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Sample records for atlantic herring clupea

  1. Stock structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pampoulie, Christophe; Slotte, Aril; Oskarsson, Guomundur J.;

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus L. was investigated in its north-easterly distribution in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters, using 23 neutral and one non-neutral (Cpa111) microsatellite loci. Fish from the suspected 2 main populations-the Norwegian spring-spawning he......The genetic structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus L. was investigated in its north-easterly distribution in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters, using 23 neutral and one non-neutral (Cpa111) microsatellite loci. Fish from the suspected 2 main populations-the Norwegian spring...

  2. SNP discovery using next generation transcriptomic sequencing in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helyar, Sarah J; Limborg, Morten; Bekkevold, Dorte;

    2012-01-01

    by de novo sequence clustering and contig assembly, followed by the mapping of reads against consensus contig sequences. Selection of candidate SNPs for genotyping was conducted using an in silico approach. SNP validation and genotyping were performed simultaneously using an Illumina 1,536 Golden......The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised population genetics, providing studies of non-model species with unprecedented genomic coverage, allowing evolutionary biologists to address questions previously far beyond the reach of available resources. Furthermore......, the simple mutation model of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) permits cost-effective high-throughput genotyping in thousands of individuals simultaneously. Genomic resources are scarce for the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), a small pelagic species that sustains high revenue fisheries. This paper...

  3. Seasonal dynamics of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L. populations spawning in the vicinity of marginal habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Eggers

    Full Text Available Gillnet sampling and analyses of otolith shape, vertebral count and growth indicated the presence of three putative Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L. populations mixing together over the spawning season February-June inside and outside an inland brackish water lake (Landvikvannet in southern Norway. Peak spawning of oceanic Norwegian spring spawners and coastal Skagerrak spring spawners occurred in March-April with small proportions of spawners entering the lake. In comparison, spawning of Landvik herring peaked in May-June with high proportions found inside the lake, which could be explained by local adaptations to the environmental conditions and seasonal changes of this marginal habitat. The 1.85 km(2 lake was characterized by oxygen depletion occurring between 2.5 and 5 m depth between March and June. This was followed by changes in salinity from 1-7‰ in the 0-1 m surface layer to levels of 20-25‰ deeper than 10 m. In comparison, outside the 3 km long narrow channel connecting the lake with the neighboring fjord, no anoxic conditions were found. Here salinity in the surface layer increased over the season from 10 to 25‰, whereas deeper than 5 m it was stable at around 35‰. Temperature at 0-5 m depth increased significantly over the season in both habitats, from 7 to 14 °C outside and 5 to 17 °C inside the lake. Despite differences in peak spawning and utilization of the lake habitat between the three putative populations, there was an apparent temporal and spatial overlap in spawning stages suggesting potential interbreeding in accordance with the metapopulation concept.

  4. Environmental selection on transcriptome-derived SNPs in a high gene flow marine fish, the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Helyar, S.J.; de Bruyn, M.;

    2012-01-01

    High gene flow is considered the norm for most marine organisms and is expected to limit their ability to adapt to local environments. Few studies have directly compared the patterns of differentiation at neutral and selected gene loci in marine organisms. We analysed a transcriptome-derived panel...... of 281 SNPs in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), a highly migratory small pelagic fish, for elucidating neutral and selected genetic variation among populations and to identify candidate genes for environmental adaptation. We analysed 607 individuals from 18 spawning locations in the northeast Atlantic......, including two temperature clines (5–12 C) and two salinity clines (5–35&). By combining genome scan and landscape genetic analyses, four genetically distinct groups of herring were identified: Baltic Sea, Baltic–North Sea transition area, North Sea ⁄ British Isles and North Atlantic; notably, samples...

  5. High‐resolution stock discrimination of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) based on otolith shape, microstructure, and genetic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Henrik; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    between populations, which suggest genetic control as well. Thus otolith shape serves as a population marker, suitable for individual assignment. Here we use otolith morphological characteristics (otolith shape and larval otolith microstructure) combined with genetic markers to discriminate between...... different populations of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the western Baltic and adjacent waters. We analyse a baseline (spawning individuals from several populations validated by genetic markers) for separation of adult herring (2+) based on otolith shape and juveniles using genetically validated...... otolith shape characteristics as separation parameters. Otolith shape was found to clearly discriminate between individuals at all ages from different spawning populations. The identified distances between populations based on otolith shape matched previously obtained genetic distances and were, when...

  6. Toxicity of Orimulsion-400 to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Monica; Sweezey, Michael J; Lee, Kenneth; Hodson, Peter V; Courtenay, Simon C

    2009-06-01

    The toxicity of Orimulsion-400 (PDVSA-BITOR), an emulsion of 70% bitumen in 30% water, was tested during the embryonic development of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) in duplicate experiments. Air injection and different salinities were included in the herring assays to examine their effects on Orimulsion-400 toxicity. Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of no. 6 fuel oil were tested in the mummichog assays to compare Orimulsion-400 toxicity with that of a heavy fuel oil. Concentrations of Orimulsion-400 as low as 0.001% (v/v) were harmful to both species. In herring, the more sensitive of the two species, this concentration produced 100% abnormal larvae. Similar abnormalities, including pericardial edema and spinal deformities, the same signs of toxicity caused by heavy fuel oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were produced in both herring and mummichog. Fish exposed to Orimulsion-400 also suffered from increased mortality, reduced heart rates, premature hatch, and reduced lengths compared to control fish. Orimulsion-400 was approximately 300-fold more toxic than the WAFs of no. 6 fuel oil. Salinity had few clear effects on Orimulsion-400 toxicity, but aeration of test solutions greatly reduced toxicity by causing bitumen to coalesce and float. Aeration also removed toxic chemicals such as PAHs. The present study suggests that in the event of a spill, Orimulsion-400 could impair fish recruitment, but that strong wave action would reduce toxicity by accelerating the removal of emulsified bitumen from the water column.

  7. The effect of progressive hypoxia on school structure and dynamics in Atlantic herring Clupea harengus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Ferrari, R Silvana; Steffensen, John F;

    2002-01-01

    time of individual herring in leading positions (i.e. the first half of the school). No significant changes occurred during hypoxia, indicating that the decrease in O-turn frequency does not affect shuffling rate during hypoxia, and that position shuffling in hypoxic conditions is mainly due...... sensitive to hypoxia; volume and width were also increased at 25% and area at 30% oxygen saturation. The degree of position changing (shuffling) of individuals within the school was also analysed. Shuffling in normoxia was observed to occur largely through 'O-turn' manoeuvres, a 360( degrees )turn executed...... laterally to the school that allowed fishes in the front to move to the back. O-turn frequency during normoxia was 0.69 O-turns fish(-1) min(-1) but significantly decreased with hypoxia to 0.37 O-turns fish(-1) min(-1) at 30% oxygen saturation. Shuffling was also investigated by measuring the persistence...

  8. SNP discovery using next generation transcriptomic sequencing in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helyar, Sarah J; Limborg, Morten; Bekkevold, Dorte;

    2012-01-01

    details the development of 578 SNPs using a combined NGS and high-throughput genotyping approach. Eight individuals covering the species distribution in the eastern Atlantic were bar-coded and multiplexed into a single cDNA library and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX platform. SNP discovery was performed...

  9. Detecting population structure in a high gene-flow species, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus): direct, simultaneous evaluation of neutral vs putatively selected loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, C.; Larsson, L. C.; Laikre, L.;

    2010-01-01

    DNA, with one microsatellite locus, Cpa112, previously shown to be influenced by divergent selection associated with salinity, and one locus located in the major histocompatibility complex class IIA (MHC-IIA) gene, using the same individuals across analyses. Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003...... at two locations in the North Sea, one location in the Skagerrak and one location in the low-saline Baltic Sea. Levels of divergence for putatively neutral markers were generally low, with the exception of single outlier locus/sample combinations; microsatellites were the most statistically powerful...... to detect population structure in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), a migratory pelagic species with large effective population sizes. We compared the spatial and temporal patterns of divergence and statistical power of three traditional genetic marker types, microsatellites, allozymes and mitochondrial...

  10. High‐resolution acoustic indices of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) paving the way for inclusion of migration patterns in management considerations of herring in ICES Divisions IIIa and SD 22‐24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Karl-Johan; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Herring catches in the Western Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak consist of a mixture of stocks; the two predominant stocks are the spring‐spawning Western Baltic herring stock and the North Sea autumn‐spawning herring (NSAS), and the mixing follows an age‐ and season‐dependent pattern with high....... Thus a high‐resolution stock‐segregated survey index is highly warranted. Since 1991, DTU‐Aqua have been acoustically monitoring herring in Skagerrak and Kattegat, ICES Division IIIa, as a part of the international acoustic survey for herring in the North Sea and adjacent waters. For the years 2006......–2011 the two major herring stocks have been separated in the abundance estimate based on a combination of otolith microstructure and otolith shape. The abundance estimates by ICES rectangles have been used to describe the yearly geographical distribution of the herring stocks separately by age groups, mean...

  11. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  12. Sensory Properties of Frozen Herring (Clupea harengus) from Different Catch Seasons and Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Jørgensen, Bo Munk; Undeland, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Freezing of herring (Clupea harengus) for human consumption is increasing in the Nordic herring industry, either onboard the fishing vessels or right after landing. The quality of frozen herring as a raw material does not only depend on the frozen storage conditions applied, but also...... on compositional features, something which in turn can vary with season and catching ground. To unravel the link between biological variations, basic muscle composition, and sensory properties of frozen herring, a unique herring raw material was caught by commercial fishing vessels at three locations: around...... Iceland, outside the Norwegian coast, and in Kattegat/Skagerrak. The samplings were done according to a specific scheme and conducted over several seasons and 2 years. The herring was converted into butterfly fillets, packed in cardboard boxes, frozen, and then stored at –20 °C or –80 °C for up to 18 mo...

  13. Oogenesis, fecundity and condition of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.): A stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, R. Hagstrøm; Tomkiewicz, J.; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2013-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus) is a capital breeder that stores energy reserves in muscle tissue. Individual potential fecundity relies on the size and weight of female fish. Poor condition during the maturation process can lead to a heavy down-regulation of fecundity through atresia and, in the extreme...

