56-54 Ma) from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), suggesting a possible causal relationship. This may have been driven by direct volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or thermogenic volatiles (e.g. CH4 and CO2) through contact metamorphism of organic-rich sedimentary layers affected by igneous intrusions. An emerging field in geochemistry that could shed light on the possible link between large igneous province emplacements and hyperthermal events is the use of mercury (Hg) preserved in the sedimentary record as a far field proxy for periods of major volcanic activity. Significant emissions of Hg could be sourced from both volcanic gases and from contact metamorphism, which are transported globally prior to deposition if released directly to the atmosphere. In marine settings, organic matter and clay minerals scavenge Hg and bury it in sediments; spikes in Hg/TOC (total organic carbon) ratios represent increases in Hg loading. Therefore, this method may be able to differentiate between magmatic and other sources as triggers for the PETM and the general activity through time. Here we present new Hg and C data from selected cores around Europe and North America to assess the variability of Hg deposition across the PETM with geographic location. The results indicate that while there is a slight background increase in Hg deposition during the PETM, there is significant variability between cores and extreme peaks within individual sections. This suggests that the behaviour of the Hg cycle during the PETM

  17. Assessment of atmospheric trace metals in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. Van Zyl"


    Full Text Available Trace metal species emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources can cause various health-related and environmental problems. Limited data exist for atmospheric trace metal concentrations in South Africa, which has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of these mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, with the western limb being the most exploited. To partially address this knowledge gap, atmospheric trace metals were collected in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex at Marikana in the North West Province. Diurnal PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected for 1 year. A total of 27 trace metal species were determined. With the exception of Ni, none of the trace metals measured during the sampling period exceeded local or international air quality standard limit values. Total trace metal concentrations in the PM10 fraction peaked during the dry months and were regularly washed out during the wet season. A less significant seasonal trend was observed for the trace metal concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction; a finding attributed to a faster replenishment of smaller particles into the atmosphere after rain events. About 80% of the PM10 trace metal levels measured occurred in the PM2.5 fraction, while 40% or more of all metals emanated from the PM2.5 fraction. This finding indicated a strong influence of anthropogenic sources. Four meaningful emission sources were determined from explorative principal component factor analysis: crustal, vanadium related, base metal related and ferrochromium related, which correlated well with the anticipated atmospheric trace metal sources in the region.

  18. Igneous Consequence Modeling for the TSPA-SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John McCord


    The purpose of this technical report is to develop credible, defendable, substantiated models for the consequences of igneous activity for the TSPA-SR Model. The effort will build on the TSPA-VA and improve the quality of scenarios and depth of the technical basis underlying disruptive events modeling. Computational models for both volcanic eruptive releases (this is an event that results in ash containing waste being ejected from Yucca Mountain) and igneous intrusion groundwater releases (this is an event that reaches the repository level, impacts the waste packages, and produces releases from waste packages damaged by igneous activity) will be included directly in the TSPA calculations as part of the TSPA-SR Model. This Analysis Model Report (AMR) is limited to development of the conceptual models for these two scenarios. The mathematical implementation of these conceptual models will be done within the TSPA-SR Model. Thus, this AMR will not include any model results or sensitivity analyses. Calculation of any doses resulting from igneous releases will also be done within the TSPA-SR model, as will the probabilistic weighting of these doses. Calculation and analysis of the TSPA-SR Model results for igneous disruption are, therefore, outside the scope of this activity. The reason for not running the mathematical models as part of this AMR is that the models are integrated within the TSPA-SR model and, thus, any model simulations and the corresponding results are out of the scope of this AMR. The scope of this work as defined in the development plan (CRWMS M&O 2000j) involves using data that has been extracted from existing sources to design and support the TSPA-SR models for the transport of radionuclides following igneous disruption of the repository. The development plan states ''applications of the code in this analysis will be limited to testing of the code and sensitivity analyses during analysis design.'' In contrast to the development

  19. Occurrence and Origin of Andalusite in Peraluminous Felsic Igneous Rocks.


    Barrie Clarke, D.; Dorais, Michael; Barbarin, Bernard; Barker, Dan; Cesare, Bernardo; Clarke, Geoffrey; El Baghdadi, Mohamed; Erdmann, Saskia; FÖrster, Hans-JÜrgen; Gaeta, Mario; Gottesmann, BÄrbel; Jamieson, Rebecca,; Kontak, Daniel,; KOLLER, FRIEDRICH; Leal Gomes, Carlos


    Andalusite occurs as an accessory mineral in many types of peraluminous felsic igneous rocks, including rhyolites, aplites, granites, pegmatites, and anatectic migmatites. Some published stability curves for And = Sil and the water-saturated granite solidus permit a small stability field for andalusite in equilibrium with felsic melts. We examine 108 samples of andalusite-bearing felsic rocks from more than 40 localities world-wide. Our purpose is to determine the origin of andalusite, includ...

  20. Farmed Atlantic salmon: potential invader in the Pacific Northwest? (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson; Pete Bisson


    Commercial farming of Atlantic salmon in marine net-pens has become a booming industry. At present, approximately 130 salmon farms exist along the Pacific coast of North America. Most of these farms are in cold marine bays within British Columbia, where farmed salmon have become the province’s most valuable agricultural export. Each year, thousands of farmed Atlantic...

  1. Thermal history and long-term evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin, Kaoko belt, NW Namibia (United States)

    Menges, D. P.; Glasmacher, P. A.


    From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic the Kaoko belt in northwestern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Sequence, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana (Coward & Daly 1984), and the deposition of the Karoo Supergroup. The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks with ages of 534 (7) Ma to 481 (25) Ma (Miller 1983), as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183 (1) Ma (Duncan et al. 1997). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132 (1) Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (Stewart et al. 1996). The 'passive' continental margin in northern Namibia is a perfect location to quantify exhumation and uplift rates, model the long-term landscape evolution and provide information about the major processes controlling the landscape evolution in this region. The poster will present thermochronological data, t-T-models and exhumation rates for the Kaoko belt, NW Namibia. References Coward, M. P. and Daly, M. C., 1984. Crustal lineaments and shear zones in Africa: Their relationships to plate movements, Precambrian Research 24: 27-45. Duncan, R., Hooper, P., Rehacek, J., March, J. and Duncan, A., 1997. The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana, Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 18127-18138. Miller, R. M., 1983. Evolution of the Damara Orogen, Vol. 11, Geological Society, South Africa Spec. Pub.. Stewart, K. S., Turner, S., Kelly, S., Hawkesworth, C. J., Kirstein, L. and Mantovani, M. S. M., 1996. 3D 40Ar-39Ar geochronology in the Paraná continental flood basalt province, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 143: 95-110.

  2. First report of geophilid centipedes of the genus Ribautia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha) from the Atlantic Forest biome, with description of a new miniature species from Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina. (United States)

    Pereira, Luis Alberto


    Ribautia paranaensis sp. nov. a new miniature species of geophilid centipede from the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest (the westernmost of the fifteen ecoregions comprising the Atlantic Forest biome sensu Di Bitetti et al. 2003), is herein described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by having the coxal organs grouped in clusters (one of these in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment) and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs; these traits being shared by three other Neotropical members of the genus, i.e., R. combinata Pereira, Uliana & Minelli, 2006 (from the Amazonian rainforest of Peru), R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 (from the Yungas rainforest of Northwestern Argentina), and R. lewisi Pereira, 2013 (collected in a gallery forest in the Mesopotamian region, Northeastern Argentina). R. paranaensis sp. nov. represents the first report of Ribautia Brölemann, 1909 in the entire Atlantic Forest biome, and the third confirmed record of the taxon from Argentina.

  3. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot


    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  4. Opportunity potential matrix for Atlantic Canadians (United States)

    Greg Danchuk; Ed Thomson


    Opportunity for provision of Parks Service benefit to Atlantic Canadians was investigated by mapping travel behaviour into a matrix in terms of origin, season, purpose, distance, time, and destination. Findings identified potential for benefit in several activity areas, particularly within residents' own province.

  5. Petrology and geochemistry of igneous inclusions in recent Merapi deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P.; Troll, V.R.; Waight, Tod Earle


    Recent basaltic-andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant and varied igneous inclusions suggesting a complex sub-volcanic magmatic system for Merapi volcano. In order to better understand the processes occurring beneath Merapi, we have studied this suite of inclusions by petrography, ge...... of sedimentary material from the uppermost crust. The type of multi-chamber plumbing system envisaged contains large portions of crystal mush and provides ample opportunity to recycle the magmatic crystalline roots as well as interact with the surrounding host lithologies....

  6. Modelling of OBS Data Across the Vestbakken Volcanic Province


    Sørensen, Asude Arslan


    A P-Wave model of a 384 km long Ocean Bottom Seismometer profile has been modelled by use of ray-tracing. The profile, Bear Island South (BIS-2008), crossses the transtensional Vestbakken Volcanic Province and the boundary between northern Atlantic oceanic crust of the Barents Sea continental platform. This study is a part of the 4th International Polar Year (IPY) international project entitled The Dynamic Continental Margin Between the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge (Mohns Ridge, Knipovich Ridge)...

  7. Subsurface Structure of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa: An Application of Geophysics (United States)

    Vallejo, G.; Galindo, B. L.; Carranza, V.; Gomez, C. D.; Ortiz, K.; Castro, J. G.; Falzone, C.; Guandique, J.; Emry, E.; Webb, S. J.; Nyblade, A.


    South Africa is host to the largest single known platinum group metal supply in the world. The Bushveld Igneous Complex, spanning 300x400 kilometers, hosts hundreds of years' worth of platinum, chromite, vanadium, and other ore. Its wealth of these metals is tied directly to the large layered igneous intrusion that formed roughly 2061 million years ago. The extraction of platinum is vital to the industrial world - as these metals are widely used in the automotive industry, dental restorations, computer technology, in addition to many other applications. In collaboration with the Africa Array geophysics field school and the Penn State Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP), we surveyed the Modikwa mine located along the border of the provinces of Mpumalanga and Limpopo in South Africa. The following techniques were applied to survey the area of interest: seismic refraction and reflection, gravity, magnetics, electrical resistivity, and electromagnetics. The data collected were used to determine the depth to bedrock and to identify potential mining hazards from dykes and faults in the bedrock. Several areas were studied and with the combination of the above-mentioned methods several possible hazards were identified. One broad, major dyke that was located in a prior aeromagnetic survey and several previously undetected, parallel, minor dykes were identified in the region. The overburden thickness was determined to be ̴4-5 meters in some regions, and as thin as several centimeters in others. This section of rock and soil lies above an area where platinum will likely be mined in the future. The removal of overburden can be accomplished by using power shovels or scrapers; while remaining material can be contained with the use of galvanized steel culverts. Additionally, a number of joints were located that may have allowed water to accumulate underground. The models created from the data permit us to estimate which hazards could be present in different parts of the

  8. The nakhlite meteorites: Augite-rich igneous rocks from Mars (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.


    The seven nakhlite meteorites are augite-rich igneous rocks that formed in flows or shallow intrusions of basaltic magma on Mars. They consist of euhedral to subhedral crystals of augite and olivine (to 1 cm long) in fine-grained mesostases. The augite crystals have homogeneous cores of Mg' = 63% and rims that are normally zoned to iron enrichment. The core-rim zoning is cut by iron-enriched zones along fractures and is replaced locally by ferroan low-Ca pyroxene. The core compositions of the olivines vary inversely with the steepness of their rim zoning - sharp rim zoning goes with the most magnesian cores (Mg' = 42%), homogeneous olivines are the most ferroan. The olivine and augite crystals contain multiphase inclusions representing trapped magma. Among the olivine and augite crystals is mesostasis, composed principally of plagioclase and/or glass, with euhedra of titanomagnetite and many minor minerals. Olivine and mesostasis glass are partially replaced by veinlets and patches of iddingsite, a mixture of smectite clays, iron oxy-hydroxides and carbonate minerals. In the mesostasis are rare patches of a salt alteration assemblage: halite, siderite, and anhydrite/ gypsum. The nakhlites are little shocked, but have been affected chemically and biologically by their residence on Earth. Differences among the chemical compositions of the nakhlites can be ascribed mostly to different proportions of augite, olivine, and mesostasis. Compared to common basalts, they are rich in Ca, strongly depleted in Al, and enriched in magmaphile (incompatible) elements, including the LREE. Nakhlites contain little pre-terrestrial organic matter. Oxygen isotope ratios are not terrestrial, and are different in anhydrous silicates and in iddingsite. The alteration assemblages all have heavy oxygen and heavy carbon, while D/H values are extreme and scattered. Igneous sulfur had a solar-system isotopic ratio, but in most minerals was altered to higher and lower values. High precision

  9. Primary igneous rocks on Mars: Composition and distribution (United States)

    Singer, Robert B.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.


    The present knowledge of the crustal composition of Mars is synthesized and implications discussed for in-situ resource utilization. Sources of information include remote sensing observations, Viking XRF chemical measurements, and characteristics of the SNC meteorites (which most researchers now believe originated on Mars). There are a number of lines of evidence that abundant ferrous-iron rich igneous crustal rocks (and derivative soils) are available at or very near the current Martian surface at many locations on the planet. Most of these exposures show spectroscopic evidence for abundant pyroxene, consistent with basaltic compositions. The SNC meteorites, which have basaltic compositions, were also studied extensively. Interpretations of Mars crustal chemistry and mineralogy (petrology) based on these various sources are reviewed, and their consistencies and differences are discussed.

  10. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  11. The ca. 1380 Ma Mashak igneous event of the Southern Urals (United States)

    Puchkov, Victor N.; Bogdanova, Svetlana V.; Ernst, Richard E.; Kozlov, Vjacheslav I.; Krasnobaev, Arthur A.; Söderlund, Ulf; Wingate, Michael T. D.; Postnikov, Alexander V.; Sergeeva, Nina D.


    A review of the geochronology, geochemistry and distribution of the 1380 Ma Mashak Large Igneous Province (LIP) of the eastern margin of the East European craton indicates a potential link to a major breakup stage of the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent Columbia (Nuna), link to a major stratigraphic boundary (Lowe-Middle Riphean), and economic significance for hydrocarbons and metallogeny. Specifically, the Mashak event likely has much greater extent than previously realized. Two U-Pb baddeleyite (ID TIMS) age determinations on dolerite sills obtained from borehole (Menzelinsk-Aktanysh-183) confirm the western extent of the Mashak event into the crystalline basement of the East European Craton (1382 ± 2 Ma) and into the overlying Lower Riphean sediments (1391 ± 2 Ma), and the imprecise ages reported elsewhere indicate the possible extension into the Timan region, with an overall areal extent of more than 500,000 km2 (LIP scale). It has tholeiitic compositions and is associated with breakup on the eastern margin of the craton - in addition, precise SHRIMP zircon ages of 1386 ± 5 Ma and 1386 ± 6 Ma (this paper) provide confirmation of previous approximate 1380-1383 Ma zircon age determination of the same formation, and suggest an age of ca. 1.4 Ga for the Lower/Middle Riphean boundary which was formerly considered to be 1350 ± 10 Ma. Contemporaneous magmatic rocks in the northeastern Greenland part of Laurentia (Zig-Zag Dal and Midsommerso formations) and Siberia (Chieress dykes and other dolerites) together with the Mashak event are suggested to be fragments of a single huge LIP and to correspond to breakup stage of the Columbia (Nuna) supercontinent. The Mashak LIP also has some significance, at least in Volgo-Uralia, for hydrocarbons and metallogeny.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits—A review (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.


    Newly synthesized data indicate that the geochemistry of igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits varies extensively and continuously from subalkaline basaltic to rhyolitic compositions. Trace element and isotopic data for these rocks are consistent with subduction-related magmatism and suggest that the primary source magmas were generated by partial melting of the mantle-wedge above subducting oceanic slabs. Broad geochemical and petrographic diversity of individual igneous rock units associated with epithermal deposits indicate that the associated magmas evolved by open-system processes. Following migration to shallow crustal reservoirs, these magmas evolved by assimilation, recharge, and partial homogenization; these processes contribute to arc magmatism worldwide.Although epithermal deposits with the largest Au and Ag production are associated with felsic to intermediate composition igneous rocks, demonstrable relationships between magmas having any particular composition and epithermal deposit genesis are completely absent because the composition of igneous rock units associated with epithermal deposits ranges from basalt to rhyolite. Consequently, igneous rock compositions do not constitute effective exploration criteria with respect to identification of terranes prospective for epithermal deposit formation. However, the close spatial and temporal association of igneous rocks and epithermal deposits does suggest a mutual genetic relationship. Igneous systems likely contribute heat and some of the fluids and metals involved in epithermal deposit formation. Accordingly, deposit formation requires optimization of source metal contents, appropriate fluid compositions and characteristics, structural features conducive to hydrothermal fluid flow and confinement, and receptive host rocks, but not magmas with special compositional characteristics.

  13. Evolution of the martian mantle as recorded by igneous rocks (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.


    Martian igneous rocks provide our best window into the current state of the martian mantle and its evolution after accretion and differentiation. Currently, those rocks have been examined in situ by rovers, characterized in general from orbiting spacecraft, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories when found as meteorites. However, these data have the potential to bias our understanding of martian magmatism, as most of the available meteorites and rover-analyzed rocks come from the Amazonian (3.8 Ga) have only been examined by orbiters and as the unique meteorite ALH 84001. After initial differentiation, the main planetary-scale changes in the structure of Mars which impact igneous compositions are cooling of the planet and thickening of the crust with time. As the shergottite meteorites give ages Ma1, they might be expected to represent thick-crust, recent volcanism. Using spacecraft measurements of volcanic compositions and whole rock compositions of meteorites, we demonstrate that the shergottite meteorites do not match the composition of the igneous rocks composing the young volcanoes on Mars, particularly in their silica content, and no crystallization or crustal contamination trend reproduces the volcanoes from a shergottite-like parent magma. However, we show that the shergottite magmas do resemble older martian rocks in composition and mineralogy. The Noachian-aged meteorite ALH 84001 has similar radiogenic-element signatures to the shergottites and may derive from a similar mantle source despite the age difference2. Thus, shergottite-like magmas may represent melting of mantle sources that were much more abundant early in martian history. We propose that the shergottites represent the melting products of an originally-hydrous martian mantle, containing at least several hundred ppm H2O. Dissolved water can increase the silica content of magmas and thus plausibly explains the high silica content of the shergottites. A dehydrating martian mantle with time can


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot


    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  15. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; B. Youngs


    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M&O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M&O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The calculations for both

  16. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.


    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  17. Development and application of a density dependent matrix population model for Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) (United States)

    Ranging along the Atlantic coast from US Florida to the Maritime Provinces of Canada, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an important and well-studied model organism for understanding the effects of pollutants and other stressors in estuarine and marine ecosystems....

  18. PETROS - Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PETROS is a worldwide data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes by Dr. Felix Mutschler and Staff at...

  19. Recrystallized Impact Glasses of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Sudbury Structure, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Dressler, B. O.; Weiser, T.; Brockmeyer, P.


    The origin of the Sudbury Structure and of the associated heterolithic breccias of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex have been controversial. While an impact origin of the structure has gained wide acceptance over the last 15 years, the origin of the recrystallized Onaping Formation glasses and of the igneous complex is still being debated. Recently the interpretation of the breccias of the Onaping Formation as suevitic fall-back impact breccias has been challenged. The igneous complex is interpreted either as a differentiated impact melt sheet or as a combination of an upper impact melt represented by the granophyre, and a lower, impact-triggered magmatic body consisting of the norite-sublayer formations. The Onaping Formation contains glasses as fluidal and nonfluidal fragments of various shapes and sizes. They are recrystallized, and our research indicates that they are petrographically heterogeneous and span a wide range of chemical compositions. These characteristics are not known from glasses of volcanic deposits. This suggests an origin by shock vitrification, an interpretation consistent with their association with numerous and varied country rock clasts that exhibit microscopic shock metamorphic features. The recrystallized glass fragments represent individual solid-state and liquid-state vitrified rocks or relatively small melt pods. The basal member lies beneath the Gray and Black members of the Onaping Formation and, where not metamorphic, has an igneous matrix. Igneous-textured melt bodies occur in the upper two members and above the Basal Member. A comparison of the chemical compositions of recrystallized glasses and of the matrices of the Basal Member and the melt bodies with the components and the bulk composition of the igneous complex is inconclusive as to the origin of the igneous complex. Basal Member matrix and Melt Bodies, on average, are chemically similar to the granophyre of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, suggesting that

  20. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic igneous activity in the Netherlands: a tectonomagmatic review


    Sissingh, W.


    To date, igneous rocks, either intrusive or extrusive, have been encountered in the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary series of the Netherlands in some 65 exploration and production wells. Following 17 new isotopic K/Ar age determinations of the recovered rock material (amounting to a total of 28 isotopic ages from 21 different wells), analysis of the stratigraphy distribution of the penetrated igneous rock bodies showed that the timing of their emplacement was importantly controlled by orogeni...

  1. Petrologic Significance of Multiple Magmas in the Quottoon Igneous Complex, NW British Columbia and SE Alaska


    Thomas, Jay Bradley Jr.


    The quartz dioritic Quottoon Igneous Complex (QIC) is a major Paleogene (65-56 Ma) magmatic body in NW British Columbia and SE Alaska that was emplaced along the Coast shear zone (CSZ). The QIC contains two different igneous suites that provide information about source regions, magmatic processes and evolving tectonic regimes that changed from a dominantly convergent to a dominantly strike-slip regime between 65 to 55 Ma. Heterogeneous suite I rocks (e. g. along Steamer Passage) have a perv...

  2. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; R. Youngs


    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance.

  3. Thermal history and evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in northern Namibia (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton


    From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic northern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Orogen, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana and eastern margin of Africa (Coward and Daly 1984, Daly et al. 1991), and the deposition of the Nama Group sediments and the Karoo megasequence. The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks with ages of 534 (7) Ma to 481 (25) Ma (Miller 1983, Haack 1983), as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183 (1) Ma (Duncan et al. 1997). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132 (1) Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (Renne et al. 1992, Milner et al. 1995, Stewart et al. 1996, Turner et al. 1996). The "passive" continental margin in northern Namibia is a perfect location to quantify exhumation and uplift rates, model the long-term landscape evolution and provide information on the influence of mantle processes on a longer time scale. The poster will provide first information on the long-term landscape evolution and thermochronological data. References Coward, M. P. and Daly, M. C., 1984. Crustal lineaments and shear zones in Africa: Their relationships to plate movements, Precambrian Research 24: 27-45. Duncan, R., Hooper, P., Rehacek, J., March, J. and Duncan, A. (1997). The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana, Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 18127-18138. Haack, U., 1983. Reconstruction of the cooling history of the Damara Orogen by correlation of radiometric ages with geography and altitude, in H. Martin and F. W. Eder (eds), Intracontinental fold belts, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 837-884. Miller, R. M., 1983. Evolution of the Damara Orogen, Vol. 11, Geological Society, South Africa Spec. Pub.. Milner, S. C., le Roex, A. P. and O'Connor, J. M., 1995. Age of Mesozoic igneous rocks in

  4. Petrology of the Betulia Igneous Complex, Cauca, Colombia (United States)

    Gil-Rodriguez, Javier


    The Betulia Igneous Complex (BIC) is a group of Late-Miocene (11.8 ± 0.2 Ma) hypabyssal intrusions of intermediate to felsic composition located in the SW of the Colombian Andes. These bodies have a calc-alkaline tendency and are related to the subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate. Diorites, quartz diorites and tonalities have porphyritic and phaneritic textures and are composed of plagioclase, amphibole, quartz, biotite, and orthoclase. Plagioclase is mainly of andesine-type and the amphiboles were classified mainly as magnesiohornblendes, actinolites, and tschermakites. BIC rocks have a narrow range of SiO2 content (59-67wt%) and exhibit an enrichment of LILE and LREE relative to HFSE and HREE, respectively. These features are attributed to enrichment of LILE from the source and retention of HFSE (mainly Nb, Ta, and Ti) by refractory phases within the same source. The depletion of HREE is explained by fractionation of mineral phases that have a high partition coefficients for these elements, especially amphiboles, the major mafic phase in the rocks. Nevertheless, the fractionation of garnet in early stages of crystallization is not unlikely. Probably all BIC units were generated by the same magma chamber or at least by the same petrologic mechanism as shown by the similar patterns in spider and REE diagrams; fractional crystallization and differentiation processes controlled the final composition of the rocks, and crystallization stages determined the texture. Isotopic compositions of BIC rocks (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70435-0.70511; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51258-0.51280; 206Pb/204Pb: 19.13-19.31; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.67-15.76; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.93-39.20) indicate a source derived from the mantle with crustal contamination. The model proposed for the BIC consists of fluids from the dehydration of the subducted slab (Nazca plate) and subducted sediments that generated partial melting of the mantle wedge. These basaltic melts ascended to the mantle-crust boundary

  5. Periodicities in the emplacement of large igneous provinces through the Phanerozoic: Relations to ocean chemistry and marine biodiversity evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreas Prokoph Hafida E1 Bilali Richard Ernst


    ... and the Phanerozoic marine genera record. We suggest a mantle plume cyclicity represented by LIP volumes (V) of V= (350-770) × 103km3sin(27πt/ 170 Ma)+ (300-650)× 103 km3 sin(2πt/64.5 Ma + 2.3) for t= time...

  6. Intense and widespread seismicity during the end-Triassic mass extinction due to emplacement of a large igneous province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, Sofie; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Van De Schootbrugge, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376758562; Hansen, Katrine Hovedskov; Kuhlmann, Natascha; Thein, Jean; Johansson, Leif; Petersen, Henrik Ingermann; Alwmark, Carl; Dybkjær, Karen; Weibel, Rikke; Erlström, Mikael; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Tegner, Christian


    Multiple levels of earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations (seismites) are concentrated in the end-Triassic mass extinction interval across Europe. The repetitive nature of the seismites rules out an origin by an extraterrestrial impact. Instead, this intense seismic activity is linked to the

  7. Intense and widespread seismicity during the end-Triassic mass extinction due to emplacement of a large igneous province

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Sofie; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Schootbrugge, Bas van de


    Multiple levels of earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations (seismites) are concentrated in the end-Triassic mass extinction interval across Europe. The repetitive nature of the seismites rules out an origin by an extraterrestrial impact. Instead, this intense seismic activity is linked...

  8. Geochemical stratigraphy and correlation within large igneous provinces: The final preserved stages of the Faroe Islands Basalt Group (United States)

    Millett, J. M.; Hole, M. J.; Jolley, D. W.; Passey, S. R.


    The Faroe Islands Basalt Group (FIBG) comprises a gross stratigraphic thickness of over 6.5 km of dominantly extrusive basaltic facies erupted during the Late Palaeocene to Early Eocene. In this study we present 140 major and trace element analyses from flow by flow field and borehole sample profiles, through the Enni Formation, which comprises the final phase of volcanism preserved on the Faroe Islands. The sample profiles target geographically spaced and overlapping stratigraphic sequences tied relative to a 3D ArcGIS surface for the regionally extensive volcaniclastic Argir Beds marker unit. From these profiles five geochemical groups including one low TiO2 (Low-Ti 1.5 wt%) groups differentiated by Nb, Zr, Y and V variations are identified in conjunction with previous studies. The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of these groups is mapped across the islands and demonstrates a complex inter-digitated flow field evolution. Within the finer scale variations, broad spatial and temporal development trends are identified demonstrating the potential for correlation within the volcanic succession at the local, tens of kilometers scale. Low-Ti lavas formed in association with lithospheric thinning and developed extensive flow fields between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland contemporaneous to the eruption of High-Ti smaller melt fraction lava flows in both locations. The progression of High-Ti lava groups preserved on either side of the developing rift zone is very similar, but is not, however, chronostratigraphic due to multiple inter-digitations of the chemical types. We tentatively suggest that a previously proposed rift-oblique transfer zone between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland enabled non-uniform lithospheric thinning and the preservation of a near-continuous High-Ti melting region between these areas beyond the onset of Low-Ti eruptions which were initially fed from the west. This study highlights the complex nature of late stage flood basalt plumbing systems and eruption dynamics in a rift proximal setting.

  9. Constructing the volcanic architecture of Kalkarindji, an ancient flood basalt province, using a multidisciplinary approach (United States)

    Marshall, P.; Widdowson, M.; Kelley, S. P.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Murphy, D. T.


    The Kalkarindji Continental Flood Basalt Province (CFBP) is the oldest igneous province in the Phanerozoic. Erupted in the mid-Cambrian (505-510 Ma) [1], it is estimated volumes of lava up to 1.5 x 105 km3could have been erupted, making this similar in size to the better known Columbia River Basalts, USA. Relatively little is known about the province, due in part to its remote location, though large swathes remain well preserved (c. 50,000 km2). This study, based on rigorous field investigations, utilises 4 different analytical techniques to construct a volcanic architecture for the Kalkarindji basalts, drawing together these complimentary datasets to generate a series of detailed stratigraphies from around the province. Mineralogy and petrography form the basis while geochemical data aides in defining lava flow stratigraphies and distinguishing individual flow packages in disparate locations around the province. 40Ar/39Ar dating of key stratigraphic marker horizons support stratigraphical correlation across the province whilst the use of palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy has allowed for correlation on a broader scale. Indications from this study point towards an unusual eruption among CFBPs in the Phanerozoic; a lack of tumescence, immediate subsidence of the lava pile following cessation of eruption; and, in the main sub-province, we map a simple volcanic structure thinning to the east from a single source. 1. L. M. Glass, D. Phillips, (2006). Geology. 34, 461-464.

  10. Petrogenesis of Igneous-Textured Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034 (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Shearer, C. K.


    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa 7034 (and pairings) is a breccia that samples a variety of materials from the martian crust. Several previous studies have identified multiple types of igneous-textured clasts within the breccia [1-3], and these clasts have the potential to provide insight into the igneous evolution of Mars. One challenge presented by studying these small rock fragments is the lack of field context for this breccia (i.e., where on Mars it formed), so we do not know how many sources these small rock fragments are derived from or the exact formation his-tory of these sources (i.e., are the sources mantle de-rived melt or melts contaminated by a meteorite impactor on Mars). Our goal in this study is to examine specific igneous-textured clast groups to determine if they are petrogenetically related (i.e., from the same igneous source) and determine more information about their formation history, then use them to derive new insights about the igneous history of Mars. We will focus on the basalt clasts, FTP clasts (named due to their high concentration of iron, titanium, and phosphorous), and mineral fragments described by [1] (Fig. 1). We will examine these materials for evidence of impactor contamination (as proposed for some materials by [2]) or mantle melt derivation. We will also test the petrogenetic models proposed in [1], which are igneous processes that could have occurred regardless of where the melt parental to the clasts was formed. These models include 1) derivation of the FTP clasts from a basalt clast melt through silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI), 2) derivation of the FTP clasts from a basalt clast melt through fractional crystallization, and 3) a lack of petrogenetic relationship between these clast groups. The relationship between the clast groups and the mineral fragments will also be explored.

  11. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  12. South Atlantic Shrimp System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  13. Classification scheme for sedimentary and igneous rocks in Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Mangold, N.; Schmidt, M. E.; Fisk, M. R.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. W.; Sautter, V.; Sumner, D.; Williams, A. J.; Clegg, S. M.; Cousin, A.; Gasnault, O.; Gellert, R.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Wiens, R. C.


    Rocks analyzed by the Curiosity rover in Gale crater include a variety of clastic sedimentary rocks and igneous float rocks transported by fluvial and impact processes. To facilitate the discussion of the range of lithologies, we present in this article a petrological classification framework adapting terrestrial classification schemes to Mars compositions (such as Fe abundances typically higher than for comparable lithologies on Earth), to specific Curiosity observations (such as common alkali-rich rocks), and to the capabilities of the rover instruments. Mineralogy was acquired only locally for a few drilled rocks, and so it does not suffice as a systematic classification tool, in contrast to classical terrestrial rock classification. The core of this classification involves (1) the characterization of rock texture as sedimentary, igneous or undefined according to grain/crystal sizes and shapes using imaging from the ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) and Mastcam instruments, and (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers based on the abundances of Fe, Si, alkali, and S determined by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and ChemCam instruments. The aims are to help understand Gale crater geology by highlighting the various categories of rocks analyzed by the rover. Several implications are proposed from the cross-comparisons of rocks of various texture and composition, for instance between in place outcrops and float rocks. All outcrops analyzed by the rover are sedimentary; no igneous outcrops have been observed. However, some igneous rocks are clasts in conglomerates, suggesting that part of them are derived from the crater rim. The compositions of in-place sedimentary rocks contrast significantly with the compositions of igneous float rocks. While some of the differences between sedimentary rocks and igneous floats may be related to physical sorting and diagenesis of the sediments, some of the sedimentary rocks (e

  14. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwal, L.D. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA)); Wooden, J.L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))


    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km{sup 2} body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An{sub 60-70}) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo{sub 70-80}. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2,377 {plus minus} 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2,185 {plus minus} 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2,165 {plus minus} 130 Ma and 2,100 {plus minus} 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. Initial isotopic ratios for the River Valley pluton correspond to single-stage model parameters of {mu} = 8.06, {epsilon}{sub Nd} = O to {minus}3, and I{sub Sr} = 0.7015 to 0.7021. Collectively, these suggest either an enriched mantle source or crustal contamination of a mantle-derived magma. The crustal component involved must have been older and more radiogenic than the majority of rocks exposed at the surface in the nearby Superior Province.

  15. Major Paleostress Field Differences on Complementary Margins of the South Atlantic (United States)

    Salomon, E.; Koehn, D.; Passchier, C. W.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Glasmacher, P. A.