  14. Biomass estimates of Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi, in California from the 1985-86 spawning-ground surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, Jerome D.

    1986-01-01

    The 1985-86 spawning biomass estimate of Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, in San Francisco Bay is 49,000 tons. The relatively small population increases during 1984 and 1985 indicate that the population is rebuilding slowly from the 1983-84 season when only 40,000 tons of herring spawned. Spawning-ground surveys in Tomales Bay were inconclusive. Herring normally spawn in eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds; this season herring spawned unexpectedly in deeper water, disrupting our...

  15. Unraveling biocomplexity of Northeast Atlantic herring stocks using SNP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Limborg, Morten; Helyar, Sarah;

    2012-01-01

    complicating stock assessment and management. It is therefore of management interest to trace individual population migration patterns and contributions to fisheries. To underpin management and to develop a validated tool for traceability of individuals from mixed‐stock samples we applied single nucleotide......Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) exhibit biocomplexity, with widespread, geographically explicit populations that perform long‐range migration to common feeding and wintering areas, where they are exploited by fisheries. This means that exploited stocks do not describe discrete units, thereby...... polymorphism (SNP) markers in Northeast Atlantic herring population samples. Marker panels were targeted to include gene‐associated loci to maximize statistical resolution. Application of 281 SNP markers to samples representing different levels of stock complexity showed that the regional origin of individual...

  16. Energetic cost of ichthyophonus infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Gregg, J.L.; Heintz, R.A.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean). Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat) never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30 reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition), infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32 reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6 reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonus-induced reductions in body condition may have greater consequences in the northern extent of herring's range, where juveniles use most of their energy reserves to survive their first winter. Copyright ?? 2011 Johanna J. Vollenweider et al.

  17. Energetic Cost of Ichthyophonus Infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna J. Vollenweider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean. Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30% reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition, infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonus-induced reductions in body condition may have greater consequences in the northern extent of herring's range, where juveniles use most of their energy reserves to survive their first winter.

  18. Projected habitat loss for Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Hufnagl, Marc; Peck, Myron A

    2016-02-01

    Projected, climate-driven changes in rainfall patterns are expected to alter the salinity (S) of estuaries and larger brackish water bodies, such as the Baltic Sea. Some marine fish larvae are potentially more sensitive to low salinity than older stages, hence we compared the low salinity tolerance of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae at the individual and population levels including four populations in the North and Baltic Seas. Acute low salinity tolerance was similar (S = 1.9-2.7) across populations and increased with increasing body size. Based on this physiological threshold and a regionally down-scaled climate model, spawning habitats in the northern and eastern Baltic Sea are projected to be largely unsuitable for herring by 2100. Although adaptive mechanisms may attenuate the effect in some species, the limited physiological tolerance of fish larvae will remain an important bottleneck for the persistence of marine fish populations in brackish waters undergoing climate-driven freshening.

  19. Effects of environmental temperature on the dynamics of ichthyophoniasis in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, J.L.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Grady, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of temperature and infection by Ichthyophonus were examined in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) maintained under simulated overwinter fasting conditions. In addition to defining parameters for a herring bioenergetics model (discussed in Vollenweider et al. this issue), these experiments provided new insights into factors influencing the infectivity and virulence of the parasite Ichthyophonus. In groups of fish with established disease, temperature variation had little effect on disease outcome. Ichthyophonus mortality outpaced that resulting from starvation alone. In newly infected fish, temperature variation significantly changed the mortality patterns related to disease. Both elevated and lowered temperatures suppressed disease-related mortality relative to ambient treatments. When parasite exposure dose decreased, an inverse relationship between infection prevalence and temperature was detected. These findings suggest interplay between temperature optima for parasite growth and host immune function and have implications for our understanding of how Ichthyophonus infections are established in wild fish populations.

  20. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard M.; Hart, Lucas M.; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus. Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  1. Gene-associated markers can assign origin in a weakly structured fish, Atlantic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Helyar, Sarah J.; Limborg, Morten T.;

    2015-01-01

    Regulations on the exploitation of populations of commercially important fish species and the ensuing consumer interest in sustainable products have increased the need to accurately identify the population of origin of fish and fish products. Although genomics-based tools have proven highly useful......, there are relatively few examples in marine fish displaying accurate origin assignment. We synthesize data for 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms typed in 1039 herring, Clupea harengus L., spanning the Northeast Atlantic to develop a tool that allows assignment of individual herring to their regional origin. We show...... management issues. We report novel genetic evidence that herring from the Baltic Sea contribute to catches in the North Sea, and find support that western Baltic feeding aggregations mainly constitute herring from the western Baltic with contributions from the Eastern Baltic. Our study describes a general...

  2. Influence of temperature on viral hemorrhagic septicemia (Genogroup IVa) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.K.; Purcell, M.K.; Hart, L.M.; Gregg, J.L.; Thompson, R.L.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    An inverse relationship between water temperature and susceptibility of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) to viral hemorrhagic septicemia, genogroup IVa (VHS) was indicated by controlled exposure studies where cumulative mortalities, viral shedding rates, and viral persistence in survivors were greatest at the coolest exposure temperatures. Among groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific herring maintained at 8, 11, and 15 °C, cumulative mortalities after waterborne exposure to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were 78%, 40%, and 13%, respectively. The prevalence of survivors with VHSV-positive tissues 25 d post-exposure was 64%, 16%, and 0% (at 8, 11 and 15 °C, respectively) with viral prevalence typically higher in brain tissues than in kidney/spleen tissue pools at each temperature. Similarly, geometric mean viral titers in brain tissues and kidney/spleen tissue pools decreased at higher temperatures, and kidney/spleen titers were generally 10-fold lower than those in brain tissues at each temperature. This inverse relationship between temperature and VHS severity was likely mediated by an enhanced immune response at the warmer temperatures, where a robust type I interferon response was indicated by rapid and significant upregulation of the herring Mx gene. The effect of relatively small temperature differences on the susceptibility of a natural host to VHS provides insights into conditions that preface periodic VHSV epizootics in wild populations throughout the NE Pacific.

  3. Persistence of external signs in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes with ichthyophoniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lucas M.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    The progression of external signs of Ichthyophonus infection in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes was highly variable and asynchronous after intraperitoneal injection with pure parasite preparations; however, external signs generally persisted through the end of the study (429 days post-exposure). Observed signs included papules, erosions and ulcers. The prevalence of external signs plateaued 35 days post-exposure and persisted in 73–79% of exposed individuals through the end of the first experiment (147 days post-exposure). Among a second group of infected herring, external signs completely resolved in only 10% of the fish after 429 days. The onset of mortality preceded the appearance of external signs. Histological examination of infected skin and skeletal muscle tissues indicated an apparent affinity of the parasite for host red muscle. Host responses consisted primarily of granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis in the skeletal muscle and other tissues. The persistence and asynchrony of external signs and host response indicated that they were neither a precursor to host mortality nor did they provide reliable metrics for hindcasting on the date of exposure. However, the long-term persistence of clinical signs in Pacific herring may be useful in ascertaining the population-level impacts of ichthyophoniasis in regularly observed populations.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea.

  5. Feeding strategy of Downs herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.) in the English Channel and North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Jeremy; Vallet, Carole; Courcot, Lucie; Lefebvre, Valérie; Caboche, Josselin; Antajan, Elvire; Marchal, Paul; Loots, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize the larval feeding strategy of the Downs sub-population of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus L.). Diet composition, vacuity rate and prey selectivity of larvae from 8 to 15 mm collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) - MIK sampling from 2008 to 2013 were assessed by direct observation of their gut contents using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The high contribution of protists and small zooplanktonic prey observed in the gut contents proved the relevance of SEM to study the diet of first feeding larvae. The relatively low vacuity rate of 45% suggests that food may not be a limiting factor for Downs herring larvae in winter. These larvae appeared to be omnivorous and there was a clear shift in term of prey composition at a size of 13 mm. Smaller larvae (8-12 mm) fed on a higher diversity of small prey, mainly small copepods (Oncaea spp. and Euterpina acutifrons), invertebrate eggs, diatoms (Psammodicthyon panduriforme and Coscinodiscus spp.) and dinoflagellates (Dinophysis acuminate and Prorocentrum micans) whereas bigger larvae (13-15 mm) fed on a lower diversity of larger prey, mainly copepods (Temora longicornis and Paracalanus parvus) and dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax spp.). Downs herring larvae had clear prey preferences as some dinoflagellates (Pyrophacus spp., Gonyaulax spp., P. micans and Porocentrum lima), invertebrate eggs, copepods (Oncaea spp. and nauplii) and diatoms (Thalassiosira curviseriata) were positively selected and other diatoms (Nitzschia spp., Thalassiosira tenera, Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros spp.) and copepods (Pseudocalanus elongatus, T. longicornis and Unidentified calanoid) were negatively selected. We argue that this shift in term of prey preferences occurring at a size of 13 mm constitutes the critical period for Downs herring larvae.

  6. Linking fisheries, trophic interactions and climate: threshold dynamics drive herring Clupea harengus growth in the central Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Casini, M.; Bartolino, V.; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Kornilovs, G.

    2010-01-01

    How multiple stressors influence fish stock dynamics is a crucial question in ecology in general and in fisheries science in particular. Using time-series covering a 30 yr period, we show that the body growth of the central Baltic Sea herring Clupea harengus, both in terms of condition and weight-at-age (WAA), has shifted from being mainly driven by hydro-climatic forces to an inter-specific density-dependent control. The shift in the mechanisms of regulation of herring growth is triggered by...

  7. The influence of life history dynamics and environment on the determination of year class strength in North Sea herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nash, R.D.M.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2005-01-01

    The inter-annual variability in year class strength (1976-2000) of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus) was investigated using Paulik diagrams based on survey data and Virtual Population Analysis. The herring life cycle was split into five stages: spawning stock biomass (SSB), egg production, larvae,

  8. Forage fish quality: seasonal lipid dynamics of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates lipid content and fatty acid composition of two important forage fish, sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Seasonal variation in lipids was studied during three periods following the annual reproductive cycle considering pot....... The lipid dynamics of forage fish and benthos, combined with changes in availability and abundance, will affect growth and reproduction of their predators...

  9. Inability to demonstrate fish-to-fish transmission of Ichthyophonus from laboratory infected Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to naïve conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Friedman, C.S.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Ichthyophonus is enzootic in many marine fish populations of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Forage fishes are a likely source of infection for higher trophic level predators; however, the processes that maintain Ichthyophonus in forage fish populations (primarily clupeids) are not well understood. Lack of an identified intermediate host has led to the convenient hypothesis that the parasite can be maintained within populations of schooling fishes by waterborne fish-to-fish transmission. To test this hypothesis we established Ichthyophonus infections in Age-1 and young-of-the-year (YOY) Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and cohabitated these donors with naïve conspecifics (sentinels) in the laboratory. IP injections established infection in 75 to 84% of donor herring, and this exposure led to clinical disease and mortality in the YOY cohort. However, after cohabitation for 113 d no infections were detected in naïve sentinels. These data do not preclude the possibility of fish-to-fish transmission, but they do suggest that other transmission processes are necessary to maintain Ichthyophonus in wild Pacific herring populations.

  10. Genetic and environmental correlates of morphological variation in a marine fish: the case of Baltic Sea herring ( Clupea harengus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.B.H.; Pertoldi, C.; Hansen, Michael Møller;

    2008-01-01

    Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) have been shown to exhibit morphological differences across the marked salinity and temperature gradients in the region. Here we analyse genetic (nine microsatellite loci), morpho metric (skull shape), and meristic (pectoral fin rays and number of vertebrae......) variations across seven samples of spawning herring collected from four spawning locations in the Baltic Sea to examine whether morphological variation correlates with genetic and (or) environmental factors. Results suggest that herring is adapting to its environment through a combination of selection...... and plastic responses. Skull shape, including and excluding size variation, differed significantly among samples, both temporally and spatially. Genetic and morphometric distances were correlated, especially when size variation was excluded from the analysis. When size variation was included, skull shape...

  11. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    traditional barrel-salted herring TSa) were used without any pre-treatment or with a previous pH adjustment, and tested either as coating agents (glazing) for frozen herring or additives in fresh mince herring, in order to prevent oxidation. TSa and TSp were the most effective glazing agents, retarding lipid...

  12. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Skagseth

    Full Text Available Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  13. NEFSC 2005 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0512, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  14. NEFSC 2003 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0308, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  15. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  16. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  17. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 2001 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0109, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  3. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  4. NEFSC 2000 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0008, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  5. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  6. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  7. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  8. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  9. Sensory properties of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) processed from raw material from commercial landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile of marina......Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile...

  10. Chitosan as an edible invisible film for quality preservation of herring and atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, You-Jin; Kamil, Janak Y V A; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-28

    The effect of chitosan with different molecular weights as coatings for shelf-life extension of fresh fillets of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and herring (Clupea harengus) was evaluated over a 12-day storage at refrigerated temperature (4 +/- 1 degrees C). Three chitosan preparations from snow crab (Chinoecetes opilio) processing wastes, differing in viscosities and molecular weights, were prepared; their apparent viscosities (360, 57, and 14 cP) depended on the deacetylation time (4, 10, and 20 h, respectively) of the chitin precursor. Upon coating with chitosans, a significant (p chitosan after 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days of storage, respectively. Chitosan coating significantly (p chitosan were inter-related; the efficacy of chitosans with viscosities of 57 and 360 cP was superior to that of chitosan with a 14 cP viscosity. Thus, chitosan as edible coating would enhance the quality of seafoods during storage.

  11. Purification and characterization of cathepsin D from herring muscle ( Clupea harengus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.B.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2001-01-01

    Cathepsin D was purified and concentrated 469-fold from a homogenate of Clupea harengus muscle. The purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 38 000-39 000. It is inhibited by pepstatin and has optimal activity at pH 2.5 with hemoglobin as the substrate. The isoelectric point is at ...... myosin, actin and tropomyosin. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  12. Seasonal variation in the levels of organohalogen compounds in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Måge, Amund; Iversen, Svein Arnholt; Julshamn, Kåre

    2011-09-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically important fish stock in the Norwegian Sea, and with a catch volume exceeding one million tons a year it is also economically important and a valuable food source. In order to provide a baseline of the levels of contaminants in this fish stock, the levels of organohalogen compounds were determined in 800 individual herring sampled at 29 positions in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of Norway. Due to seasonal migration, the herring were sampled where they were located during the different seasons. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCB(7)) and PBDEs were determined in fillet samples of individual herring, and found to be relatively low, with means (min-max) of 0.77 (0.24-3.5) ng TEQ kg(-1) wet weight (ww), 5.0 (1.4-24) μg kg(-1) ww and 0.47 (0.091-3.1) μg kg(-1) ww, respectively. The concentrations varied throughout the year due to the feeding- and spawning cycle: Starved, pre-spawning herring caught off the Norwegian coast in January-February had the highest levels and those caught in the Norwegian Sea in April-June, after further starvation and spawning, had the lowest levels. These results show that the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in NSS herring are relatively low and closely tied to their physiological condition, and that in the future regular monitoring of NSS herring should be made in the spawning areas off the Norwegian coast in late winter.

  13. Dissolved saxitoxin causes transient inhibition of sensorimotor function in larval Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) Kathi A. Lefebvre , N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Elder, Nancy E.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Trainer, Vera L.; Stehr, Carla M.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2005-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) spawning sites in Puget Sound, Washington overlap spatially and temporally with blooms of Alexandrium catenella, a toxic dinoflagellate species responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Consequently, newly hatched herring larvae may be regularly exposed to the suite of dissolved paralytic shellfish toxins that are released into the water column from toxic cells during blooms. To date, virtually nothing is known about the impacts of these neurotoxins on early developmental stages of marine fish. In the present study, herring larvae at three ages, 0 days post hatch (dph), 4 dph, and 11 dph, were exposed to dissolved saxitoxin (STX) in 24-h and multi-day exposures. All larvae were examined for sensorimotor function (i.e. spontaneous swimming behavior and touch response). Significant reductions in spontaneous and touch-activated swimming behavior occurred within 1 h of exposure. EC50s at 1 h of exposure were 1,500, 840, and 700 μg STX equiv. l−1 for larvae introduced to STX at 0, 4, and 11 dph, respectively. This progressive age-specific increase in STX-induced paralysis suggests that older larvae were more sensitive to the toxin than younger larvae. Interestingly, herring larvae at all ages exhibited a significant degree of neurobehavioral recovery within 4–24 h of continuous exposure relative to the 1-h time point. This recovery of normal motor behaviors was not observed in previous studies with freshwater zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae under the same continuous exposure conditions, suggesting that an adaptive detoxification or toxin sequestration mechanism may have evolved in some species of marine fish larvae. Our data reveal that (1) dissolved STX is bioavailable to marine finfish larvae, (2) the toxin is a paralytic agent with potencies that differ between developmental stages, and (3) STX-induced sensorimotor inhibition occurs rapidly but is transient in marine larvae. Collectively, these results suggest that

  14. Forecasting fish stock dynamics under climate change: Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolino, V.; Margonski, P.; Lindegren, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic disturbances may affect marine populations and ecosystems through multiple pathways. In this study we present a framework in which we integrate existing models and knowledge on basic regulatory processes to investigate the potential impact of future scenarios of f......-term fish dynamics can be an informative tool to derive expectations of the potential long-term impact of alternative future scenarios of exploitation and climate change...... of fisheries exploitation and climate change on the temporal dynamics of the central Baltic herring stock. Alternative scenarios of increasing sea surface temperature and decreasing salinity of the Baltic Sea from a global climate model were combined with two alternative fishing scenarios, and their direct...... of the herring stock only in combination with sustainable fisheries management (i.e., Fmsy). Conversely, projections of herring spawning stock biomass (SSB) were generally low under elevated fishing mortality levels (Fhigh), comparable with those experienced by the stock during the 1990s. Under the combined...

  15. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle;

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into <10 kDa fractions using dialysis and further into 94 fractions...

  16. The predation impact of juvenile herring Clupea harengus and sprat Sprattus sprattus on estuarine zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.; Tackx, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of estuarine copepods by juvenile herring and sprat during estuarine residency was estimated using fish biomass data and daily rations calculated from two models of feeding in fish: a bioenergetic model and a gastric evacuation model. The bioenergetic model predicted daily rations th

  17. Stock and recruitment in North Sea herring (Clupea harengus); compensation and depensation in the population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nash, R.D.M.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Kell, L.T.

    2009-01-01

    The recovery of a stock after severe exploitation is of major interest to fish ecologists and managers alike. Understanding the dynamics of recruitment at low stock sizes is crucial to the simulation of stocks as they recover. Compensation in recruitment has occurred in North Sea herring, and it was

  18. Dynamics of viral hemorrhagic septicemia, viral erythrocytic necrosis and ichthyophoniasis in confined juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.; Hart, A.; Gregg, J.; Elder, N.; Winton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Capture of wild, juvenile herring Clupea pallasii from Puget Sound (Washington, USA) and confinement in laboratory tanks resulted in outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) and ichthyophoniasis; however, the timing and progression of the 3 diseases differed. The VHS epidemic occurred first, characterized by an initially low infection prevalence that increased quickly with confinement time, peaking at 93 to 98% after confinement for 6 d, then decreasing to negligible levels after 20 d. The VHS outbreak was followed by a VEN epidemic that, within 12 d of confinement, progressed from undetectable levels to 100% infection prevalence with >90% of erythrocytes demonstrating inclusions. The VEN epidemic persisted for 54 d, after which the study was terminated, and was characterized by severe blood dyscrasias including reduction of mean hematocrit from 42 to 6% and replacement of mature erythrocytes with circulating erythroblasts and ghost cells. All fish with ichthyophoniasis at capture died within the first 3 wk of confinement, probably as a result of the multiple stressors associated with capture, transport, confinement, and progression of concomitant viral diseases. The results illustrate the differences in disease ecology and possible synergistic effects of pathogens affecting marine fish and highlight the difficulty in ascribing a single causation to outbreaks of disease among populations of wild fishes. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  19. Vertical distributions of autumn spawned larval herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.; Brander, Keith; Munk, Peter;

    1991-01-01

    , and appeared to be related to the tidal cycle rather than crepuscular periods. Diel cycles in vertical distribution could not be detected at sites in the southeastern North Sea, characterized by water depths less than 45 m, high vertical shear and high light attenuation coefficients. It is suggested......Vertical distributions of autumn spawned herring larvae were sampled at 10 sites in the North Sea between October 1987 and March 1988 during the Autumn Circulation Experiment (ACE). Several different patterns of vertical migrations occurred. Diel variations in the vertical distributions were found...... that strong turbulence inhibits diel vertical migrations by herring larvae. This feature has important consequences for the advection of larvae in the North Sea....