    We present a detailed study of paleostress fields of the Namibian and Brazilian passive continental margins of the South Atlantic to address a general debate on whether or not these complementary margins experienced similar tectonic histories (e.g. Cobbold et al., 2001; Al-Hajri et al., 2009; Japsen et al., 2012). In our study, we compare the NW of Namibia and the SE of Brazil with each other. These areas are largely covered by the flood basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka-Large Igneous Province overlying Neo-Proterozoic basement of the Pan-African orogeny. With an age of ~133 Ma the basalts were emplaced just before or during the onset of the South Atlantic opening and thus serve as a good time marker for rift- and post-rift-related tectonics. We studied mainly fault planes and associated striations within the flood basalts and compared the resulting stress patterns of both margins. Results reveal remarkable differences in the stress patterns for SE Brazil and NW Namibia. In NW Namibia, a WSW-ENE directed extensional stress field dominates and fits well with extension of the original continental rift and the passive margin. A second extensional stress field (σ3 SSW oriented) and a strike-slip system (σ1 NW oriented) appear only subdued. In contrast, the SE of Brazil is mainly characterized by two strike-slip systems (σ1 oriented SW and E, respectively) whereas an extensional stress field is almost non-existent. The strike-slip faulting of the Brazilian study area occur widespread across SE Brazil as they are also evident in other paleostress studies of the region and might thus be the result of far-field stresses. Margin-parallel faults are scarce, so it appears that rift-related extension was restricted to a narrower strip along the continent-ocean boundary, now lying offshore. In NW Namibia, the faults of the extensional stress regime run parallel to the sub-margin-parallel basement structure (i.e. shear zones and foliation) and hence indicate a reactivation of

  16. Suministro eléctrico y desarrollo turístico en la costa atlántica de la provincia de Buenos Aires (2003-2015. Articulaciones e impactos (Electricity supply and touristic development in the atlantic coast of Buenos Aires province (2003-2015. Articulations and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Furlan


    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo busca comprender la articulación del suministro eléctrico en el espacio turístico de la costa atlántica de la provincia de Buenos Aires en el período 2003-2015. La investigación se inscribe en la perspectiva latinoamericana de estudio de los servicios de infraestructura, es decir, en contextos de capitalismo periférico y urbanización dependiente. Se interpreta la relación situada entre suministro eléctrico y desarrollo turístico como una manifestación local del desarrollo económico y territorial argentino, cuyas directrices subyacen en los patrones de acumulación que se formalizan a partir de 2003, sobreconstruida en la estructura espacial preexistente. Los impactos analizados se ordenan en tres categorías de procesos: estacionalidad de la demanda eléctrica, crecimiento urbano y gestión de la escasez de oferta. La recolección y el análisis de datos combinan revisión documental, descripción estadística y entrevistas a informantes calificados. Se concluye que el entendimiento del desarrollo y el funcionamiento del sistema de suministro eléctrico y de sus relaciones constitutivas ganan riqueza con la integración de una perspectiva geográfica. ABSTRACT The article seeks to understand the articulation of power supply in the tourist space of the Atlantic coast of the province of Buenos Aires between 2003-2015. The research is part of the Latin American perspective of the study of infrastructure services, that is, in contexts of peripheral capitalism and dependent urbanization. The relationship between tourist development and electric-supply is interpreted as a local manifestation of the economic and territorial national development and whose underlying guidelines of accumulation patterns are formalized since 2003, but overbuilt in the existing spatial structure. The impacts analyzed are sorted into three categories: seasonality of electricity demand, urban growth and management of supply shortages. The

  17. FeO and MgO in plagioclase of lunar anorthosites: Igneous or metamorphic? (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.


    The combined evidence from terrestrial anorthosites and experimental laboratory studies strongly implies that lunar anorthosites have been subjected to high-grade metamorphic events that have erased the igneous signatures of FeO and MgO in their plagioclases. Arguments to the contrary have, to this point, been more hopeful than rigorous.

  18. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic igneous activity in the Netherlands: a tectonomagmatic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    To date, igneous rocks, either intrusive or extrusive, have been encountered in the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary series of the Netherlands in some 65 exploration and production wells. Following 17 new isotopic K/Ar age determinations of the recovered rock material (amounting to a total of 28

  19. Petrografic description of some igneous rocks from the Cordillera of South Mendoza, in the Argentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.


    Comparatively little is yet known of the intricate igneous history of the Cordillera of South Mendoza. Almost all the knowledge we have is due to the field- and stratigraphical work of Dr. H. Gerth of Leiden (bibl. 1 and 2), and the petrographic studies of Dr. H. G. Backlund (bibl. 3 and 4) on the

  20. Pyroxenes from iron-rich igneous rocks in Rogaland, SW. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M.


    An igneous complex, consisting of several anorthosite massifs and the layered intrusion(lopolith) of Bjerkreim-Sokndal, is surrounded by high-grade metamorphic sveconorwegian migmatites. The upper part of the lopolith or (quartz-)monzonitic phase(QfW) consists of iron-rich pyroxene monzonites

  1. Pyroxenes from iron-rich igneous rocks in Rogaland, SW. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M.


    An igneous complex, consisting of several anorthosite massifs and the layered intrusion(lopolith) of Bjerkreim-Sokndal, is surrounded by high-grade metamorphic sveconorwegian migmatites. The upper part of the lopolith or (quartz-)monzonitic phase(QfW) consists of iron-rich pyroxene monzonites and

  2. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.


    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  3. Continental igneous rock composition: A major control of past global chemical weathering. (United States)

    Bataille, Clément P; Willis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Xiao-Ming


    The composition of igneous rocks in the continental crust has changed throughout Earth's history. However, the impact of these compositional variations on chemical weathering, and by extension on seawater and atmosphere evolution, is largely unknown. We use the strontium isotope ratio in seawater [((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater] as a proxy for chemical weathering, and we test the sensitivity of ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations to the strontium isotopic composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in igneous rocks generated through time. We demonstrate that the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio in igneous rocks is correlated to the epsilon hafnium (εHf) of their hosted zircon grains, and we use the detrital zircon record to reconstruct the evolution of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio in zircon-bearing igneous rocks. The reconstructed (87)Sr/(86)Sr variations in igneous rocks are strongly correlated with the ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations over the last 1000 million years, suggesting a direct control of the isotopic composition of silicic magmatism on ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations. The correlation decreases during several time periods, likely reflecting changes in the chemical weathering rate associated with paleogeographic, climatic, or tectonic events. We argue that for most of the last 1000 million years, the ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations are responding to changes in the isotopic composition of silicic magmatism rather than to changes in the global chemical weathering rate. We conclude that the ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations are of limited utility to reconstruct changes in the global chemical weathering rate in deep times.

  4. Analysis of Influence Factors on Nuclear magnetic Resonance Measurement and Correction Method in Igneous Rocks (United States)

    Tan, M.


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging has significant advantages in reservoir identification, fluid typing, and calculation of porosity and permeability in sedimentary rocks. However, NMR well logging porosity was badly underestimated, which limited the application of NMR logging technology. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the influence factors on NMR measurement and study the correction method and logging interpretation model in igneous rocks. Based on the characteristics of igneous rocks, influence factors are investigated from two aspects of NMR experimental and theoretical perspective. The laboratory analysis indicates that the relative error between NMR porosity and core porosity generally increases from acid tuff and rhyolite, intermediate andesite and granite-porphyry, and falic basalt. Moreover, NMR porosity relative error increases with paramagnetic substance such as iron, manganese and nickel concentrations increasing. Theoretically, NMR relaxation mechanism indicates that the magnetic susceptibility leads to additional internal magnetic field gradient, which makes T2relaxation distribution shift forward and the porosity relative error also generally increases with the magnetic susceptibility rising. Therefore, the paramagnetic substance and high magnetic susceptibility lead to the NMR porosity underestimation. How to correct the NMR measurement in igneous rocks is another key problem. In view of the above analysis, the empirical formula of NMR porosity correction was built based on paramagnetic element content by using multiple regression. Moreover, we considered the influences of diffusion relaxation and improved the inversion algorithm, and the T2distribution was subsequently corrected. The simulation experiment proves the correction method effective. In case study, NMR logging data was reprocessed by this new method, and the NMR porosity and permeability match well with core laboratory measurements, and the corrected T2 distributions shift

  5. Cenozoic Deformation History of Asia and its Relationship to Igneous Activities (United States)

    Yin, A.


    intracontinental shortening across the Tian Shan thrust belt at about 25-20 Ma. A compilation of Cenozoic intraplate volcanic activities in Asia shows that all major igneous provinces have been active since the beginning of the Cenozoic, regardless of variation of plate boundary conditions along the Asian margins. However, a prominent east-trending amagmatic belt about 700-km wide and 3000-km long stretches from Goni Altain of western Siberia in the west to the Sichuan basin in the east. This belt is associated with Precambrian cratons and Paleozoic orogenic systems. In contrast, all major Cenozoic volcanic fields can be correlated with Mesozoic arcs and sutures, implying that Mesozoic tectonics, particularly late Cretaceous arc magmatism, still exerts significant effects on the thermal state of Asian lithosphere.

  6. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces (United States)

    Guild, P.W.


    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  7. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California (United States)

    Nolan, Thomas B.


    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  8. Precise U-Pb Zircon Dating of the Syenite Phase from the Ditrau Alkaline Igneous Complex

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    Pană Dinu


    Full Text Available The Ditrău igneous complex represents the largest alkaline intrusion in the Carpathian-Pannonian region consisting of a plethora of rock types formed by complicated magmatic and metasomatic processes. A detailed U-Pb zircon age study is currently underway and the results for the syenite intrusion phase is reported herein. The U-Pb zircon emplacement age of the syenite of 229.6 +1.7/-1.2 Ma documents the quasi-contemporaneous production and emplacement of the gabbro and syenite magmas. We suggest that the syenite and associated granite formed by crustal melting during the emplacement of the mantle derived gabbroic magma around 230 Ma. The thermal contact aureole produced by the Ditrău alkaline igneous complex constrains the main tectonism recorded by surrounding metamorphic lithotectonic assemblages to be pre-Ladinian.

  9. Pore Distribution Characteristics of the Igneous Reservoirs in the Eastern Sag of the Liaohe Depression (United States)

    Zongli, Liu; Zhuwen, Wang; Dapeng, Zhou; Shuqin, Zhao; Min, Xiang


    In the Es3 formation (third section of the Shahejie) of the Eastern sag section of the Liaohe Depression, basalt and trachyte are predominant in the igneous rock. The reservoir consists of complex reservoir space types. Based on the porosity bins of nuclear magnetic logging and the porosity distribution of electric imaging logging, the pores' sizes and distribution, as well as the mutual connectivity of the reservoir, were analyzed. Also, the characteristics of the different reservoirs were summarized. In regards to the oil reservoirs, large pores (PS>10) were found to account for the majority of the reservoir spaces, and the pore distribution was concentrated and well connected. However, for the poor oil reservoirs, the large and small pores were found to alternate, and the pore distribution was scattered and poorly connected. Within the dry layers, the smaller pores (PS<10) were predominant. The pore distributions were found to be influenced by lithology, facies, and tectonism. The reservoirs of the pyroclastic flow of the explosive facies had good connectivity, and the interlayer heterogeneity was relatively weak. This reservoir's pore distributions were found to be mainly dominated by the larger pores (PS10-PS13), which displayed a concentrated distribution mainly in one porosity bin. Therefore, it was taken as a favorable facie belt in the eastern sag of the Liaohe Depression. The examination of the pore distribution characteristics of the igneous rock was the key to the evaluation of the properties and effectiveness of the igneous reservoirs in this study, which potentially has great significance to the future exploration and development of igneous rock.

  10. Pore Distribution Characteristics of the Igneous Reservoirs in the Eastern Sag of the Liaohe Depression


    Zongli Liu; Zhuwen Wang; Dapeng Zhou; Shuqin Zhao; Min Xiang


    In the Es3 formation (third section of the Shahejie) of the Eastern sag section of the Liaohe Depression, basalt and trachyte are predominant in the igneous rock. The reservoir consists of complex reservoir space types. Based on the porosity bins of nuclear magnetic logging and the porosity distribution of electric imaging logging, the pores’ sizes and distribution, as well as the mutual connectivity of the reservoir, were analyzed. Also, the characteristics of the different reservoirs were s...

  11. Pore Distribution Characteristics of the Igneous Reservoirs in the Eastern Sag of the Liaohe Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongli Liu


    Full Text Available In the Es3 formation (third section of the Shahejie of the Eastern sag section of the Liaohe Depression, basalt and trachyte are predominant in the igneous rock. The reservoir consists of complex reservoir space types. Based on the porosity bins of nuclear magnetic logging and the porosity distribution of electric imaging logging, the pores’ sizes and distribution, as well as the mutual connectivity of the reservoir, were analyzed. Also, the characteristics of the different reservoirs were summarized. In regards to the oil reservoirs, large pores (PS>10 were found to account for the majority of the reservoir spaces, and the pore distribution was concentrated and well connected. However, for the poor oil reservoirs, the large and small pores were found to alternate, and the pore distribution was scattered and poorly connected. Within the dry layers, the smaller pores (PS<10 were predominant. The pore distributions were found to be influenced by lithology, facies, and tectonism. The reservoirs of the pyroclastic flow of the explosive facies had good connectivity, and the interlayer heterogeneity was relatively weak. This reservoir’s pore distributions were found to be mainly dominated by the larger pores (PS10-PS13, which displayed a concentrated distribution mainly in one porosity bin. Therefore, it was taken as a favorable facie belt in the eastern sag of the Liaohe Depression. The examination of the pore distribution characteristics of the igneous rock was the key to the evaluation of the properties and effectiveness of the igneous reservoirs in this study, which potentially has great significance to the future exploration and development of igneous rock.

  12. Igpet software for modeling igneous processes: examples of application using the open educational version (United States)

    Carr, Michael J.; Gazel, Esteban


    We provide here an open version of Igpet software, called t-Igpet to emphasize its application for teaching and research in forward modeling of igneous geochemistry. There are three programs, a norm utility, a petrologic mixing program using least squares and Igpet, a graphics program that includes many forms of numerical modeling. Igpet is a multifaceted tool that provides the following basic capabilities: igneous rock identification using the IUGS (International Union of Geological Sciences) classification and several supplementary diagrams; tectonic discrimination diagrams; pseudo-quaternary projections; least squares fitting of lines, polynomials and hyperbolae; magma mixing using two endmembers, histograms, x-y plots, ternary plots and spider-diagrams. The advanced capabilities of Igpet are multi-element mixing and magma evolution modeling. Mixing models are particularly useful for understanding the isotopic variations in rock suites that evolved by mixing different sources. The important melting models include, batch melting, fractional melting and aggregated fractional melting. Crystallization models include equilibrium and fractional crystallization and AFC (assimilation and fractional crystallization). Theses, reports and proposals concerning igneous petrology are improved by numerical modeling. For reviewed publications some elements of modeling are practically a requirement. Our intention in providing this software is to facilitate improved communication and lower entry barriers to research, especially for students.

  13. Classification Scheme for Diverse Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks Encountered by MSL in Gale Crater (United States)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D. W.; Sumner, D.; Sautter, V.; Williams, A. J.; Gellert, R.


    The Curiosity Rover landed in a lithologically and geochemically diverse region of Mars. We present a recommended rock classification framework based on terrestrial schemes, and adapted for the imaging and analytical capabilities of MSL as well as for rock types distinctive to Mars (e.g., high Fe sediments). After interpreting rock origin from textures, i.e., sedimentary (clastic, bedded), igneous (porphyritic, glassy), or unknown, the overall classification procedure (Fig 1) involves: (1) the characterization of rock type according to grain size and texture; (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers according to Figs 3 and 4; and if applicable, in depth study of (3) mineralogy and (4) geologic/stratigraphic context. Sedimentary rock types are assigned by measuring grains in the best available resolution image (Table 1) and classifying according to the coarsest resolvable grains as conglomerate/breccia, (coarse, medium, or fine) sandstone, silt-stone, or mudstone. If grains are not resolvable in MAHLI images, grains in the rock are assumed to be silt sized or smaller than surface dust particles. Rocks with low color contrast contrast between grains (e.g., Dismal Lakes, sol 304) are classified according to minimum size of apparent grains from surface roughness or shadows outlining apparent grains. Igneous rocks are described as intrusive or extrusive depending on crystal size and fabric. Igneous textures may be described as granular, porphyritic, phaneritic, aphyric, or glassy depending on crystal size. Further descriptors may include terms such as vesicular or cumulate textures.

  14. Zirconium and hafnium in the southeastern Atlantic States (United States)

    Mertie, J.B.


    The principal source of zirconium and hafnium is zircon, though a minor source is baddeleyite, mined only in Brazil. Zircon is an accessory mineral in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, but rarely occurs in hardrock in minable quantities. The principal sources of zircon are therefore alluvial deposits, which are mined in many countries of five continents. The principal commercial deposits in the United States are in Florida, though others exist elsewhere in the southeastern Coastal Plain. The evidence indicates that conditions for the accumulation of workable deposits of heavy minerals were more favorable during the interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch than during Recent time. Therefore detrital ores of large volume and high tenor are more likely to be found in the terrace deposits than along the present beaches. Other concentrations of heavy minerals, however, are possible at favored sites close to the Fall Line where the Tuscaloosa formation rests upon the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. A score of heavy and semiheavy minerals occur in the detrital deposits of Florida, but the principal salable minerals are ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, and zircon, though monazite and staurolite are saved at some mining plants. Commercial deposits of heavy minerals are generally required to have a tenor of 4 percent, though ores with a lower tenor can be mined at a profit if the content of monazite is notably high. The percentages of zircon in the concentrates ranges from 10 to 16 percent, and in eastern Florida from 13 to 15 percent. Thus the tenor in zircon of the ore-bearing sands ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 percent. The content of hafnium in zircon is immaterial for many uses, but for some purposes very high or very low tenors in hafnium are required. Alluvial zircon cannot be separated into such varieties, which, if needed, must be obtained from sources in bedrock. It thus becomes necessary to determine the Hf : Zr ratios in zircon from many kinds of

  15. Association between Diet Quality and Adiposity in the Atlantic PATH Cohort

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    Vanessa DeClercq


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine diet quality among participants in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH cohort and to assess the association with adiposity. Data were collected from participants (n = 23,768 aged 35–69 years that were residents of the Atlantic Canadian provinces. Both measured and self-reported data were used to examine adiposity (including body mass index (BMI, abdominal obesity, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass and food frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet quality. Overall, diet quality was statistically different among provinces. Of concern, participants across all the provinces reported consuming only 1–2 servings of vegetables and 1–2 servings fruit per day. However, participants also reported some healthy dietary choices such as consuming more servings of whole grains than refined grains, and eating at fast food restaurants ≤1 per month. Significant differences in BMI, body weight, percentage body fat, and fat mass index were also observed among provinces. Adiposity measures were positively associated with consumption of meat/poultry, fish, snack food, sweeteners, diet soft drinks, and frequenting fast food restaurants, and inversely associated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Although all four provinces are in the Atlantic region, diet quality vary greatly among provinces and are associated with adiposity.

  16. Peridotites and mafic igneous rocks at the foot of the Galicia Margin: an oceanic or continental lithosphere? A discussion

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    Korprobst, J.; Chazot, G.


    An ultramafic/mafic complex is exposed on the sea floor at the foot of the Galicia Margin (Spain and Portugal). It comprises various types of peridotites and pyroxenites, as well as amphibole-diorites, gabbros, dolerites and basalts. For chronological and structural reasons (gabbros were emplaced within peridotites before the continental break-up) this unit cannot be assigned to the Atlantic oceanic crust. The compilation of all available petrological and geochemical data suggests that peridotites are derived from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, deeply transformed during Cretaceous rifting. Thus, websterite dykes extracted from the depleted MORB mantle reservoir (DMM), were emplaced early within the lithospheric harzburgites; subsequent boudinage and tectonic dispersion of these dykes in the peridotites, during deformation stages at the beginning of rifting, resulted in the formation of fertile but isotopically depleted lherzolites. Sterile but isotopically enriched websterites, would represent melting residues in the peridotites, after significant partial melting and melt extraction related to the thermal erosion of the lithosphere. The latter melts are probably the source of brown amphibole metasomatic crystallization in some peridotites, as well as of the emplacement of amphibole-diorite dykes. Melts directly extracted from the asthenosphere were emplaced as gabbro within the sub-continental mantle. Mixing these DMM melts together with the enriched melts extracted from the lithosphere, provided the intermediate isotopic melt-compositions - in between the DMM and Oceanic Islands Basalts reservoir - observed for the dolerites and basalts, none of which are characterized by a genuine N-MORB signature. An enriched lithospheric mantle, present prior to rifting of the Galicia margin, is in good agreement with data from the Messejana dyke (Portugal) and more generally, with those of all continental tholeiites of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP

  17. Are Postgraduate Medical Residency Training Positions in Atlantic Canada Evenly Distributed? (United States)

    Atkinson, Paul; Howlett, Mike; MacKay, Jacqueline; Fraser, Jacqueline; Ross, Peter


    Background The distribution of postgraduate medical training (residency) positions in Canada is administered by medical schools and universities in conjunction with individual provinces. In Atlantic Canada, the Maritime provinces are considered a single unit under Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia (NS), although distributed medical undergraduate education through Dalhousie and Sherbrooke has enabled medical students to complete their entire course of study in New Brunswick (NB). It is unclear if postgraduate medical education has been distributed in a similar fashion in Atlantic Canada, particularly in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island (PE). Methods Data on the number of R1 residency positions was obtained from the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) database. The distribution of R1 positions was described and compared nationally and through the Atlantic provinces. The analysis was completed using MS Excel and Prism. Results Rates of R1 positions per million persons varied widely; the national median rate was 97 positions per million persons, with a range of 34 to 138. The combined Maritime provinces rate of R1 positions was 71 per million persons and the rate in Newfoundland (NL) was 138 positions per million. The NS rate was 106 positions per million while the NB rate was 54 per million and the PE rate 34 per million. Sixty-four percent of all residency training positions in Atlantic Canada were based in the two most urban areas of Halifax, NS or St John's, NL. Royal College (specialty) positions were more likely to be based at the main university campus city than family medicine training positions (97 vs. 3%; 33 vs. 67%, respectively). Conclusion There is a high level of variation in available residency positions among the individual provinces, especially in Atlantic Canada. The lower prevalence of opportunities in NB and PE may influence the ability of these provinces to recruit and retain new physicians.

  18. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province (United States)

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.


    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km2 body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An60-70) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo70-80. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. Ten samples, including both igneous and deformed lithologies give a Pb-Pb whole-rock isochron of 2560??155Ma, which is our best estimate of the time of primary crystallization. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet reported from the Grenville Province, but is more calcic and augitic than typical massifs, and lacks their characteristic Fe-Ti oxide ore deposits. The River Valley body may be more akin to similar gabbro-anorthosite bodies situated at the boundary between the Archean Superior Province and Huronian supracrustal belt of the Southern Province west of the Grenville Front. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2377 ?? 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2185 ?? 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2165 ?? 130 Ma and 2100 ?? 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. It is uncertain whether these ages correspond to a discrete event at this time or represent a partial resetting of the Rb-Sr and Pb

  19. Geological setting, emplacement mechanism and igneous evolution of the Atchiza mafic-ultramafic layered suite in north-west Mozambique (United States)

    Ibraimo, Daniel Luis; Larsen, Rune B.


    The Atchiza mafic and ultramafic-layered suite (hereafter, "Atchiza Suite) crops out in an area 330 km2 west of the Mozambican Tete province. In an early account of the geology of this intrusion, it was considered the continuation of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe, an idea that was aborted after detailed studies. Nevertheless, the Ni concentrations in the Atchiza outcrop rocks are considerable. Our investigation used field evidence, hand specimens and petrography descriptions, mineral chemistry studies using electron microprobe analysis and tectonic analysis to arrive at a plausible mineralogical composition and understanding of the tectonic setting for the igneous evolution. The mineral composition from the Atchiza Suite indicates that these are cumulates. The magmatic segregation from the petrographic and mineral composition reasoning indicates that dunite-lherzolitic peridotite-olivine gabbro-gabbronorite-gabbro-pegmatitic gabbro is the rock formation sequence. Olivine and chromite were the first phases formed, followed by pyroxene and plagioclase. In addition, it is shown that these minerals are near-liquidus crystallization products of basaltic magma with olivine Fo: 87.06 in dunite, mean values of clinopyroxene are (Wo: 36.4, En: 48.0, Fs: 15.2), orthopyroxene (Wo: 2.95, En: 73.0, Fs: 24.2) and plagioclase An: 71.3, respectively. Opaque minerals comprise Fe-Ti oxides and (Fe, Cr) spinel up to 4.8 vol.%, but chromitite layers are not present. Most of the opaque minerals are interstitial to pyroxene. Sulphides are common in gabbros, with pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and covellite together comprising 0.4-2.0 vol.%. The whole rock Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations are mainly a result of differentiation, but slight crustal contamination/assimilation contributed to the REE contents. In addition, they also show Eu enrichment, suggesting that plagioclase fractionation was important in the rock. The Atchiza Suite preserves a deep-seated plumbing

  20. Closed system oxygen isotope redistribution in igneous CAIs upon spinel dissolution (United States)

    Aléon, Jérôme


    In several Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV3 chondrites Allende and Efremovka, representative of the most common igneous CAI types (type A, type B and Fractionated with Unknown Nuclear isotopic anomalies, FUN), the relationship between 16O-excesses and TiO2 content in pyroxene indicates that the latter commonly begins to crystallize with a near-terrestrial 16O-poor composition and becomes 16O-enriched during crystallization, reaching a near-solar composition. Mass balance calculations were performed to investigate the contribution of spinel to this 16O-enrichment. It is found that a back-reaction of early-crystallized 16O-rich spinel with a silicate partial melt having undergone a 16O-depletion is consistent with the O isotopic evolution of CAI minerals during magmatic crystallization. Dissolution of spinel explains the O isotopic composition (16O-excess and extent of mass fractionation) of pyroxene as well as that of primary anorthite/dmisteinbergite and possibly that of the last melilite crystallizing immediately before pyroxene. It requires that igneous CAIs behaved as closed-systems relative to oxygen from nebular gas during a significant fraction of their cooling history, contrary to the common assumption that CAI partial melts constantly equilibrated with gas. The mineralogical control on O isotopes in igneous CAIs is thus simply explained by a single 16O-depletion during magmatic crystallization. This 16O-depletion occurred in an early stage of the thermal history, after the crystallization of spinel, i.e. in the temperature range for melilite crystallization/partial melting and did not require multiple, complex or late isotope exchange. More experimental work is however required to deduce the protoplanetary disk conditions associated with this 16O-depletion.

  1. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina (United States)

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma


    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  2. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  3. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  4. The Kenna ureilite - An ultramafic rock with evidence for igneous, metamorphic, and shock origin (United States)

    Berkley, J. L.; Brown, H. G.; Keil, K.; Carter, N. L.; Mercier, J.-C. C.; Huss, G.


    Ureilites are a rare group of achondrites. They are composed mainly of olivine and pigeonite in a matrix of carbonaceous material, including graphite, lonsdaleite, diamond, and metal. In most respects Kenna is a typical ureilite with the requisite mineralogical and chemical properties of the group. Differences of the Kenna ureilite from previously studied ureilites are related to a greater density, the occurrence of exceedingly minute quantities of feldspar, and a very strong elongation lineation of the silicate minerals. A description is presented of a study which indicates a complex history for Kenna, including igneous, mild metamorphic, and shock processes.

  5. Igneous origin of K-feldspar Megacrysts in Granitic Rocks of the Sierra Nevada Batholith (United States)

    Moore, J. G.; Sisson, T. W.


    Study of the four principal K-feldspar megacrystic granitic plutons and related porphyrys in the Sierra Nevada composite batholith indicates that the included megacrysts are phenocrysts that grew in contact with granitic melt in long-lasting magma chambers. These 89-83 Ma plutons or intrusions are the youngest in the range, and represent the culminating magmatic phase of the batholith. They are the: Granodiorite of Topaz Lake; Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, Mono Creek Granite, Whitney Granodiorite, Johnson Granite Porphyry, and Golden Bear Dike. The zoned megacrysts in each of these igneous bodies attain 4-10 cm in length and all display oscillatory zoning with each zone beginning with a sharp increase followed by a gradual decrease in the concentration of BaO - commonly from 3 to 1 weight percent. Some of the more pronounced zones overlie resorption and channeling features on the underlying zone. Trains of small mineral inclusions (plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, quartz, sphene, and accessory minerals) are parallel to the BaO-delineated zones. The long axes of the inclusions are preferentially aligned parallel to the zone boundaries and inclusions are sorted by size from zone to zone. The growth temperature of sphene included in K-feldspar megacrysts is estimated by use of a Zr-in-sphene geothermometer. The sphene grains all yield igneous temperatures, mainly 735 - 760 °C. Sphene grains in the granodiorite host marginal to the megacrysts range to lower growth temperatures, in some instances into the subsolidus range. The zoning of the megacrysts, their presence in quenched porphry dikes, and the limited range and igneous values of growth temperatures of sphene inclusions within them, support the interpretation that the megacrysts formed as igneous sanidine phenocrysts, and that intrusion temperatures varied by only small amounts while the megacrysts grew. Each Ba- enriched zone was apparently formed by a repeated surge of new, hot melt injected into the large

  6. Classification of igneous rocks analyzed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Cousin, Agnes; Sautter, Violaine; Payré, Valérie; Forni, Olivier; Mangold, Nicolas; Gasnault, Olivier; Le Deit, Laetitia; Johnson, Jeff; Maurice, Sylvestre; Salvatore, Mark; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasda, Patrick; Rapin, William


    Several recent studies have revealed that Mars is not a simple basalt-covered planet, but has a more complex geological history. In Gale crater on Mars, the Curiosity rover discovered 59 igneous rocks. This paper focuses on their textures (acquired from the cameras such as MAHLI and MastCam) and their geochemical compositions that have been obtained using the ChemCam instrument. Light-toned crystals have been observed in most of the rocks. They correspond to feldspars ranging from andesines/oligoclases to anorthoclases and sanidines in the leucocratic vesiculated rocks. Darker crystals observed in all igneous rocks (except the leucocratic vesiculated ones) were analyzed by LIBS and mainly identified as Fe-rich pigeonites and Fe-augites. Iron oxides have been observed in all groups whereas F-bearing minerals have been detected only in few of them. From their textural analysis and their whole-rock compositions, all these 59 igneous rocks have been classified in five different groups; from primitive rocks i.e. dark aphanitic basalts/basanites, trachybasalts, tephrites and fine/coarse-grained gabbros/norites to more evolved materials i.e. porphyritic trachyandesites, leucocratic trachytes and quartz-diorites. The basalts and gabbros are found all along the traverse of the rover, whereas the felsic rocks are located before the Kimberley formation, i.e. close to the Peace Vallis alluvial fan deposits. This suggests that these alkali rocks have been transported by fluvial activity and could come from the Northern rim of the crater, and may correspond to deeper strata buried under basaltic regolith (Sautter et al., 2015). Some of the basaltic igneous rocks are surprisingly enriched in iron, presenting low Mg# similar to the nakhlite parental melt that cannot be produced by direct melting of the Dreibus and Wanke (1986) martian primitive mantle. The basaltic rocks at Gale are thus different from Gusev basalts. They could originate from different mantle reservoirs, or they

  7. Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion (United States)

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wiebe, R.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Snyder, Diane


    Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by

  8. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction. (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Findings of coesite and microdiamond in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal protolith led to the recognition of continental subduction to mantle depths. The crust-mantle interaction is expected to take place during subduction of the continental crust beneath the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge. This is recorded by postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its adjacent continental margin in the North China Block. These rocks exhibit the geochemical inheritance of whole-rock trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes from felsic melts derived from the subducted continental crust. Reaction of such melts with the overlying wedge peridotite would transfer the crustal signatures to the mantle sources for postcollisional mafic magmatism. Therefore, postcollisonal mafic igneous rocks above continental subduction zones are an analog to arc volcanics above oceanic subduction zones, providing an additional laboratory for the study of crust-mantle interaction at convergent plate margins.

  9. Igneous evolution of Hess Rise: Petrologic evidence from DSDP leg 62 (United States)

    Windom, Kenneth E.; Seifert, Karl E.; Vallier, Tracy L.


    Igneous rock was recovered at three sites on Hess Rise, north-central Pacific Ocean, during Deep Sea Drilling Project leg 62: tholeiitic basalt at site 464 (northern Hess Rise), trachyte at site 465, and rounded clasts of alkalic basalt at site 466 (both on southern Hess Rise). The depths at which the igneous rocks from sites 464 and 465 were recovered correspond to strong acoustic reflectors, whereas the clasts from site 466 were recovered from within calcareous sediment. Although all the rocks are moderately to highly altered, petrographic and chemical studies, especially rare earth element determinations, provide data on the nature of these rocks. Data from these studies, combined with geophysical models of the evolution of the Pacific plate during the Mesozoic, allow an interpretation of the formation of Hess Rise involving building of a volcanic platform by eruption of tholeiitic mid-oceanic ridge basalt caused by the breakup of a R-R-R-type triple junction during the middle Cretaceous. This period of platform building was accompanied by edifice building along the south edge of Hess Rise involving alkalic basalt and its differentiation products associated with a leaky transform fault. This interpretation agrees with proposed models for the origin of the tholeiitic parts of other oceanic plateaus but requires a different mechanism—namely, volcanism associated with leaky transform faults—to account for the alkalic rocks.

  10. Albitisation related to the Triassic unconformity in igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif (France) (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Thiry, Médard; Schmitt, J. M.


    The Carboniferous Morvan Massif, in the northern part of the French Massif Central, consists of granite and some rhyolite. A Triassic erosional unconformity has developed on the massif which is covered by Mesozoic sediments of the Paris Basin. The igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, pseudomorphic replacement of primary biotite into chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. The geometry and arrangement of these alterations give significant constraints about their development. Some of the altered facies develop in a pervasive manner; others are restricted to centimetric to metric-wide joints that imply fluid-flow phenomena. Moreover, the alteration facies are arranged in a clear succession with strongly altered facies at the top and weakly altered facies towards the depth, which point to a genetic relationship with the Triassic unconformity. Regional distribution of the alterations, which affect the Carboniferous igneous and volcanic formations beneath the Jurassic sedimentary cover, also leads to associate these alterations with the Triassic unconformity. Dating of the alterations provides even a further constraint, alterations are of Triassic age, that means the same age as the unconformity. Taking into account all these geological constraints, it is proposed that albitisation of the Morvan Massif was developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation to the Triassic palaeosurface.

  11. Igneous rocks of alpine age associated with Keuper material in the Iberian Mountains, near Teruel (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Cela, V.


    Full Text Available In the present work, some rocks of igneous facies associated to Keuper materials, are studied. These rocks, previously referred to as ophites, consist in fact of plutonic rocks, compositionally ranging from syenites to monzogabbros. Field, petrographic and geochemical data appear to indicate that these igneous rocks facies were a consequence of metasomatic transformation processes that took place between allocthonous silica-alkaline elements and suitable wall-rocks, constituted, in this case, of evaporitic marls of Keuper facies.

    Se describen algunos caracteres geológicos, petrográficos y geoquímicos de unas rocas ígneas, que en pequeños afloramientos aparecen asociadas a materiales del Keuper. Estas rocas, que estaban citadas como ofitas, corresponden principalmente a facies granudas entre sienitas y monzogabros. El ambiente de los afloramientos, relaciones de contacto, caracteres petrográficos y químicos, parecen indicar que las rocas ígneas fueron el resultado de procesos de metasomatismo originados por fluidos sílico-alcalinos que transformaron los materiales encajantes margoevaporíticos del Keuper.

  12. Evidence of a modern deep water magmatic hydrothermal system in the Canary Basin (eastern central Atlantic Ocean) (United States)

    Medialdea, T.; Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Vázquez, J. T.; de Ignacio, C.; Sumino, H.; Sánchez-Guillamón, O.; Orihashi, Y.; León, R.; Palomino, D.


    change, considering the heat transport, maturation of organic matter and the release of carbon-rich fluids associated to these systems. Hydrothermal vent complexes have been found all over the world in the fossil record related to large igneous provinces as those found in the North Atlantic margins. Nevertheless, studies focused on modern deep water magmatic hydrothermal systems are generally confined to ocean spreading centers, while scarce works address their study in deep oceanic intraplate basins. This study reports and documents for the first time the discovery of a recent deep water system of magmatic-induced hydrothermal vents at 4800-5200 m depth in an unexplored area of the Canary Basin (eastern central Atlantic), located about 500 km west of the Canary Islands. The analysis and interpretation of the newly acquired data set has shown that the study area is characterized by the presence of a huge magmatic complex of sills that intrudes the sedimentary sequence and exceptionally deep volcanoes so far unknown.