  20. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore;

    2015-01-01

    on recovery of high value biomolecules such as proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD5) as well as total suspended solids (TSS) were also measured to follow the performance of the ultrafiltration. The retentates contained 75-82% (95% TSS...... that ceramic ultrafiltration can recover biomolecules from marinated herring brines although pre-filtration optimization is still needed....

  1. Solubility and viscosity of herring (Clupea harengus) proteins as affected by freezing and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdottir, M; Hlynsdottir, H; Thorkelsson, G; Sigurgisladottir, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of freezing and frozen storage at -24 degrees C on the quality of Icelandic herring fillets, focusing on protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 used for pH-aided protein isolation. The evaluation of quality was based on chemical analyses, protein degradation measurements, and changes in protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 after up to 6-mo frozen storage of the herring fillets. Lipid oxidation measured as TBARS values increased significantly during the frozen storage (P frozen storage for 6 mo, where the solubility was about 10% lower after 6-mo frozen storage compared to the beginning (P frozen storage compared to initial solubility (P frozen storage (P frozen storage, compared to fresh herring fillets, but did not increase significantly with further storage (P frozen storage. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any protein cross-linking or aggregation formation, either with frozen storage or due to exposure to low pH.

  2. Dispersion and feeding of larval herring ( Clupea harengus L.) in the Moray Firth during September 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M.; Leaver, M.; Matthews, A.; Nicoll, N.

    1989-06-01

    A plume of herring larvae dispersing from a spawning site at Clythness in the Moray Firth (northern Scotland) was surveyed during early September 1985. Several cohorts of larvae were evident from the length distributions, and these were arranged in order of increasing length (age) towards the south-west. The spacing of cohort centres indicated a drift rate of 1-2 km day -1. Calanoid copepod nauplii constituted the major proportion of the diet of larvae <10 mm sampled during the study. Cyclopoid copepod nauplii and gastropod veligers were not found in the diet although they were present in the water. The distribution of nauplii in the region was inversely correlated with the concentration of phytoplankton chlorophyll, and nauplii concentrations were above average in the vicinity of the herring spawning site. The drift trajectory of the herring larvae took them towards an area of high copepodite and adult copepod concentration—items which formed an increasing part of the diet of larger (older) larvae.

  3. 75 FR 48874 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-AY14 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... announces final specifications for the 2010-2012 fishing years for the Atlantic herring (herring)...

  4. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  5. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C A; Gregg, J L; Wade, R M; Winton, J R; Hershberger, P K

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between naïve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU) mL(-1) VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among naïve herring (1.2 × 10(3) PFU mL(-1) ) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 × 10(2) PFU mL(-1) ); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among naïve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring.

  6. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D; Woodson, James C; Hershberger, Paul K; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L; Purcell, Maureen K

    2012-02-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, -UAA.001, and -PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  7. Vertical migrations of herring, Clupea harengus, larvae in relation to light and prey distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas; Christensen, Villy

    1989-01-01

    The influence of light and prey abundance on the vertical distribution of herring larvae was evaluated by three investigations made under calm weather conditions in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. The investigations took place at different time after hatching and the vertical distributions...... towards the surface at dawn larvae stayed in the upper water column during the day. The observations suggest that the daytime vertical distribution of larvae in calm weather is mainly determined by feeding conditions: the larvae move to depths were light is sufficient for feeding, and refinement within...... that zone is made according to a compromise between optimal light conditions for feeding and optimal prey densities....

  8. Thermal impacts on the growth, development and ontogeny of critical swimming speed in Atlantic herring larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Marta; Illing, Björn; Peschutter, Philip; Huebert, Klaus B; Peck, Myron A

    2016-07-01

    Increases in swimming ability have a profound influence on larval fish growth and survival by increasing foraging success, predator avoidance and the ability to favorably influence transport. Understanding how development and environmental factors combine to influence swimming performance in aquatic organisms is particularly important during the transition from viscous to inertial environments. We measured the growth, development and ontogenetic changes in critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae reared at three temperatures (7, 11, 15°C). Temperature had a significant effect on growth rates (from 0.21 at 7°C to 0.34mm·d(-1) at 15°C), and larval morphology-at-length (increased dry weight (DW), body height and developmental rate at warmer temperatures). Temperature-dependent differences in morphology influenced swimming performance (e.g. the exponential increase in Ucrit with increasing body size was faster at warmer temperatures). Larvae entered the transition to an inertial environment (Reynolds numbers ≥300) at body lengths between 15 (15°C) and 17mm (7°C). Inter-individual differences in Ucrit were not related to nutritional condition (RNA·DNA(-1) or DNA·DW(-1)), but were negatively correlated to length-at-age, suggesting a trade-off between growth rate and locomotor activity. The Ucrit data from this and previously published studies suggest that Atlantic herring pass through four activity phases: 1) yolk-sac (<0.6cm·s(-1)), 2) pre-flexion (0.6-3.0cm·s(-1), temperature effect changes with body size), 3) post-flexion (up to 6-8cm·s(-1), Q10~1.8-2.0), 4) juvenile-adult period (20-170cm·s(-1)).

  9. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  10. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Bachiller

    Full Text Available The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS herring (Clupea harengus, blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou and Northeast Atlantic (NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of

  11. Application of a sensitive, specific and controlled real-time PCR assay to surveillance indicates a low prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in wild herring, Clupea harengus L., in Scottish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejusova, I; McKay, P; Bland, F; Snow, M

    2010-10-01

    Surveillance data on the distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the North Sea (UK), targeting Atlantic herring in areas with previous virus detection, were obtained from research cruises conducted during 2005. The sensitive molecular approach of real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied alongside a newly developed endogenous positive control assay specific for herring (elongation factor 1α) to ensure integrity of template. Three hundred and five pools from 1937 individual herring were tested, and no evidence of VHSV in association with wild Atlantic herring was detected. Samples were obtained from Scottish waters where marine aquaculture is conducted. The results confirm that previous tissue culture studies have most likely not significantly underestimated the prevalence of carrier herring in this area. The significance of migratory species such as herring as a reservoir species for VHSV, with the potential to translocate virus genotypes between geographical areas, is discussed.

  12. Expression of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in prespawning Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) exposed to weathered crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carls, M. G.; Rice, S. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Juneau, AK (United States); Marty, G. D. [California Univ., School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Thomas, R. E. [California State Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Chico, CA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The occurrence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in Pacific herring exposed to crude oil, and encountered after an oil spill, was discussed. Adult Pacific herring of unknown status with regard to infection by VHSV were captured from the wild and exposed to weathered crude oil for 16 to 18 days. Total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentration in tissue, VHSV prevalence, and mortality were correlated with dosage. Results showed that histopathologic lesions significantly correlated with TPAH concentration and prevalence of VHSV, however, gender or length of exposure did not. Increased hepatocellular necrosis, splenic thrombosis and decreased inflammation of the liver were the most significant lesions observed. 30 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Spring-spawning herring ( Clupea harengus L.) in the southwestern Baltic Sea: do they form genetically distinct spawning waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.B.H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2005-01-01

    Temporal sampling within the spring-spawning season has revealed differentiation in length-at-age in herring at Rugen and differentiation in, e.g., Anisakis infestation rate, otolith microstructure, and gillraker counts in Gdansk Bay, leading to the expectation that spawning waves consist of dist...... genetically distinct but sympatric spawning populations may be found at Rugen. (c) 2005 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Quantification of biomolecules in herring (Clupea harengus) industry processing waters and their recovery using electroflocculation and ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ali; Gringer, Nina; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF...... and magnesium were the dominating trace elements. EF plus UF in series recovered up to 80% proteins and fatty acids from SB's and reduced chemical oxygen demand by 70%. Foaming and emulsifying properties of biomolecules were improved or unaffected by EF/UF treatment. To conclude, large amounts of biomass...

  15. Oogenesis and reproductive investment of Atlantic herring are functions of not only present but long-ago environmental influences as well

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Schmidt, Thassya C.; Slotte, Aril; Kennedy, James; Sundby, Svein; Johannessen, Arne; Óskarsson, Gudmundur J.; Kurita, Yutaka; Stenseth, Nils C.; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    Following general life history theory, immediate reproductive investment (egg mass × fecundity/body mass) in oviparous teleosts is a consequence of both present and past environmental influences. This clarification questions the frequent use of season-independent (general) fecundity formulas in marine fish recruitment studies based on body metrics only. Here we test the underlying assumption of no lag effect on gametogenesis in the planktivorous, determinate-fecundity Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) displaying large plasticity in egg mass and fecundity, examining Norwegian summer–autumn spawning herring (NASH), North Sea autumn-spawning herring (NSAH), and Norwegian spring-spawning herring (NSSH). No prior reproductive information existed for NASH. Compared with the 1960s, recent reproductive investment had dropped markedly, especially for NSAH, likely reflecting long-term changes in zooplankton biography and productivity. As egg mass was characteristically small for autumn spawners, although large for spring spawners (cf. different larval feeding conditions), fecundity was the most dynamic factor within reproductive investment. For the data-rich NSSH, we showed evidence that transient, major declines in zooplankton abundance resulted in low fecundity over several subsequent seasons, even if Fulton’s condition factor (K) turned high. Temporal trends in Kslope (K on total length) were, however, informative. These results clarify that fecundity is defined by (i) dynamics of primary (standing stock) oocytes and (ii) down-regulation of secondary oocytes, both processes intimately linked to environmental conditions but operating at different timescales. Thus, general fecundity formulas typically understate interannual variability in actual fecundity. We therefore argue for the use of segmented fecundity formulas linked to dedicated monitoring programs. PMID:28223491

  16. Considering Other Consumers: Fisheries, Predators, and Atlantic Herring in the Gulf of Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Read

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of overexploitation and severe depletion, Atlantic herring stocks in waters of the northeastern United States have recovered. Fishery managers now consider the herring resource to be underexploited. Nevertheless, some fishery managers and sustainable fishery advocates in New England have expressed concern that the fishery management plan may not adequately consider the importance of herring as prey for marine mammals, seabirds, and piscivorous fish. Several studies suggest that consumption by these predators is significant, yet trophic interactions are not explicitly considered in stock assessment models. Instead, as in most fisheries stock assessments, predation is subsumed within the natural mortality rate, and no empirical estimates of herring consumption are used in the models. The goal of the present study was to assess the consumption of herring by marine mammals and to compare this level of consumption with estimates of natural mortality derived from herring stock assessment models. Using the most recent estimates of abundance and the best available data on diet, we estimated total annual consumption of herring by eight marine mammal species in the Gulf of Maine. Our results indicate that marine mammals consume 93,802-189,898 metric tons (mt; 1 metric ton = 1000 kg of herring annually. In addition, piscivorous fish and seabirds are important predators of herring. We estimate that the consumption of herring by these upper trophic level predators may have exceeded the estimate of natural mortality used in stock assessment models by more than fourfold in 1991. We suggest that fisheries management must move beyond a single-species approach to one that includes formal consideration of trophic relationships.