  13. Ambient noise tomography reveals basalt and sub-basalt velocity structure beneath the Faroe Islands, North Atlantic (United States)

    Sammarco, Carmelo; Cornwell, David G.; Rawlinson, Nicholas


    Ambient noise tomography is applied to seismic data recorded by a portable array of seismographs deployed throughout the Faroe Islands in an effort to illuminate basalt sequences of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, as well as underlying sedimentary layers and Precambrian basement. Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions between all station pairs are extracted from the data via cross-correlation of long-term recordings, with phase weighted stacking implemented to boost signal-to-noise ratio. Dispersion analysis is applied to extract inter-station group travel-times in the period range 0.5-15 s, followed by inversion for period-dependent group velocity maps. Subsequent inversion for 3-D shear wave velocity reveals the presence of significant lateral heterogeneity (up to 25%) in the crust. Main features of the final model include: (i) a near-surface low velocity layer, interpreted to be the Malinstindur Formation, which comprises subaerial compound lava flows with a weathered upper surface; (ii) a sharp velocity increase at the base of the Malinstindur Formation, which may mark a transition to the underlying Beinisvørð Formation, a thick laterally extensive layer of subaerial basalt sheet lobes; (iii) a low velocity layer at 2.5-7.0 km depth beneath the Beinisvørð Formation, which is consistent with hyaloclastites of the Lopra Formation; (iv) an upper basement layer between depths of 5-9 km and characterized by S wave velocities of approximately 3.2 km/s, consistent with low-grade metamorphosed sedimentary rocks; (v) a high velocity basement, with S wave velocities in excess of 3.6 km/s. This likely reflects the presence of a crystalline mid-lower crust of Archaean continental origin. Compared to previous interpretations of the geological structure beneath the Faroe Islands, our new results point to a more structurally complex and laterally heterogeneous crust, and provide constraints which may help to understand how continental fragments are rifted from the

  14. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  15. Igneous phenocrystic origin of K-feldspar megacrysts in granitic rocks from the Sierra Nevada batholith (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Sisson, T.W.


    Study of four K-feldspar megacrystic granitic plutons and related dikes in the Sierra Nevada composite batholith indicates that the megacrysts are phenocrysts that grew in contact with granitic melt. Growth to megacrystic sizes was due to repeated replenishment of the magma bodies by fresh granitic melt that maintained temperatures above the solidus for extended time periods and that provided components necessary for K-feldspar growth. These intrusions cooled 89-83 Ma, are the youngest in the range, and represent the culminating magmatic phase of the Sierra Nevada batholith. They are the granodiorite of Topaz Lake, the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite, the Mono Creek Granite, the Whitney Granodiorite, the Johnson Granite Porphyry, and the Golden Bear Dike. Megacrysts in these igneous bodies attain 4-10 cm in length. All have sawtooth oscillatory zoning marked by varying concentration of BaO ranging generally from 3.5 to 0.5 wt%. Some of the more pronounced zones begin with resorption and channeling of the underlying zone. Layers of mineral inclusions, principally plagioclase, but also biotite, quartz, hornblende, titanite, and accessory minerals, are parallel to the BaO-delineated zones, are sorted by size along the boundaries, and have their long axes preferentially aligned parallel to the boundaries. These features indicate that the K-feldspar megacrysts grew while surrounded by melt, allowing the inclusion minerals to periodically attach themselves to the faces of the growing crystals. The temperature of growth of titanite included within the K-feldspar megacrysts is estimated by use of a Zr-in-titanite geothermometer. Megacryst-hosted titanite grains all yield temperatures typical of felsic magmas, mainly 735-760 ??C. Titanite grains in the granodiorite hosts marginal to the megacrysts range to lower growth temperatures, in some instances into the subsolidus. The limited range and igneous values of growth temperatures for megacryst-hosted titanite grains support the

  16. 75 FR 11129 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Atlantic Mackerel, Butterfish, Atlantic Bluefish, Spiny... (United States)


    ... ; Mail or hand deliver to Daniel T. Furlong, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council... Council by telephone (302) 674-2331. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Daniel T. Furlong, Mid-Atlantic...

  17. Average Winter and Summer Temperature and Salinity Profiles for the Deep Ocean Provinces. (United States)


    Mediterranean provinces (Y and Z) the less saline water blankets the more saline water. Atlantic inflow, precipitation and river run -off will cause the surface...isothermal from 4250m at 2.1 0 C 34.86 to 34.90 Nearly isohaline from 2000m at 34.90 R 2.3-4.8 1200m to 7000m Nearly isothermal from 5000m at 2.3 0 C

  18. The effects of weathering on the physical and mechanical properties of igneous and metamorphic saprolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Coop, M. R.; Maccarini, M.


    this geological process and links soil mechanics to engineering geology. Generally, weathering induces a reduction in the grain size, both due to physical actions (e.g. opening of grain contacts) and to the chemical decomposition of minerals resulting in the formation of clay minerals. As weathering proceeds......The present paper presents three extensive datasets of laboratory testing on weathered geomaterials, which are emblematic of soil types widely found worldwide. The overall dataset includes soils originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks, either coarse or fine grained and having either felsic...... or mafic minerals. In particular, the data are interpreted to highlight the effects that weathering has on the physical and mechanical properties of these natural geomaterials comparing them with published data with the aim to provide a general framework of interpretation that takes into account...

  19. An Igneous Origin for Features of a Candidate Crater-Lake System in Western Memnonia, Mars (United States)

    Leverington, D. W.; Maxwell, T. A.


    The association of channels, inner terraces, and delta-like features with Martian impact craters has previously been interpreted as evidence in favor of the past existence of crater lakes on Mars. However, examination of a candidate crater-lake system in western Memnonia suggests instead that its features may have formed through igneous processes involving the flow and ponding of lava. Accumulations of material in craters and other topographic lows throughout much of the study region have characteristics consistent with those of volcanic deposits, and terraces found along the inner flanks of some of these craters are interpreted as having formed through drainage or subsidence of volcanic materials. Channels previously identified as inlets and outlets of the crater-lake system are interpreted instead as volcanic rilles. These results challenge previous interpretations of terrace and channel features in the study region and suggest that candidate crater lakes located elsewhere should be reexamined.

  20. In-situ detection of microbial life in the deep biosphere in igneous ocean crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Cosio Salas


    Full Text Available The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in-situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  1. Atlantic Canada : Dancing with whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.


    A major question in the Atlantic provinces that needs resolving concerns the how much waters and sea floors that can be considered protected area before disruption of industrial activity in the vicinity of those areas occurs, especially where there is potential for natural gas and crude oil. Another question that needs pondering relates to the amount of money that the federal government is willing to spend to study the effects on marine habitats resulting from this industrial activity. The consideration being given to a region called the Gully, as to whether it should be declared an official marine protected zone, brought these questions to the forefront. A canyon approximately 70 kilometres (km) long and 20 km wide, the Gully is a potentially resource-rich area located in deep water 300 km east of Cape Breton at the edge of the Scotian Shelf. A pilot project was implemented in 1998, but no clear decision has yet been made concerning the status of the Gully. According to a biology professor at Dalhousie University in Halifax, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans is busy obtaining the proper approvals for its designation as a fully protected area. The northern bottlenose whale can be found in this canyon. This professor advocates a ban on industrial activity in the vicinity of the Gully, as he believes that seismic surveys and exploratory drilling pose a danger to the whales. He would like to see more funding allocated to research programs. Companies conducting seismic surveys in the vicinity of the Gully have to comply with environmental standards.

  2. Deep structure of the Mount Amram igneous complex, interpretation of magnetic and gravity data (United States)

    Shirman, Boris; Rybakov, Michael; Beyth, Michael; Mushkin, Amit; Ginat, Hanan


    The Mt Amram igneous complex (AIC) represents northern tip of the Neoproterozoic Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). For the first time the AIC deep structure was studied using the gravity, aero and ground magnetic, magnetic susceptibility and density measurements and geological data. Analysing all available data at the Amram area we concluded what only monzonite body can be reason for gravity high and coinciding reduced to pole (RTP) maximum. Geological knowledge allowed suggesting its intrusive character and compact body form. Cluster of inverse solutions (Werner deconvolution) localized this body as initial model for forward modelling. Further iterations (23/4-D forward modelling) clarified the monzonite geometry and properties; the modelling allowed also to investigate the non-uniqueness and estimate also the confident intervals for final solution. The research consists three interconnected stages. At the detailed scale, ground magnetic data suggested three magmatic blocks of few hundred meters shifted dextral about 100 m along the Zefunut fault. Estimated accuracy for geometry of the magnetic bodies is a few tens metres. At the middle scale, quantitative gravity and magnetic interpretations provide model of the monzonite body, which is an order of magnitude more than the volume of the felsic rhyolites and granite rocks. Boundary of the whole monzonite body was estimated with accuracy as a hundred meters. As a result we suggest that the parent magma for the AIC is the monzonite, similar to the model suggested for the Timna Igneous Complex 12 km north of the AIC. The model developed can be applied to evaluate the subsurface volumes of the mafic magmatic rocks in adjacent locations. At the regional scale for exposed the Sinai and Arab Saudi Precambrian crystalline shield our approach allows to understand the apparent contradiction between geological predominantly granite composition (low magnetic rocks) and magnetic data. The aeromagnetic data show number strong

  3. Taos Plateau Volcanic Project: A Vehicle for Integration of Concepts in Igneous Petrology (United States)

    Henry, D.; Dutrow, B.


    Integrating concepts of igneous petrology is generally a challenge, but can be effective in the context of a project based on actual field, geochemical and geochronological data. The final lab project in the igneous portion of petrology involves a series of volcanic and associated rock samples that were collected from the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico, USA. Samples were collected over an area of several tens of km2 throughout the Plateau and represent a spatially and temporally correlated rock suite related to continental rifting. Rift-related magmatism encompasses much of the diversity of terrestrial magma types. Compositions of mafic magmas range from tholeiite to some of the most silica-undersaturated magmas found on the continents. Large effusive eruptions from fissures are typical of some rifts, whereas others may be dominated by central vent cones or even silicic caldera complexes. The injection of mantle-derived magma in extending crust may have a profound effect on the rheology of the crust and, therefore, the style of deformation associated with extension. Most of these aspects of rift volcanism and a wide range of mafic to silicic magma compositions are represented in the Rio Grande rift and the volcanic rocks of the Taos Plateau. In addition, much published data exists for whole rock and trace element geochemistry as well as geochronology. Rock samples and associated information are presented so that the student must integrate multiple lines of evidence, petrographic, petrologic, geochemical and geochronological data in a geospatial framework, to establish a geologic history of the region. The student must also draw on skills learned in mineralogy and structural geology furthering core geoscience education. Subsequent to the petrology course, the students visit the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field during their required field camp, thus reinforcing the linkage between the classroom setting and geologic reality.

  4. Origin of heavy Fe isotope compositions in high-silica igneous rocks: A rhyolite perspective (United States)

    Du, De-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Tao; Chen, Xin; Li, Jun-Yong; Li, Weiqiang


    The origin of heavy Fe isotope compositions in high-silica (>70 wt% SiO2) igneous rocks remains a highly controversial topic. Considering that fluid exsolution in eruptive rocks is more straight-forward to constrain than in plutonic rocks, this study addresses the problem of Fe isotope fractionation in high-silica igneous rocks by measuring Fe isotope compositions of representative rhyolitic samples from the Neoproterozoic volcanic-sedimentary basins in southern China and the Triassic Tu Le Basin in northern Vietnam. The samples show remarkably varied δ56FeIRMM014 values ranging from 0.05 ± 0.05‰ to 0.55 ± 0.05‰, which is among the highest values reported from felsic rocks. The extensional tectonic setting and short melt residence time in magma chambers for the studied rhyolites rule out Soret diffusion and thermal migration processes as causes of the high δ56Fe values. Effects of volcanic degassing and fluid exsolution on bulk rock δ56Fe values for the rhyolites are also assessed using bulk rock geochemical indicators and Rayleigh fractionation models, and these processes are found to be insufficient to produce resolvable changes in Fe isotope compositions of the residual melt. The most probable mechanism accounting for heavy Fe isotope compositions in the high-silica rhyolites is narrowed down to fractional crystallization processes in the magma before rhyolite eruption. Removal of isotopically light Fe-bearing minerals (i.e. ulvöspinel-rich titanomagnetite, ilmenite and biotite) is proposed as the main cause of Fe isotope variation in silicic melts during magmatic evolution. This study implies that crystal fractionation is the dominant mechanism that controls Fe isotope fractionation in eruptive rocks and Fe isotopes could be used to study magmatic differentiation of high-silica magmas.

  5. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica


    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites—remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust. PMID:26488482

  6. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province. (United States)

    Zhao, R


    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  7. Syn- and post-orogenic alkaline magmatism in a continental arc: Along-strike variations in the composition, source, and timing of igneous activity in the Ross Orogen, Antarctica (United States)

    Hagen-Peter, G.; Cottle, J. M.


    Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic convergence and subduction along the margin of East Gondwana (Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica) resulted in a belt of deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and batholith-scale igneous intrusions comparable in size to the present day Andes. Mid-crustal levels of this belt, known as the Ross Orogen in Antarctica, are exposed in the basement of the Cenozoic Transantarctic Mountains, providing snapshots of the intrusive magma system of a major continental arc. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, Hf isotopes in zircon, and U-Pb geochronology have identified along-strike variations in the composition, source, and timing of magmatism along ~200 km of the southern Victoria Land segment of the orogen. There is an apparent younging of the igneous activity from south to north. New U-Pb ages for intrusive rocks from the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province (KGAP) reveal that igneous activity spanned ca. 565-500 Ma (~30 m.y. longer than previously recognized), while immediately to the north in the Dry Valleys area most igneous activity was confined to a relatively short period (ca. 515-495 Ma). Alkaline and subalkaline igneous rocks occur in both the Dry Valleys area and the KGAP, but alkaline rocks in the Dry Valleys are restricted to the latest phase of magmatism. Na-alkaline rocks in the KGAP, including nepheline syenites, carbonatites, and A-type granites, range in age from ca. 545-500 Ma and overlap in age with more typical subduction/collision-related I- and S-type granites elsewhere in southern Victoria Land. Strong enrichments in the LILE and LREE and high LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE of samples from the KGAP reveal a source enriched in aqueous-mobile elements, potentially a strongly metasomatized mantle wedge beneath the arc. In the Dry Valleys area, rocks with alkali-calcic composition constitute only the youngest intrusions (505-495 Ma), apparently reflecting a shift to post-orogenic magmatism. Zircons from Dry Valleys

  8. Volcanostratigraphic Sequences of Kebo-Butak Formation at Bayat Geological Field Complex, Central Java Province and Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyaningsih


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.77-94Bayat Complex is usually used as a work field for students of geology and other geosciences. The study area is located in the southern part of the Bayat Complex. Administratively, it belongs to Central Java Province and Yogyakarta Special Province. The lithology of Bayat is very complex, composed of various kinds of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks. Most of previous researchers interpreted Bayat as a melange complex constructed within a subduction zone. Kebo-Butak is one of formations that forms the Bayat field complex. The formation is composed of basalt, layers of pumice, tuff, shale, and carbonaceous tuff. Most of them are known as volcanic rocks. These imply that volcanic activities are more probable to construct the geology of Bayat rather than the subducted melange complex. The geological mapping, supported by geomorphology, petrology, stratigraphy, and geological structures, had been conducted in a comprehensive manner using the deduction-induction method. The research encounters basalt, black pumice, tuff with basaltic glasses fragments, zeolite, argilic clay, as well as feldspathic- and pumice tuff. Petrographically, the basalt is composed of labradorite, olivine, clinopyroxene, and volcanic glass. Black pumice and tuff contain prismatic clinopyroxene, granular olivine, and volcanic glasses. Feldspathic tuff and pumice tuff are crystal vitric tuff due to more abundant feldspar, quartz, and amphibole than volcanic glass. Zeolite comprises chlorite and altered glasses as deep sea altered volcanic rocks. The geologic structure is very complex, the major structures are normal faults with pyrite in it. There were two deep submarine paleovolcanoes namely Tegalrejo and Baturagung. The first paleovolcano erupted effusively producing basaltic sequence, while the second one erupted explosively ejecting feldspathic-rich pyroclastic material. The two paleovolcanoes erupted simultaneously and

  9. On the distribution of decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and the Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Boschi


    Full Text Available The distribution of decapod crustaceans in the southernmost areas of South America and the Antarctic is assessed considering the Magellan Biogeographic Province instead of the antiboreal region. Possible associations between decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and those from the Antarctic region are analysed. Species records were assigned to seven geographic regions that were clustered using multivariate analyses based on species presence/absence and Bray-Curtis similarity. The results showed two well-established clusters, one of which included the Pacific and Atlantic areas of the Magellan Province, the southern tip of South America and the Kerguelen Arc islands, with the highest similarity between the southern tip and the Atlantic area. Another cluster was well separated and included the Antarctic and South Georgia with the highest similarity index. Earlier studies and results obtained here suggest that the faunas of southern Chile and southern Argentina are biogeographically related. There is a low level of association among decapod species from the circum-Antarctic region and the Magellan Province.

  10. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS... (United States)


    ... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National... hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region, and blacknose sharks and non-blacknose SCS in the Atlantic region...

  11. Molecular and carbon isotopic variability of hydrocarbon gases from mud volcanos in the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Ivanov, M.K.; Blinova, V.; Kreulen, R.; van Weering, T.C.E.


    Investigations of molecular and carbon isotopic variability of hydrocarbon gases from methane through butanes (pentanes) have been performed on six mud volcanoes from two fluid venting provinces located in the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic. The main aims were to define the basic gas types, to describe

  12. Distinct Igneous APXS Rock Compositions on Mars from Pathfinder, MER and MSL (United States)

    Gellert, Ralf; Arvidson, Raymond; Clark, Benton, III; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Squyres, Steven W.; Yen, Albert S.


    The alpha particle x-ray spectrometer (APXS) on all four Mars Rovers returned geochemical data from about 1000 rocks and soils along the combined traverses of over 50 kilometers. Here we discuss rocks likely of igneous origin, which might represent source materials for the soils and sediments identified along the traverses. Adirondack-type basalts, abundant in the plains of Gusev Crater, are primitive, olivine bearing basalts. They resemble in composition the basaltic soils encountered at all landing sites, except the ubiquitous elevated S, Cl and Zn in soils. They have been postulated to represent closely the average Martian crust composition. The recently identified new Martian meteorite Black Beauty has similar overall geochemical composition, very distinct from the earlier established SNC meteorites. The rim of the Noachian crater Endeavour, predating the sulfate-bearing Burns formation at Meridiani Planum, also resembles closely the composition of Adirondack basalts. At Gale Crater, the MSL Curiosity rover identified a felsic rock type exemplified by the mugearitic float rock JakeM, which is widespread along the traverse at Gale. While a surprise at that time, possibly related more evolved, alkaline rocks had been previously identified on Mars. Spirit encountered the Wishstone rocks in the Columbia Hills with approx. 6% Na2O+K2O, 15 % Al2O3 and low 12% FeO. Pathfinder rocks with elevated K and Na and >50% SiO2 were postulated to be andesitic. Recently Opportunity encountered the rock JeanBaptisteCharbonneau with >15% Al2O3, >50% SiO2 and approx. 10% FeO. A common characteristic all these rocks is the very low abundance of Cr, Ni and Zn, and an Fe/Mn ratio of about 50, indicating an unaltered Fe mineralogy. Beside these likely igneous rock types, which occurred always in several rocks, a few unique rocks were encountered, e.g. Bounce Rock, a pyroxene-bearing ejecta rock fragment resembling the Shergottite EETA 79001B meteorite. The APXS data can be used to

  13. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  14. Contrasting patterns of connectivity among endemic and widespread fire coral species ( Millepora spp.) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic (United States)

    de Souza, Júlia N.; Nunes, Flávia L. D.; Zilberberg, Carla; Sanchez, Juan A.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baker, Andrew C.; Lindner, Alberto


    Fire corals are the only branching corals in the South Atlantic and provide an important ecological role as habitat-builders in the region. With three endemic species ( Millepora brazilensis, M. nitida and M. laboreli) and one amphi-Atlantic species ( M. alcicornis), fire coral diversity in the Brazilian Province rivals that of the Caribbean Province. Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of population genetic structure and diversity were investigated in all four fire coral species occurring in the Brazilian Province to understand patterns of speciation and biogeography in the genus. A total of 273 colonies from the four species were collected from 17 locations spanning their geographic ranges. Sequences from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships. Patterns in genetic diversity and connectivity were inferred by measures of molecular diversity, analyses of molecular variance, pairwise differentiation, and by spatial analyses of molecular variance. Morphometrics of the endemic species M. braziliensis and M. nitida were evaluated by discriminant function analysis; macro-morphological characters were not sufficient to distinguish the two species. Genetic analyses showed that, although they are closely related, each species forms a well-supported clade. Furthermore, the endemic species characterized a distinct biogeographic barrier: M. braziliensis is restricted to the north of the São Francisco River, whereas M. nitida occurs only to the south. Millepora laboreli is restricted to a single location and has low genetic diversity. In contrast, the amphi-Atlantic species M. alcicornis shows high genetic connectivity within the Brazilian Province, and within the Caribbean Province (including Bermuda), despite low levels of gene flow between these populations and across the tropical Atlantic. These patterns reflect the importance of the Amazon-Orinoco Plume and the Mid-Atlantic Barrier as biogeographic barriers, and suggest that

  15. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography. [Over 600 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLemore, V. T.


    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included.

  16. No Evidence for Connectivity between the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Molopo Farms Complex from Forward Modeling of Receiver Functions (United States)

    Skryzalin, P. A.; Ramirez, C.; Durrheim, R. J.; Raveloson, A.; Nyblade, A.; Feineman, M. D.


    The Bushveld Igneous Complex contains one of the most studied and economically important layered mafic intrusions in the world. The Rustenburg Layered Suite outcrops in northern South Africa over an area of 65,000 km2, and has a volume of up to 1,000,000 km3. Both the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Molopo Farms Complex in Botswana intruded the crust at 2.05 Ga. Despite being extensively exploited by the mining industry, many questions still exist regarding the structure of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, specifically the total size and connectivity of the different outcrops. In this study, we used receiver function analysis, a technique for determining the seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle, to search for evidence of the Bushveld at station LBTB, which lies in Botswana, between the Far Western Limb of the Bushveld and the Molopo Farms Complex. The goal of our study was to determine whether a fast, high-density mafic body can be seen in the crust beneath this region using receiver functions. Observation of a high density layer would argue in favor of connectivity of the Bushveld between The Far Western Limb and the Molopo Farms Complex. We forward modeled stacks of receiver functions as well as sub-stacks that were split into azimuthal groups which share similar characteristics. We found that there was no evidence for a high velocity zone in the crust, and that the Moho in this region is located at a depth of 38 ± 3 km, about 8-9 km shallower than Moho depths determined beneath the Bushveld Complex. These two lines of evidence give no reason to assume connectivity between the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Molopo Farms Complex, and rather suggest two separate intrusive suites.

  17. A tale of two extinctions : converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Wignall, Paul B.

    The end-Permian (c. 252 Ma) and end-Triassic (c. 201 Ma) mass-extinction events are commonly linked to the emplacement of the large igneous provinces of the Siberia Traps and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively. Accordingly, scenarios for both extinctions are increasingly convergent and

  18. Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans. (United States)

    Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H


    A brief summary of the early history of the study of Atlantic Ocean marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Eastern Pacific Ocean, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the Atlantic Ocean, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Basin. The most species-rich families in the Atlantic Ocean are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the Atlantic Ocean and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed.

  19. Climatic and Environmental Changes Affecting Communities in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liette Vasseur


    Full Text Available Small rural coastal communities located in Atlantic Canada are vulnerable to the effects of climate and environmental changes. Major storms have impounded the coastline, causing much physical damage and affecting the socioeconomics of these communities that are composed of an aging population. The current study relays findings based on interviews completed in 2011–2012, following the 2010 winter storms in Atlantic Canada. It portrays the physical and social–ecological impacts affecting 10 coastal communities located in the provinces of Québec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Semi-structured interviews held in these provinces are the basis for the contributions of this research. The findings reveal physical changes related to coastal erosion from high-wave impacts and storm surge causing flooding of the coastal zone. Also considered are strategies preferred and actually implemented by residents, such as building of protection walls, although undesirable. Due to funding constraints, however, many of these large-scale flood protection projects are not possible without governmental support. Instead, it is suggested that development be controlled and some respondents in this study upheld that relocation be used to alleviate the situation. Finally, more work is required to improve emergency planning. Better concerted short- and long-term responses need to be coordinated by local authorities and higher up in the government in order to ensure the sustainability of these coastal communities.

  20. Conservation and care: material politics and Atlantic salmon on Newfoundland’s Gander River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daniels


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to contribute to an emerging and vibrant body of post-structural scholarship situated within science technology and society (STS on practices and their role in world making. Our focus is Atlantic salmon conservation in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. We examine the different material and social orders that have over time connected human and salmon bodies. These different socio-material orders do not exist in harmony. On the contrary, they are in tension and reflect different visions/versions of how to conserve and care for Atlantic salmon. Our contribution is to interfere with the dominant narrative of Atlantic salmon conservation by drawing on the concept of care, and by introducing a new salmon that we call the willful salmon.

  1. VNIR reflectance spectroscopy of glassy igneous material with variable oxidation states (United States)

    Carli, Cristian; Di Genova, Danilo; Roush, Ted L.; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Silicate glasses with igneous compositions may represent an abundant component of planetary surface material via effusive volcanism or impact cratering processes. Several planetary surfaces are mapped with hyper-spectrometers in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR). In this spectral range, crystal field (C.F.) absorptions are useful to discriminate iron-bearing silicate components. At the same time, in the VNIR reflectance spectroscopy iron bearing glasses may exhibit a C.F. absorption at ˜1.1 μm. A weak C.F. absorption is also present at ˜1.9 μm. These absorptions can be therefore diagnostic for glassy component and can also affect the C.F. absorptions of mafic minerals when mixed in the regolith. So far, few studies investigated the spectral properties of systematic glasses compositions and at different oxygen fucacity. For these reasons studying glassy materials, and their optical constants, represents an important effort to document and to interpret, spectral features of Solar System silicate crusts where glasses are present, but may be difficult to map. In previous work Carli et al. (2016) considered the composition of glassy igneous materials produced in Earth-like atmospheric conditions (i.e. oxidized conditions). Here, we expand on that effort by including glasses formed under more reducing condition. In this study, glasses were produced at -9.3 log fO2 and 1400 ˚ C for a duration of 4 h at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Munich using a gas-mixing furnace. The major element composition, sample homogeneity, and the Fe3+/Fetot. ratio of run products were analytically determined. Moreover, Raman spectra of the same samples were also acquired. Afterwards, powders were produced with nine-grain size from 250-224 μm to 50-20 μm and measured in bidirectional reflectance at Spectroscopy LABoratory (IAPS-INAF, Rome). Reflectance spectra were acquired from 0.35 to 2.5 μm with a Field-Pro Spectrometer mounted on a

  2. An air quality assessment in the industrialised western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Venter


    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of the South African mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC, with the western limb being the most exploited. Because the majority of the world’s platinum is produced in the BIC, this area is also of international interest. There are some indications that the western BIC should be considered an air pollution hotspot; however, inadequate data exist to substantiate these claims scientifically. To partially address this knowledge gap, a comprehensive air quality monitoring station was operated for more than 2 years in this area. Meteorological parameters, trace gas concentrations and total mass concentration of particulate matter up to 10 µm in size (PM10 were measured. Compared with South African and European ambient air quality standards, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations were generally acceptable. The major sources of SO2 were identified as high-stack industry emissions, while household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements was identified as the predominant source of NO2 and CO. In contrast, O3 exceeded the 8-h moving average more than 322 times per year. The main contributing factor was identified to be the influx of regional air masses, with high O3 precursor concentrations. PM10 exceeded the current South African 24-h standard 6.6 times per year, the future (2015 standard 42.3 times per year and the European standard more than 120 times per year. The main source of PM10 was identified as household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements. The findings clearly indicate that atmospheric O3 and PM10 levels in the western BIC need to be addressed to avoid negative environmental and human health impacts.

  3. Prospecting for Diverse Igneous Rock Types on Mars: Pixl on "black Beauty" Nwa 7533 (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Flannery, D.; Allwood, A.; Thompson, D. R.; Hodyss, R. P.; Clark, B. C.; Elam, W. T.; Hurowitz, J.


    In order to understand the evolution of the Martian crust and mantle, we need to acquire and analyze samples of igneous rocks other than the basaltic and ultramafic lithologies represented by the majority of Martian meteorites. Recent results from the Curiosity Rover demonstrate that diverse rock types exist in some Martian sedimentary environments in the form of conglomerate components or float, some of which shed light on the nature of early Martian crust (e.g., Sautter et al., 2015). We are developing investigation strategies for the in-situ instruments that will be flown on the Mars 2020 rover. These instruments will be used to inform the sampling campaigns required for future sample return missions. To achieve this, we applied PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry), an instrument for the Mars 2020 rover mission, to the meteorite NWA 7533. This meteorite is a pairing of NWA 7034, known informally as "Black Beauty", a new type of Martian meteorite that is broadly similar to the average composition of the Martian crust. This type of meteorite is essentially a 'conglomerate', with many diverse rock types, including mafic, feldspathic, and exotic rock fragments such as feldspar-ilmenite-phosphate clasts, as observed using higher-spatial resolution and higher sensitivity laboratory instruments (e.g., Agee et al., 2013; Humayun et al., 2014; Santos et al., 2015). Using PIXL, we analyzed a mm-scale cut and polished surface and applied algorithms developed by the PIXL team to semi-autonomously define and group regions containing similar lithological components (Thompson et al., 2015). PIXL data rapidly reveal distinctive zircon-bearing lithologies and feldspar-ilmenite-phosphate clasts similar to the detailed petrographic and mineralogical observations. Results suggest that PIXL readily identifies lithologies with minerals and elements (e.g., Rb and Sr) that are important for geochronology studies.

  4. Alkaline igneous rocks of Magnet Cove, Arkansas: Mineralogy and geochemistry of syenites (United States)

    Flohr, M.J.K.; Ross, M.


    Syenites from the Magnet Cove alkaline igneous complex form a diverse mineralogical and geochemical suite. Compositional zoning in primary and late-stage minerals indicates complex, multi-stage crystallization and replacement histories. Residual magmatic fluids, rich in F, Cl, CO2 and H2O, reacted with primary minerals to form complex intergrowths of minerals such as rinkite, fluorite, V-bearing magnetite, F-bearing garnet and aegirine. Abundant sodalite and natrolite formed in pegmatitic segregations within nepheline syenite where Cl- and Na-rich fluids were trapped. During autometasomatism compatible elements such as Mn, Ti, V and Zr were redistributed on a local scale and concentrated in late-stage minerals. Early crystallization of apatite and perovskite controlled the compatible behavior of P and Ti, respectively. The formation of melanite garnet also affected the behaviour of Ti, as well as Zr, Hf and the heavy rare-earth elements. Pseudoleucite syenite and garnet-nepheline syenite differentiated along separate trends, but the two groups are related to the same parental magma by early fractionation of leucite, the presumed precursor of intergrowths of K-feldspar and nepheline. The Diamond Jo nepheline syenite group defines a different differentiation trend. Sphene-nepheline syenite, alkali syenite and several miscellaneous nepheline syenites do not consistently plot with the other syenite groups or each other on element and oxide variation diagrams, indicating that they were derived from still other parental syenite magmas. Mineral assemblages indicate that relatively high f{hook};O2, at or above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer, prevailed throughout the crystallization history of the syenites. ?? 1990.

  5. Trace Elements in the Dullstroom Volcanics Provide Insight for the Origin of the Bushveld Igneous Complex (United States)

    Krcmaric, J. A.; Feineman, M. D.; Bybee, G. M.; Ducea, M. N.


    The 2.06 Ga Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa hosts one of the Earth's oldest and largest mafic layered intrusion. The Critical Zone of the BIC supplies 75% of the world's platinum, as well as significant amounts of palladium, chromium, and vanadium. The economic importance of the BIC has made it a target for numerous studies, but its origin and bulk composition still remain poorly understood today. The Rooiberg Group is a volcanic suite that represents the first pulse of Bushveld magmatism. In this study we present geochemical data from 27 samples of the Dullstroom Formation, which consists of alternating Low-Ti and High-Ti suites of predominantly basaltic andesite, as well as andesite and dacite. These volcanic rocks provide a unique opportunity to assess the bulk composition of mafic magmas associated with the BIC, which is usually obscured by the segregated layering characteristic of the intrusive complex. Whole-rock major element concentrations were determined by ICP-AES analysis and trace element concentrations were determined by Quadrupole ICP-MS analysis. Major element data is consistent with most samples being sub-alkaline tholeiites that range in composition from basalt to dacite. Trace element data reveals the low-Ti and high-Ti series of the Dullstroom are similar in compositions to the low-Ti and high-Ti suites of the Karoo flood basalts, respectively, and both experienced mixing, assimilation and fractional crystallization processes as it resided in an upper crustal magma chamber before being erupted. An enrichment in fluid-compatible elements and a depletion in fluid-incompatible elements suggests a subduction modified sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) contributed to the genesis of the parental magma.

  6. Development of Clinopyroxene as an Igneous Geospeedometer Using NanoSIMS (United States)

    Brugman, K.; Till, C. B.; Bose, M.; Hervig, R. L.


    Geospeedometry, the quantification of timescales from diffusional relaxation of compositional zoning in minerals, is usually implemented using quartz, feldspar, and olivine. Clinopyroxene (cpx), commonly found in both igneous and metamorphic rocks as well as in meteorites, could also be a powerful tool for diffusion-related applications, once the appropriate suite of magmaphile elements with different diffusivities is identified—especially where the initial condition cannot be assumed to be a step function. Here we develop the use of cpx as a geospeedometer in rhyolitic magma by investigating slow diffusing elements via SIMS and NanoSIMS analyses using Yellowstone Plateau rhyolite lavas as a test case. LA-ICPMS analyses identified slow diffusing elements with resolvable abundances in the Yellowstone cpx; Ce and Dy were the best candidates, because experimental studies demonstrate they diffuse 12-88 times slower at a given temperature than elements such as Fe-Mg, which are typically used for diffusion dating in pyroxene. SIMS profiles with ≤ 8 micron resolution across intracrystalline zone boundaries reveal Ce and Dy abundances of ~175 ppm and ~78 ppm respectively, but also motivate analyses with higher spatial resolution in order to quantify concentration gradients for diffusion modeling. Subsequent NanoSIMS profiles at 0.2-1 micron spacing across intracrystalline zone boundaries capture Ce and Dy gradients that can be used to provide rejuventation-eruption timescales from the Yellowstone cpx. SIMS analyses employing energy filtering vs. those collected at full transimission both replicate the cpx Ce and Dy zoning and indicate there are not significant mass interferences for Ce and Dy, confirming that the NanoSIMS results replicate true intracrystalline variation. In addition, NanoSIMS Si, Mg, Fe, Ce, and Dy distribution maps of individual exsolution lamellae from the cpx cores provide information about the cooling history of the cpx.

  7. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite in altered granitic plutons and its implications for magnetite classification schemes: Insights from the Handan-Xingtai iron district, North China Craton (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Li, Jian-Wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Koenig, Alan E.; Lowers, Heather A.; Adams, David


    Magnetite is a common mineral in igneous rocks and has been used as an important petrogenetic indicator as its compositions and textures reflect changing physiochemical parameters such as temperature, oxygen fugacity and melt compositions. In upper crustal settings, igneous rocks are often altered by hydrothermal fluids such that the original textures and compositions of igneous magnetite may be partly or completely obliterated, posing interpretive problems in petrological and geochemical studies. In this paper, we present textural and compositional data of magnetite from variably albitized granitoid rocks in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton to characterize the hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite. Four types of magnetite have been identified in the samples studied: pristine igneous magnetite (type 1), reequilibrated porous magnetite (type 2), reequilibrated nonporous magnetite (type 3), and hydrothermal magnetite (type 4). Pristine igneous magnetite contains abundant well-developed ilmenite exsolution lamellae that are largely replaced by titanite during subsequent hydrothermal alteration. The titanite has a larger molar volume than its precursor ilmenite and thus causes micro-fractures in the host magnetite grains, facilitating dissolution and reprecipitation of magnetite. During sodic alteration, the igneous magnetite is extensively replaced by type 2 and type 3 magnetite via fluid-induced dissolution and reprecipitation. Porous type 2 magnetite is the initial replacement product of igneous magnetite and is subsequently replaced by the nonoporous type 3 variety as its surface area is reduced and compositional equilibrium with the altering fluid is achieved. Hydrothermal type 4 magnetite is generally euhedral and lacks exsolution lamellae and porosity, and is interpreted to precipitate directly from the ore-forming fluids. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite has led to progressive chemical purification, during which trace

  8. A Cenozoic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) in the southwest Pacific without rift or plume origin (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Panter, Kurt S.


    Common geological, geochemical, and geophysical characteristics of continental fragments of East Gondwana and adjacent oceanic lithosphere define a long-lived, low-volume, diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) encompassing the easternmost part of the Indo-Australian Plate, West Antarctica, and the southwest portion of the Pacific Plate. A key to generating the Cenozoic magmatism is the combination of metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, in contrast to large igneous provinces where mantle temperatures are presumed to be high. The SW Pacific DAMP magmatism has been conjecturally linked to rifting, strike-slip faulting, mantle plumes, or hundreds of hot spots, but all of these associations have flaws. We suggest instead that sudden detachment and sinking of subducted slabs in the late Cretaceous induced Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities along the former Gondwana margin that in turn triggered lateral and vertical flow of warm Pacific mantle. The interaction of the warm mantle with metasomatized subcontinental lithosphere that characterizes much of the SW Pacific DAMP concentrates magmatism along zones of weakness. The model may also provide a mechanism for warming south Pacific mantle and resulting Cenozoic alkaline magmatism, where the oceanic areas are characterized primarily, but not exclusively, by short-lived hot spot tracks not readily explained by conventional mantle plume theory. This proposed south Pacific DAMP is much larger and longer-lived than previously considered.

  9. Long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin along the Kaoko- and Damara Belts, NW-Namibia (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Hackspacher, Peter; Schneider, Gabriele; Salomon, Eric


    The Kaoko Belt in northwestern Namibia originates in the collision of the Rio de la Plata and Kongo Craton during the Pan-African Orogeny in the Neoproterozoic (1) and represents the northern arm of the Damara Orogen. NW-Namibias continental crust mainly consists of the NE-SW striking intracontinental branch of the Pan-African Damara mobile belt, which separates the Congo from the Kalahari craton. The Damara Orogen is divided into several tectonostratigraphic zones that are bounded by steeply dipping, ductile shear zones. These regional lineaments can be traced at least 150 km offshore (2). The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks (534 (7) Ma - 481 (25) Ma (3) as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic northern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Orogen, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana and eastern margin of Africa (4), and the deposition of the Nama Group sediments and the Karoo megasequence (5). Between the Otjihorongo and the Omaruru Lineament-Waterberg Thrust early Mesozoic tectonic activity is recorded by coarse clastic sediments deposited within NE trending half-graben structures. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183±1 Ma (6). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132±1 Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (7). Early Cretaceous alkaline intrusions (137-124 Ma) occur preferentially along Mesozoic half-graben structures and are called the Damaraland Igneous Province (8). Late Cretaceous alkaline intrusions and kimberlite pipes occur in northern Namibia. Post Early Paleocene siliciclastic sedimentation in Namibia was largely restricted to a 150 km wide zone (9) and is represented by the Tsondab Sandstone Formation (~ 300 m thickness). The oldest part has an age of early Paleocene and the upper part span from middle Miocene

  10. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast... (United States)


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC321 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... (AP) for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

  11. Iron Isotope Fractionation in the Bushveld Igneous Complex Provide Insight into Fractional Crystallization (United States)

    Rios, K. L.; Feineman, M. D.; Bybee, G. M.


    Dated at 2.056 Ga and encompassing an estimated 65,000 km2 in surface area and 650,000 km3 in volume the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa contains the largest and most unique layered mafic intrusion in the world. It contains 80-90% of the world's minable platinum group elements. Scientists are interested in understanding the origin of this intrusion due to its massive size, unique assemblage of minerals, and strongly zoned stratigraphy. Iron isotopes may help us to understand the roles of partial mantle melting and fractional crystallization in magma genesis and differentiation. For example, it may be possible to determine what role fractional crystallization of oxides and sulfides played in the formation of the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) by comparing δ56Fe in samples from the Lower, Critical, Main and Upper Zones. The use of MC-ICPMS has made it more routine to study the fractionation of stable iron isotopes in natural systems; however, this technique has only been applied in a few studies of the RLS, mostly restricted to the Upper Main and Upper Zones. In this study δ56Fe was determined in Upper Zone magnetite, Critical Zone chromitite and Critical Zone sulfides using MC-ICP-MS. Previous research has shown that early crystallizing mafic phases incorporate the lighter 54Fe isotope leaving a residual magma with a higher δ56Fe value. Therefore, if the Upper Zone magma represents a high-degree differentiate of the parental Bushveld magma, then magmas from the Upper Zone would be expected to have a higher δ56Fe than magmas contributing to the Lower, Critical and Main Zones. The results of this experiment were indeed consistent with this hypothesis. The δ56Fe values recorded for the three sample types were: magnetite 0.19 ±0.03‰; sulfides -0.45 ±0.03‰ to -0.81 ±0.03‰; and chromitite 0.03 ±0.05‰. The sulfides of the Critical Zone are isotopically lighter than would be predicted based on equilibrium sulfide-melt fractionation, if the parental

  12. Identification and quantification of gabbro cumulate partial melting in mafic igneous complexes (United States)

    Leuthold, J.


    In mafic magma chambers, olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene fractionate along the basaltic liquid line of descent. Ol-rich, troctolite and gabbro cumulates crystallize. Hot primitive magma sills are regularly injected into igneous complexes where they heat and partially melt surrounding hot rocks, percolate, hybridize and crystallize new and secondary phases (see Figure [1]). Here, I quantify the effect of gabbro cumulate partial melting and hybridization with invading primitive basalt using field observations, Cpx microtexture and core-rim geochemical profiles from the Rum sill complex (Scotland). I have run gabbro-basalt hybrid equilibrium and kinetic experiments to test the effect of gabbro assimilation on the basalt liquid and solid lines of descent. Rum poikilitic gabbro resorbed Cpx cores are overgrown by Cr-, Al-, Zr- and REE-depleted interstitial rim with high Mg#, Eu* and Sr* (see [2]). Plg is reversely zoned. Fractional crystallization fails to explain the combined dissolution texture and incoherent compatible and incompatible elements zoning. Gabbro cumulate partial melting produces a Cpx-depleted residue and a melt that is saturated in Cpx, depleted in Cr, Al, Zr and REE and with high SiO2 and Mg# contents [1]. REE-poor Cpx rim crystallized from a hybrid basalt-gabbro magma, despite a lower DREE. In picrite-gabbro kinetic experiments reacted at conditions where Ol, Plg and Cpx are stable in gabbro but only Ol is stable in primitive basalt (1210°C, NNO-2), gabbro Ol and Cpx are anhedral and reversely zoned and Plg is euhedral. In the reaction rim, Cpx is absent, Ol anhedral grains are small and Cr-Spl abundance strongly increased (to 1.8 vol%). Troctolite small-scale partial melting and hybridization with primitive basalt produces a hybrid Al-rich melt that is Spl over-saturated. Gabbro partial melting products can be very difficult to distinguish from cumulates crystallized along the basalt liquid line of descent, because of the limited

  13. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  14. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  15. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  16. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  17. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  18. Rocas Verdes Ophiolite Complexes in the Southernmost Andes: Remnants of the Mafic Igneous Floor of a Back-arc Basin that Rifted the South American Continental Crust in the Late Jurrassic and Early Cretaceous (United States)

    Stern, C. R.


    The Rocas Verdes are an en echelon group of late Jurassic and early Cretaceous igneous complexes in the southernmost Andes. They consist of mafic pillow lavas, dikes and gabbros interpreted as the upper portions of ophiolite complexes formed along mid-ocean-ridge-type spreading centers. When secondary metamorphic affects are accounted for, the geochemistry of mafic Rocas Verdes rocks are similar to ocean-ridge basalts (MORB). The spreading centers that generated the Rocas Verdes rifted the southwestern margin of the Gondwana continental crust, during the start of break-up in the southern Atlantic, to form the igneous floor of a back-arc basin behind a contemporaneous convergent plate boundary magmatic arc. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous sediments from both the magmatic arc on the southwest and the continental platform on the northeast of the basin were deposited in the Rocas Verdes basin, and these sediments are interbedded with mafic pillow lavas along the margins of the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. Also, mafic dikes and gabbros intrude older pre-Andean and Andean lithologies along both flanks of the Rocas Verdes, and leucocratic country rocks are engulfed in the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. These relations indicate that the Rocas Verdes complexes formed in place and are autochthonous, having been uplifted but not obducted, which may explain the lack of exposure of the deeper ultramafic units. Zircon U/Pb ages of 150+/-1 Ma for the Larsen Harbour Formation, a southern extension of the Rocas Verdes belt on South Georgia Island, and 138+/-2 Ma for the Sarmiento complex, the northernmost in the Rocas Verdes belt, indicate that this basin may have formed by "unzipping" from the south to the north, with the southern portion beginning to form earlier and developing more extensively than the northern portion of the basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the Rocas Verdes basin developed in conjunction with the displacement of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening of

  19. A Distinctive Silica-Rich, Sodium-Poor Igneous Clast in the Bovedy (L3) Chondrite (United States)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.


    Description of Bo-1. One slab of the Bovedy (L3) chondrite contains a large (~ 4 x 7 mm) white object that in hand specimen resembles the generally chondritic lithic fragment studied by Rubin et al. (1981). However, SEM, and EMPA studies of this object, designated Bo-1, reveal an unusually Si-rich, Na-poor bulk composition that is manifested by the presence of a silica mineral, the complete absence of olivine, and feldspar that is less sodic than usual for ordinary chondrites. The clast is a highly crystalline igneous rock and exhibits a well-defined crystallization sequence. Orthopyroxene (opx) comprises 83.8 vol% of Bo-1 and is zoned from En(sub)92-85 Wo(sub)0.1-0.2 to En(sub)74 Wo(sub)1.9-2.9. The more magnesian, less calcic opx was the first phase to crystallize in Bo-1. A silica mineral (SiO2, 6.2 vol%), probably either tridymite or cristobalite, crystallized next and appears slightly "corroded" (and veined) by clinopyroxene, suggesting minor reaction between the silica mineral and its surroundings. A small amount (1 vol%) of euhedral-subhedral pigeonite (pig) also crystallized about this time. Plagioclase (plag) was the last phase to join the crystallization sequence and consists of a fine-scale, often lamellar, intergrowth of bytownite-labradorite (5.8 vol%, mainly An(sub)70- 75Or(sub)1-03) and oligoclase (3.1 vol%, mainly An(sub)15-24 Or(sub)13-6). The latter deviates from feldspar stoichiometry and may be partly amorphous. Volumetrically insignificant augite (aug) occurs as (exsolution?) patches within opx, as thin veinlets crossing SiO(sub)2 grains, and as thin rims at the interface of SiO(sub)2 and plag. The rimming and veining aug may have crystallized together with plag from the last liquid in the rock. Minor chromite (0.2 vol%) and trace metal and sulfide are also present. Bulk composition of Bo-1. The composition of the clast was determined by combining SEM modal data with EMPA data for each phase. The calculated composition (in wt%) is: SiO2, 57

  20. Diversity and distribution of the Gastropoda Opisthobranchia from the Atlantic Ocean: A global biogeographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García


    Full Text Available A zoogeographic study of the Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Atlantic Ocean was carried out. Data on Opisthobranch occurrence were collated from literature records and databases. An estimated 1066 species were considered for this study, which belonged to the orders Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Sacoglossa, Notaspidea and Nudibranchia. Biogeographical patterns were analysed using cluster analysis (TWINSPAN and ordination MDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling program. The richness of opisthobranchs increases from polar to tropical regions along Atlantic shores. The cluster analysis showed that there is a latitudinal and longitudinal separation of the biogeographical areas. The amphiatlantic species can be separated into four groups according to their distribution: G1.1.- the geographic range of species is limited to cold water on both sides of the Atlantic; G1.2.- species with geographic ranges limited to the western Arctic and Boreal regions, with a wide distribution in the eastern Atlantic, from the eastern Arctic or the eastern Boreal region to the Lusitanian and Mediterranean provinces; G2.1.- species with geographic ranges limited to the Caribbean and Mauritanian-Senegalese areas; G2.2.- species with a wide geographical distribution along both Atlantic shores.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty


    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  2. Anesthesia induces stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). (United States)

    Zahl, Inger Hilde; Kiessling, Anders; Samuelsen, Ole Bent; Olsen, Rolf Erik


    Stress in response to anesthesia with benzocaine, MS-222, metomidate and isoeugenol was studied in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) with no concomitant stress from handling or confinement in association with anesthesia or sampling. All of the anesthetics tested induced a stress response in all species, displayed by a release of cortisol to the water. MS-222 anesthesia elicited the highest cortisol release rates, reaching maximum levels 0.5 h post-exposure and returning to basal levels after 3-4 h. Benzocaine anesthesia caused a bimodal response where the initial peak in cortisol release rate was followed by a second increase lasting towards the end of the trial (6 h). This bimodality was more profound in Atlantic salmon than in Atlantic halibut and Atlantic cod. Metomidate anesthesia induced the lowest release of cortisol of the agents tested in both Atlantic halibut and Atlantic cod, but resulted in a bimodal response in Atlantic salmon where the initial increase in cortisol release was followed by a larger increase peaking at 2-2.5 h post exposure before returning to basal levels after 5 h. The stress induced in Atlantic salmon by isoeugenol anesthesia resembled that of MS-222, but did not reach the same elevated level. Overall, the cortisol release was most profound in Atlantic salmon followed by Atlantic halibut and Atlantic cod.

  3. KAr and RbSr geochronology og igneous rocks from the Sierra de Paiman, northwestern Argentina (United States)

    Perez, W. A.; Kawashita, K.


    Epizonal igneous and metamorphic rocks in northwestern Argentina are exposed in the Sierra de Paiman. The metamorphic rocks are quartzites, phyllites, and slates with soft-body impressions and fossil traces that suggest a late Precambrian-Cambrian age. The igneous rocks were intruded during two major magmatic events according to KAr and RbSr data. The older event is represented by different kinds of granitoids and gabbroids, intruded 437-459 Ma. These rocks were emplaced syntectonically in a shear zone that remained active after emplacement, causing extensive mylonitization on the east side of the range. The granitoids show Sr isotopic disturbances possibly related to magma mixing events. Petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic data for these rocks suggest a volcanic-arc setting, probably related to the back arc of the eastward-dipping continental arc of the Famatina Belt. During the younger event ( ca. 379 Ma) stocks and dikes of leucogranites were emplaced post-tectonically with respect to the last episode of mylonitization. The leucogranites have syn-collisional signatures and may thus represent the culmination of the volcanic arc of the Famatina Belt.

  4. Hawai'i and Gale Crater: A Mars Analogue Study of Igneous, Sedimentary, Weathering, and Alteration Trends in Geochemistry (United States)

    Berger, J. A.; Flemming, R. L.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.


    Sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater on Mars indicate a varied provenance with a range of alteration and weathering [1, 2]. Geochemical trends identified in basaltic and alkalic sedimentary rocks by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars rover Curiosity represent a complex interplay of igneous, sedimentary, weathering, and alteration processes. Assessing the relative importance of these processes is challenging with unknown compositions for parent sediment sources and with the constraints provided by Curiosity's instruments. We therefore look to Mars analogues on Earth where higher-resolution analyses and geologic context can constrain interpretations of Gale Crater geochemical observations. We selected Maunakea (AKA Mauna Kea) and Kohala volcanoes, Hawai'i, for an analogue study because they are capped by post-shield transitional basalts and alkalic lavas (hawaiites, mugearites) with compositions similar to Gale Crater [1, 3]. Our aim was to characterize Hawaiian geochemical trends associated with igneous processes, sediment transport, weathering, and alteration. Here, we present initial results and discuss implications for selected trends observed by APXS in Gale Crater.

  5. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results (United States)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen


    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Ontario, Canada, is an intrusive complex representing the crystallized melt sheet that formed within a large impact crater. The SIC has been extensively studied due to its rich endowment in magmatic sulfide ores (Ni-Cu-PGEs). The nature and origin of the SIC melt sheet and its subsequent evolution still remain controversial. In this study, analyses of primary melt inclusions hosted in cumulus apatite within three mafic units of the SIC (gabbro, norite and sublayer quartz diorite) are used to decipher the thermometric and chemical characteristics of the evolving melt sheet as it crystallized. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions commonly display a negative crystal shape, occur parallel to the c-axis, and often occur within a central growth zone, which suggest a primary origin. The compositions of coeval (co-entrapped) melt inclusions are distinct and may represent either the products of immiscibility (low or high temperature field; c.f. the Skaergaard Intrusion: Jakobsen et al., Geology, 2005), or a product of early, high-temperature, impact-generated emulsification (prior to and independent of crystallization of the melt sheet). The compositions of homogenized (1100-1200oC for 3 hrs) melt inclusions, determined by SEM-EDS and EMP analyses of opened, homogenized melt inclusions, equate to two distinct compositions: (1) Type-I are SiO2-rich, ranging from tonalitic to granodioritic in composition (60-70 wt% SiO2, up to 11 wt% FeO); and (2) Type-II are Fe-rich with syenogabbroic to essexitic to alkali gabbroic compositions (27-49 wt% SiO2, 16-44 wt% FeO). Trace element data, obtained by LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions and surrounding host apatite, are used to infer D values between apatite and the two melt types, and between the coexisting melt types. Apparent Dap-melt values for both Type-I and Type-II inclusions show that the REE, Sr, and Y are compatible in apatite, and As is weakly compatible or incompatible in apatite

  6. The Igneous Architecture of IODP Hole U1309D: Constructing Oceanic Crust from Multiple Sills (United States)

    Christofferson, C. A.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; Swapp, S. M.; Grimes, C. B.


    . J-indices for plagioclase a-axes range between 1.28-1.34, and between 1.26-1.29 for the b-axes. These values are comparable to those for the Dufek Intrusion, Antarctica (1.12-1.39 for plagioclase a-axes and 1.18-1.84 for plagioclase b-axes). There is little evidence for significant deformation, which might be expected if the sills were emplaced at one depth and then underwent gabbro-glacier flow to generate the several km thick gabbro crust. However, bent and kinked grains and deformation twins are commonly found in the coarser grained gabbros. These fabrics are likely produced as later sills intrude recently crystallized gabbros. Grimes et al. (2008) uses U-Pb zircon dating to show that the ~1.5km long borehole records a 200 ky emplacement history. This age range permits an estimate of the length-scale over which the sills were emplaced. Assuming the sills were intruded whilst the detachment fault footwall was moving (18mm/yr), then the present day distribution of the dated igneous units down the core implies that the intrusive activity occurred over a depth of ~3.6km. Therefore, we envision that the gabbros accreted as a series of multiple sills at 6-10km below the seafloor.

  7. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic reef fishes indicates both origin and accumulation of diversity in the Caribbean

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    Robertson D Ross


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two processes may contribute to the formation of global centers of biodiversity: elevated local speciation rates (the center of origin hypothesis, and greater accumulation of species formed elsewhere (the center of accumulation hypothesis. The relative importance of these processes has long intrigued marine biogeographers but rarely has been tested. Results To examine how origin and accumulation affected the Greater Caribbean center of diversity, we conducted a range-wide survey of mtDNA cytochrome b in the widespread Atlantic reef damselfish Chromis multilineata (N = 183 that included 10 locations in all four tropical Atlantic biogeographic provinces: the Greater Caribbean, Brazil, the mid-Atlantic ridge, and the tropical eastern Atlantic. We analyzed this data and re-evaluated published genetic data from other reef fish taxa (wrasses and parrotfishes to resolve the origin and dispersal of mtDNA lineages. Parsimony networks, mismatch distributions and phylogenetic analyses identify the Caribbean population of C. multilineata as the oldest, consistent with the center of origin model for the circum-Atlantic radiation of this species. However, some Caribbean haplotypes in this species were derived from Brazilian lineages, indicating that mtDNA diversity has not only originated but also accumulated in the Greater Caribbean. Data from the wrasses and parrotfishes indicate an origin in the Greater Caribbean in one case, Caribbean origin plus accumulation in another, and accumulation in the remaining two. Conclusion Our analyses indicate that the Greater Caribbean marine biodiversity hotspot did not arise through the action of a single mode of evolutionary change. Reef fish distributions at the boundaries between Caribbean and Brazilian provinces (the SE Caribbean and NE Brazil, respectively indicate that the microevolutionary patterns we detected in C. multilineata and other reef fishes translate into macroevolutionary processes

  8. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic reef fishes indicates both origin and accumulation of diversity in the Caribbean. (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz A; Rocha, Claudia R; Robertson, D Ross; Bowen, Brian W


    Two processes may contribute to the formation of global centers of biodiversity: elevated local speciation rates (the center of origin hypothesis), and greater accumulation of species formed elsewhere (the center of accumulation hypothesis). The relative importance of these processes has long intrigued marine biogeographers but rarely has been tested. To examine how origin and accumulation affected the Greater Caribbean center of diversity, we conducted a range-wide survey of mtDNA cytochrome b in the widespread Atlantic reef damselfish Chromis multilineata (N = 183) that included 10 locations in all four tropical Atlantic biogeographic provinces: the Greater Caribbean, Brazil, the mid-Atlantic ridge, and the tropical eastern Atlantic. We analyzed this data and re-evaluated published genetic data from other reef fish taxa (wrasses and parrotfishes) to resolve the origin and dispersal of mtDNA lineages. Parsimony networks, mismatch distributions and phylogenetic analyses identify the Caribbean population of C. multilineata as the oldest, consistent with the center of origin model for the circum-Atlantic radiation of this species. However, some Caribbean haplotypes in this species were derived from Brazilian lineages, indicating that mtDNA diversity has not only originated but also accumulated in the Greater Caribbean. Data from the wrasses and parrotfishes indicate an origin in the Greater Caribbean in one case, Caribbean origin plus accumulation in another, and accumulation in the remaining two. Our analyses indicate that the Greater Caribbean marine biodiversity hotspot did not arise through the action of a single mode of evolutionary change. Reef fish distributions at the boundaries between Caribbean and Brazilian provinces (the SE Caribbean and NE Brazil, respectively) indicate that the microevolutionary patterns we detected in C. multilineata and other reef fishes translate into macroevolutionary processes and that origin and accumulation have acted in concert

  9. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS...

  10. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  11. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  12. The deep subsurface biosphere in igneous ocean crust: frontier habitats for microbiological exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina eEdwards


    Full Text Available We discuss ridge flank environments in the ocean crust as habitats for subseafloor microbial life. Oceanic ridge flanks, areas far from the magmatic and tectonic influence of seafloor spreading, comprise one of the largest and least explored microbial habitats on the planet. We describe the nature of the ridge flank crustal environments, and present a framework for delineating a continuum of conditions and processes that are likely to be important for defining subseafloor microbial "provinces." The basis for this framework is three governing sets of conditions that help to determine the nature of subseafloor biomes: crustal age, extent of fluid flow, and thermal state. We present a brief overview of subseafloor conditions, within the context of these three characteristics, for five field sites where microbial studies have been done, are underway, or have been proposed. Technical challenges remain and likely will limit progress in studies of microbial ridge-flank ecosystems, which is why it is vital to select and design future studies so as to leverage as much general understanding as possible. A characterization framework such as presented in this paper, perhaps including alternative or additional physical or chemical characteristics, is essential for achieving the greatest benefit from multidisciplinary microbial investigations of the oceanic ridge flanks.

  13. Atlantic Seaduck Project (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie


    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  14. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt


    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  15. Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfoundland destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods. (United States)

    Liboiron, Max; Liboiron, France; Wells, Emily; Richárd, Natalie; Zahara, Alexander; Mather, Charles; Bradshaw, Hillary; Murichi, Judyannet


    Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic. This is the first report for plastic ingestion in fish in Newfoundland, Canada, a province dependent on fish for sustenance and livelihoods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, G.


    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  17. Regression-Correlation of Petrophysical Inter-Parameter of Igneous Rocks and Limestone from Kulonprogo Mountain Region, Yogyakarta Special Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Maryanto


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.127Laboratory test of complete petrophysic parameters encompasing water absorption, compressive strength, Los Angeles abrasive strength, Rudellof abrasive strength, and wear resistance with Na2SO4 has been carried out for igneous and carbonate rocks taken from Kulonprogo Mountains region. Statistical verification of the data exhibits variation of correlation coefficients among parameters ranging from medium to very high value. The values of petrophysic test results are determined by the rock types. The result of this study is useful to estimate the accuracy of values of each parameter test result in Geological Survey Institute Laboratory using regression formula representing each relationship.

  18. Ages, geochemistry and tectonic implications of the Cambrian igneous rocks in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Yanrong; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Liu, Binqiang; Zhou, Jianping; Zhao, Yingli


    The Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone, located in the Great Xing'an Range, NE China, in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), represents the boundary between the Erguna and Xing'an micro-continental blocks. The exact location of the Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone has been debated, especially, the location of the northern extension of the suture zone. In this study, based on a detailed field, geochemical, geochronological and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope study, we focus our work on the Cambrian igneous rocks in the Erguna-Xing'an block. The Xinglong granitoids, mainly include ∼520 Ma diorite, ∼470 Ma monzogranite and ∼480 Ma pyroxene diorite. The granitoids show medium to high-K calc-alkaline series characteristics with post-collision granite affinity. The circa 500 Ma granitoids have low εHf (t) values (-16.6 to +2.2) and ancient two-stage model (TDM2) ages between 1317 Ma and 2528 Ma. These results indicate the primary magmas of the Xinglong granitoids were probably derived from the partial melting of a dominantly Paleo-Mesoproterozoic ;old; crustal source with possible different degrees of addition of juvenile materials, and formed in a post-collision tectonic setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an blocks. Compared with the Xinglong granitoids, the Duobaoshan igneous rocks are consisted of the approximately coeval rhyolitic tuffs (491 ± 5 Ma) and ultramafic intrusions (497 ± 5 Ma) within the Duobaoshan Formation. They are generally enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), consistent with the geochemistry of igneous rocks from island arcs or active continental margins. The ultramafic rocks have high positive εHf (t) values (+1.3 to +15) and εNd (t) (+1.86 to +2.28), and relatively young two-stage model (TDM2) ages and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70628-0.70853), indicating the partial melting of a depleted mantle source from a subducted slab in

  19. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)


    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  20. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc (United States)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.


    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  1. Ferroan Dolomitization by Seawater Interaction with Mafic Igneous Dikes and Carbonate Host Rock at the Latemar Platform, Dolomites, Italy: Numerical Modeling of Spatial, Temporal, and Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blomme


    Full Text Available Numerous publications address the petrogenesis of the partially dolomitized Latemar carbonate platform, Italy. A common factor is interpretation of geochemical data in terms of heating via regional igneous activity that provided kinetically favorable conditions for replacement dolomitization. New field, petrographic, XRD, and geochemical data demonstrate a spatial, temporal, and geochemical link between replacement dolomite and local mafic igneous dikes that pervasively intrude the platform. Dikes are dominated by strongly altered plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Significantly, where ferroan dolomite is present, it borders dikes. We hypothesize that seawater interacted with mafic minerals, causing Fe enrichment in the fluid that subsequently participated in dolomitization. This hypothesis was tested numerically through thermodynamic (MELTS, Arxim-GEM and reactive flow (Arxim-LMA simulations. Results confirm that seawater becomes Fe-enriched during interaction with clinopyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite and plagioclase (anorthite-albite-orthoclase solid solutions. Reaction of modified seawater with limestone causes ferroan and nonferroan replacement dolomitization. Dolomite quantities are strongly influenced by temperature. At 40 to 80°C, ferroan dolomite proportions decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that Latemar dolomitization likely occurred at lower temperatures. This relationship between igneous dikes and dolomitization may have general significance due to the widespread association of carbonates with rifting-related igneous environments.

  2. Hierarchical, quantitative biogeographic provinces for all North American turtles and their contribution to the biogeography of turtles and the continent (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Hoagstrom, Christopher W.


    Our study represents the first attempt to describe biogeographic provinces for North American (México, United States, and Canada) turtles. We analyzed three nested data sets separately: (1) all turtles, (2) freshwater turtles, and (3) aquatic turtles. We georeferenced North American turtle distributions, then we created presence–absence matrices for each of the three data sets. We used watershed unit as biogeographic units. We conducted an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis on each Jaccard index distance matrix from our watershed species matrices to delineate biogeographic provinces. Provinces were then tested for significant differences in species compositions in a global model with the use of a one-way analysis of similarity. We conducted a best subset of environmental variables with maximum (rank) correlation with community dissimilarities that determined the best model of abiotic variables explaining province delineation (i.e., climate, topography, and stream channel). To identify which species contributed the most to province delineations, we conducted an indicator species analysis and a similarity-percentage analysis. There were 16 all-turtle provinces, 15 freshwater provinces, and 13 aquatic provinces. Species compositions delineating the provinces were explained by abiotic variables, including mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation seasonality, and diversity of streams. Province delineations correspond closely with geographical boundaries, many of which have Pleistocene origins. For example, rivers with a history of carrying glacial runoff (e.g., Arkansas, Mississippi) sometimes dissect upland provinces, especially for aquatic and semiaquatic turtles. Compared with freshwater fishes, turtles show greater sensitivity to decreased temperature with restriction of most taxa south of the last permafrost maximum. Turtles also exhibit higher sensitivity to climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic instability, with richness

  3. Triassic post collision igneous activity and granulite facies metamorphic event in the Yangpyeong area, South Korea and its meaning to the tectonics of Northeast Asia (United States)

    Lee, S.; Oh, C.


    The Korean peninsula is tectonically positioned in the eastern margin of the Asia continent and the Gyeonggi massif is situated in the center part of Korean peninsula. Triassic (231 Ma) eclogite was first found in the Hongseong area, the southwestern part of the Gyeonggi Massif, which suggested that the Hongseong area is the extension of Triassic collision belt between the North and South China blocks, in China. The 257-226 post-collisional mangerite was also found in the Odesan area, the eastern part of Gyeonggi massif. Based on these new findings, it was proposed that the line connecting Hongseong and Odesan areas is the collision belt between the North and South China blocks. It was also reported that 247 Ma ultrahigh temperature metamorphism occurred together with the intrusion of mangerite in the Odesan area indicating that regional metamorphism occurred together with the post-collision igneous activity. The Yangpyeong area locates in the middle part of the Hongseong-Odesan collision belt. The area mainly consists of Precambrian migmatitic gneiss which was intruded by Triassic igneous complex. The igneous complex mainly consists of gabbro and porpyritic syeno-diorite and SHRIMP age dating indicates that they intruded at 227 ± 4 Ma. They are shoshonitic and high-K series and have high Ba, Sr contents. They show LREE enriched pattern and Nb, Ta, P, Ti depletion in the chondrite- and primitive-mantle-normalized trace element patterns, respectively. In the tectonic discrimination diagrams, gabbros are plotted in the within plate tectonic field and porpyritic syeno-diorites are plotted in the Post-collision field. These geochemical characters indicate that they formed in the within plate after continental collision. Two metamorphic ages (1861 ± 6 Ma, and 235 ± 6 Ma) are obtained from the migmatitic gneiss. The peak metamorphic conditions of the first Precambrian metamorphism are 750-780°C and 8-10 kbar indicating intermediate-P/T metamorphism. On the other hand

  4. Witches in the Atlantic World. (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine


    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  5. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.


    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  6. Climate change impact on seaweed meadow distribution in the North Atlantic rocky intertidal. (United States)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Tyberghein, Lennert; Verbruggen, Heroen; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice


    The North-Atlantic has warmed faster than all other ocean basins and climate change scenarios predict sea surface temperature isotherms to shift up to 600 km northwards by the end of the 21st century. The pole-ward shift has already begun for many temperate seaweed species that are important intertidal foundation species. We asked the question: Where will climate change have the greatest impact on three foundational, macroalgal species that occur along North-Atlantic shores: Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, and Ascophyllum nodosum? To predict distributional changes of these key species under three IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) climate change scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) over the coming two centuries, we generated Ecological Niche Models with the program MAXENT. Model predictions suggest that these three species will shift northwards as an assemblage or "unit" and that phytogeographic changes will be most pronounced in the southern Arctic and the southern temperate provinces. Our models predict that Arctic shores in Canada, Greenland, and Spitsbergen will become suitable for all three species by 2100. Shores south of 45° North will become unsuitable for at least two of the three focal species on both the Northwest- and Northeast-Atlantic coasts by 2200. If these foundational species are unable to adapt to the rising temperatures, they will lose their centers of genetic diversity and their loss will trigger an unpredictable shift in the North-Atlantic intertidal ecosystem.

  7. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.