  17. Efficacy of a glycoprotein DNA vaccine against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, L.M.; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.; Grady, C.A.; Roon, S.E.; O’Reilly, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and its associated disease state, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), is hypothesized to be a proximate factor accounting for the decline and failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound, AK (Marty et al. 1998, 2003, 2010). Survivors of laboratory-induced VHSV epizootics develop resistance to subsequent viral exposure (Kocan et al. 2001; Hershberger et al. 2007, 2010), which is likely the result of immune system recognition of the viral glycoprotein (G) (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994), a surface antigen that contains neutralizing epitopes (Lorenzen, Olesen & Jorgensen 1990; Jørgensen et al. 1995) and cell attachment domains (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994; Estepa & Coll 1996). These properties have proven useful in the development of G-gene-based DNA vaccines for VHSV and a related rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) (Anderson et al. 1996; Heppell et al. 1998; Corbeil et al. 1999; Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), vaccinated with 1 µg of either the VHS or IHN vaccine are protected from VHS when exposed to virus as early as 4 days (44 degree days) post-vaccination (p.v.) (Lorenzen et al. 2002). At later time points (80 days p.v.; 880 degree days), the level of cross-protection against VHS by IHN vaccination is either completely lost (60 days p.v.; 660 degree days) (3 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Lorenzen et al. 2002) or present at intermediate levels (6.5 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Comparatively, VHS vaccination remains effective as long as 9 months (2520 degree days) p.v. (100 g rainbow trout; 0.5 µg vaccine dose) (McLauchlan et al. 2003). These results suggest that IHN and VHS vaccination activate a rapid transitory innate immune response against VHSV that is followed by long-term adaptive immunity in VHS-vaccinated trout (Lorenzen et al. 2002).

  18. 78 FR 61828 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Framework Adjustment 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ..., which would maintain the status quo of 106,000 mt ABC and 91,200 mt ACL for the next 3 years. Response... Amendment 15 and Framework Adjustment 22 to the Scallop Fishery Management Plan (76 FR 43746, July 21, 2011... Management Plan (Framework 2) and the 2013-2015 fishery specifications for the Atlantic herring fishery...

  19. 78 FR 70009 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustments to 2014 Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustments to 2014 Sub-Annual Catch Limits AGENCY: National...: Proposed rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: This action proposes to adjust 2014 sub-annual catch limits.... Three of the four sub-ACLs are being decreased and one sub-ACL is being increased. This would result...

  20. The relationship between the acoustic behaviour and surface activity of killer whales (Orcinus orca) that feed on herring (Clupea harengus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Malene Juul; McGregor, Peter K.; Ugarte, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    We describe the acoustic behaviour of piscivorous killer whales in Norwegian and Icelandic waters. Whales were assigned to one of three activities (feeding, travelling or other), and sound recordings were made in their proximity with a single hydrophone and a digital audiotape (DAT) recorder....... A quantitative analysis of the production of pulsed calls, whistles and echolocation clicks in the three activities revealed that there was a significant effect of activity on the production of these sound types. Both killer whales in Icelandic and Norwegian waters produced high rates of clicks and calls during...... behaviour, we suggest that the killer whales in Icelandic and Norwegian waters belong to the same ecotype: Scandinavian herring-eating killer whales. Udgivelsesdato: 18 April 2007...

  1. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.–infected Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii): Evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Kocan, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is “sandpaper” skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity and population structure of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; GAO Tianxiang; SAKURAI Yasunori; JIA Ning; ZHAO Linlin; DU Xiao; JIANG Qun; LU Zhichuang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the genetic variation and population structure of Pacific herring in the Yellow Sea and the genetic differentiation between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, fragments of 479-bp mitochondrial DNA control region were sequenced for 110 individuals collected from three different periods in the Yellow Sea and one locality in the Sea of Japan. High haplotype diversity and moderate nucleotide diversity were observed in Pacific herring. AMOVA and exact test of population differentiation showed no significant genetic differentiations among the three populations of the Yellow Sea and suggested the populations can be treated as a single panmictic stock in the Yellow Sea. However, a large and significant genetic differentiation (ΦST=0.11; P=0.00) was detected between the populations in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The high sea water temperature in the Tsuslaima Strait was thought a barrier to block the gene exchange between populations of the two sea areas. The neutrality tests and mismatch distribution indicated recent population expansion in Pacific herring.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity and population structure of Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasii) in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Tianxia; Sakurai, Yasunori; Jia, Ning; Zhao, Linlin; Du, Xiao; Jiang, Qun; Lu, Zhichuan

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the genetic variation and population structure of Pacific herring in the Yellow Sea and the genetic differentiation between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, fragments of 479-bp mitochondrial DNA control region were sequenced for 110 individuals collected from three different periods in the Yellow Sea and one locality in the Sea of Japan. High haplotype diversity and moderate nucleotide diversity were observed in Pacific herring. AMOVA and exact test of population differentiation showed no significant genetic differentiations among the three populations of the Yellow Sea and suggested the populations can be treated as a single panmictic stock in the Yellow Sea. However, a large and significant genetic differentiation ( Φ ST=0.11; P=0.00) was detected between the populations in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The high sea water temperature in the Tsushima Strait was thought a barrier to block the gene exchange between populations of the two sea areas. The neutrality tests and mismatch distribution indicated recent population expansion in Pacific herring.

  4. 77 FR 66746 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... research in the 2010-2012 specifications (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). However, due to an over-harvest in Area 1A in 2010, the FY 2012 sub-ACL in Area 1A was revised to 24,668 mt on February 24, 2012 (77 FR... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for...

  5. 78 FR 21071 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ...-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). The regulations at Sec. 648.201 require... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management..., acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum yield, domestic harvest and processing,...

  6. 76 FR 61061 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... is 38,146 mt and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). The... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... day until January 1, 2012, when the 2012 sub-ACL (annual catch limit) for Area 3 becomes...

  7. 77 FR 10668 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 22,146 mt, and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). Section... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... the overfishing limit, acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum yield,...

  8. 76 FR 61059 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...,362 mt and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). The... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... calendar day until January 1, 2012, when the 2012 sub-ACL for Area 1B becomes available, except...

  9. 77 FR 61299 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... research in the 2010-2012 specifications (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010). Section 648.201 requires the... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... specification of the overfishing ] limit, acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum...

  10. 76 FR 66654 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... 1A is 26,546 mt, and 0 mt of the sub-ACL is set aside for research (75 FR 48874, August 12, 2010... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Sub-ACL (Annual Catch Limit) Harvested for Management... specification of the overfishing limit, acceptable biological catch, annual catch limit (ACL), optimum...

  11. Economic gains from introducing international ITQs - the case of the mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Fitzpatrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities is one of the major challenges in European fisheries. One way to achieve this is to introduce individual tradable quotas or similar management measures. In several mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic, such...

  12. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). Atlantic Herring,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    a herring (Clu__ a No. 1008. 33 pp. harengus L.) spawning bed in Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick. Can. Meyer, H.A. 1878. Beobachtungen uber Tech. Rep...P.O. Box 1306 Federal Building, Fort Snelling 500 N.E. Multnomah Street Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103 Twin Cities, Minnesota 55111 Portland, Oregon

  13. Disease surveillance of Atlantic herring: molecular characterization of hepatic coccidiosis and a morphological report of a novel intestinal coccidian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah E; Lovey, J; Hershberger, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance for pathogens of Atlantic herring, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV),Ichthyophonus hoferi, and hepatic and intestinal coccidians, was conducted from 2012 to 2016 in the NW Atlantic Ocean, New Jersey, USA. Neither VHSV nor I. hoferi was detected in any sample. Goussia clupearum was found in the livers of 40 to 78% of adult herring in varying parasite loads; however, associated pathological changes were negligible. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit 18S rRNA gene sequences placed G. clupearum most closely with other extraintestinal liver coccidia from the genus Calyptospora, though the G. clupearum isolates had a unique nucleotide insertion between 604 and 729 bp that did not occur in any other coccidian species. G. clupearum oocysts from Atlantic and Pacific herring were morphologically similar, though differences occurred in oocyst dimensions. Comparison of G. clupearum genetic sequences from Atlantic and Pacific herring revealed 4 nucleotide substitutions and 2 gaps in a 1749 bp region, indicating some divergence in the geographically separate populations. Pacific G. clupearum oocysts were not directly infective, suggesting that a heteroxenous life cycle is likely. Intestinal coccidiosis was described for the first time from juvenile and adult Atlantic herring. A novel intestinal coccidian species was detected based on morphological characteristics of exogenously sporulated oocysts. A unique feature in these oocysts was the presence of 3 long (15.1 ± 5.1 µm, mean ±SD) spiny projections on both ends of the oocyst. The novel morphology of this coccidian led us to tentatively name this parasite G. echinata n. sp.