    This tabular data set represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data are from Fenneman and Johnson's Physiographic Provinces of the United States, which is based on 8 major divisions, 25 provinces, and 86 sections representing distinctive areas having common topography, rock type and structure, and geologic and geomorphic history (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  8. Petrology and mineralogy of the La Peña igneous complex, Mendoza, Argentina: An alkaline occurrence in the Miocene magmatism of the Southern Central Andes (United States)

    Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Galliski, Miguel Ángel; Márquez-Zavalía, María Florencia; Colombo, Fernando


    The La Peña alkaline igneous complex (LPC) is located in the Precordillera (32°41‧34″ S - 68°59‧48″ W) of Mendoza province, Argentina, above the southern boundary of the present-day flat-slab segment. It is a 19 km2 and 5 km diameter subcircular massif emplaced during the Miocene (19 Ma) in the Silurian-Devonian Villavicencio Fm. The LPC is composed of several plutonic and subvolcanic intrusions represented by: a cumulate of clinopyroxenite intruded by mafic dikes and pegmatitic gabbroic dikes, isolated bodies of malignite, a central intrusive syenite that develops a wide magmatic breccia in the contact with clinopyroxenite, syenitic and trachytic porphyries, a system of radial and ring dikes of different compositions (trachyte, syenite, phonolite, alkaline lamprophyre, tephrite), and late mafic breccias. The main minerals that form the LPC, ordered according to their abundance, are: pyroxene (diopside, hedenbergite), calcium amphibole (pargasite, ferro-pargasite, potassic-ferro-pargasite, potassic-hastingsite, magnesio-hastingsite, hastingsite, potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite), trioctahedral micas (annite-phlogopite series), plagioclase (bytownite to oligoclase), K-feldspar (sanidine and orthoclase), nepheline, sodalite, apatite group minerals (fluorapatite, hydroxylapatite), andradite, titanite, magnetite, spinel, ilmenite, and several Cu-Fe sulfides. Late hydrothermal minerals are represented by zeolites (scolecite, thomsonite-Ca), epidote, calcite and chlorite. The trace element patterns, coupled with published data on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, suggest that the primary magma of the LPC was generated in an initially depleted but later enriched lithospheric mantle formed mainly by a metasomatized spinel lherzolite, and that this magmatism has a subduction-related signature. The trace elements pattern of these alkaline rocks is similar to other Miocene calc-alkaline occurrences from the magmatic arc of the Southern Central Andes. Mineral and whole

  9. Petrological and geochemical study of doleritic intrusions of Moatize area, Tete Province, Mozambique (United States)

    Ilídio Mário, Rui; Mendes, Maria Helena; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara


    The dolerite samples studied in this work are part of drilling cores, obtained during exploration campaigns by the Ncondezi Coal Company, in the prospect area 805L, located at NE of Moatize, Tete Province, Mozambique. The dolerite bodies are intrusive into sedimentary formations of the Karoo Supergroup. The intrusions have a probable Jurassic age, around 180 Ma, based on a geochronological information (GTK Consortium, 2006) from a similar body cropping out in another area of the Tete Province. The studied rocks were affected by hydrothermal alteration, testified by the pervasive occurrence of the assemblage serpentine + chlorite + sericite + sphene + calcite ± epidote ± tremolite-actinolite, and by filling of vesicles and fractures by calcite, pyrite or calcite + pyrite ± quartz. However, the selected samples preserve igneous intergranular textures. Petrographic evidence suggests that the primary mineral associations included plagioclase, titanaugite, olivine, apatite, opaques, biotite and hornblende. These assemblages are variably preserved and, in the samples most intensely altered, the igneous minerals were almost totally replaced. Whole-rock major and trace element data, with particular emphasis on immobile elements, indicate that the analysed samples are basic and that they can be seen as cogenetic, belonging to the alkaline series and showing compositions similar to present-day intraplate basalts. The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd data seem to confirm the cogenetic nature of the studied dolerites. In fact, in the least altered samples, both [87Sr/86Sr]180Ma and ɛNd180Ma define relatively small ranges: +0.7050 ≥ [87Sr/86Sr]180Ma ≥ 0.7038 +10 ≥ ɛSr180Ma ≥ -7 and +3.6 ≥ ɛNd180Ma ≥ +1.7. In addition, this clearly indicates that parental melts were generated in a mantle source and that magmas did not undergo significant crustal contamination during their ascent and emplacement. The described isotopic compositions, besides plotting in an area common to OIB, are

  10. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA (United States)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.


    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  11. Thermal history and differential exhumation across the Eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia: Insights from low-temperature thermochronology (United States)

    Glorie, Stijn; Agostino, Kate; Dutch, Rian; Pawley, Mark; Hall, James; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.; Collins, Alan S.


    Multi-method geo- and thermochronological data obtained for Palaeo- and Mesoproterozoic granitoids traversing the main structural architecture of the eastern Musgrave Province within South Australia reveal multiphase cooling histories. Apatite U-Pb dating on six samples yield consistent ages of 1075-1025 Ma, suggesting a thermal reset coinciding with mantle-derived magmatism of the greater Warakurna Large Igneous Province ( 1080-1040 Ma). Apatite fission track (AFT) analysis indicate that four discrete thermal events affected the study area, inducing cooling through the AFT partial annealing zone ( 60-120 °C), supported by apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Late Neoproterozoic cooling from deep crustal levels to temperatures history for the eastern Musgraves and help to elucidate the poorly appreciated tectonic evolution of inland Australia. This study further demonstrates how high-density sample transects across structural architecture can assess the relative crustal level and associated preservation of the thermal history record within fault-reactivated terranes.

  12. Bio- and Petroleum Geochemistry of Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic): From Fluid Sources to Microbial Methane Oxidation and Carbonate Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.N.


    The Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic) are both mud volcano (MV) provinces characterized by the presence of gas hydrates, methane-related carbonates, and chemosynthetic biota but possess differences in geological history, tectonics, composition of sedimentary cover,

  13. Geologic Provinces of the Arctic, 2000 (prvarcst) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.

  14. The role of Atlantic overturning circulation in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R


    Observed Atlantic major hurricane frequency has exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability since the 1940s. However, the cause of this variability is debated. Using observations and a coupled earth system model (GFDL-ESM2G), here we show that the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is associated with a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) inferred from ocean observations. Directly observed North Atlantic sulfate aerosol optical depth has not increased (but shows a modest decline) over this period, suggesting the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005-2015 is not likely due to recent changes in anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Instead, we find coherent multidecadal variations involving the inferred AMOC and Atlantic major hurricane frequency, along with indices of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability and inverted vertical wind shear. Our results provide evidence for an important role of the AMOC in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency.

  15. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province


    HUANG, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu


    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...



    Hassan Ghahari; Enzo Colonnelli


    The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran) according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera...

  17. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Jurassic volcanic province of Patagonia: migrating magmatism related to Gondwana break-up and subduction (United States)

    Féraud, G.; Alric, V.; Fornari, M.; Bertrand, H.; Haller, M.


    The Mesozoic large igneous province (LIP) of Patagonia (southern South America), which is one of the largest silicic provinces on Earth has been investigated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar method. Twenty-seven ages considered as valid, including twenty plateau ages, show that the volcanic activity, ranging from 187 to 144 Ma, occurred between and contemporaneously with the initial break-up of Gondwana (starting with the Karoo-Antarctic-Tasmanian (KAT) flood basalt province) in the east, and a subduction in the west. The data display a regular decreasing of ages from the ENE (187 Ma) to the WSW (144 Ma) along about 650 km, apparently related to the tectonic structure in half-grabens oriented NNW-SSE. The good fitting of this trend with the opening of the Rocas Verdes-Sarmiento marginal basin favors a space time evolution of this continental volcanism culminating towards the SSW in a continental disruption behind the magmatic arc. The observed age progression of volcanism may be the result of the variations of the physical characteristics of the subduction. The spreading and thermal effect of the KAT plume may have an additional effect and also could account for the unusually large volume of magma.

  18. The role of Atlantic overturning circulation in the recent decline of Atlantic major hurricane frequency


    Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R.


    Observed Atlantic major hurricane frequency has exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability since the 1940s. However, the cause of this variability is debated. Using observations and a coupled earth system model (GFDL-ESM2G), here we show that the decline of the Atlantic major hurricane frequency during 2005–2015 is associated with a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) inferred from ocean observations. Directly observed North Atlantic sulfate aerosol optical ...

  19. halogen Contents of igneous minerals as indicators of magmatic evolution of rocks associated with the Ray porphyry copper deposit, Arizona (United States)

    Banks, Norman G.


    The contents of Cl, F, and H2O+ (calculated) in some hydrous igneous minerals in intrusive rocks of Laramide age (70-60 m.y.) near Ray, Ariz., appear to be related to the age and the chemistry of the whole-rock samples. Apatite and biotite in younger, more silicic rocks contain more F but less Cl and H2O+ than apatite and biotite in older, more mafic rock; the same relations hold for F and H2O+ in sphene. Correlations of the abundance of Cl, F, and H2O+ in hornblende with rock chemistry and age are not as strong as for apatite, biotite, and sphene; igneous (?) epidote does not contain Cl and F in amounts detectable by electron microprobe analysis. The contents of Cl, F, and H2O+ in whole-rock samples decrease with increasing differentiation index and decreasing age. Data for a single pluton of variable composition mirror the results for a suite of different plutons and dikes. The data are satisfactorily although not exclusively explained by postulating that the melts each contained progressively less Cl, F, and H2O and that the hydrons minerals consumed most of the Cl, F, and H2O in the magmas. The data may also be explained by postulating that (1) the stocks evolved Cl-bearing water during their ascent and crystallization, or that (2) Cl and H2O were concentrated during differentiation of the stocks but the minerals failed to record their buildup. Both alternative explanations find problems with and require special conditions to satisfy field, chemical, and experimental data. If many of the special conditions are not met, a nearby batholithic parent to the stocks is not a favorable source of the mineralized fluids at Ray. Propylitic alteration of biotite results in Cl-poor chlorites and may have provided some Cl to hydrothermal fluids; biotite may have also supplied some F to propylitizing fluids through alteration.

  20. The Asama igneous complex, central Japan: An ultramafic-mafic layered intrusion in the Mikabu greenstone belt, Sambagawa metamorphic terrain (United States)

    Agata, T.


    The Asama igneous complex comprises layered mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks exposed over about 500×6000 m in the Mikabu greenstone belt, Sambagawa metamorphic terrain of Mie Prefecture; its margins terminate by faults, and there is no trace of chilled rocks. The exposed layered sequence is about 460 m thick, and includes dunite, plagioclase wehrlite, olivine gabbro and two-pyroxene gabbro. The crystallization sequence of essential cumulus minerals is olivine, followed by plagioclase and clinopyroxene together, and finally the appearance of orthopyroxene. Olivine systematically varies in composition from Fo 89 to Fo 78 with stratigraphic height in the lower to middle portion of the layered sequence. The composition of clinopyroxene changes from Ca 49Mg 46Fe 5 to Ca 40Mg 47Fe 13 upward in the layered sequence; cumulus orthopyroxene, which occurs at the top of the exposed layered sequence, has a composition of Ca 2Mg 74Fe 24. Cumulus chromite occurs as disseminated grains in peridotitic rocks, and tends to increase its {Fe3+}/{(Cr+Al+Fe 3+) } ratio with stratigraphic height. The most aluminous chromite [ {Cr}/{(Cr+Al)} = 0.48 ] occurs in dunite that crystallized shortly before plagioclase began to separate as an essential phase. The {Cr}/{(Cr+Al)} ratio of the most aluminous chromite, coupled with the crystallization order of essential minerals, suggests that the Asama parental magma was moderately enriched in plagioclase and clinopyroxene components in the normative mineral diagram plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene. It was similar to a Hawaiian tholeiite and different from the Bushveld and Great "Dyke" parental magmas that were more enriched in orthopyroxene component; it also differed from mid-oceanic ridge basalts that are more depleted in the orthopyroxene component. The Asama clinopyroxene and chromite show characteristically high TiO 2 contents and are also similar to those in Hawaiian tholeiites. The Asama igneous complex probably resulted from the

  1. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa


    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  2. Age of Tertiary volcanic rocks on the West Greenland continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lotte M.; Pedersen, Asger K.; Tegner, Christian


    across the entire North Atlantic Igneous Province. A quiescent 58–56 Ma period correlates with similar periods in East Greenland and the Faroes, and the Naqerloq Formation is coeval with the Eocene basalts in East Greenland. The Paleocene and Eocene tholeiitic basalts are distinguishable chemically...

  3. Species richness and distribution patterns of echinoderms in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-56°S

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    Valeria Souto


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile and analyse available historical information on echinoderms in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean in order to make a synthesis of present taxonomical knowledge, to identify patterns of geographical distribution of echinoderm assemblages and to test the validity of the current zoogeographic scheme for this group. This study was conducted on the Argentinean continental shelf, southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-56°S. An intensive research on geo-referenced data was carried out to make a knowledge synthesis on echinoderm species and thus create a historical database. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse the faunal composition through latitudinal and bathymetric gradients as well as echinoderm associations. The results confirmed the existence of two faunal associations that correspond to the traditional zoogeographic scheme established for the Argentine Sea: the Argentinean and Magellan Provinces. The Argentinean Province had 46 widely distributed species. Of the 86 species recorded in the Magellan Province, a high percentage (25% were also found in Antarctic waters, suggesting a strong connection between the echinoderm fauna of this province and the Antarctic Region. The species richness between 34 and 56°S in the Atlantic Ocean showed a significant increase in reference to latitude, with the highest values being recorded between 46 and 56°S. In view of the high percentage of shared species with Antarctica, considered a hot-spot region in terms of echinoderm diversity, the pattern of distribution of species richness observed in our study area could correspond to a dispersion of this species from Antarctic to sub-Antarctic regions.

  4. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel (United States)


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA573 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP...

  5. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery (United States)


    ... 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting Director...

  6. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September 20...

  7. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season (United States)


    ... Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS...

  8. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season (United States)


    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark fishing...

  9. Petrological and geochemical characterization of the plutonic rocks of the Sierra de La Aguada, Province of San Luis, Argentina: Genetic implications with the Famatinian magmatic arc

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    E. Cristofolini


    Full Text Available This study presents a synthesis on the geology of the crystalline complex that constitute the Sierra de la Aguada, San Luis province, Argentine, from an approach based on field relations, petrologic and structural features and geochemical characteristic. This mountain range exposes a basement dominated by intermediate to mafic calcalkaline igneous rocks and peraluminous felsic granitoids, both emplaced in low to medium grade metamorphic rocks stabilized under low amphibolite facies. All this lithological terrane has been grouped in the El Carrizal-La Aguada Complex. Field relations, petrographic characterization and geochemical comparison of the plutonic rocks from the study area with those belonging to the Ordovician Famatinian suit exposed in the Sierra Grande de San Luis, suggest a genetic and temporal relation linked to the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc.

  10. Platinum group elements in stream sediments of mining zones: The Hex River (Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa) (United States)

    Almécija, Clara; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Wepener, Victor; Prego, Ricardo


    Assessment of the environmental impact of platinum group elements (PGE) and other trace elements from mining activities is essential to prevent potential environmental risks. This study evaluates the concentrations of PGE in stream sediments of the Hex River, which drains the mining area of the Bushveld Igneous Complex (South Africa), at four sampling points. Major, minor and trace elements (Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, Mn, V, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Co, Ni, Cd, and Pb) were analyzed by FAAS and ETAAS in suspended particulate matter and different sediment fractions (Cr, Pt, Pd, Rh and Ir show concentrations 3-, 13- 18-, 28-, 48- and 44- fold the typical upper continental crust levels, respectively, although lower than concentrations reported for the parent rocks. The highest concentrations were observed closer to the mining area, decreasing with distance and in the <63 μm fraction, probably derived from atmospheric deposition and surface runoff of PGE-rich particles released from mining activities. Thus, mining activities are causing some disturbance of the surface PGE geochemical cycle, increasing the presence of PGE in the fine fraction of river sediments. We propose that indicators such as airborne particulate matter, and soil and river sediment quality, should be added to the protocols for evaluating the sustainability of mining activities.

  11. Gravimetric and magnetic fabric study of the Sintra Igneous complex: laccolith-plug emplacement in the Western Iberian passive margin (United States)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Aranguren, Aitor; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, Maria Carla; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Azevedo, Maria do Rosário


    The geometry and emplacement of the 96 km2, Late Cretaceous Sintra Igneous complex (SIC, ca. 80 Ma) into the West Iberian passive margin is presented, based on structural data, gravimetric modeling, and magnetic fabrics. A granite laccolith ( 76 km2, gravimetric modeling) surrounds a suite of gabbro-diorite-syenite plugs ( 20 km2, 4 km deep) and is encircled by cone sheets and radial dykes. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility was interpreted from 54 sites showing fabrics of para- and ferro-magnetic origin. Most fabrics can be interpreted to have a magmatic origin, according to the scarcity of solid-state deformation in most part of the massif. Magnetic foliations are shallowly dipping in the granite laccolith and contain a sub-horizontal ENE-WSW lineation. The gabbro-syenite body displays concentric magnetic foliations having variable dips and steeply-plunging lineations. The SIC can be interpreted to be intruded along an NNW-SSE, 200 km-long fault, perpendicular to the magnetic lineation within the laccolith, and was preceded by the intrusion of basic sills and plugs. The SIC intruded the Mesozoic series of the Lusitanian Basin during the post-rift, passive margin stage, and its geometry was only slightly modified during the Paleogene inversion that resulted in thrusting of the northern border of the intrusion over the country rocks.

  12. A discussion of isotopic systematics and mineral zoning in the shergottites - Evidence for a 180 m.y. igneous crystallization age (United States)

    Jones, J. H.


    The chronologies of the Shergotty, Zagami, ALHA 77005, and EETA 79001 meteorites were reexamined on the basis of shergottites' petrography and mineral chemistry data. Among the various isochrons, the concordant Rb-Sr (about 180 Myr) and U-Th-Pb (about 190 Myr) internal isochrons are interpreted as representing the time of igneous crystallization, while the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Pb-Pb whole-rock isochrons are interpreted as mixing lines, and are reasonably attributed to igneous processes such as wall-rock assimilation and magma mixing. If the approximated age of less than 200 Myr is correct, the shergottites represent the youngest known extraterrestrial basalts. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that the SNC meteorites are samples of Mars.

  13. Epidemiology of Ectopic Pregnancy in Hamadan Province

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    Fatemeh Shobeiri


    Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%. Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2% were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.

  14. Contrasting patterns of phytoplankton pigments and chemotaxonomic groups along 30°S in the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Araujo, Milton Luiz Vieira; Mendes, Carlos Rafael Borges; Tavano, Virginia Maria; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Baringer, Molly O'Neil


    This work describes the spatial distribution of pigments and main taxonomic groups of phytoplankton in the biogeochemical provinces of the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean, along 30°S latitude. Seawater samples (surface to 200 m depth) were collected along 120 oceanographic stations occupied in the early austral spring of 2011, during a CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography cruise. The pigments were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and CHEMTAX software was used to determine the relative contributions of the main taxonomic groups to total chlorophyll a (phytoplankton biomass index). Sampling stations were grouped into three provinces: Africa, Gyre, and Brazil, corresponding to the eastern, central, and western sectors of the transect, respectively. Our results showed that both vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of pigments and taxonomic groups were mainly determined by the availability of light and/or nutrients. Photosynthetic carotenoids (PSCs), associated with small flagellates (mainly haptophytes), dominated the light-limited and nutrient-enhanced deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layers of both the Brazil and Gyre provinces, as well as the upwelling influenced surface waters of the Africa province. The latter showed the highest chlorophyll a values ​​(>1 mg m-3) and abundance of dinoflagellates in the coastal region. Photoprotective carotenoids (PPCs) were predominant in the nutrient-poor and well-lit surface layers of the Brazil and Gyre provinces, associated with a low content of chlorophyll a ( 0.1 mg m-3) and dominance of prokaryotes (Synechoccocus and Prochloroccocus). This study demonstrates that pigment analysis can provide a useful approach to better understand the distribution of phytoplankton communities along physical-chemical gradients in a still undersampled region of the South Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Teaching Atlantic Studies in American High Schools. (United States)

    Foster, Charles R.


    Stresses the importance of Atlantic studies within the framework of United States history, European history, and the contemporary world scene. Ways of integrating Atlantic studies into the high school social studies curriculum are suggested. Topics discussed include objectives, audiovisual aids, supplementary reading material, and global political…

  16. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges (United States)

    Weaver, Jace


    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  17. Additional /sup 40/Ar-/sup 39/Ar dating of the basement and the alkaline volcanism of Gorringe Bank (Atlantic Ocean)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feraud, G.; York, D.; Mevel, C.; Cornen, G.; Hall, C.M.; Auzende, J.M.


    /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar step heating analyses are reported for a variety of samples from Gorringe Bank (Atlantic Ocean). Flat age spectra for two primary, igneous hornblendes of Gorringe (corresponding to an age of 143 Ma) show that the K-Ar ages obtained on these samples by Prichard and Mitchell are evidently crystallization and not hybrid ages. This sustains the concept of an initiation age of 140 Ma for Gorringe Bank. No support is found for Carpena's suggestion that the formation of Gorringe Bank began 200 Ma ago. Secondary hornblendes from Ormonde seamount rocks appear to have formed shortly after the initiation of the Bank. Precise plateau ages on samples of two alkaline volcanics from Ormonde correspond to the older limit of the alkaline volcanism suggested by Feraud et al.

  18. The Atlantic diet – Origin and features

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    Manuela L. Vaz-Velho


    Full Text Available Despite globalization there still are food patterns which are clearly differentiated from one region to another in Europe and elsewhere.  In this study the Atlantic Diet is considered as thetraditional diet in Portugal and Galicia, a regionin northwest Spain.This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the Atlantic Diet food pattern in order to fully exploit the potential of this Atlantic gastronomical heritage.The background of the Atlantic Diet concept, the characterization of Atlantic Diet foods and a compilation of scientific findings related to the consumption of these foods are covered.A brief description of the Mediterranean Diet, the primitive pattern and the updated Mediterranean pyramid are also included in order to aid understanding of the globalization of this previously local health food pattern.Final remarks and suggestions for further studies are made.

  19. Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Walker, Richard J.; Carlson, Richard W.; Horan, Mary F.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Manthos, Vicky; Francis, Don; Jackson, Matthew G.


    How much of Earth's compositional variation dates to processes that occurred during planet formation remains an unanswered question. High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tungsten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle. These heterogeneities, caused by the decay of hafnium-182 in mantle domains with high hafnium/tungsten ratios, were created during the first ~50 million years of solar system history, indicating that portions of the mantle that formed during Earth’s primary accretionary period have survived to the present.

  20. Igneous activity and related ore deposits in the western and southern Tushar Mountains, Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah (United States)

    Steven, Thomas A.


    PART A: Igneous activity in the Marysvale volcanic field of western Utah can be separated into many episodes of extrusion, intrusion, and hydrothermal activity. The rocks of the western Tushar Mountains, near the western part of the volcanic field, include intermediate-composition, calc-alkalic volcanic rocks erupted from scattered volcanoes in Oligocene through earliest Miocene time and related monzonitic intrusions emplaced 24-23 m.y. ago. Beginning 22-21 m.y. ago and extending through much of the later Cenozoic, a bimodal basalt-rhyolite assemblage was erupted widely throughout the volcanic field. Only volcanic and intrusive rocks belonging to the rhyolitic end member of this bimodal assemblage are present in the western Tushar Mountains; most of these rocks either fill the Mount Belknap caldera (19 m.y. old) or are part of the rhyolite of Gillies Hill (9---8 m.y. old). Episodic hydrothermal activity altered and mineralized rocks at many places in the western Tushar Mountains during Miocene time. The earliest activity took place in and adjacent to monzonitic calcalkalic intrusions emplaced in the vicinity of Indian Creek and Cork Ridge. These rocks were widely propylitized, and gold-bearing quartz-pyrite-carbonate veins formed in local fractures. Hydrothermal activity associated with the Mount Belknap caldera mobilized and redeposited uranium contained in the caldera-fill rocks and formed primary concentrations of lithophile elements (including molybdenum and uranium) in the vicinity of intrusive bodies. Hydrothermal activity associated with the rhyolite of Gillies Hill altered and mineralized rocks at several places along the fault zone that marks the western margin of the Tushar Mountains; the zoned alunite and gold deposits at Sheep Rock, the gold deposit at the Sunday Mine, and an alunite deposit near Indian Creek were thus produced. Resetting of isotopic ages suggests that another center of hydrothermally altered rocks associated with a buried pluton about


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghahari


    Full Text Available The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera viciae, Larinus canescens, L. adspersus, Lixus ascanii, Microplontus rugulosus, Neoglocianus smyrnensis, Otiorhynchus tetrarchus, O. scitus, Tychius cuprifer, T. picirostris, T. thoracicus.

  2. Differentiation of pre-existing trapped methane from thermogenic methane in an igneous-intruded coal by hydrous pyrolysis (United States)

    Dias, Robert F.; Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Kotarba, Maciej J.


    So as to better understand how the gas generation potential of coal changes with increasing rank, same-seam samples of bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin that were naturally matured to varying degrees by the intrusion of an igneous dike were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (HP) conditions of 360 °C for 72 h. The accumulated methane in the reactor headspace was analyzed for δ13C and δ2H, and mol percent composition. Maximum methane production (9.7 mg/g TOC) occurred in the most immature samples (0.5 %Ro), waning to minimal methane values at 2.44 %Ro (0.67 mg/g TOC), and rebounding to 3.6 mg/g TOC methane in the most mature sample (6.76 %Ro). Methane from coal with the highest initial thermal maturity (6.76 %Ro) shows no isotopic dependence on the reactor water and has a microbial δ13C value of −61‰. However, methane from coal of minimal initial thermal maturity (0.5 %Ro) shows hydrogen isotopic dependence on the reaction water and has a δ13C value of −37‰. The gas released from coals under hydrous pyrolysis conditions represents a quantifiable mixture of ancient (270 Ma) methane (likely microbial) that was generated in situ and trapped within the rock during the rapid heating by the dike, and modern (laboratory) thermogenic methane that was generated from the indigenous organic matter due to thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis conditions. These findings provide an analytical framework for better assessment of natural gas sources and for differentiating generated gas from pre-existing trapped gas in coals of various ranks.

  3. Geochemistry and geochronology of meta-igneous rocks from the Tokat Massif, north-central Turkey: implications for Tethyan reconstructions (United States)

    Catlos, Elizabeth J.; Huber, Kathryn; Shin, Timothy A.


    Located in the eastern Pontides of the Sakarya Zone in north-central Turkey, the Tokat Massif records the closure of both the Paleo-Tethyan (Karakaya Complex) and Neo-Tethyan ocean basins. Meta-igneous samples collected from the region were studied to determine their sources and ages. We find significant geochemical differences between metagabbros of the Karakaya and Neo-Tethyan units in terms of their trace elements: Neo-Tethyan rocks are consistent with generation in an island arc setting, whereas Karakaya assemblages were likely generated in an oceanic spreading-center environment. Karakaya metagabbros also contain glaucophane, consistent with subduction subsequent to formation. Small (2-50 μm) zircon and baddeleyite grains from four Karakaya metagabbros were dated in thin section using an ion microprobe. The results demonstrate the reliability of the method to directly constrain the tectonomagmatic history of these types of assemblages. The rocks yield Late Permian/Early Triassic 238U/206Pb crystallization ages of 258 ± 14 Ma (±1σ, zircon) and 254 ± 8 Ma (±1σ, baddeleyite) and an Early Cretaceous minimum metamorphic age of 137 ± 8 Ma (±1σ, zircon). Some zircon grains and baddeleyite grains with zircon overgrowths yield Early to Middle Jurassic ages. Here we present a model in which metamorphism and deformation in this region occurred during northward subduction and closure of a Paleo-Tethyan ocean basin and accretion of the Karakaya units to the Laurasian continental margin. This was followed by the onset of closure of the Neo-Tethys during the Campanian-Paleocene and accretion of island arc units to the Tokat region.

  4. Ecological dispersal barrier across the equatorial Atlantic in a migratory planktonic copepod (United States)

    Goetze, Erica; Hüdepohl, Patricia T.; Chang, Chantel; Van Woudenberg, Lauren; Iacchei, Matthew; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.


    Resolving the large-scale genetic structure of plankton populations is important to understanding their responses to climate change. However, few studies have reported on the presence and geographic extent of genetically distinct populations of marine zooplankton at ocean-basin scales. Using mitochondrial sequence data (mtCOI, 718 animals) from 18 sites across a basin-scale Atlantic transect (39°N-40°S), we show that populations of the dominant migratory copepod, Pleuromamma xiphias, are genetically subdivided across subtropical and tropical waters (global FST = 0.15, global ΦST = 0.21, both P genetic break observed in the equatorial Atlantic (between gyre FCT and ΦCT = 0.23, P genetic transition coincides with an area of low abundance for the species. Transitional regions between the subtropical gyres and the equatorial province also harbor a distinct mitochondrial clade (clade 2), have higher haplotype and nucleotide diversities relative to the northern and/or southern subtropical gyres (e.g., mean h = 0.831 EQ, 0.742 North, 0.594 South, F2,11 = 20.53, P genetically differentiated from the majority of sites in the central gyre and temperate zones of the same hemisphere (significant pairwise ΦST 0.038-0.267, 79% significant). Our observations support the hypothesis that regions of low abundance within species mark areas of suboptimal habitat that serve as dispersal barriers for marine plankton, and we suggest that this may be a dominant mechanism driving the large-scale genetic structure of zooplankton species. Our results also demonstrate the potential importance of the Atlantic equatorial province as a region of evolutionary novelty for the holoplankton.

  5. Diversity and distribution of hyperiid amphipods along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Burridge, Alice K.; Tump, Marloes; Vonk, Ronald; Goetze, Erica; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.


    As commensals and parasitoids of gelatinous plankton, hyperiid amphipods play unique and important ecological roles in pelagic food webs. Because the diversity and biogeography of this group in oceanic waters is poorly known, we examined diversity and distribution patterns of hyperiids along a basin-scale meridional transect in the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise 22). Hyperiids were collected from epipelagic and upper mesopelagic depths at 27 stations between 39°N and 45°S. A total of 70 species in 36 genera and 17 families were identified, the majority of which belonged to the epipelagic Physocephalata infraorder. We observed maximum species and genus richness in the equatorial upwelling region (up to 35 species, 27 genera per station; 7°N-8°S), which appeared largely driven by increased diversity in the superfamily Platysceloidea, as well as a significant and positive relationship between species richness and sea surface temperature. Cluster analyses of hyperiid species assemblages along the transect broadly supported a division into gyral, equatorial, transitional, and subantarctic assemblages, congruent with Longhurst's biogeochemical provinces. Steepest transitions in hyperiid species composition occurred at the southern subtropical convergence zone (34-38°S). The majority of zooplankton groups show maximal diversity in subtropical waters, and our observations of equatorial maxima in species and genus richness for hyperiids suggest that the mechanisms controlling diversity in this group are distinct from other zooplanktonic taxa. These patterns may be driven by the distribution and diversity of gelatinous hosts for hyperiids, which remain poorly characterized at ocean basin scales. The data reported here provide new distributional records for epipelagic and upper mesopelagic hyperiids across six major oceanic provinces in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic... (United States)


    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... finalized 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable... Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) allow NMFS to make an in-season adjustment to the...

  7. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic... (United States)


    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP...

  8. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic... (United States)


    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery...

  9. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Ren


    Conclusions: The majority of rabies cases occurred among 40–65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals.

  10. [Factors influencing infant mortality. Havana Province, 1983]. (United States)

    Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T


    Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.

  11. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia (United States)


    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  12. (Francolinus francolinus) in Khouzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 21, 2010 ... Habitat destruction and indiscriminate hunting as well as agricultural pesticides are among the most crucial factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling, this study aims to investigate different vegetative factors including plant species,.

  13. Geologic Provinces of the Caribbean Region, 2004 (prv6bg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a modified subset of polygon features that describe U.S. Geological Survey's defined geologic provinces of the World. Each province has a set...

  14. Age and gender differences in emotional and informational social support insufficiency for older adults in Atlantic Canada. (United States)

    McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Weeks, Lori E; Stryhn, Henrik


    It is well documented that nursing is concerned about the social support needs of older adults and the effects of those needs on health and well-being. Using survey data from the Atlantic Seniors Housing Research Alliance, the authors explore the emotional and informational social support needs of community-dwelling Canadians aged 65 and older living in the Atlantic provinces. The results indicate that these needs are not being met fully and that they increase with age. Also, men and women report different insufficiencies for specific needs; more men than women report having no support across all items. Nurses should be sensitive to specific age and gender support needs of older adults. They should also increase their social assessments and promote healthy social networks, especially for those 80 years and older. Further nursing research is recommended.

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). Atlantic Herring, (United States)


    Service, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for reviewing the manuscript. vi Figure 1. Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). ATLANTIC HERRING NOMENCLATURE...extensively reviewed by Svetividov Scales between gill openings and (1952). caudal base ca. 56-62; ventral scutes Preferred common name . Atlantic...summer, 7 A AL and cladocerans in summer and autumn Ann - Jeffreys Ledge area in winter (Sherman and Perkins 1971). (Creaser and Libby 1982). Adults Food

  16. Micro-phytoplankton photosynthesis, primary production and potential export production in the Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Tilstone, Gavin H.; Lange, Priscila K.; Misra, Ankita; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Cain, Terry


    Micro-phytoplankton is the >20 μm component of the phytoplankton community and plays a major role in the global ocean carbon pump, through the sequestering of anthropogenic CO2 and export of organic carbon to the deep ocean. To evaluate the global impact of the marine carbon cycle, quantification of micro-phytoplankton primary production is paramount. In this paper we use both in situ data and a satellite model to estimate the contribution of micro-phytoplankton to total primary production (PP) in the Atlantic Ocean. From 1995 to 2013, 940 measurements of primary production were made at 258 sites on 23 Atlantic Meridional Transect Cruises from the United Kingdom to the South African or Patagonian Shelf. Micro-phytoplankton primary production was highest in the South Subtropical Convergence (SSTC ∼ 409 ± 720 mg C m-2 d-1), where it contributed between 38 % of the total PP, and was lowest in the North Atlantic Gyre province (NATL ∼ 37 ± 27 mg C m-2 d-1), where it represented 18 % of the total PP. Size-fractionated photosynthesis-irradiance (PE) parameters measured on AMT22 and 23 showed that micro-phytoplankton had the highest maximum photosynthetic rate (PmB) (∼5 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1) followed by nano- (∼4 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1) and pico- (∼2 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1). The highest PmB was recorded in the NATL and lowest in the North Atlantic Drift Region (NADR) and South Atlantic Gyre (SATL). The PE parameters were used to parameterise a remote sensing model of size-fractionated PP, which explained 84 % of the micro-phytoplankton in situ PP variability with a regression slope close to 1. The model was applied to the SeaWiFS time series from 1998-2010, which illustrated that micro-phytoplankton PP remained constant in the NADR, NATL, Canary Current Coastal upwelling (CNRY), Eastern Tropical Atlantic (ETRA), Western Tropical Atlantic (WTRA) and SATL, but showed a gradual increase in the Benguela Upwelling zone (BENG) and South Subtropical Convergence (SSTC

  17. Igneous and metamorphic petrology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Myron G


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 CHAPTER 2: Composition and Classification of Magmatic Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 CHAPTER 3: Thermodynamics and Kinetics: An Introduction...

  18. Thermal effects of the Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (southern Portugal on the meta-igneous and metasedimentary host rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, C.