  14. 77 FR 10978 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to 2012 Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... (herring) fishery to account for catch overages in 2010 and to prevent overfishing. DATES: Effective... not experiencing overfishing, the herring annual acceptable biological catch for fishing years 2010..., ACLs must be set at a level that prevents overfishing. The sub-ACLs overages in 2010 did not result...

  15. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether......, glucose and osmolality). Herring in hypoxia increased their swimming speed by 11-39% but only when  was cortisol also exhibited an increase with  plasma osmolality was subject to a transient rise at 8.5 k...

  16. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Grabowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  17. Recruitment in a changing environment: the 2000s North Sea herring recruitment failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Hatfield, E.M.C.; Dickey-Collas, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been an unpreced...

  18. 75 FR 20550 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... action reduces the risk of overfishing the inshore stock component. In the long-term, maintaining the... future because, currently, the herring stock could not rebuild to B MSY using long-term projections at F MSY . A new benchmark stock assessment is needed to address the inconsistency between...

  19. 76 FR 11373 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring; Amendment 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... guidelines task the Council with determining which specific target stocks and/or non-target stocks to include... use, and non-target stocks are fish caught incidentally during the pursuit of target stocks. In..., and it did not analyze the effects of not designating river herring as non-target stock in the...

  20. Potential Population Consequences of Active Sonar Disturbance in Atlantic Herring: Estimating the Maximum Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Ainslie, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Effects of noise on fish populations may be predicted by the population consequence of acoustic disturbance (PCAD) model. We have predicted the potential risk of population disturbance when the highest sound exposure level (SEL) at which adult herring do not respond to naval sonar (SEL(0)) is exceeded. When the population density is low (feeding), the risk is low even at high sonar source levels and long-duration exercises (>24 h). With densely packed populations (overwintering), a sonar exercise might expose the entire population to levels >SEL(0) within a 24-h exercise period. However, the disturbance will be short and the response threshold used here is highly conservative. It is therefore unlikely that naval sonar will significantly impact the herring population.

  1. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch;

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...

  2. Behavior of captive herring exposed to naval sonar transmissions (1.0-1.6 kHz) throughout a yearly cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksæter, Lise; Handegard, Nils Olav; Godø, Olav Rune; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Nordlund, Nina

    2012-02-01

    Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, is a hearing specialist, and several studies have demonstrated strong responses to man-made noise, for example, from an approaching vessel. To avoid negative impacts from naval sonar operations, a set of studies of reaction patters of herring to low-frequency (1.0-1.5 kHz) naval sonar signals has been undertaken. This paper presents herring reactions to sonar signals and other stimuli when kept in captivity under detailed acoustic and video monitoring. Throughout the experiment, spanning three seasons of a year, the fish did not react significantly to sonar signals from a passing frigate, at received root-mean-square sound-pressure level (SPL) up to 168 dB re 1 μPa. In contrast, the fish did exhibit a significant diving reaction when exposed to other sounds, with a much lower SPL, e.g., from a two-stroke engine. This shows that the experimental setup is sensitive to herring reactions when occurring. The lack of herring reaction to sonar signals is consistent with earlier in situ behavioral studies. The complexity of the behavioral reactions in captivity underline the need for better understanding of the causal relationship between stimuli and reaction patterns of fish.

  3. Low-frequency Target Strength and Abundance of Shoaling Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JAN 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Low...the presence of bladder fish,” in Un- derwater Acoustics, edited by V. M. Albers Plenum, New York, 1967, Vol. 2, pp. 55–88. 63Z. Ye, “Low-frequency

  4. Productivity patterns and abundance-area relationships in 3 marine fish species (cod,herring and haddock); meta-analyses on the effects of temperature, life-history andhabitat size across the N Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene; MacKenzie, Brian

    on the biological and ecological characteristics of thestocks. Our aim was to identify the patterns of the temperature, habitat size and life-historyeffects on the SR dynamics across the N Atlantic range of 3 species; cod (21 stocks), herring(16 stocks) and haddock (7 stocks). Using hierarchical, Bayesian SR models...

  5. How important are herring to humpback whales? The role of herring in meeting the energetic requirements of humpback whales in a British Columbian feeding ground

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Christie Jane

    2014-01-01

    Management of cetacean populations is a global conservation concern. The North Pacific humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Canada is listed as threatened under the Species At Risk Act, and prey reduction has been identified as a threat to this population. I used focal follows of humpback whales and underwater video of herring schools to estimate Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) consumption by humpback whales in eastern Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia. I combined these results ...

  6. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  7. Potential for population-level disturbance by active sonar in herring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    For conservation purposes, it is important to evaluate potential population consequences of noise disturbance. Based on maximum reported sound levels of no response to sonar, a mathematical model is used to predict the potential risk to the population of herring (Clupea harengus) when these levels a

  8. An Ichthyophonus hoferi epizootic in herring in the North Sea, the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    An epizootic caused by the internal parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi in herring Clupea harengus was recorded from 1991 to 1993 in the waters around Denmark. A surveillance programme from research vessels and commercial fishing boats was conducted in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea...

  9. Definition and characterization of data needs to describe the potential effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on marine fisheries from the northeast Pacific Ocean. [Theragra chalcogramma; Clupea harengus pallasi; Pandalus borealis; Limanda aspera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, R.M.; Grosse, D.J.; Stubin, A.I.; Ostrander, G.K.; Sibley, T.H.

    1985-12-01

    Four northeast Pacific region case study species were studied to determine individual fishery responses to climate change. These fishes (Alaska pollock, Theragra chalcogramma; Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi; pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis; and yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera) represent a spectrum of habitats and life cycles among commercially important species, and the northeast Pacific (including the eastern Bering Sea) is relatively well-studied and representative of subpolar continental shelf areas that also are important in the North Atlantic. In addition to the general effects of climate, these fisheries have specific climate-related environmental sensitivities: (a) pollock sensitivity to ice extent, cannibalism, and bird and mammal predation in the Bering Sea, and to coastal currents in the Gulf of Alaska; (b) sensitivity of herring to waves, dessication, and probably currents in the immediate vicinity of discrete spawning beaches along the British Columbia coast; (c) the relative insensitivity of bottom-dwelling shrimp to temperature changes; and (d) the probable sensitivity of yellowfin sole to ice extent and to associated changes in food supply caused by alterations in plankton species composition. It is difficult to extrapolate from the results of the present case studies to other fisheries. These results are particularly inapplicable to other major categories of fisheries, including open-ocean, upwelling, and tropical and subtropical shelf fisheries. Such fisheries should be the focus of additional case studies. Possible temperature effects on the incidence of disease and parasitism in fish also should be investigated.

  10. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.

  11. Disentangling the effects of evolutionary, demographic, and environmental factors influencing genetic structure of natural populations: Atlantic herring as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jørgensen, Hanne B.H.;

    2009-01-01

    carried out separate analyses of neutral and selected genetic variation, which allowed us to establish that the two most important factors affecting population structure were selection due to salinity at spawning sites and feeding migrations. The genetic signal left by the demographic history of herring...

  12. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  13. Passive immunization of Pacific herring against viral hemorrhagic septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The plasma of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii that survived laboratory-induced viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) epizootics contained humoral substances that, when injected into naive animals, conferred passive immunity against the disease. Among groups exposed to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), injection of donor plasma from VHS survivors resulted in significantly greater survival (50%) and significantly lower tissue titers (1.5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units [PFU]/g) than the injection of plasma from VHSV-naive donors (6% survival; 3.7 x 10(6) PFU/g). Additionally, the magnitude of the protective immune response increased during the postexposure period; plasma that was collected from survivors at 123 d postexposure (931 degree-days) provided greater protection than plasma collected from survivors at 60 d postexposure (409 degree-days). These results provide proof of concept that the VHSV exposure history of Pacific herring populations can be determined post hoc; furthermore, the results can be used as the foundation for developing additional high-throughput diagnostic techniques that may be effective at quantifying herd immunity and forecasting the potential for future VHS epizootics in populations of wild Pacific herring.

  14. Interacting trophic forcing and the population dynamics of herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Ostman, Orjan; Gardmark, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Small pelagic fish occupy a central position in marine ecosystems worldwide, largely by determining the energy transfer from lower trophic levels to predators at the top of the food web, including humans. Population dynamics of small pelagic fish may therefore be regulated neither strictly bottom......-up nor top-down, but rather through multiple external and internal drivers. While in many studies single drivers have been identified, potential synergies of multiple factors, as well as their relative importance in regulating population dynamics of small pelagic fish, is a largely unresolved issue....... Using a statistical, age-structured modeling approach, we demonstrate the relative importance and influence of bottom-up (e.g., climate, zooplankton availability) and top-down (i.e., fishing and predation) factors on the population dynamics of Bothnian Sea herring (Clupea harengus) throughout its life...

  15. Between-year variability in the mixing of North Sea herring spawning components leads to pronounced variation in the composition of the catch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bierman, Stijn M.; Dickey-Collas, Mark; van Damme, Cindy J.G.;

    2010-01-01

    North Sea herring (Clupea harengus) are managed as a single stock, but maintaining a diversity of spawning components is considered important. However, the total catch from each of these components cannot be estimated easily because the components mix during the summer feeding season. The spawnin...... in particular as a result of misclassifications, and that it may not be appropriate to assume that ratios between components are constant through time....

  16. The Relationship Between Acoustic Target Strength and Body Length for Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    2002; Horne 2003; McQuinn and Winger 2003; Rudstam et al. 2003; Frouzova and Kubecka 2004; Nero et al. 2004; Hartman and Nagy 2005; McClatchie and...415. Nero , R. W., C. H. Thompson, and J. M. Jech. 2004. In situ acoustic estimates of the swimbladder volume of Atlan- tic herring (Clupea harengus

  17. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Steven D.; Hulson, Peter-John F.

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150–31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status. PMID:28222151

  18. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, Tilden R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  19. Experimental evidence of threat-sensitive collective avoidance responses in a large wild-caught herring school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Rieucau

    Full Text Available Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus when in a large school (approximately 60,000 individuals. By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage, we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the "threat-sensitive hypothesis".

  20. Experimental evidence of threat-sensitive collective avoidance responses in a large wild-caught herring school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60,000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the "threat-sensitive hypothesis".

  1. Multifrequency analyses of fish distributions in the northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jech, J. Michael

    2004-05-01

    Routine acoustical surveys for estimating Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) population abundance have been conducted on Georges Bank during the autumn spawning season from 1998 to present. Acoustical data are collected with a Simrad EK500 scientific echo sounder operating at 12 or 18, 38, and 120 kHz, and split-beam (the 12-kHz system is a single beam) transducers. Biological measurements and verification of acoustical scatterers are obtained with a pelagic trawl. Acoustical data are evaluated (scrutinized) manually to remove noise, faulty bottom detections, and to classify acoustical backscattering to species. Species classification is currently subjective, and is based on the experience of the scientists and trawl catches. Objective species classification and automated fish density and abundance estimates are an obvious goal for fisheries surveys using advanced technologies. Classification methods using relationships among frequency-dependent volume backscattering strengths, such as presence-absence and combination-permutation, are described and presented. Results indicate that while classification using these methods and acoustical information alone is not robust, these methods highlight backscattering patterns within aggregations and have the potential to characterize backscattering patterns observed in fisheries acoustics data. [Work supported by NOAA Fisheries and ONR.

  2. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  3. Marine landscapes and population genetic structure of herring ( Clupea harengus L.) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.B.H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte;

    2005-01-01

    Numerically small but statistically significant genetic differentiation has been found in many marine fish species despite very large census population sizes and absence of obvious barriers to migrating individuals. Analyses of morphological traits have previously identified local spawning groups...... temporal differentiation was observed at two locations, which we ascribe to sympatrically spawning but genetically divergent 'spawning waves'. Significant differentiation was also present on a geographical scale, though pairwise F-ST values were generally low, not exceeding 0.027. Partial Mantel tests...... showed no isolation by geographical distance, but significant associations were observed between genetic differentiation and environmental parameters (salinity and surface temperature) (0.001

  4. The North Sea autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) Spawning Component Abundance Index (SCAI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    at the component level has historically been hampered by missing observations and high sampling noise. A simple state-space statistical model is developed that is robust to these problems, gives a good fit to the data, and proves capable of both handling and predicting missing observations well. Furthermore...

  5. Effects of suspended sediment on the development and hatching of herring (Clupea harengus) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Frantsen, Erik; Jensen, Carsten;

    1981-01-01

    made to test the effect of the increased turbidity near marine mining, spoil disposal or dredging operations. Embryonic development was unaffected by suspended silt. Mortality rates varied significantly between aquaria, but the variation was unrelated to the experimental treatment with silt. Refs....

  6. Prevalence of viral erythrocytic necrosis in Pacific herring and epizootics in Skagit Bay, Puget Sound, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Pacheco, C.A.; Greene, C.; Rice, C.; Meyers, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Epizootics of viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) occurred among juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in Skagit Bay, Puget Sound, Washington, during 2005-2007 and were characterized by high prevalences and intensities of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within circulating erythrocytes. The prevalence of VEN peaked at 67% during the first epizootic in October 2005 and waned to 0% by August 2006. A second VEN epizootic occurred throughout the summer of 2007; this was characterized by disease initiation and perpetuation in the age-1, 2006 year-class, followed by involvement of the age-0, 2007 year-class shortly after the latter's metamorphosis to the juvenile stage. The disease was detected in other populations of juvenile Pacific herring throughout Puget Sound and Prince William Sound, Alaska, where the prevalences and intensities typically did not correspond to those observed in Skagit Bay. The persistence and recurrence of VEN epizootics indicate that the disease is probably common among juvenile Pacific herring throughout the eastern North Pacific Ocean, and although population-level impacts probably occur they are typically covert and not easily detected.

  7. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  8. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  9. Impaired cellular immune response in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) feeding on environmentally contaminated herring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.S. Ross (Peter); H.H. Timmerman (Helga); H.W. Vos (Helma); P.J.H. Reijnders; J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn a 2.5-year immunotoxicological study, two groups of captive harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were fed herring from the heavily polluted Baltic Sea or from the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals, and functional immunological parame

  10. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Incardona

    Full Text Available Pacific herring embryos (Clupea pallasi spawned three months following the Cosco Busan bunker oil spill in San Francisco Bay showed high rates of late embryonic mortality in the intertidal zone at oiled sites. Dead embryos developed to the hatching stage (e.g. fully pigmented eyes before suffering extensive tissue deterioration. In contrast, embryos incubated subtidally at oiled sites showed evidence of sublethal oil exposure (petroleum-induced cardiac toxicity with very low rates of mortality. These field findings suggested an enhancement of oil toxicity through an interaction between oil and another environmental stressor in the intertidal zone, such as higher levels of sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV radiation. We tested this hypothesis by exposing herring embryos to both trace levels of weathered Cosco Busan bunker oil and sunlight, with and without protection from UV radiation. Cosco Busan oil and UV co-exposure were both necessary and sufficient to induce an acutely lethal necrotic syndrome in hatching stage embryos that closely mimicked the condition of dead embryos sampled from oiled sites. Tissue levels of known phototoxic polycyclic aromatic compounds were too low to explain the observed degree of phototoxicity, indicating the presence of other unidentified or unmeasured phototoxic compounds derived from bunker oil. These findings provide a parsimonious explanation for the unexpectedly high losses of intertidal herring spawn following the Cosco Busan spill. The chemical composition and associated toxicity of bunker oils should be more thoroughly evaluated to better understand and anticipate the ecological impacts of vessel-derived spills associated with an expanding global transportation network.

  11. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  12. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C; Litzow, Michael A; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John; Brenner, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  13. Vertical migration and dispersion of sprat ( Sprattus sprattus ) and herring ( Clupea harengus ) schools at dusk in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lars Anders Fredrik; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Lundgren, Bo;

    2003-01-01

    , and that the dissolution of schools can be modelled by diffusion, i.e. active repulsion is not required. The field measurements were obtained during 3 days in March at one location in the Baltic Sea and included continuous hydroacoustical monitoring, trawl samples, and hydrographical CTD data. Echogram patterns were...... threshold, that schools initiate their dissolution when ambient light intensity drops below this critical threshold, and that fish subsequently swim in an uncorrelated random walk pattern....

  14. Effect of spatial differences in growth on distribution of seasonally co-occurring herring Clupea harengus stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Stæhr, Karl-Johan; Rindorf, Anna

    2015-01-01

    over time. Contrary to previous perception of the juvenile migration, NSAS were found to leave the study area at the age between 1 and 2 years and WBSS 1 year olds were encountered in the Skagerrak. The estimated parameters of von Bertalanffy growth equations showed marked differences between areas...... with fish in the eastern part of the area having the lowest size at age at all ages. Further, their growth conditions appeared to deteriorate progressively over the period studied. Both NSAS and WBSS showed the highest condition in the North Sea and Skagerrak while condition was substantially lower in age...... Kattegat. The westward movement of spring spawners over time suggests that growth rate and possibly density of conspecifics influence the migration pattern and distribution of C. harengus in the area. In contrast, there was no evidence to suggest that distribution was constant over time within stocks...

  15. Female ovarian abnormalities and reproductive failure of autumn-spawning herring (Clupea harengus membras) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Arula, T.;

    2015-01-01

    Fecundity and reproductive potential are important factors to be considered in evaluating trajectories and demographic predictions of fish populations. Therefore, characterizing the nature and quantifying the extent of any reproductive failure should be considered in fisheries studies. Here, we...... in a vitellogenic or final maturation stage with coagulative necrosis and liquefaction of the yolk sphere, degraded follicle membranes, and fibrinous adhesion among oocytes. Such degeneration is presumed to cause complete infertility in the fish. The frequency of fish with abnormal ovaries varied annually between...

  16. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.;

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based...... on the international ecosystem survey in the Nordic Seas (IESNS), the bottom trawl survey in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea (EVHOE) and the pelagic survey in the Bay of Biscay (PELGAS). We also present catch data on bluefin tuna, which has been depleted for decades but historically used to be a key predator...... on the other pelagic stocks during summer. The results show that there were substantial changes in the herring and blue whiting distribution during the 1990s and early 2000s. The earliest bluefin tuna catches noted were in 1907. The catches in the Norwegian Sea area peaked in the 1950s and there have been very...

  17. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy.

  18. Contaminant-related suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses in harbor seals fed herring from the Baltic Sea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Ross (Peter); R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.J.H. Reijnders; H. van Loveren (Henk); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecent mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations have led to speculation about increased susceptibility to viral infections as a result of contaminant-induced immunosuppression. In a 2.5-year study, we fed herring from either the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean or

  19. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts is relativ

  20. Technology of puddings made of Pacific herring milt

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The technology of culinary products (puddings) of finely ground Pacific herring milt has been experimentally proved. The standard physics and chemical, organoleptic, microbiological methods for food analysis have been used. The main raw material is frozen milt of Pacific herring. Fresh eggs, drinking cream, berries (cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, etc.) frozen and fresh, sugar, and soda have been used as additional materials. The ratio of main components in production of puddings from...

  1. Impacts of climate change on the complex life cycles of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petitgas, P.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Engelhard, G.H.; Peck, M.A.; Pinnegar, J.K.; Drinkwater, K.; Huret, M.; Nash, R.D.M.

    2013-01-01

    To anticipate the response of fish populations to climate change, we developed a framework that integrates requirements in all life stages to assess impacts across the entire life cycle. The framework was applied on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the North S

  2. Comparison of spatial and temporal trends of methoxylated PBDEs, PBDEs, and hexabromocyclododecane in herring along the Swedish coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, L.; Nylund, K. [ITM, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Bignert, A. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Some brominated flame retardants, for example poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The use of the technical PentaBDE product in the European Union has been drastically reduced in the last years and is banned from 2004, while another brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), continues to be used. In addition to the commercial BFR products, methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) have been identified in biota in the aquatic environment. The origin of the MeO-PBDEs is under discussion. To our knowledge, neither OH-PBDEs nor MeO-PBDEs are commercially produced, nor have they been reported as impurities in brominated technical products or formed as byproducts in any industrial process. However, MeO-PBDEs has been reported to be natural products formed in the marine environment. As regards MeO-PBDEs detected in Baltic fish several factors points in the direction of a natural origin. On the other hand, certain MeO-PBDEs detected in environmental samples could also be metabolites/environmental transformation products of PBDEs. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal trends of the flame retardants in biota can be very useful in identifying sources of emission to the environment and in evaluating the impacts of voluntary restrictions / bans (PBDEs) and ongoing use (HBCD) on environmental contamination. In addition, this knowledge could provide valuable help in identifying the origin of the MeO-PBDEs. To this end, the Swedish Environmental Monitoring Programme on Contaminants in Biota (SEMPC) has incorporated these 3 substance groups into its monitoring of organic contaminants in herring (Clupea harengus). In this contribution we report on the results of the first 4 years.