    Full Text Available The Santa Eulália Plutonic Complex (SEPC is a late-Variscan granitic body located in the northern part of the Ossa Morena Zone, a inner zone of the Variscan Iberian Massif. The SEPC host rocks are composed of meta-igneous and metasedimentary units, from Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic ages, with a NW-SE structure, cross-cut by the SEPC. The SEPC host rocks, with low grade metamorphism show well preserved primary sedimentary or igneous mineralogical, textural and structural features. The thermal effect induced by the SEPC is restricted to the roof pendants. At N and NE of the SEPC, textures and paragenesis resulting from thermal metamorphism, are not related to the SEPC intrusion but to a previous magmatism, controlled by the NW-SE regional anisotropies. The restriction of the thermal effects to the pluton roof may be caused by a combination of several interrelated factors: higher volume of granitic mass, thermal effect by advection of fluids and longer period of prevalence of high thermal conditions. The geochemical study of SEPC host rocks shows the heterogeneous character and diversity of metasedimentary, igneous and meta-igneous rocks. The whole rock geochemical data indicate that all the metasedimentary lithologies derived from an upper continental crustal source and the igneous and meta-igneous rocks show no evidence of metasomatic effects by the SEPC emplacement.El Complejo Plutónico de Santa Eulalia (CPSE es un cuerpo granítico tardi-Varisco situado en la parte norte de la Zona de Ossa Morena, en la zona interior del Macizo Ibérico Varisco. Las rocas encajantes del CPSE están compuestas por unidades meta-ígneas y metasedimentarias, de edades que van desde el Proterozoico Superior hasta el Paleozoico, con una estructura de dirección NW-SE, cortada por el CPSE. Las rocas encanjantes del CPSE, con metamorfismo de bajo grado conservan estructuras, mineralogía y textura primarias. El efecto térmicoinducido por el CPSE se limita a los

  19. Phytoplankton Growth and Microzooplankton Grazing in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos; Taboada, Fernando González; Höfer, Juan; Anadón, Ricardo


    Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E). Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2–5 µm and >5 µm) and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11–1.60 d−1), especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15–1.29 d−1), suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres. PMID:23935946

  20. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E. Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2-5 µm and >5 µm and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11-1.60 d(-1, especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15-1.29 d(-1, suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres.

  1. Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico (United States)

    Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.


    Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last

  2. Multiple Sulfur Isotopes In The Molopo Farms Complex May Shed Light On Mechanisms Of Mineralization In The Bushveld Igneous Complex (United States)

    Magalhaes, N.; Feineman, M. D.; Bybee, G. M.; Penniston-Dorland, S.; Farquhar, J.; Draper, C.; Escobar, E.; Gates, M.; Renusch, J.


    The 2.056 Ga Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is host to the world's largest layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion, the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS), which has >80% of the world's known platinum group elements (PGEs) reserves. The BIC results from large-volume melt extraction from the mantle and may provide insight into the formation and compositional evolution of continental crust. Despite its scientific and economic importance, the total magma volume is poorly known. This is in part because the relationship between the BIC and nearby intrusive bodies of similar age remains uncertain. In this study, we present major element, trace element, and multiple sulfur isotope data for a suite of samples spanning the stratigraphy of the Molopo Farms Complex (MFC), a layered mafic intrusion located 200 km west of the Far Western Limb of the RLS. Similar to the RLS, the MFC contains an ultramafic lower zone, a mafic main zone, and an incompatible element enriched granophyric unit near the contact with the roof rocks. However, it has no Critical Zone, and an insignificant concentration of PGEs. Since the PGEs in the RLS are primarily hosted in sulfides, it has been inferred that the mineralization is closely linked to the source and behavior of sulfur. The RLS displays mass independent fractionation of sulfur (S-MIF; denoted by ∆33S), which suggests incorporation of surface-derived materials into the magma prior to or during emplacement. Multiple sulfur isotopes of MFC samples also show non-zero mean ∆33S (0.04±0.02‰, 1sd), although it is lower than the mean for the RLS (0.11±0.02‰, 1sd). Similarities in trace element ratios between the MFC mafic zone and RLS marginal zone suggest the same parental magma contributed to both intrusions. Taken together, these results suggest that both the RLS and the MFC started with similar magmatic compositions, and while both assimilated sulfur with an Archean surface-derived component, the RLS received more of this component in

  3. Igneous and metamorphic petrology in the field: a problem-based, writing-intensive alternative to traditional classroom petrology (United States)

    DeBari, S. M.


    The Geology Department at Western Washington University (~100 geology majors) offers field and classroom versions of its undergraduate petrology course. This is a one-quarter course (igneous and metamorphic petrology) with mineralogy as a prerequisite. The field version of the course is offered during the three weeks prior to fall quarter and the classroom version is offered in spring quarter. We take 15-20 students around the state of Washington, camping at different outcrop sites where students integrate observational skills, petrologic knowledge, and writing. Petrogenetic associations in various tectonic settings provide the theme of the course. We compare ophiolites vs. arc sequences (volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks), S- vs. I-type granitoids (plutonic rocks and associated metamorphic rocks), Barrovian vs. Buchan vs. subduction zone metamorphism of different protoliths, and flood-basalt vs. active-arc volcanism. Some basics are covered in the first day at WWU, followed by 17 days of field instruction. Lecture is integrated with outcrop study in the field. For example, students will listen to a lecture about magma differentiation processes as they examine cumulate rocks in the Mt. Stuart batholith, and a lecture about metamorphic facies as they study blueschist facies rocks in the San Juan Islands. Students study multiple outcrops around a site for 1-4 days. They then use their observations (sketches and written descriptions of mineral assemblages, rock types, rock textures, etc.) and analysis techniques (e.g. geochemical data plotting, metamorphic protolith analysis) to write papers in which the data are interpreted in terms of a larger tectonic problem. In advance of the writing process, students use group discussion techniques such as whiteboarding to share their observational evidence and explore interpretations. Student evaluations indicate that despite the intense pace of the course, they enjoy it more. Students also feel that they retain more

  4. Fractional crystallization and zoning in igneous feldspars: ideal water-buffered liquid fractionation lines and feldspar zoning paths (United States)

    Brown, William L.


    fractionate only one towards the end, crystallization changing from subsolvus to hypersolvus. Sequential paths may involve overgrowth of an early feldspar by a later one, usually sanidine overgrowths on plagioclase, but plagioclase overgrowths on sanidine occur. These complexities explain in part the difficulties of unravelling the textural and compositional relationships of ternary feldspars in water-poor felsic igneous rocks (even in the absence of alteration or complex magma dynamics) and of trying to deduce phase relationships from natural occurrences of feldspars.

  5. Organic matter maturation in the contact aureole of an igneous sill as a tracer of hydrothermal convection (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Manga, Michael


    The intrusion of magmas can induce hydrothermal convection which in turn enhances the transport of heat and solutes. We use a heat convection model to interpret the temperature evolution documented by organic matter maturation, as recorded by the vitrinite reflectance Rr, in a contact aureole of a 15 m thick basaltic sill in the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 41-368 hole near Cape Verde Rise, eastern Atlantic. Here there is a pronounced asymmetry of variations of Rr with distance above and below the sill that cannot be explained by heat conduction alone. Neglecting the effects of possible two-phase flow and thermal pressurization from the production of fluids, convection begins to enhance the observed asymmetry for permeabilities greater than about 1 md, and the observations can be matched with permeabilities of at least several tens of millidarcies.

  6. Eocene-Miocene igneous activity in Provence (SE France): 40Ar/39Ar data, geochemical-petrological constraints and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Fedele, Lorenzo; Agostini, Samuele; Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Morra, Vincenzo


    Provence (SE France) was affected by two main phases of sporadic igneous activity during the Cenozoic. New 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating data constrain the beginning of the oldest phase to late Eocene (40.82 ± 0.73 Ma), with activity present until early Miocene ( 20 Ma). The products are mainly andesites, microdiorites, dacites and basaltic andesites mostly emplaced in the Agay-Estérel area. Major- and trace-element constraints, together with Srsbnd Ndsbnd Pb isotopic ratios suggest derivation from a sub-continental lithosphere mantle source variably modified by subduction-related metasomatic processes. The compositions of these rocks overlap those of nearly coeval (emplaced 38-15 Ma) late Eocene-middle Miocene magmatism of Sardinia. The genesis of dacitic rocks cannot be accounted for by simple fractional crystallization alone, and may require interaction of evolved melts with lower crustal lithologies. The youngest phase of igneous activity comprises basaltic volcanic rocks with mildly sodic alkaline affinity emplaced in the Toulon area 10 Myr after the end of the previous subduction-related phase. These rocks show geochemical and isotopic characteristics akin to magmas emplaced in intraplate tectonic settings, indicating a sub-lithospheric HiMu + EM-II mantle source for the magmas, melting approximately in the spinel/garnet-lherzolite transition zone. New 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating ages place the beginning of the volcanic activity in the late Miocene-Pliocene (5.57 ± 0.09 Ma). The emplacement of ;anorogenic; igneous rocks a few Myr after rocks of orogenic character is a common feature in the Cenozoic districts of the Central-Western Mediterranean area. The origin of such ;anorogenic; rocks can be explained with the activation of different mantle sources not directly modified by subduction-related metasomatic processes, possibly located in the sub-lithospheric mantle, and thus unrelated to the shallower lithospheric mantle source of the ;orogenic; magmatism.

  7. Geochronology and geochemistry of Early Cretaceous igneous units from the central Sulu orogenic belt: Evidence for crustal delamination during a shift in the regional tectonic regime (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Su-Chin; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Lu, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Chun


    Widespread Late Mesozoic igneous events in northern China have been intensively investigated over the past decades and provide evidence for regional lithospheric thinning. The underlying mechanism causing lithospheric thinning remains unclear however. This study reports U-Pb zircon ages, geochemical data and isotopic ratios for Cretaceous igneous units from the central Sulu orogenic belt as it occurs in the Shandong Peninsula. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses of magmatic zircons identified a relatively restricted population of ages ranging from 123 ± 2 Ma to 120 ± 2 Ma from four representative samples of igneous units in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the samples revealed LREE and LILE enrichment, HREE depletion, high initial 87Sr/86Sr values ranging from 0.7040 to 0.7096, and low negative εNd(t) values from -22.0 to -12.2. The data suggest lamprophyres derived separately from heterogeneous mantle inputs, which experienced crust-mantle interaction, andesitic porphyrites and syenogranites derived from enriched lithospheric mantle and rhyolites derived from partial melting of an ancient crustal component. Assimilation and fractionation processes did not contribute to lamprophyre formation, but did play an important role in generating andesitic porphyrites, syenogranites and rhyolites. The petrogenetic history of these rocks indicates intensive lithospheric thinning of the upper mantle and lower crust beneath the Sulu orogenic belt at 123-120 Ma. Given the timing and regional tectonic framework in which these units formed, thinning was likely caused by an abrupt change in the direction of the subducting Pacific plate.

  8. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  9. Mountain ranges favour vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bablu Sinha; Adam T. Blaker; Joël J.-M. Hirschi; Sarah Bonham; Matthew Brand; Simon Josey; Robin S. Smith; Jochem Marotzke


      We use a global Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM) to show that the major mountain ranges of the world have a significant role in maintenance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC...

  10. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  11. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell


    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  12. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  13. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  14. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  15. Atlantic-THORpex Observing System Test (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atlantic - THORpex Observing System Test (ATOST) is part of an international research program to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of 1 to 14 day weather...

  16. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  17. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  18. Extremadura (Spain): a case to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Province (United States)

    Mota, Maribel; Tejado, Juanjo; Pereira, Dolores


    Extremadura is geologically located in the Iberian Massif, belonging part of the Central Iberian Zone, in the north of the region, and the Ossa Morena zone, in the south of it. The Central Iberian Zone is characterized by the abundance of clastic metasedimentary rocks and greywacke, sandstones, shales, conglomerates, quartzites and lesser amounts of carbonate materials such as limestone and dolomite (600-300 Ma). Also featured are Hercynian granitic intrusions. The rocks from the Ossa-Morena zone are metamorphic, intrusive igneous and volcanic (650-300 Ma). Extremadura, given its strategic geographical position, has been the site of human settlement since ancient times, and this civilisation has left its influence on the building materials used in buildings and monuments. The rocks used in building, are directly related to the geology of the immediate area, since rock outcrops, near the construction are mostly granites, slates and marbles. The historic and artistic heritage from Extremadura includes Roman treasures (like the bridges located in the Via de la Plata, dams, walls and milestones), Islamic and Christian treasures as well as medieval and Renaissance Jewish treasures. Extremadura has three World Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO: the old town of Cáceres, the archaeological site at Merida and the monastery of Guadalupe. The latter is built mainly of bricks and masonry. In Merida, granites and diorites of various facies of the batholiths located north of the city are used together with Sierra Carija's marble and quartzite alluvial gravels from the river Guadiana. Among the constructions in Merida, granite utilisation in the theater and amphitheater, aqueduct of Miracles and the Proserpina dam, are remarkable. The old town of Cáceres is characterised by the presence of narrow streets and monuments, medieval churches and Renaissance palaces, built with granite and flanked by a wall constructed during the Muslim period. This granite comes from the quarries

  19. Zircon ages delimit the provenance of a sand extrudite from the Botucatu Formation in the Paraná volcanic province, Iraí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ion microprobe age determinations of 102 detrital zircon crystals from a sand extrudite, Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province, set limits on the origin of the numerous sand layers present in this major flood basalt province. The zircon U-Pb ages reflect four main orogenic cycles: Mesoproterozoic (1155-962 Ma, latest Proterozoic-early Cambrian (808-500 Ma and two Palaeozoic (Ordovician- 480 to 450 Ma, and Permian to Lower Triassic- 296 to 250 Ma. Two additional small concentrations are present in the Neoarchean (2.8 to 2.6 Ga and Paleoproterozoic (2.0 to 1.7 Ga. Zircon age peaks closely match the several pulses of igneous activity in the Precambrian Brazilian Shield and active orogeny in Argentina. A main delimitation of the origin of the sand is the absence of zircon ages from the underlying Cretaceous basalts, thus supporting an injectite origin of the sand as an extrudite that emanated from the paleoerg that constitutes the Botucatu Formation.

  20. Zircon ages delimit the provenance of a sand extrudite from the Botucatu Formation in the Paraná volcanic province, Iraí, Brazil. (United States)

    Pinto, Viter M; Hartmann, Léo A; Santos, João O S; McNaughton, Neal J


    Ion microprobe age determinations of 102 detrital zircon crystals from a sand extrudite, Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province, set limits on the origin of the numerous sand layers present in this major flood basalt province. The zircon U-Pb ages reflect four main orogenic cycles: Mesoproterozoic (1155-962 Ma), latest Proterozoic-early Cambrian (808-500 Ma) and two Palaeozoic (Ordovician- 480 to 450 Ma, and Permian to Lower Triassic- 296 to 250 Ma). Two additional small concentrations are present in the Neoarchean (2.8 to 2.6 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.0 to 1.7 Ga). Zircon age peaks closely match the several pulses of igneous activity in the Precambrian Brazilian Shield and active orogeny in Argentina. A main delimitation of the origin of the sand is the absence of zircon ages from the underlying Cretaceous basalts, thus supporting an injectite origin of the sand as an extrudite that emanated from the paleoerg that constitutes the Botucatu Formation.

  1. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J T Boehm

    Full Text Available Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci. To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered "local" and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species.

  2. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province (United States)

    YU, Tong


    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  3. An AMS study of magma transport and emplacement mechanisms in mafic dykes from the Etendeka Province, Namibia (United States)

    Wiegand, Miriam; Trumbull, Robert B.; Kontny, Agnes; Greiling, Reinhard O.


    The Henties Bay Outjo dyke swarm (HOD) in NW Namibia is part of the early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province. The dykes are dominantly doleritic, compositionally equivalent to the erupted lava series and thus the HOD provides a look at the feeder systems of a flood basalt province. The subvertical dykes mostly strike NE-SW and minor NW-SE, parallel or perpendicular to the Damara Belt in which they intruded. We present a magnetic fabric study using the anisotropies of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) with the aim to derive magma flow directions and better constrain emplacement mechanisms within the dyke swarm. Magnetic susceptibility and its anisotropy in the dykes is mainly controlled by distribution anisotropy of titanomagnetite that mimics the flow-oriented silicate fabric. The anisotropy is low in most samples, supporting a magmatic origin. In 66 of 110 investigated samples the AMS fabric is ;normal;, with the κmax axis (inferred flow orientation) within the dyke plane. Most samples yielded vertical to subvertical flow orientations regardless of location near or distant from the former rifted margin. The ;anomalous; magnetic fabrics, where κmax is inclined to the dyke plane, are attributed to two mechanisms. One is the single-domain effect of titanomagnetite, which was found by unequal orientations of AMS and AARM fabrics. The other case anomalous fabric is rotation of the AMS axes by shear within the magma, producing symmetric imbrication of AMS fabric on opposite dyke walls; or more commonly, asymmetric magnetic fabrics, which we relate to tectonic shear at the dyke walls during emplacement. Field support for syn-emplacement shear is given by dyke segmentation geometries including locally curved segment tips, en-echelon arrangements and left/right-stepping displacements. Regionally, syn-emplacement shear is consistent with the observed reactivation during Gondwana breakup of

  4. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt, Rengali Province, eastern India: Implications for the Neoarchean growth and orogenesis (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arnab; Bose, Sankar; Das, Kaushik; Ghosh, Gautam


    This study focuses on the evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt of the Archean Rengali Province which evolved as a craton-margin orogenic belt. The Central Gneissic Belt is constituted of charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss often showing gradational contacts. While mafic granulite occurs as enclave within the charnockite gneiss, amphibolite and calc-silicate granofels enclaves are present within the granite gneiss. Mafic granulite shows peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz ± orthopyroxene which was stabilized at 10.6 ± 0.5 kbar and 860 ± 20 °C. Charnockite gneiss with the peak assemblage of orthopyroxene + quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar was metamorphosed at 792 ± 48 °C and 7.6 ± 0.4 kbar. Amphibolite and migmatitic hornblende gneiss contain hornblende along with plagioclase and garnet and these rocks were metamorphosed at 800 ± 20 °C, 8.5 ± 0.2 kbar and 695 °C, 8 kbar respectively. Later meta-dolerite dikes exhibit relic igneous textures which are slightly modified by greenschist-facies metamorphism. Charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss show similar trace and REE characteristics (moderate fractionation in terms of La and Yb, LREE enrichment and flat HREE pattern) implying the same protolith composition for these rock groups. Based on the field, petrographic and geochemical data, we propose that the protoliths for the charnockite gneiss, the migmatitic hornblende gneiss and the granite gneiss crystallized as fractionated magma in within-plate syncollisional setting during the ca. 2860-2780 Ma orogeny at the Rengali Province.

  5. Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province (United States)

    Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.


    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces

  6. Unique Mineralogy of Triassic Diamondiferous Hypabyssal Kimberlite Postdated Siberian Flood Basalt (sfb) Province (United States)

    Sobolev, N. V.; Sobolev, A. V.; Tomilenko, A. A.; Schertl, H. P.; Neuser, R. D.; Timina, T. Y.; Karmanov, N. S.; Batanova, V. G.; Logvinova, A. M.; Kuzmin, D.


    The Siberian flood basalt (SFB) province is the largest terrestrial province with the estimated volume of igneous rocks up to 5 million cubic km. The majority of SFB erupted over less than one million years at 251 Ma. The main epochs of kimberlites emplacement took place in Devonian (344-364 Ma) producing principal diamond mines including Udachnaya mine and in Triassic (about 240 Ma) with only one, Malokuonapskaya kimberlite pipe with near-commercial diamond grade. This indicates the availability of complete lithospheric cross section. It contains flood basalt and peridotite xenoliths. We report here preliminary data on mineralogy of this hypabyssal kimberlite containing fresh olivine. Homogeneous cores of zoned olivine with Fo 78.5-93 are different in compositional range from those of Udachnaya olivines (Fo 85-94). Outer rims composition are also different (Fo 85-86 and 89-90 respectively). Concentration of Ni, Mn, Co, Ca, Cr, Al, Ti, P, Na and Zn were measured by EPMA using an innovative method which has been developed based on earlier publication (Sobolev et al., Science, 2007, 316: 412-417). It made possible to obtain external precision down to 10 ppm (2SD) and detection limit down to 2 ppm. High resolution compositional maps of olivine zoning for all mentioned elements are produced. "Hot cathode" CL microscope was applied for study of luminescent minerals including calcite, apatite and baryte. Twenty percent of representative olivine samples are characterized by low Fo 78.5-85 and NiO from 600 to 2300 ppm. Clear zoning in concentration of some trace elements, P in particular, is detected in the cores of studied olivines. Ba-phlogopite containing BaO from less than 1 up to 14.5 wt.% is another specific feature of Malokuonapskaya kimberlite, which is different from any kimberlites and especially from Udachnaya with highest BaO - 4.85 wt.% of its phlogopite. Chromediopsides contain 1.3 - 5.2 wt.% FeO, 0.6 - 2.0 wt.% Cr2O3 and 0.45 - 2.0 wt.% Na2O. Pyropes

  7. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa


    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  8. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan (United States)


    security and stability. This is much harder than it sounds in a fragmented rural population such as Helmand province. The demands placed on leaders in...AH-1 “ Cobra ” and UH-1”Huey” helicopters to support ground operations commanders were able to deliver precision fires while retaining visible...them. Much will be asked of leaders in COIN operations in the future, but with a flexible organization, sound intelligence, the will to fight when

  9. Bacterial assemblages of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveal both vertical and latitudinal biogeographic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Friedline


    Full Text Available Microbial communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of bacterial assemblages in three different water layer habitats: surface (2–20 m, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28–90 m, and deep (100–4600 m at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. The sampling of three discrete, predefined habitat types from different depths, Longhurstian provinces, and geographical locations allowed us to investigate whether marine bacterial assemblages show spatial variation and to determine if the observed spatial variation is influenced by current environmental conditions, historical/geographical contingencies, or both. The PCR amplicons of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA from 16 microbial assemblages were pyrosequenced, generating a total of 352 029 sequences; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized operational taxonomic units (OTU using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Community ecology statistical analyses demonstrate that the eastern Atlantic Ocean bacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers characterized by unique environmental signals (e.g., temperature, salinity, and nutrients. Genetic compositions of bacterial assemblages from the same water layer are more similar to each other than to assemblages from different water layers. The observed clustering of samples by water layer allows us to conclude that contemporary environments are influencing the observed biogeographic patterns. Moreover, the implementation of a novel Bayesian inference approach that allows a more efficient and explicit use of all the OTU abundance data shows a distance effect suggesting the influence of historical contingencies on the composition of bacterial

  10. Microbial community diversity of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveals geographic differences (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.


    Prokaryotic communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the eubacterial communities in three different water layers: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. In order to describe the dynamics of the eubacterial assemblages in relation to depth, associated environmental properties, and Longhurstian ecological provinces community DNA was extracted from 16 samples, from which the V6 region of 16s rDNA was PCR-amplified with eubacteria-specific primers, and the PCR amplicons were pyrosequenced. A total of 352 029 sequences were generated; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Comparisons of the phylogenetic affiliation of those 2871 OTUs show more than 54% of them were assigned to the Proteobacteria, with the Alphaproteobacteria representing 4% of the total Proteobacteria OTUs, and the Gammaproteobacteria representing 22%. Within the Alphaproteobacteria-affiliated OTUs, 44% of the OTUs were associated with the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The phylum Cyanobacteria represent 10% of the reads, with the majority of those reads among the GpIIa family including Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Among the Gammaproteobacteria, a single OTU affiliated to Alteromonas comprises ~3% of the abundance. The phyla Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represent approximately 7%, 0.8%, 2%, and 0.05% of the read abundance, respectively. Community ecology statistical analyses and a novel implementation of Bayesian inference suggests that eastern Atlantic Ocean eubacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers

  11. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus (United States)


    ... marlin as the waters of the entire Atlantic Ocean and maintained the management unit definitions of... the HMS definition in the MSA, when the Regional Fishery Management Councils managed Atlantic HMS, the... definition and to continue to manage that species via Secretarial management. This action will amend the MSA...

  12. The role of Atlantic-Arctic exchange in North Atlantic multidecadal climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829838; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467


    It has recently been suggested that multidecadal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature occurs with two dominant periods. In this paper we investigate the origin of these two time scales in a 500 year control run of the GFDL CM2.1 model. We focus on the exchange between the Atlantic

  13. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast... (United States)


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) Workshops (this AP is also called the...

  14. Response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to South Atlantic sources of buoyancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Sterl, A.; Drijfhout, S.


    The heat and salt input from the Indian to Atlantic Oceans by Agulhas Leakage is found to influence the Atlantic overturning circulation in a low-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. The model used is the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model, which is forced by mixed boundary

  15. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... management alternatives available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and shortfin...

  16. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark... (United States)


    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery will...

  17. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery (United States)


    ... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with the findings of...

  18. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National....S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals for management of fishery in the future. NMFS is requesting...

  19. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons (United States)


    ...; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or... for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. These actions could affect fishing...

  20. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season (United States)


    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries (sandbar sharks, non-sandbar large coastal sharks, blue sharks, porbeagle sharks, and pelagic sharks (other than porbeagle and blue sharks), non-blacknose small coastal...

  1. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks and...

  2. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark... adjustments, and applies to commercial Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer is...

  3. 75 FR 250 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ...; Atlantic Commercial Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sandbar sharks, non-sandbar large coastal sharks (LCS), small coastal sharks (SCS), and pelagic sharks based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2008 and 2009 Atlantic commercial shark...

  4. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season (United States)


    ... Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any..., fishing opportunities for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. The proposed measures could...

  5. 76 FR 53652 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus...-427-8503 or by fax: 301-713-1917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Atlantic shark fisheries are...

  6. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation. (United States)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn


    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account.

  7. Mineral growth in melt conduits as a mechanism for igneous layering in shallow arc plutons: mineral chemistry of Fisher Lake orbicules and comb layers (Sierra Nevada, USA) (United States)

    McCarthy, Anders; Müntener, Othmar


    Different processes have been proposed to explain the variety of igneous layering in plutonic rocks. To constrain the mechanisms of emplacement and crystallization of ascending magma batches in shallow plutons, we have studied comb layers and orbicules from the Fisher Lake Pluton, Northern Sierra Nevada. Through a detailed study of the mineralogy and bulk chemistry of 70 individual layers, we show that comb layers and orbicule rims show no evidence of forming through a self-organizing, oscillatory crystallization process, but represent crystallization fronts resulting from in situ crystallization and extraction of evolved melt fractions during decompression-driven crystallization, forming a plagioclase-dominated cres-cumulate at the mm- to m-scale. We propose that the crystal content of the melt and the dynamics of the magmatic system control the mechanisms responsible for vertical igneous layering in shallow reservoirs. As comb layers crystallize on wall rocks, the higher thermal gradients will increase the diversity of comb layering, expressed by inefficient melt extraction, thereby forming amphibole comb layers and trapped apatite + quartz saturated evolved melt fractions. High-An plagioclase (An90-An97.5) is a widespread phase in Fisher lake comb layers and orbicule rims. We show that a combination of cooling rate, latent heat of crystallization and pressure variations may account for high-An plagioclase in shallow melt extraction zones.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermini S.


    Full Text Available The implementation of Indonesian local government autonomy gives many consequences. One of it is the augmentation of cooperation with foreign countries conducted by local government. One type of the cooperation is sister province. This cooperation still bring lack of success story and best practices. Rather brings clear profits, mostly sister province cooperation has no clear benefits. By using the case of sister province cooperation between Central Java province and Fujian, this research providing the answer why central java wants to cooperate with Fujian under the scheme sister province due to the massive criticism of Free Trade Area with China. By using Scholte’s Globalization approach, and Botenbal’s lowered politics issue this paper argue that the sister province cooperation between Central Java and Fujian is being conduct for the cause of spillover effect and due to long road historical demographic background between these two provinces.

  9. Geometry and controls on the development of igneous sill-related forced folds: 2D seismic reflection case study from offshore Southern Australia (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Schofield, Nick; Magee, Craig; Golenkov, Bogdan


    Emplacement of magma in the shallow subsurface can result in the development of dome-shaped folds at the Earth's surface. These so-called 'forced folds' have been described in the field and in subsurface datasets, although the exact geometry of the folds and the nature of their relationship to underlying sills remains unclear and, in some cases, controversial. As a result, the utility of these features in tracking the subsurface movement of magma, and predicting the potential size and location of potentially hazardous volcanic eruptions, is uncertain. Here we use high-quality, 2D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Ceduna sub-basin, offshore southern Australia to describe the structure and infer the evolution of igneous sill-related forced folds in the Bight Basin Igneous Complex (BBIC). We mapped 33 igneous sills, which were emplaced 200-1500 m below the palaeo-seabed in an Upper Cretaceous, coal-bearing, predominantly coastal-plain succession. The intrusions, which are expressed as packages of high-amplitude reflections, are 32-250 m thick and 7-19 km in diameter. They are overlain by dome-shaped folds, which are up to 17 km wide and display up to 210 m of relief. The edges of these folds coincide with the margins of the underlying sills and the folds display the greatest relief where the underlying sills are thickest; the folds are therefore interpreted as forced folds that formed in response to emplacement of magma in the shallow subsurface. The folds are onlapped by Lutetian (middle Eocene) strata, indicating they formed and the intrusions were emplaced during the latest Ypresian (c. 48 Ma). We demonstrate that fold amplitude is typically less than sill thickness even for sills with very large diameter-to-depth ratios, suggesting that pure elastic bending (forced folding) of the overburden is not the only process accommodating magma emplacement, and that supra-sill compaction may be important even at relatively shallow depths. Based on the

  10. Igneous and Sedimentary Compositions from Four Landing Sites on Mars from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. W.; Squyres, S. W.; VanBommel, S.; Yen, A. S.


    The APXS - supported and promoted strongly by Heinrich Waenke - on all four Mars Rovers has returned compositional data from about 1000 rocks and soil targets along the combined traverses of over 60 kilometers. Providing precise and accurate bulk chemistry with typically 16 quantified elements, the APXS is a powerful and versatile tool that when combined with the ability to traverse to key rocks and soils has provided critical information needed to understand the geologic evolution of Mars. APXS data allow comparisons among landing sites, provide ground truth for orbiters and connections back to SNC meteorites. The soils and dust are basaltic in character and represent the average Mars composition similar to Adirondack basalts from Gusev crater but with unambiguous elevated and correlated S, Cl and Zn contents. At all four landing sites the APXS found several rocks with a felsic composition. The similarity is best assessed in a logarithmic ratio plot of rock normalized to the average soil composition (Fig.1). High alkaline, Al, and low Mg, Fe, low S, Cl and Ni, Zn as well as an Fe/Mn ratio of approximately 50 indicate a likely unaltered and igneous origin. Sediments, e.g. the Burns formation, with approximately 25 wt% SO3 at Meridiani Planum have been documented over 10s of kilometers (Fig. 2). This formation is compositionally homogeneous, but showing the removal of MgSO4 and a threefold increase in Cl downhill in 2 craters. The degraded rim of the Noachian crater Endeavour resembles average Mars crust, with local Ca, Mg and Fe sulfate alteration and elevated Mn, some felsic rocks, and high Al, Si and low Fe rocks, possibly indicating clays. Unusual soils at Gusev crater in the area surrounding Home Plate include some very rich in ferric sulfate salts (up to 35 wt% SO3) and some with 90% wt% SiO2, possibly indicating fumerolic activities. Rocks in the Columbia Hills show significant signs of alteration including elevated S, Cl and Br in the abraded interior. At

  11. The geology and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of magmatic activity and related mineralization in the Nevados del Famatina mining district, La Rioja province, Argentina (United States)

    Losada-Calderón, A. J.; McBride, S. L.; Bloom, M. S.


    The Nevados del Famatina mining district (NFMD) is located in La Rioja province, Argentina. This district contains porphyry-style mineralization (Nevados del Famatina) and high sulfidation veins (La Mejicana). The stratigraphic column in the NFMD begins with Cambrian siltstones which were metamorphosed during the Late Ordovician - Early Silurian and intruded by Late Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks. These units were covered by Upper Paleozoic and Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks which are intercalated with and overlain by dacitic-rhyodacitic porphyritic rocks (Mogote Formation) emplaced during the Pliocene. All these units are covered by Pleistocene sediments and Quaternary alluvial and colluvial deposits. Magmatic activity and related mineralization in the NFMD have been dated by the 40Ar/ 39Ar technique. Step heating studies of orthoclase and biotite phenocrysts from the Mogote Formation in the NFMD suggest that the igneous rocks were emplaced around 5.0±0.3 Ma ago. However, plateau ages of biotite from the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber and of muscovite from quartz-sericite alteration at both Nevados del Famatina and La Mejicana are around 3.8±0.2 Ma. Emplacement of the shallow stocks is separated from cooling of the outer carapace of the subjacent granodioritic magma chamber to temperatures below 350° C by a time span of approximately 1 Ma. During this interval, a convective hydrothermal system was established proximal to the granodioritic magma chamber, which resulted in porphyry molybdenumcoppergold mineralization adjacent to the igneous rocks and more distal high sulfidation veins located in fault zones.

  12. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.


    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  13. Trend in cataract surgical rate in iran provinces. (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Etemad, Koroush; Mahdavi, Alireza; Asgari, Soheila


    The aim of this study was to determine the trend of changes in Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in the provinces of Iran during 2006 to 2010 and identify high risk areas. This report is part of the national Iranian CSR Study. The percentage change in CSR in 2010 compared to 2006 was conducted in each province, retrospectively. One hundred and ten centers were chosen from all provinces, to determine CSR in each, the weight of major (>3,000 annual surgeries) and minor (3,000 annual surgeries or less) centers was calculated based on the number of selected centers, and multiplied by the number of surgeries in each province. In eight provinces, CSR was decreased by 1-60%. One province (Booshehr) showed no change. Eighteen provinces had 2-79% increase. No 2006 data was available in three provinces. North Khorasan had the most decrease while Kerman had the most increase in CSR. Six of these 8 provinces had CSR>3,000 despite a decrease in 2010, but North Khorasan had CSRCSR had a gap from 3,000 despite an ascending trend, and in two, the gap was quite considerable. Although CSR has an improving trend in most provinces in Iran, it is decreasing in some provinces, and despite an already low CSR, the exacerbation continues. The growing population of over 50 year olds calls for prompt measures in such provinces. Even in improving provinces, some lag behind the minimum recommended by WHO, and the growth rate of the over 50 population reveals the necessity of immediate planning.

  14. Igneous activity, metamorphism, and deformation in the Mount Rogers area of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: A geologic record of Precambrian tectonic evolution of the southern Blue Ridge Province (United States)

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mundil, Roland; Southworth, C. Scott; Cosca, Michael A.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Rubin, Allison E.; Kentner, Adrienne; Parendo, Christopher A.; Ray, Molly S.


    Mesoproterozoic basement in the vicinity of Mount Rogers is characterized by considerable lithologic variability, including major map units composed of gneiss, amphibolite, migmatite, meta-quartz monzodiorite and various types of granitoid. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and field mapping indicate that basement units define four types of occurrences, including (1) xenoliths of ca. 1.33 to ≥1.18 Ga age, (2) an early magmatic suite including meta-granitoids of ca. 1185–1140 Ma age that enclose or locally intrude the xenoliths, (3) metasedimentary rocks represented by layered granofels and biotite schist whose protoliths were likely deposited on the older meta-granitoids, and (4) a late magmatic suite composed of younger, ca. 1075–1030 Ma intrusive rocks of variable chemical composition that intruded the older rocks. The magmatic protolith of granofels constituting part of a layered, map-scale xenolith crystallized at ca. 1327 Ma, indicating that the lithology represents the oldest, intact crust presently recognized in the southern Appalachians. SHRIMP U-Pb data indicate that periods of regional Mesoproterozoic metamorphism occurred at 1170–1140 and 1070–1020 Ma. The near synchroneity in timing of regional metamorphism and magmatism suggests that magmas were emplaced into crust that was likely at near-solidus temperatures and that melts might have contributed to the regional heat budget. Much of the area is cut by numerous, generally east- to northeast-striking Paleozoic fault zones characterized by variable degrees of ductile deformation and recrystallization. These high-strain fault zones dismember the terrane, resulting in juxtaposition of units and transformation of basement lithologies to quartz- and mica-rich tectonites with protomylonitic and mylonitic textures. Mineral assemblages developed within such zones indicate that deformation and recrystallization likely occurred at greenschist-facies conditions at ca. 340 Ma.

  15. Geophysical evidence of a Large Igneous Province (LIP) in the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), and its potential influence on the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) (United States)

    Behrendt, J. C.


    The WAIS flows through the volcanically active WARS. The inland rift shoulder ranges from 4-5 km elevation, (5-7 km relief, the greatest in the world); it is coincident with the Transantarctic Mountains from northern Victoria land bordering the Ross Sea, south along the west and south side of the Ross Ice Shelf to the Horlick Mountains. It forms the boundary between East and West Antarctica in this area, but diverges to the Ellsworth Mountains and forms the inland boundary of the WAIS and WARS there. Throughout the WARS shoulder to the Horlick Mountains, exposures of mostly late Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks are reported, as is the case in the coastal Marie Byrd Land area on the Southern Ocean aide of the WARS. The Transantarctic Mountains, continue at a much lower elevation (2000-750 m) to form the boundary between East and West Antarctica in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Aeromagnetic and radar ice-sounding surveys over the WAIS indicated numerous high-amplitude (100->1000 nT),5-50-km width, shallow-source, magnetic anomalies over a very extensive area (>500,000 km2 ) that has been interpreted as evidence of mostly subglacial volcanic eruptions (“volcanic centers”). Behrendt et al, (2005, 2008) interpreted these anomalies as >1000 "volcanic centers" requiring high remanent normal (and at least 10% reversed) magnetizations in the present field direction. These data were interpreted to show that >80% of the anomaly sources at the bed of the WAIS, were modified by the moving ice, requiring a younger age than the WAIS (~25 Ma). Several active volcanoes have shown evidence of eruption through the WAIS and several other active volcanoes are present beneath the WAIS. Although exposed volcanoes surrounding the WAIS extend in age to ~34 Ma., Mt Erebus (Melbourne (1000 volcanic, magnetic-anomaly sources are active today, subglacial volcanism may still have a significant effect on the dynamics of the WAIS. Active subglacial volcanism was interpreted from aerogeophysical data reported by Blankenship et al., (1993, Mt. Casertz), and Corr and Vaughan, (2008, near Hudson Mts.), who raised the question of possible volcanic effects on the regime of the WAIS. Wingham et al. (2009) reported a mean volume loss from 2.6 to 10.1 km3/yr from 1995 to 2006 for the Pine Island Glacier in the vicinity of the active subglacial volcano near the Hudson Mts. Probably wet-based areas of the WAIS would be the most likely to be impacted. I discuss these geophysical data and conclude, future effects on the stability of the WAIS should not be ignored, as the rapid changes observed in the past 20 years resulting from global warming, could be accelerated by subglacial volcanism. Behrendt et al., (1994; 2007) conservatively estimated >1 x 106km volume of volcanic sources to account for the area of the "volcanic center" anomalies and suggested the presence of a LIP if this volume was intruded between 1 and 10 m.y. Behrendt et. al (1992) suggested a mantle plume,which hypothesis still merits consideration.

  16. An integrated chemical and oxygen isotopic study of primitive olivine grains in picrites from the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China: Evidence for oxygen isotope heterogeneity in mantle sources (United States)

    Yu, Song-Yue; Shen, Neng-Ping; Song, Xie-Yan; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Chen, Lie-Meng


    Recognition of the nature of potential mantle sources of continental flood basalts is complicated by possible overprinting related to crustal contamination as magmas migrate to the surface (Arndt and Christensen, 1992). However, in picritic lava flows primitive olivine phenocrysts that formed early in the crystallization sequence can potentially provide unperturbed information of their mantle source. We have carried out an integrated chemical and oxygen isotopic (in situ SIMS) study of primitive olivine grains (Fo ranging from 88 to 92.6 mol%) in the Emeishan picrites at different locations (Wulongba, Wuguijing, Tanglanghe and Maoniuping). We use these data to evaluate the geochemical nature of mantle sources for magmas from which the primitive olivine crystallized. The primitive olivine grains in the samples from Maoniuping, Wuguijing and Tanglanghe are characterized by mantle-like δ18O values (mean values are 5.1 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 53), 5.2 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 122) and 5.3 ± 0.3‰ (n = 25), respectively) coupled with generally low Fo contents (mean values are 88.7 ± 1.4 mol% (2σ, n = 53), 89.8 ± 1.8 mol% (2σ, n = 122) and 89.4 ± 1.8 mol% (2σ, n = 25), respectively). In contrast, the olivine grains in the samples from Wulongba are characterized by elevated δ18O values (mean = 5.6 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 58)) coupled with generally higher Fo contents (mean = 91 ± 2.8 mol% (2σ, n = 58)) than primitive olivine in the samples from the other locations. Based on olivine compositions, primitive olivine in picrites from Maoniuping, Tanglanghe and Wuguijing are consistent with derivation from hybrid mantle sources containing similar proportions of peridotite and pyroxenite/eclogite components. The δ18O values of these primitive olivine grains are consistent with melting of plume source materials. The chemical composition of the primitive olivine from Wulongba are also consistent with derivation from a hybrid peridotite/pyroxenite source, but the high δ18O values suggest that at least locally the pyroxenitic source was characterized by 18O-enrichment related to a higher degree of seawater interaction with the oceanic crust protolith. An alternative explanation is that olivine in the Wulongba picrite reflects derivation from lithospheric mantle that was modified by subduction-related processes in the Neoproterozoic. The high-Fo content of the Wulongba picrites may be due to the higher fO2 conditions of the partial melt generated in the subduction modified lithospheric mantle, or to a higher degree of partial melting.

  17. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic ... (United States)

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has

  18. Atlantic coastal plain geothermal test holes, Virginia: hole completion reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Radford, L.; Glascock, M.


    A description of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Geothermal Drilling Program and data for the following geothermal test holes drilled in Virginia are summarized: Creeds, Norfolk Naval Base, Langley Air Force Base, Wattsville, Withams, and Atlantic.

  19. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam


    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  20. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare


    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  1. Patterns of variations in large pelagic fish: A comparative approach between the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans (United States)

    Corbineau, A.; Rouyer, T.; Fromentin, J.-M.; Cazelles, B.; Fonteneau, A.; Ménard, F.


    Catch data of large pelagic fish such as tuna, swordfish and billfish are highly variable ranging from short to long term. Based on fisheries data, these time series are noisy and reflect mixed information on exploitation (targeting, strategy, fishing power), population dynamics (recruitment, growth, mortality, migration, etc.), and environmental forcing (local conditions or dominant climate patterns). In this work, we investigated patterns of variation of large pelagic fish (i.e. yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, swordfish and blue marlin) in Japanese longliners catch data from 1960 to 2004. We performed wavelet analyses on the yearly time series of each fish species in each biogeographic province of the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans. In addition, we carried out cross-wavelet analyses between these biological time series and a large-scale climatic index, i.e. the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Results showed that the biogeographic province was the most important factor structuring the patterns of variability of Japanese catch time series. Relationships between the SOI and the fish catches in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans also pointed out the role of climatic variability for structuring patterns of variation of catch time series. This work finally confirmed that Japanese longline CPUE data poorly reflect the underlying population dynamics of tunas.

  2. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China. (United States)

    Ren, Jiangping; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Enfu; Lin, Junfen; Lv, Huakun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shelan; Sun, Jimin


    To explore the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed using data collected through interview with human rabies cases or their relatives during 2007 to 2014. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data. Two hundred and one cases of human rabies were diagnosed in Zhejiang Province between 2007 and 2014, with a gradually declining annual incidence. Of the rabies cases identified, 61.2% were aged 40-65 years, and the male to female ratio was 2.30:1; 63.7% of cases occurred in the summer and autumn. The two most reported occupations were farmer (69.2%) and rural laborer (15.4%). Wenzhou, Jinhua, and Huzhou were the three cities with the most reported cases. The majority of cases (92.8%) were attributed to canines, and 71.0% of animal vectors were household animals. Less than half of the cases (41.4%) sought wound treatment after exposure. Post-exposure passive immunization was given to 9.7% and active immunization to 2.3%. Cases with a wound on the head/face only had a significantly shorter incubation than those with wounds at other sites (prabies cases occurred among 40-65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast


    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  4. Contributions to Bryophyte Flora of Zonguldak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ÖREN


    Full Text Available With this study, some new bryophyte taxa have been added for the bryophyte flora of Zonguldak. One taxon from Anthoceratophyta (Hornworts, 11 from Marchantiophyta (Liverworts and 55 from Bryophyta (Mosses, totally 67 taxa are determined as new for the bryophyte flora of Zonguldak province with examination of specimens collected from field trips held on different habitats between 2012-2014. Among them, 14 taxa are newly reported from A2 square according to the Henderson grid system. Considering previous studies, the number of specific and infra specific taxa in the research area are reached up to 282.

  5. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in models and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.


    We use a simplified model of the North Atlantic ocean to study the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is a low-frequency variation found in sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic ocean. A mechanism for the AMO has previously been described; here we study the excitation of

  6. 77 FR 70551 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ... Part 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... shark stock assessments that were completed from 2009 to 2012. The assessments for Atlantic blacknose...

  7. Impact of interbasin exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Dijkstra, H.A.; Leeuwen, P.J. van


    The thermohaline exchange between the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean is analyzed, using a data set based on WOCE hydrographic data. It is shown that the salt and heat transports brought about by the South Atlantic subtropical gyre play an essential role in the Atlantic heat and salt budgets. It

  8. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  9. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon. (United States)

    Rajasingh, Hannah; Øyehaug, Leiv; Våge, Dag Inge; Omholt, Stig W


    Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years) under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  10. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "A refreshing and intriguing interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which the history and cultures of the American South have been largely shaped by forces beyond the geographical boundaries of the United States." --Allison Graham, author of Framing the South "This is an impressive collection......, emphasizing black and white racial binaries and outdated geographical boundaries, The American South and the Atlantic World seeks larger thematic and spatial contexts. This is the first book to focus explicitly on how contacts with the peoples, cultures, ideas, and economies of the Atlantic World have...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  11. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  12. Colorectal cancer trends in Kerman province, the largest province in Iran, with forecasting until 2016. (United States)

    Roya, Nikbakht; Abbas, Bahrampour


    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. The aim of this study is determination its trends in Kerman province and individual cities separately until year 2016. This analytical and modeling study was based of cancer registry data of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, collected during 2001-2010. Among 20,351 cancer case, 792 were colorectal cancer cases in age group 18-93 years with a mean of 59.4 and standard deviation of 15.1. By applying time series and data trends, incidences were predicted until 2016 for the province and each city, with adjustment for population size. In colorectal cases, 413 (52%) were male, and 379 (48%) were female. The annual increasing rate in Kerman province overall was and can be expected to be 6%, and in the cities of the province Rafsanjan, Bardsir, Bam, Kerman, Baft, Sirjan, Jiroft, Kahnuj and Manujan had an increasing range from 5 to 14% by the year 2016. But in Ravar, Zarand and Shahrbabak reduction in rates of at least 2% could be predicted. The time series showed that the trend of colorectal cancer in female will increase 15% and in male 7% by year 2016. Given the trend of this cancer is increasing so that resources will be consumed in the treatment of the patients, efforts shoudlbe focused on prevention and early diagnosis of the disease. Screening could have an important role leading to improved survival.

  13. Fluid-present melting of meta-igneous rocks and the generation of leucogranites – Constraints from garnet major and trace element data, Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages and whole rock Nd-Sr-Hf-O isotope data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, C.; Jung, S.; Nebel, O.; Hellebrand, E.; Masberg, P.; Hoffer, E.


    Pan-African high-grade metamorphism in the Proterozoic Damara orogen (Namibia) led to formation of garnet-bearing leucosomes in potassic meta-igneous gneisses producing a meta-igneous migmatite. In addition, the migmatite (gneiss (mesosome) plus leucosome) was intruded by small-scale leucogranitic

  14. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua


    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  15. U-Pb dating of minerals in alteration halos of Superior Province massive sulfide deposits: syngenesis versus metamorphism (United States)

    Davis, D. W.; Schandl, E. S.; Wasteneys, H. A.


    U-Pb geochronology of igneous zircon from rhyolitic host rocks to the Archean Kidd Creek, Geco and Winston Lake massive sulfide deposits, in the Superior Province of Ontario, shows that volcanism, which accompanied mineralization, occupied a narrow time span (2717±2 Ma, 2720±2 Ma and 2723±2 Ma, respectively). Precise ages of hydrothermal monazite, allanite and rutile from alteration zones surrounding the above deposits indicate that these minerals crystallized 40 70 million years after volcanism. Monazite from Kidd Creek mine is 2659±3 Ma old, in agreement with spatially associated 2664±25 Ma old rutile. Monazite from a biotite schist at Geoco mine gives a similar age of 2661±1 Ma. However, monazite from a sericite schist, which hosts the ore at Geco mine, is 2675±2 Ma old. Abraded large monazite grains from three units in the Winston Lake deposit are coeval with biotite crystallization and record an age of 2677±2 Ma, approximately the same as monazite in the sericite schist at Geco. Data points from allanite fractions from both the Winston Lake and Geco deposits fall on a Pb-Pb isochron that gives an age of 2672±5 Ma. Rutile from Winston Lake gives a younger age of 2651±6/-2 Ma and may date retrograde alteration of biotite to chlorite. The ca. 2676 Ma age of monazite from Winston Lake and in the sericite schist at Geco mine probably dates a regional metamorphic event that affected most of the southern Superior Province. The ca. 2660 Ma old monazite in the biotite schist at Geco mine and in the chlorite-sericite alteration at Kidd Creek may date later K-metasomatism caused by metamorphically derived fluids that were focussed along old fault structures. Such fluids were also responsible for local sulfide remobilization. Monazite and rutile are spatially associated with chlorite and sericite alterations at Kidd Creek. Their young ages indicate that these originally syngenetic mineral assemblages may have been significantly affected by regional metamorphism

  16. Drought Characteristics over the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christina M Botai; Joel O Botai; Jaco P de Wit; Katlego P Ncongwane; Abiodun M Adeola


    .... The present study assessed drought conditions using two categories of drought indicators computed from precipitation data sets measured by weather stations across the Western Cape Province, South...

  17. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic... (United States)


    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red... document is also accessible via the Internet at . NMFS prepared a Final Regulatory...

  18. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge


    to the low thickness of the lithospheric mantle and preheating of the lower crust by earlier Mio-Pliocene volcanism. Rare earth element modelling of mantle melting calls for enriched source compositions and a beginning of melting within the garnet stability field for all Payenia basalts. The Río Colorado......The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...... rocks with 4 to 12 wt.% MgO and 44 to 50 wt.% SiO2. The southern Payenia province is dominated by intraplate basalts and the trace element patterns of the Río Colorado and Payún Matrú lavas suggest little or no influence from subducted slab components. The mantle source of these rocks is similar to some...

  19. Phytoplankton biovolume is independent from the slope of the size spectrum in the oligotrophic atlantic ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno-Ostos, Enrique


    Modelling the size-abundance spectrum of phytoplankton has proven to be a very useful tool for the analysis of physical-biological coupling and the vertical flux of carbon in oceanic ecosystems at different scales. A frequent observation relates high phytoplankton biovolume in productive regions with flatter spectrum slope and the opposite in oligotrophic ecosystems. Rather than this, the relationship between high biovolume phytoplankton assemblages and flatter size-abundance spectra does not correspond with measurements of the phytoplankton community in the Atlantic Ocean open waters. As part of the Malaspina Circunnavegation Expedition, sixty seven sampling stations within the Atlantic Ocean covering six oceanographic provinces, at different seasons, produced a complete set of phytoplankton size-spectra whose slope and biovolume did not show any obvious interrelation. In these oligotrophic sites, small (procaryotes) and medium-size (nanoplankton) cells are responsible for the most part of biovolume, and their response to environmental conditions does not apply to changes in the size-abundance spectrum slope as expected in richer, large-cell dominated ecosystems.

  20. Primary colonization and breakdown of igneous rocks by endemic, succulent elephant trees (Pachycormus discolor) of the deserts in Baja California, Mexico. (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; Vierheilig, Horst; Salazar, Bernardo G; de-Bashan, Luz E


    Trees growing in rocks without soil are uncommon. In two arid regions in Baja California, Mexico, field surveys found large numbers of rock-colonizing elephant trees (Pachycormus discolor (Benth.) Coville ex Standl. (Mexican name: copalquin) growing in igneous rocks (granite and basalt) as primary colonizers without the benefit of soil or with a very small amount of soil generated by their own growth. Many adult trees broke large granite boulders and were capable of wedging, growing in, and colonizing rocks and cliffs made of ancient lava flows. This is the first record of a tree species, apart from the previously recorded cacti, capable of primary colonization of rocks and rock rubble in hot deserts.

  1. Reactive transport modeling of ferroan dolomitization by seawater interaction with mafic igneous dikes and carbonate host rock at the Latemar platform, Italy (United States)

    Blomme, Katreine; Fowler, Sarah Jane; Bachaud, Pierre


    The Middle Triassic Latemar carbonate platform, northern Italy, has featured prominently in the longstanding debate regarding dolomite petrogenesis [1-4]. Recent studies agree that ferroan and non-ferroan dolomite replaced calcite in limestone during reactive fluid flow at kinetically favorable conditions for the replacement reaction. However, the origin of the dolomitizing fluid is unclear. Seawater may have been an important component, but its Fe concentrations are insufficient to account for ferroan dolomite. New field, petrographic, XRD, and geochemical data document a spatial, temporal, and geochemical link between ferroan replacement dolomite and altered mafic igneous dikes that densely intrude the platform. A critical observation is that ferroan dolomite abundances increase towards the dikes. We hypothesize that seawater interacted with mafic minerals in the dikes, leading to Fe enrichment in the fluid that subsequently participated in dolomitization. This requires that dolomite formation was preceded by dike alteration reactions that liberated Fe and did not consume Mg. Another requirement is that ferroan and non-ferroan dolomite (instead of other Fe- and Mg-bearing minerals) formed during fluid circulation within limestone host rock. We present reactive transport numerical simulations (Coores-Arxim, [5]) that predict equilibrium mineral assemblages and the evolution of fluid dolomitizing potential from dike crystallization, through dike alteration by seawater, to replacement dolomitization in carbonate host rock. The simulations are constrained by observations. A major advantage of the simulations is that stable mineral assemblages are identified based on a forward modeling approach. In addition, the dominant igneous minerals (plagioclase, clinopyroxene olivine and their alteration products) are solid solutions. Most reactive transport simulations of carbonate petrogenesis do not share these benefits (e.g. [6]). Predicted alteration mineral assemblages are

  2. The Rhyolite Flare-up of the Columbia River Basalt Province and its Bearing on Plume vs. Non-plume Models (United States)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. L.


    The decades-long controversy as to whether the Columbia River Basalt province results from arrival of a deep mantle plume is far from over, as new non-plume models are proposed. Age-progressive rhyolites of the Snake River Plain are a centerpiece to a migrating plume model that ties mid-Miocene flood basalt magmatism to the present location of the Yellowstone hotspot. However voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolites coeval with the flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt province have received little attention. These long-known but relatively underappreciated rhyolite occurrences in eastern Oregon and neighboring areas erupted across the province over a narrow time window making the Columbia River province a strongly bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) Large Igneous Province. The entire rhyolite distribution area has roughly a circular area of about a diameter of 300 km and stretches from rhyolite centers near the towns of Baker City and John Day, Oregon in the north to rhyolite centers of the High Rock Desert, Nevada in the SW and the Jarbidge Rhyolite, Idaho in the SE. Oldest rhyolites are ~16.5 Ma in age and occur both along the southern E-W tangent (including McDermitt) and, in lesser volumes, in the central to northern sector. The considerable data that have been generated over the last few years on rhyolites of the southern sector is now being supplemented by new data that we have begun collecting on rhyolites further north. Province-wide rhyolite volcanism was strongest between ~16.4 and 15.4 Ma coincident with eruptions of the most voluminous member of the CRBG - the Grande Ronde Basalt. This widespread rhyolite volcanism indicates that CRBG crustal inputs were focused during this narrow time window over a large area. Magmas in the upper Grande Ronde Basalt that compositionally correlate with glassy mafic inclusions in the rhyolitic Dinner Creek Tuff effectively place one CRBG crustal storage site below a major silicic center. Youngest rhyolites range from ~14.5 to 12

  3. Effect of bulk chemistry in the spectral variability of igneous rocks in VIS-NIR region: Implications to remote compositional mapping (United States)

    Nair, Archana M.; Mathew, George


    In the present study, a range of igneous rocks with weight percentage of silica ranging from 45% to 70% were used to generate reflectance spectra in the VIS-NIR region. The laboratory generated reflectance spectra of these rocks were used to study the effect of chemical composition and mineralogy on the spectral properties. The characteristic spectral features were evaluated based on the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the rocks. The main spectral features in the VIS-NIR region are the 0.7 μm absorption band due to the inter valance charge transfer between Fe2+ and Fe3+ termed as Band F, the 1 μm broad absorption band from Fe2+ at the octahedral sites in pyroxene termed as Band I, the 1.9 μm and 2.3 μm narrow absorption bands due to H2O or OH functional group in hydrated minerals. The 2 μm absorption feature (Band II; Cloutis and Gaffey, 1991) is observed as a weak feature in all the mafic rocks. The analysis of Band I with the bulk chemistry and mineralogy, we observed a positive correlation to the bulk Ca abundance. Rocks with high bulk calcic content exemplify Band I as a prominent spectral feature towards longer wavelength. Consequently, basalt, gabbro and anorthositic rocks show Band I as a strong feature. However, rocks with low bulk Calcic content show Band I as weak absorption feature observed towards shorter wavelength. Thus, igneous rocks of alkaline affinity have subdued Band I feature that appears towards shorter wavelength. The analysis of Band F with the bulk chemistry and mineralogy showed a positive correlation to the bulk Fe abundance. The results of the present study have implications towards remote compositional mapping and lithological discrimination for Planetary Studies.

  4. Arc-continent collision and the formation of continental crust: A new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Schouten, Hans


    Collisions between oceanic island-arc terranes and passive continental margins are thought to have been important in the formation of continental crust throughout much of Earth's history. Magmatic evolution during this stage of the plate-tectonic cycle is evident in several areas of the Ordovician Grampian-Taconic orogen, as we demonstrate in the first detailed geochemical study of the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. New U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 493 2 Ma from a primitive mafic intrusion, indicating intra-oceanic subduction in Tremadoc time, and 475 10 Ma from a light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched tonalite intrusion that incorporated Laurentian continental material by early Arenig time (Early Ordovician, Stage 2) during arc-continent collision. Notably, LREE enrichment in volcanism and silicic intrusions of the Tyrone Igneous Complex exceeds that of average Dalradian (Laurentian) continental material that would have been thrust under the colliding forearc and potentially recycled into arc magmatism. This implies that crystal fractionation, in addition to magmatic mixing and assimilation, was important to the formation of new crust in the Grampian-Taconic orogeny. Because similar super-enrichment of orogenic melts occurred elsewhere in the Caledonides in the British Isles and Newfoundland, the addition of new, highly enriched melt to this accreted arc terrane was apparently widespread spatially and temporally. Such super-enrichment of magmatism, especially if accompanied by loss of corresponding lower crustal residues, supports the theory that arc-continent collision plays an important role in altering bulk crustal composition toward typical values for ancient continental crust. ?? 2009 Geological Society of London.

  5. New zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skyttä


    Full Text Available New U-Th-Pb zircon data (SIMS from three intrusive phases of the Palaeoproterozoic Viterliden intrusion in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield, dates igneous emplacement in a narrow time interval at about 1.89 Ga. A locally occurring quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite, here dated at 1889 ± 3 Ma, is considered the youngest of the intrusive units, based on the new age data and field evidence. This supports an existing interpretation of its fault-controlled emplacement after intrusion of the dominating hornblende-tonalite units, in this study dated at 1892 ± 3 Ma. The Viterliden magmatism was synchronous with the oldest units of the Jörn type early-orogenic intrusions in the eastern part of the district (1.89–1.88 Ga; cf. Gonzàles Roldán, 2010. A U-Pb zircon age for a felsic metavolcanic rock from the hanging-wall to the Kristineberg VMS deposit, immediately south of the Viterliden intrusion, is constrained at 1883 ± 6 Ma in this study. It provides a minimum age for the Kristineberg ore deposit and suggests contemporaneous igneous/volcanic activity throughout the Skellefte District. Furthermore, it supports the view that the Skellefte Group defines a laterally continuous belt throughout this "ore district". Tentative correlation of the 1889 ± 3 Ma quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite with the Kristineberg "mine porphyry" suggests that these units are coeval at about 1.89 Ga. Based on the new age determinations, the Viterliden intrusion may equally well have intruded into or locally acted as a basement for the ore-hosting Skellefte Group volcanic rocks.

  6. Small graben in the southeastern ejecta blanket of the lunar Copernicus crater: Implications for recent shallow igneous intrusion on the Moon (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Huang, Qian; Zeng, Zuoxun; Xiao, Long


    Dozens of linear graben that are about 10-400 m wide and less than 1 km long are recognized in the southeastern continuous ejecta deposits of Copernicus, supporting that Copernican-aged tectonism has occurred on the Moon. Fault geometry analysis suggests that the bounding faults of the graben have formed within the ejecta deposits. The graben are exclusively located on a local high-relief area, but they are not formed by mass wasting, because the topographic slope is substantially less than the repose angle of typical lunar materials, and no other extensional structures are visible on similar high-relief areas at the continuous ejecta deposits of Copernicus. The orientations of the graben all point to the center of Copernicus, but the topography of Copernicus is little compensated after formation, suggesting that the graben were not caused by possible crustal isostatic readjustment. This graben system is one of the three examples on the Moon that were interpreted to be caused by shallow igneous intrusions in the format of laccoliths. The currently available GRAIL gravity data have a lower spatial resolution than the size of the graben, so the gravity data cannot resolve the hypothesized sub-kilometer-scale laccoliths beneath the graben. While laccolith intrusion to a depth of about 80 m is required to explain the formation of this graben system, the laccolith intrusion scenario is not consistent with the geological context of the graben. A compressional structure is visible close to the graben system, and their spatial configuration and similar preservation states are consistent with being generically related. A close examination of the other two sets of graben that were also interpreted to have no associated compressional structures actually reveals spatially-related lobate scarps and wrinkle ridges in the vicinity. Therefore, shallow igneous intrusion is not plausible or necessary to explain to formation of Copernican-aged graben on the Moon, and they are most

  7. 75 FR 35767 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting (United States)


    ... (SERMA) in the South Atlantic, and receive updates on state enforcement efforts of 2010 snapper grouper... ] Conservation Biology Institute (MCBI) which addresses the challenges of enforcing regulations within the vast...

  8. 78 FR 4129 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings (United States)


    .... Receive an update on the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Communication Group Social Media Workshop. 3.... Review Joint Mackerel Amendment 19, which addresses bag limit sales of king mackerel, Spanish mackerel...

  9. Persistent influence of tropical North Atlantic wintertime sea surface temperature on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season (United States)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong; Foltz, Gregory R.


    This study explores the seasonally lagged impact of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic main development region (MDR) on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season. It is found that wintertime SST anomalies in the MDR can persist into the summer, explaining 42% of the variance in the subsequent hurricane season's SST during 1951-2010. An anomalously warm wintertime in the MDR is usually followed by an anomalously active hurricane season. Analysis shows an important constraint on the seasonal evolution of the MDR SST by the water vapor feedback process, in addition to the well-known wind-evaporation-SST and cloud-SST feedback mechanisms over the tropical North Atlantic. The water vapor feedback influences the seasonal evolution of MDR SST by modulating seasonal variations of downward longwave radiation. This wintertime thermal control of hurricane activity has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of hurricane activity over the North Atlantic.

  10. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., or selling of hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) caught in association with ICCAT fisheries. This rule would...

  11. 76 FR 62331 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures (United States)


    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... blacknose sharks, NMFS is declaring the following stock status determinations. Sandbar sharks are still overfished, but no longer experiencing overfishing. Dusky sharks are still overfished and still experiencing...

  12. Continental margin radiography from a potential field and sediment thickness standpoint: the Iberian Atlantic Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, M.; Martos, Y. M.; Martin-Davila, J.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Carbo, A.; Druet, M.


    This study reviews the state of knowledge in the Iberian Atlantic margin. In order to do this, the margin has been divided into three provinces: the Galicia margin, the southern Iberian abyssal plain, and the Tagus abyssal plain. We have used potential field and sediment thickness data. This has allowed us to study the crust, setting limits for the continental crust domain, and the amplitude of the so-called ocean-continent transition, whose end marks the beginning of the oceanic crust. The study shows the continental crust in the Galician margin to be the widest, about 210 km in length, whilst the ocean-continent transition varies slightly in this province: between 65 km wide in the south and 56 km wide in the north. This result shows up some differences with the hypothesis of other authors. The situation in the southern Iberian abyssal plain is nearly the opposite. Its continental crust extends approximately 60 km, whilst the ocean-continent transition zone is 185 km long. The Tagus abyssal plain study shows a faster morphological evolution than the others, according with the amount of crustal thinning β, the ocean-continent transition domain spanning 100 km. These results support a transitional intermediate character for almost the whole Tagus plain, in contrary to what other authors have stated. (Author)

  13. North Atlantic storm track response to decadal fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) (United States)

    Frankignoul, C.; Msadek, R.; Li, L.


    The mechanisms of the atmospheric circulation response to a sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly induced by decadal fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in a climate model is investigated using prescribed change experiments with its atmospheric component coupled to a slab ocean. The prescribed SST anomaly in the North Atlantic is the surface signature of the AMOC influence on the atmosphere detected in the coupled simulation. It follows the AMOC by a few years and resembles the model Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A diagnostic analysis with daily data emphasizes the role of transient-eddy forcing in shaping and maintaining the equilibrium response. We show that in response to an intensified AMOC, the North Atlantic storm tracks are enhanced and shifted northward during summer, consistently with a strengthening of the westerlies. The winter response to the AMOC-induced North Atlantic warming is an intensification of the subtropical jet and a southward shift of the Atlantic storm track activity, resulting in an equatorward shift of the polar jet. The atmospheric response is highly non linear in both seasons as the result of a strong interaction between transient eddies and the mean flow. This study emphasizes that decadal fluctuations of the AMOC can affect the storm tracks location and intensity, both in winter and summer, leading to significant dynamical changes in the atmosphere associated with global climate impacts.

  14. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik


    model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  15. Subpolar North Atlantic glider observations for OSNAP (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Hodges, B.; Bower, A. S.; Yang, J.; Lin, X.


    OSNAP is an international program designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water-column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The observational efforts of this program are focused largely along lines connecting Labrador to Greenland, and Greenland to Scotland. The OSNAP experimental plan includes continuous sampling by Slocum G2 gliders along the latter (easternmost) of these two sections, specifically across the northeastward-flowing North Atlantic Current in the Iceland Basin. The glider observations, a collaboration between the Ocean University of China and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, provide higher spatial resolution of water properties than is possible from moorings alone. These observations commenced in June 2015 with a mission to fly back and forth along a section between two OSNAP moorings, profiling from the surface to 1000-m depth. As of September 2015, five sections (including over 240 profiles) have been recorded. As expected, the data indicates energetic intraseasonal variability at smaller scales than can be captured by the OSNAP mooring array. We are investigating how this variability may impact calculated fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater. The glider repeatedly crossed a cyclonic eddy between the two moorings, enabling study of fine thermohaline structure during the development and dissipation of mesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic. With additional sensors measuring fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and multispectral light, the dataset also has the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the biogeochemical processes of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic.

  16. Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty. (United States)

    Rotter, Andrew J.


    The author is persuaded that the main purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was to raise the confidence of moderate ruling groups in Western Europe. Today NATO is an expression of support between troubled allies with a number of common interests. (RM)

  17. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at 40. (United States)

    Baker, John A.


    Surveys the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) on the 40th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty. Highlights milestones in the Organization's history of dealing with the Soviet Union, from containment to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Discusses needs, tasks, and challenges that NATO faces in the 1990s.…

  18. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.


    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  19. Predicting multiyear North Atlantic Ocean variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Wouters, B.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Corti, S.; Palmer, T.; Lloyd Smith, D.; Dunstone, N.; Kroger, J.; Pohlmann, H.; Storch, von J.S.


    We assess the skill of retrospective multiyear forecasts of North Atlantic ocean characteristics obtained with ocean-atmosphere-sea ice models that are initialized with estimates from the observed ocean state. We show that these multimodel forecasts can skilfully predict surface and subsurface ocean

  20. U-Pb dating of interspersed gabbroic magmatism and hydrothermal metamorphism during lower crustal accretion, Vema lithospheric section, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Jöns, Niels; Bowring, Samuel; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bach, Wolfgang; Kylander-Clark, Andrew; Hacker, Bradley; Dudás, Frank


    New U/Pb analyses of zircon and xenotime constrain the timing of magmatism, magmatic assimilation, and hydrothermal metamorphism during formation of the lower crust at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The studied sample is an altered gabbro from the Vema lithospheric section (11°N). Primary gabbroic minerals have been almost completely replaced by multiple hydrothermal overprints: cummingtonitic amphibole and albite formed during high-temperature hydration reactions and are overgrown first by kerolite and then prehnite and chlorite. In a previous study, clear inclusion-free zircons from the sample yielded Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates of 13.528 ± 0.101 to 13.353 ± 0.057 Ma. Ti concentrations, reported here, zoning patterns and calculated Th/U of the dated grains are consistent with these zircons having grown during igneous crystallization. To determine the timing of hydrothermal metamorphism, we dated a second population of zircons, with ubiquitous igneous zircon during or following hydrothermal metamorphism. Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates for the inclusion-rich zircons range from 13.598 ± 0.012 to 13.503 ± 0.018 Ma and predate crystallization of all but one of the inclusion-free zircons, suggesting that the inclusion-rich zircons were assimilated from older hydrothermally altered wall rocks. The xenotime dates are sensitive to the Th correction applied, but even using a maximum correction, 206Pb/238U dates range from 13.341 ± 0.162 to 12.993 ± 0.055 Ma and postdate crystallization of both the inclusion-rich zircons and inclusion-free igneous zircons, reflecting a second hydrothermal event. The data provide evidence for alternating magmatism and hydrothermal metamorphism at or near the ridge axis during accretion of the lower crust at a ridge-transform intersection and suggest that hydrothermally altered crust was assimilated into younger gabbroic magmas. The results of this study show that high-precision U-Pb dating is a powerful method for studying the timing of

  1. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the


    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  2. Hymenoptera of Ni de province: Studies on Sphecidae fauna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is based on 1240 specimens obtained from the field studies in the vicinity of Ankara province in Turkey between the years of 2006 - 2008. In fauna studies carried out in Nide province between May 2006 - October 2008, the specimens of Sphecinae Latreille, 1802, Pempheredoninae Dahlbom, 1835 ...

  3. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  4. Validating homicide rates in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homicide rate of 85/100 000 in the province was approximately 1.8 times the national average,[3] albeit based on crude rates that did not account for provincial differences in the age profile. SAPS data suggest that there has been a significant decline in homicide rates in the Western Cape relative to other provinces since.

  5. The evaluation of public psychiatric services in three provinces of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the quality of care in communityand hospital-based care in three provinces in terms of 13 standards of care and the criteria associated with each; and to explore the similarities and differences between provinces. Design. A descriptive study in the form of a survey using interviews, observation and ...

  6. New records of mosses for Zhejiang province,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Liyuan


    Full Text Available We have found and reported 31 newly recorded species of mosses of Zhejiang province via investigation and specimen identification for bryophytes in the QingliangFeng.Two of them are new genera of Zhejiang province:Trichodon Schimp.and Zygodon Hook.& Taylor.The maintaxonomic characters,habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.

  7. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 5, 1995 ... Objective. To determine the number of deliveries, the low- birth-weight rate and the perinatal mortality rate at provincial and province-aided hospitals and clinics in each planning region of the Cape Province. Design. A record of the number of deliveries, low-birth- weight infants, stillbirths and early neonataJ ...

  8. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  9. Dynamic Ecological Footprint in Jiangxi Province of China


    Guan, Jinqiao


    This paper introduces the related research progress of ecological footprint theory. According to the data of Jiangxi Province from 1995 to 2004, this paper measures the per capita ecological footprint and supply in recent 10 years. Result shows that ecological deficit of Jiangxi Province of China is relatively low, but is increasing gradually.

  10. Provision of Adequate Water Supply in Benin Province: Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines the performance of the local governments in the provision of adequate sources of potable water in their different areas of jurisdiction in the Benin Province. The work covers the four Native Administration areas of Benin, Esan, Afemai and Asaba Divisions, which made up the Benin Province during ...

  11. Morphological and karyotypic differentiation in Caranx lugubris (Perciformes: Carangidae) in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garcia, José; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco


    Isolated oceanic islands constitute interesting model systems for the study of colonization processes, as several climatic and oceanographic phenomena have played an important role in the history of the marine ichthyofauna. The present study describes the presence of two morphotypes of Caranx lugubris, in the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago located in the mid-Atlantic. Morphotypes were compared in regard to their morphological and cytogenetic patterns, using C-banding, Ag-NORs, staining with CMA3/DAPI fluorochromes and chromosome mapping by dual-color FISH analysis with 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes. We found differences in chromosome patterns and marked divergence in body patterns which suggest that different populations of the Atlantic or other provinces can be found in the Archipelago of St. Peter and St. Paul.

  12. Population structure of Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak support for isolated spawning components within either side of the North Atlantic. We question the de-facto accepted hypothesis of isolation between spawning components on the basis of spawning and age distribution data. The spawning intensities, proxied by larval abundances, are negatively correlated between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults ("twinning". Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics, ectoparasite infections, otolith shapes, and blood phenotypes. Because no method has been able to identify the origin of spawning mackerel unequivocally from any of the traditional spawning components, and in the light of our results, we conclude that straying outweighs spatial segregation. We propose a new model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic mackerel has important implications for research, assessment and management.

  13. Dengue virus serotype in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available WHO estimated 50 million dengue infections happen every year in the world. In Indonesia, there were 90,245 DHF cases on 2012 with 816 deaths. In the Province of Aceh, 2,269 cases happened in the same year. This study aimed to identify dengue virus serotype in Aceh. Sampling was done in Kota Banda Aceh Hospital, Kota Lhokseumawe Hospital, Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang Hospital, Kabupaten Aceh Barat Hospital, and Kabupaten Simeulue Hospital between May to December 2012. This was a clinical laboratory research with observation design using cross sectional approach. Research’s population was sample from patients with dengue clinical symptom. Using purposive sampling technique, we have collected 100 samples from the five hospitals (20 samples from each hospital. From RT-PCR, we found 16 positive samples (9 samples were DENV-4, 3 samples were DENV-1, 2 samples were DENV-2, and 2 samples were DENV-3.

  14. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra


    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  15. Dispute Resolutions Sea Border Between the Province of Bangka Belitung Islands in Riau Islands Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Sulistyono


    Full Text Available This research was conducted and based on the existence of “persistence” claims of the province of Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands province that seven islands groups, which is disputes region territory. Therefore, this study would be likely to provide a solution in resolving the dispute between the two provinces. This study uses qualitative methods with descriptive analytical approach. This method is used, because the phenomenon of inter-regional constellation boundary disputes (including sea boundary is considered to be multidimensional. The data were taken from both the research field of primary data and secondary data, conducted through in-depth interviews with selected key informants and field observations, and combined with the study of literature through a search of the authentic evidence disputes the relevant past. Government (the Ministry of Home Affairs should immediately resolves disputes in the sea boundary segment cluster seven islands involving the provincial government Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands provincial government with reference to the four approaches, namely: a the historical side; b juridical side; c side of the rule; d the social side of the culture. And coupled with the desire not to deny the people who live on the islands so expect to be appreciated by the government well.

  16. The late Oligocene Cevizlidere Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Tunceli Province, eastern Turkey (United States)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.; Spell, Terry L.


    The Cevizlidere deposit, located in the Tunceli Province of eastern Anatolia, is the largest porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system in Turkey. The deposit is spatially related to a composite stock, which was emplaced into Paleozoic limestones and Paleogene andesitic rocks to the southeast of the Munzur mountains, near the southwestern margin of the Ovacık pull-apart basin. The host plutonic rocks at Cevizlidere are porphyritic, medium-K calc-alkaline diorites and granodiorites. 40Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating analysis of two igneous biotite separates obtained from syn-mineral diorite porphyry yielded late Oligocene cooling ages of 25.49 ± 0.10 and 25.10 ± 0.14 Ma, whereas hydrothermal biotite yielded an age of 24.73 ± 0.08 Ma. Re-Os ages obtained from two molybdenite separates (24.90 ± 0.10 and 24.78 ± 0.10 Ma) indicate that porphyry-style alteration and mineralization developed shortly after magma emplacement. The whole-rock geochemical composition of the Cevizlidere porphyry intrusions is consistent with derivation from partial melting of the metasomatized supra-subduction zone mantle. However, based on regional tectonic reconstructions, Oligocene magmatic activity in this area appears to be related to a major kinematic reorganization that took place at around 25 Ma, during the switch from subduction to collisional tectonics in eastern Anatolia. This kinematic switch may be attributed to break-off of the Southern Neo-Tethys oceanic slab prior to the Arabia-Eurasia continent-continent collision (~12-10 Ma) following widespread middle Eocene (50-43 Ma) arc/back-arc magmatism. In this respect, the subduction-related tectonic setting of the late Oligocene Cevizlidere porphyry deposit is similar to that of the middle Eocene Çöpler epithermal Au deposit. The late timing of Cevizlidere with respect to the Southern Neo-Tethys subduction may be comparable to some early to late Miocene porphyry-epithermal systems that lie within the contiguous Urumieh-Dokhtar belt in central

  17. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol


    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  18. Deciphering the geochemical and mineralogical changes of a Miocene sedimentary basin infill, Mendoza Province, Argentina (United States)

    Hunger, Gabriel; Moscariello, Andrea; Ventra, Dario


    low to moderate weathering values (CIA = 45-65) and shows the evolution of the composition towards the illite pole, in agreement with the QEMSCAN results. The evolution of the source rock composition shows a trend towards more mafic sources. La Pilona Fm. is characterized by more scarce composition certainly due to the advance of the thrust front coupled with inputs from the uplifting Frontal Cordillera, a tectonic province feeding the basin with different igneous sources. The integration of heavy mineral and isotopic data to constrain the source area changes will also allow us to have a better understanding of the evolution of the uplifting Andes.

  19. Algal phytogeography of the European Atlantic coasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van den C.; Donze, M.


    It is concluded on the basis of data gathered from the literature and of our personal observations, that the algal phytogeographic provinces as assumed by several authors do not exist. The algal floras of NW. Spain and Brittany are richest in species. From these two regions down to the south but far

  20. Towards a model of postglacial biogeography in shallow marine species along the Patagonian Province: lessons from the limpet Nacella magellanica (Gmelin, 1791). (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A; Hüne, Mathias; Cañete, Juan I; Mansilla, Andrés; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Poulin, Elie


    Patagonia extends for more than 84,000 km of irregular coasts is an area especially apt to evaluate how historic and contemporary processes influence the distribution and connectivity of shallow marine benthic organisms. The true limpet Nacella magellanica has a wide distribution in this province and represents a suitable model to infer the Quaternary glacial legacy on marine benthic organisms. This species inhabits ice-free rocky ecosystems, has a narrow bathymetric range and consequently should have been severely affected by recurrent glacial cycles during the Quaternary. We performed phylogeographic and demographic analyses of N. magellanica from 14 localities along its distribution in Pacific Patagonia, Atlantic Patagonia, and the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Mitochondrial (COI) DNA analyses of 357 individuals of N. magellanica revealed an absence of genetic differentiation in the species with a single genetic unit along Pacific Patagonia. However, we detected significant genetic differences among three main groups named Pacific Patagonia, Atlantic Patagonia and Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Migration rate estimations indicated asymmetrical gene flow, primarily from Pacific Patagonia to Atlantic Patagonia (Nem=2.21) and the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (Nem=16.6). Demographic reconstruction in Pacific Patagonia suggests a recent recolonization process (species in Pacific Patagonia. This expansion could have been sustained by larval dispersal following the main current system in this area. Lower levels of genetic diversity in inland sea areas suggest that fjords and channels represent the areas most recently colonized by the species. Hence recolonization seems to follow a west to east direction to areas that were progressively deglaciated. Significant genetic differences among Pacific, Atlantic and Falkland/Malvinas Islands populations may be also explained through disparities in their respective glaciological and geological histories. The Falkland/Malvinas Islands

  1. The South Atlantic Coupled Variability and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (United States)

    Bombardi, Rodrigo Jose

    The dominant mode of coupled variability over the South Atlantic Ocean is known as "South Atlantic Dipole" (SAD) and is characterized by a dipole in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies with centers over the tropical and the extratropical South Atlantic. Previous studies have shown that variations in SST related to SAD modulate large-scale patterns of precipitation over the Atlantic Ocean. Here we show that variations in the South Atlantic SST are associated with changes in daily precipitation over eastern South America. This study is based on observational and regional atmospheric modeling. Rain gauge precipitation, satellite derived sea surface temperature and reanalysis data are used to investigate the variability of the subtropical and tropical South Atlantic and impacts on precipitation. SAD phases are assessed by performing Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis of sea level pressure and SST anomalies. We show that during neutral El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, SAD plays an important role in modulating cyclogenesis and the characteristics of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Positive SST anomalies over the extratropical South Atlantic (SAD negative phase) are related to increased cyclogenesis near southeast Brazil as well as the migration of extratropical cyclones further north. As a consequence, these systems organize convection and increase precipitation over eastern South America. Numerical experiments forced with prescribed SST anomalies showed that even though the Atlantic SST affects the position of the cyclone associated with the SACZ, the atmospheric response and precipitation patters over land were opposite from the observational results. On the other hand, experiments forced with prescribed anomalous driving fields showed that the atmospheric component of SAD plays a significant role for the right position and intensity of precipitation associated with the SACZ. SAD negative anomalies provide the low-level and upper

  2. Spatiotemporal relationships between earthquakes of the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantic continental margins (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Oluwaseyi J.

    The seismicity of the mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) was compared in space and time with the seismicity along the Atlantic continental margins of Europe, Africa, North America, the Carribean and South America in a bid to appraise the level of influence of the ridge push force at the MAR on the Atlantic coastal seismicity. By analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns of many earthquakes (along with the patterns in their stress directions) in diverse places with similar tectonic settings, it is hoped that patterns that might be found indicate some of the average properties of the forces that are causing the earthquakes. The spatial analysis of the dataset set used shows that areas with higher seismic moment release along the north MAR spatially correlate with areas with relatively lower seismic moment release along the north Atlantic continental margins (ACM) and vice versa. This inverse spatial correlation observed between MAR seismicity and ACM seismicity might be due to the time (likely a long time) it takes stress changes from segments of the MAR currently experiencing high seismic activity to propagate to the associated passive margin areas presently experiencing relatively low seismic activity. Furthermore, the number of Atlantic basin and Atlantic coast earthquakes occurring away from the MAR is observed to be independent of the proximity of earthquake's epicenters from the MAR axis. The effect of local stress as noted by Wysession et al. (1995) might have contributed to the independence of Atlantic basin and Atlantic coast earthquake proximity from the MAR. The Latchman (2011) observation of strong earthquakes on a specific section of the MAR being followed by earthquakes on Trinidad and Tobago was tested on other areas of the MAR and ACM. It was found that that the temporal delay observed by Latchman does not exist for the seismicity along other areas along the MAR and ACM. Within the time window used for this study, it appears that seismicity is occurring

  3. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell,


    Mine planning efforts have historically overlooked the possible acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) that local igneous rocks can provide to help neutralize acidmine drainage. As a result, limestone has been traditionally hauled to mine sites for use in neutralizing acid drainage. Local igneous rocks, when used as part of mine life-cycle planning and acid mitigation strategy, may reduce the need to transport limestone to mine sites because these rocks can contain acid neutralizing minerals. Igneous hydrothermal events often introduce moderately altered mineral assemblages peripheral to more intensely altered rocks that host metal-bearing veins and ore bodies. These less altered rocks can contain ANC minerals (calcite-chlorite-epidote) and are referred to as a propylitic assemblage. In addition, the carbon contents of soils in areas of new mining or those areas undergoing restoration have been historically unknown. Soil organic carbon is an important constituent to characterize as a soil recovery benchmark that can be referred to during mine cycle planning and restoration. This study addresses the mineralogy, ANC, and leachate chemistry of propylitic volcanic rocks that host polymetallic mineralization in the Animas River watershed near the historical Silverton, Colorado, mining area. Acid titration tests on volcanic rocks containing calcite (2 – 20 wt %) and chlorite (6 – 25 wt %), have ANC ranging from 4 – 146 kg/ton CaCO3 equivalence. Results from a 6-month duration, kinetic reaction vessel test containing layered pyritic mine waste and underlying ANC volcanic rock (saturated with deionized water) indicate that acid generating mine waste (pH 2.4) has not overwhelmed the ANC of propylitic volcanic rocks (pH 5.8). Sequential leachate laboratory experiments evaluated the concentration of metals liberated during leaching. Leachate concentrations of Cu-Zn-As-Pb for ANC volcanic rock are one-to-three orders of magnitude lower when compared to leached solution from

  4. Response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre to persistent North Atlantic oscillation like forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Katja; Bentsen, Mats [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Drange, Helge [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Beijing (China)


    The response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) to a persistent positive (or negative) phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model forced with idealized atmospheric reanalysis fields. The integrations are analyzed with reference to a base-line integration for which the model is forced with idealized fields representing a neutral state of the NAO. In the positive NAO case, the results suggest that the well-known cooling and strengthening of the SPG are, after about 10 years, replaced by a warming and subsequent weakening of the SPG. The latter changes are caused by the advection of warm water from the subtropical gyre (STG) region, driven by a spin-up of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the effect of an anomalous wind stress curl in the northeastern North Atlantic, which counteracts the local buoyancy forcing of the SPG. In the negative NAO case, however, the SPG response does not involve a sign reversal, but rather shows a gradual weakening throughout the integration. The asymmetric SPG-response to the sign of persistent NAO-like forcing and the different time scales involved demonstrate strong non-linearity in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation response to atmospheric forcing. The latter finding indicates that analysis based on the arithmetic difference between the two NAO-states, e.g. NAO+ minus NAO-, may hide important aspects of the ocean response to atmospheric forcing. (orig.)

  5. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa (United States)


    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  6. Parasite prevalence in fecal samples from shelter dogs and cats across the Canadian provinces. (United States)

    Villeneuve, Alain; Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily; Schurer, Janna; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Conboy, Gary; Benoit, Donald; Seewald, Wolfgang; Gagné, France


    In Canada, surveys of enteric parasites in dogs and cats have been reported sporadically over the past 40 years, mostly focusing on a specific region. The present work was performed to determine the current prevalence of various parasites in fecal samples from shelter dogs and cats across the Canadian provinces. A total of 1086 dog and 636 cat fecal samples from 26 shelters were analysed using a sugar solution double centrifugal flotation technique. Prevalences (national, regional, provincial, age and parasite-specific), were calculated and compared using the Fisher-Exact test. A multiplex PCR was performed to distinguish Taenia spp, Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis on samples positive for taeniid eggs. Overall, 33.9% of dogs and 31.8% of cats were positive for at least one parasite. Toxocara canis and T. cati were the most prevalent parasite present in fecal samples followed by Cystoisospora spp. Prevalence in dogs was similar across the Atlantic, East, West and Pacific regions, while prevalence in cats varied regionally. Eggs of E. granulosus/E. canadensis were detected in samples from dogs from BC, AB, and ON. Data from this study will help in the development of strategies, based on the level of risk per geographic location for the prevention and response to these parasites in pets and free-roaming and shelter animals in Canada.

  7. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)


    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  8. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)


    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  9. Diagnosing overflow waters in the North Atlantic (United States)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker


    Danmark Strait overflow water (DSOW) and Iceland Faroe overflow water (ISOW) are important for the formation and transformation of deep waters in the North Atlantic. In this work the volume transport, variability, and pathways of DSOW and ISOW are diagnosed using the one degree ocean-ice coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) that is forced by CORE2 inter-annual forcing. The oceanic component (MICOM) features an isopycnal coordinate that is referenced to 2000 db. The issues related to the coarse resolution such as the southward transport of ISOW to the western European Basin, the lack of overflow water in the western North Atlantic, and the western boundary detachment of the deep western boundary current are addressed. The effects of diapycnal mixing on the behavior of overflow descent at Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel and its downstream evolution are examined.

  10. Operating in the North Atlantic MNPS Airspace (United States)

    Whelan, Conor

    This paper considers the issue of operating aircraft through the North Atlantic's Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) airspace. Noting that aircraft constantly strive for reduced fuel burn and uplift, it describes how flight operators and pilots conduct safe, efficient flights through the region. Reference is made to mechanisms of the North Atlantic MNPS airspace in terms of its Organized Track Structure and other routes that exist. These different structures emphasize the level of flexibility available. Flight planning procedures and requirements necessary to obtain oceanic Air Traffic Control (ATC) clearances are mentioned, as is an account of how communication and position reporting procedures operate to apply the Mach Number technique. Other aspects of MNPS operations such as ETOPS operational restrictions, meteorological effects, the employment of Reduced Vertical Separation Minima and planned regional changes aim to provide an overview of the MNPS system's current and future air traffic management.

  11. South Atlantic paleobathymetry since early Cretaceous. (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Lucía; Eagles, Graeme


    We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as seafloor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation. This gateway, together with subsiding volcano-tectonic barriers would have played a key role in Late Cretaceous climate changes. Later deepening and widening of the South Atlantic, together with gateway opening at Drake Passage would lead, by mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) to the establishment of modern-style thermohaline circulation.

  12. Effects of low-pressure igneous processes and subduction on Fe3+/ΣFe and redox state of mantle eclogites from Lace (Kaapvaal craton) (United States)

    Aulbach, S.; Woodland, A. B.; Vasilyev, P.; Galvez, M. E.; Viljoen, K. S.


    Reconstructing the redox state of the mantle is critical in discussing the evolution of atmospheric composition through time. Kimberlite-borne mantle eclogite xenoliths, commonly interpreted as representing former oceanic crust, may record the chemical and physical state of Archaean and Proterozoic convecting mantle sources that generated their magmatic protoliths. However, their message is generally obscured by a range of primary (igneous differentiation) and secondary processes (seawater alteration, metamorphism, metasomatism). Here, we report the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio and δ18 O in garnet from in a suite of well-characterised mantle eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths hosted in the Lace kimberlite (Kaapvaal craton), which originated as ca. 3 Ga-old ocean floor. Fe3+/ΣFe in garnet (0.01 to 0.063, median 0.02; n = 16) shows a negative correlation with jadeite content in clinopyroxene, suggesting increased partitioning of Fe3+ into clinopyroxene in the presence of monovalent cations with which it can form coupled substitutions. Jadeite-corrected Fe3+/ΣFe in garnet shows a broad negative trend with Eu*, consistent with incompatible behaviour of Fe3+ during olivine-plagioclase accumulation in the protoliths. This trend is partially obscured by increasing Fe3+ partitioning into garnet along a conductive cratonic geotherm. In contrast, NMORB-normalised Nd/Yb - a proxy of partial melt loss from subducting oceanic crust (1) - shows no obvious correlation with Fe3+/ΣFe, nor does garnet δ18OVSMOW (5.14 to 6.21‰) point to significant seawater alteration. Median bulk-rock Fe3+/ΣFe is roughly estimated at 0.025. This observation agrees with V/Sc systematics, which collectively point to a reduced Archaean convecting mantle source to the igneous protoliths of these eclogites compared to the modern MORB source. Oxygen fugacites (fO2) relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) range from Δlog ⁡ fO2 = FMQ-1.3 to FMQ-4.6. At those reducing conditions, the solubility

  13. Mantle-derived sources of syenites from the A-type igneous suites - New approach to the provenance of alkaline silicic magmas (United States)

    Litvinovsky, B. A.; Jahn, B. M.; Eyal, M.


    Granite is generally dominant in A-type igneous suites but these frequently include also alkali feldspar- and peralkaline- syenite and quartz syenite. Such syenites can provide essential information about magma sources and mode of generation of A-type silicic magma. This paper addresses the petrogenesis of syenites based on comparisons between the Mongolian-Transbaikalian Belt, Russia (MTB), and the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) as exposed in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt and adjacent areas of southern Israel. The syenitic rocks from MTB and ANS are characterized by high alkali content (Na2O + K2O = 10.5 to 12.5 wt.%) and are assigned to alkaline metaluminous and peralkaline granitoids. Peralkaline syenites are generally richer in Na and contain slightly less K and Ba than are metaluminous granitoids. REE abundances are similar in all types of syenites. The Eu/Eu* ratios range commonly from 0.35 to 0.65, although higher values, up to 1.15, attributed to presence of accumulated Afs and minor Pl, also occur in some plutons. The geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics of associated syenite, granite and monzogabbro from five igneous suites ( 80 samples) suggest that the main rock types, silicic and mafic, are cogenetic in each suite. Syenite magmas were produced from mantle-derived source with little, if any silicic crustal component. The generation of abundant A-type granite and syenite magmas in the young juvenile crust (ANS) argues that old continental crust is not required for generation of highly alkaline silicic magmas, as commonly advocated. The most probable source of both syenite and granite was mantle-derived K-rich shoshonitic monzogabbro. The bimodal character of the A-type suites suggests that partial melting of monzogabbro, rather than fractional crystallization of basic magma, accompanied with enrichment of a cumulate phase in the mafic units, was the dominant mode of granitoid magma formation. Granite magmas were produced in the lower crust at

  14. Old formation ages of igneous clasts on the L chondrite parent body reflect an early generation of planetesimals or chondrule formation (United States)

    Crowther, Sarah A.; Filtness, Michal J.; Jones, Rhian H.; Gilmour, Jamie D.


    The Barwell meteorite contains large, abundant clasts that are igneous in nature. We report iodine-xenon ages of five clasts and one sample of host chondrite material. The fragment of host chondrite material yielded the oldest age determined: 4567.8 ± 1.2 Ma. Two clasts produced old, well defined ages of 4564.96 ± 0.33 Ma and 4565.60 ± 0.33 Ma. These, and a third clast having a less precise old age of 4566.0 ± 3.2 Ma, are interpreted as recording the timing of crystallisation of the samples. They were incorporated into the Barwell parent body before it underwent thermal metamorphism, but the I-Xe ages survived secondary processing on the parent body and were not reset by metamorphism, metasomatism or shock. Two further clasts record younger ages of 4560.96 ± 0.45 Ma and 4554.22 ± 0.38 Ma. These samples contain a high abundance of albitic mesostasis, and the most likely explanation of the ages is that they record the timing of metasomatism on the parent body. We also analysed four host chondrite samples that do not give I-Xe ages: in these samples, the system appears to have been disturbed by shock. It has been suggested previously that the igneous clasts are derived from an early generation of partially melted asteroids. We do not have direct evidence that the clasts we examined were necessarily derived from a partially differentiated body, only that they were derived from cooling of a silicate melt; the clasts could thus be the products of any one of several proposed models for chondrule formation. Our results indicate that processes akin to chondrule formation, in that they involve rapid cooling of a silicate melt, were ongoing at the same time as CAI formation, lending support to the suggestion that Al-Mg chondrule ages indicate either heterogeneous distribution of 26Al or resetting of the Al-Mg system after chondrule formation.

  15. Copyright, Interfaces, and a Possible Atlantic Divide


    Vezzoso, Simonetta


    Recent copyright cases on both sides of the Atlantic focused on important interoperability issues. While the decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union in SAS Institute, Inc.v. World Programming Ltd. assessed data formats under the EU Software Directive, the ruling by the Northern District of California Court in Oracle America, Inc. v. Google Inc. dealt with application programming interfaces. The European decision is rightly celebrated as a further important step in the promotion...

  16. Ballistic Missile Defense and the Atlantic Alliance


    Yost, David S.


    T h e Atlantic Alliance may be at the threshold of a new debate on the implications of ballistic missile defense (BMD) for European security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and several U.S. Senators and Congressmen support a thorough review of U.S. BMD options, including possible revision of the 1972 Anti- Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and its 1974 Protocol. Although active defense of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) seems the most likely application f...

  17. NEFSC 2000 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0008, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  3. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  4. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  5. NEFSC 2005 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0512, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  6. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  7. NEFSC 2001 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0109, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  8. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  9. NEFSC 2003 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0308, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  10. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  11. 78 FR 3401 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries... (United States)


    ...; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Scoping Process; Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management... support for an amendment (Amendment 16) to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Atlantic Mackerel, Squid...

  12. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  13. Sound Speed Structure of the Western South Atlantic Ocean. (United States)


    for the western South Atlantic between 9°S and 36°S latitude and for the entire western South Atlantic by Buscaglia (1971). All these sources...both the Brazil Plain and Argentine Plain. Similar perturbations are also evident along winter cross-section A. As noted by Buscaglia (1971), the top...Duedall and Coote (1972) and throughout the western South Atlantic Ocean by Buscaglia (1971). In the presence of this intermixing, the MIW sound speed

  14. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  15. Ocean Modeling of the North Atlantic (United States)

    Seminar, A. J.


    Present modeling of the North Atlantic is inadequate and can be improved in a number of ways. A number of important physical processes are listed in five categories from the viewpoints of how they are treated in isolation, how they are usually represented in present ocean basin models, and how they may be better represented in future models. In the first two categories of vertical boundary processes and internal vertical mixing, parameterizations exist which can easily be incorporated into models and which will have important effects on the simulated structure of the North Atlantic. For the third catagory (mesoscale eddy effects), adequate parameterizations do not exist; but the order of magnitude of the effects is known from observational and process-model studies. A horizontal grid spacing of 100 km or less in required to allow parameterizations with this order of magnitude, as well as to resolve the time-averaged ocean fields. In the fourth category of large scale transports improvements are suggested by way of increased vertical resolution and by the requirement that lateral mixing due to eddies takes place on isopycnal surfaces. Model incorporation of the latter phenomenta is underway. In the fifth category of miscellaneous high-latitude processes, formulations for the treatment of sea ice are available for use. However, the treatment of gravitational instability, which is crucial to deepwater formation in the Atlantic Ocean, will require additional refinements to account for the unresolved physics of chimney formations in the open ocean and buoyant plumes near ocean boundaries.

  16. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  17. Response of North Atlantic Ocean Chlorophyll a to the Change of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuanling; Shu, Qi; Zhao, Chang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Zhaohua; Qiao, Fangli


    Changes in marine phytoplankton are a vital component in global carbon cycling. Despite this far-reaching importance, the variable trend in phytoplankton and its response to climate variability remain unclear. This work presents the spatiotemporal evolution of the chlorophyll a trend in the North Atlantic Ocean by using merged ocean color products for the period 1997-2016. We find a dipole pattern between the subpolar gyre and the Gulf Stream path,and chlorophyll a trend signal propagatedalong the opposite direction of the North Atlantic Current. Such a dipole pattern and opposite propagation of chlorophyll a signal are consistent with the recent distinctive signature of the slowdown of the Atlantic MeridionalOverturning Circulation (AMOC). It is suggested that the spatiotemporal evolution of chlorophyll a during the two most recent decades is a part of the multidecadal variation and regulated byAMOC, which could be used as an indicator of AMOC variations.

  18. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  19. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie


    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  20. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  1. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, J.F.


    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney Lane


    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute ( that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  3. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo


    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  4. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hansen


    Full Text Available Through the Faroese Channels – the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe–Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel – there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe–Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe–Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv  =  106 m3 s−1. Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe–Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect

  5. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels (United States)

    Hansen, Bogi; Poulsen, Turið; Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Karin; Hátún, Hjálmar; Østerhus, Svein; Darelius, Elin; Berx, Barbara; Quadfasel, Detlef; Jochumsen, Kerstin


    Through the Faroese Channels - the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel - there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe-Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe-Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe-Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect potential impacts from offshore activities in the

  6. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  7. Geologic Provinces of Southeast Asia, 2000 (prv3bl) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia,...

  8. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  9. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  10. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  11. Geologic provinces of Iran, 2000 (prv2cg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels for geologic and petroleum provinces interpreted and designated by R.M. Pollastro based on numerous...

  12. Assessment of lymph node tuberculosis in two provinces in Turkey. (United States)

    Tatar, Dursun; Senol, Gunes; Alptekin, Serpil; Gunes, Ebru


    The aim of this study was to evaluate lymph node tuberculosis (LNT) cases in two provinces in Turkey with different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. A total of 109 LNT cases were reviewed retrospectively. The cases were analyzed and compared for symptoms, findings, age, vaccination status, and diagnostic procedures. Socioeconomic conditions were also assessed for the two provinces. A palpable cervical node was considered a significant predictor for all LNT. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was found to be common in cases of pulmonary manifestation of LNT. Female patients were predominantly from the Van Province, while older patients were found to be from Izmir Province. LNT should be suspected in lymphadenitis patients of all age-groups especially in young adolescents with cervical lymph node enlargements. In the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pulmonary tuberculosis should be investigated.

  13. Geologic Provinces of the Far East, 2000 (prv3al) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Far East (China, Mongolia, North and...

  14. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  15. Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from Lorestan province, western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahari H.


    Full Text Available The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae were collected.

  16. Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from Lorestan province, western Iran


    Ghahari H.; Arzanov Y.G.


    The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae) were collected.

  17. Development of a fully automated open-column chemical-separation system—COLUMNSPIDER—and its application to Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses of igneous rock samples (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan Stefanov; Takei, Masakazu; Suzuki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Kouzou; Chang, Qing; Takahashi, Toshiro; Hirahara, Yuka; Hanyu, Takeshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    A fully automated open-column resin-bed chemical-separation system, named COLUMNSPIDER, has been developed. The system consists of a programmable micropipetting robot that dispenses chemical reagents and sample solutions into an open-column resin bed for elemental separation. After the initial set up of resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers for the separated chemical components, all separation procedures are automated. As many as ten samples can be eluted in parallel in a single automated run. Many separation procedures, such as radiogenic isotope ratio analyses for Sr and Nd, involve the use of multiple column separations with different resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers of various volumes. COLUMNSPIDER completes these separations using multiple runs. Programmable functions, including the positioning of the micropipetter, reagent volume, and elution time, enable flexible operation. Optimized movements for solution take-up and high-efficiency column flushing allow the system to perform as precisely as when carried out manually by a skilled operator. Procedural blanks, examined for COLUMNSPIDER separations of Sr, Nd, and Pb, are low and negligible. The measured Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for JB-2 and Nd isotope ratios for JB-3 and BCR-2 rock standards all fall within the ranges reported previously in high-accuracy analyses. COLUMNSPIDER is a versatile tool for the efficient elemental separation of igneous rock samples, a process that is both labor intensive and time consuming.

  18. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA. (United States)

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E


    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite.

  19. Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes (United States)

    Knipping, Jaayke L.; Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur P.; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Holtz, François; Munizaga, Rodrigo


    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are an important source of iron and other elements (e.g., REE, P, U, Ag and Co) vital to modern society. However, their formation, including the namesake Kiruna-type IOA deposit (Sweden), remains controversial. Working hypotheses include a purely magmatic origin involving separation of an Fe-, P-rich, volatile-rich oxide melt from a Si-rich silicate melt, and precipitation of magnetite from an aqueous ore fluid, which is either of magmatic-hydrothermal or non-magmatic surface or metamorphic origin. In this study, we focus on the geochemistry of magnetite from the Cretaceous Kiruna-type Los Colorados IOA deposit (∼350 Mt Fe) located in the northern Chilean Iron Belt. Los Colorados has experienced minimal hydrothermal alteration that commonly obscures primary features in IOA deposits. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) transects and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectrometry mapping demonstrate distinct chemical zoning in magnetite grains, wherein cores are enriched in Ti, Al, Mn and Mg. The concentrations of these trace elements in magnetite cores are consistent with igneous magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt, whereas magnetite rims show a pronounced depletion in these elements, consistent with magnetite grown from an Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. Further, magnetite grains contain polycrystalline inclusions that re-homogenize at magmatic temperatures (>850 °C). Smaller inclusions (500 ppm) concentrations.

  20. Geochemistry of 2-4-mm particles from Apollo 14 soil (14161) and implications regarding igneous components and soil-forming processes (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Haskin, L. A.


    The present paper describes the compositional systematics of 381 particles analyzed from 14161, which was taken near the lunar module as part of the bulk sample. Attention is given to the distribution of lithologies, based on petrographic examination and compositions determined by INAA, and to implications of the compositions of polymict particles regarding igneous precursors and soil-forming processes. It was found that the most abundant particles are the impact-melt lithologies and regolith and fragmental breccias. The mean composition of the entire suite of 2-4-mm particles differs from that of the associated less-than-1-mm fines by having higher concentrations of incompatible trace elements and Na2O, and a lower concentration of CaO. There is a subset of regolith breccia particles and agglutinates in the 2-4-mm particles that have nearly identical compositions and Is/FeO similar to those of the less-than-1-mm fines. It is suggested that these particles are constructional products formed from the local regolith rather than comminuted fragments of ancient regolith breccias.