  3. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  4. Formal Comment to Gong et al.: Ecosystem Scale Acoustic Sensing Reveals Humpback Whale Behavior Synchronous with Herring Spawning Processes and Re-Evaluation Finds No Effect of Sonar on Humpback Song Occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in Fall 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Gong; Jain, Ankita D.; Duong Tran; Dong Hoon Yi; Fan Wu; Alexander Zorn; Purnima Ratilal; Nicholas C Makris

    2014-01-01

    We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, or...

  5. Ecosystem scale acoustic sensing reveals humpback whale behavior synchronous with herring spawning processes and re-evaluation finds no effect of sonar on humpback song occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in fall 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Jain, Ankita D; Tran, Duong; Yi, Dong Hoon; Wu, Fan; Zorn, Alexander; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2014-01-01

    We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i) were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii) their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1) highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2) songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a) no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b) a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a) the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b) the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c) the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98-100% false-positive rate and lacks

  6. Ecosystem scale acoustic sensing reveals humpback whale behavior synchronous with herring spawning processes and re-evaluation finds no effect of sonar on humpback song occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in fall 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1 highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2 songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98-100% false-positive rate

  7. HD 65949: Rosetta stone or red herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, C. R.; Hubrig, S.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Biémont, É.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Schütz, O.; González, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    HD 65949 is a late B star with exceptionally strong HgII λ3984, but it is not a typical HgMn star. The ReII spectrum is of extraordinary strength. Abundances or upper limits are derived here for 58 elements based on a model with Teff = 13100K and log (g) = 4.0. Even-Z elements through nickel show minor deviations from solar abundances. Anomalies among the odd-Z elements through copper are mostly small. Beyond the iron peak, a huge scatter is found. Enormous enhancements are found for the elements rhenium through mercury (Z = 75-80). We note the presence of ThIII in the spectrum. The abundance pattern of the heaviest elements resembles the N = 126 r-process peak of solar material, though not in detail. An odd-Z anomaly appears at the triplet (Zr Nb Mo), and there is a large abundance jump between Xe (Z = 54) and Ba (Z = 56). These are signatures of chemical fractionation. We find a significant correlation of the abundance excesses with second ionization potentials for elements with Z > 30. If this is not a red herring (false lead), it indicates the relevance of photospheric or near-photospheric processes. Large excesses (4-6 dex) require diffusion from deeper layers with the elements passing through a number of ionization stages. That would make the correlation with second ionization potential puzzling. We explore a model with mass accretion of exotic material followed by the more commonly accepted differentiation by diffusion. That model leads to a number of predictions which challenge future work. New observations confirm the orbital elements of Gieseking and Karimie, apart from the systemic velocity, which has increased. Likely primary and secondary masses are near 3.3 and 1.6 Msolar, with a separation of ca. 0.25 au. New atomic structure calculations are presented in two appendices. These include partition functions for the first through third spectra of Ru, Re and Os, as well as oscillator strengths in the ReII spectrum. Based on observations obtained at the

  8. Technology of puddings made of Pacific herring milt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dement'eva N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The technology of culinary products (puddings of finely ground Pacific herring milt has been experimentally proved. The standard physics and chemical, organoleptic, microbiological methods for food analysis have been used. The main raw material is frozen milt of Pacific herring. Fresh eggs, drinking cream, berries (cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, etc. frozen and fresh, sugar, and soda have been used as additional materials. The ratio of main components in production of puddings from Pacific herring milt is: milt 35–40 %, cream 20–25 %, eggs 15–22 %. The recipes of sweet puddings of milt with the addition of berries have been developed. The effect of duration of whipping protein mass on puddings' organoleptic parameters has been found experimentally. The recommended duration of whipping is from 3 to 5 minutes, this increases the amount of pudding mass lifting after the whipping of not less than 40 % of the original and provides the necessary structure in the finished product after heat treatment. The rational heat treatment of puddings' baking has been substantiated – at the temperature of 150 °C, with the duration of heat treatment for 20 minutes, which provides high organoleptic characteristics and safety of the finished product. The recommended shelf life of the finished product of not more than 72 hours at the temperature of 2–6 °C has been determined. On the basis of the research the technology of new kinds of culinary fish products – puddings of Pacific herring milt allowing obtain culinary products with high organoleptic characteristics – has been developed. The unique chemical composition combined (milk, eggs, cream and berries provides a basis for classification of new products as functional food. Additional involvement in food production little used milt of herring species of fish enables to expand the range of fish culinary products and increase the rate of food use of water origin raw material.

  9. Reproductive success of herring gulls breeding on Lake Superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shutt, J.L. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Herring gulls breed in the vicinity of three pulp mills located on the north shore of Lake Superior. The impacts of exposure to effluents produced by these mills on various aspects of the reproductive biology of this species have been monitored since 1992. Reproductive success at these sites has been either zero or below the level necessary to maintain a stable population. Levels of dioxins and furans in the eggs and tissues of herring gulls did not show any consistent trends between the exposed and control sites and were generally low. Additionally, TCDD TEQs calculated for the same colonies, with the inclusion of several non ortho-substituted PCBs, were well below levels thought to result in reproductive impairment of herring gulls. However, plasma and liver concentrations of retinol were depressed and variable at several colonies, indicating potential diet differences between the study sites. Further determination of food types consumed at the control and exposed sites revealed that fish, the traditional diet of this species, was a small or insignificant component of the diet. Food type was also correlated with contaminant burden and reproductive output. Previously collected data as well as current results will be discussed.

  10. Impacts of climate change on the complex life cycles of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Petitgas, Pierre; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Dickey-Collas, Mark; ENGELHARD Georg; Peck, Myron A.; John K. Pinnegar; Drinkwater, Ken; Huret, Martin; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2013-01-01

    To anticipate the response of fish populations to climate change, we developed a framework that integrates requirements in all life stages to assess impacts across the entire life cycle. The framework was applied on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the North Sea, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Norwegian/Barents Seas and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. In each case study, we reviewed habitats required by each life stag...

  11. NODC Standard Format Herring Survey Population Density and Distribution (F057) Data (1976-1977) (NODC Accession 0014189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data type contains data from aircraft surveys of herring schools. These data were collected to provide information on herring population density and...

  12. In situ activity of chymotrypsin in sugar-salted herring during cold storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvang, K.L.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2000-01-01

    In sifts activity of intestinal chymotrypsin in sugar-salted whole herring during cold storage was evaluated by analysing changes in the low-molecular-weight nitrogen fraction when a specific inhibitor was added. Addition of chymostatin (0.01 mM) to sugar-salted herring gave 100% inhibition...

  13. Does predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) affect Bothnian Sea herring stock estimates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdmark, Anna; Östman, Örjan; Nielsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    estimated grey seal predation from diet data and reanalysed herring spawning stock biomass (SSB) during 1973–2009. Accounting for predation increased the herring SSB 16% (maximum 19%), but this was within the confidence intervals when ignoring predation. Although mortality in older individuals was inflated...

  14. Baltic Herring Fisheries Management: Stakeholder Views to Frame the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Haapasaari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive problem framing that includes different perspectives is essential for holistic understanding of complex problems and as the first step in building models. We involved five stakeholders to frame the management problem of the Central Baltic herring fishery. By using the Bayesian belief networks (BBNs approach, the views of the stakeholders were built into graphical influence diagrams representing variables and their dependencies. The views of the scientists involved concentrated on biological concerns, whereas the fisher, the manager, and the representative of an environmental nongovernmental organization included markets and fishing industry influences. Management measures were considered to have a relatively small impact on the development of the herring stock; their impact on socioeconomic objectives was greater. Overall, the framings by these stakeholders propose a focus on socioeconomic issues in research and management and explicitly define management objectives, not only in biological but also in social and economic terms. We find the approach an illustrative tool to structure complex issues systematically. Such a tool can be used as a forum for discussion and for decision support that explicitly includes the views of different stakeholder groups. It enables the examination of social and biological factors in one framework and facilitates bridging the gap between social and natural sciences. A benefit of the BBN approach is that the graphical model structures can be transformed into a quantitative form by inserting probabilistic information.

  15. Textural and biochemical changes during ripening of old-fashioned salted herrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Eva; Christensen, Line;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding of the biochemical reactions taking place during ripening of salted herring is still rather limited. Therefore, salted herrings were traditionally produced and the impact of the brine composition was evaluated in relation to the development of the characteristic texture ...... by oxidative reactions inducing myosin cross-linking followed by subsequent degradation of thesemyosin aggregates. The brine composition might play a role in the development of herring texture but this need to be investigated in more details. c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry...

  16. Changes in the distribution of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Gulf of Maine 1979-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Walter J; Galuardi, Benjamin; Cooper, Andrew B; Lutcavage, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine, NW Atlantic Ocean, is a productive, seasonal foraging ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), but commercial landings of adult size classes were up to 40% below the allocated total allowable catch between 2004 to 2008 for the rod and reel, harpoon, and purse seine categories in the Gulf of Maine. Reduction in Atlantic bluefin tuna catches in the Gulf of Maine could represent a decline in spawning stock biomass, but given wide-ranging, complex migration patterns, and high energetic requirements, an alternative hypothesis is that their dispersal patterns shifted to regions with higher prey abundance or profitability, reducing availability to U.S. fishing fleets. This study fit generalized linear models to Atlantic bluefin tuna landings data collected from fishermen's logbooks (1979-2005) as well as the distances between bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus), a primary prey species, to test alternative hypotheses for observed shifts in Atlantic bluefin tuna availability in the Gulf of Maine. For the bluefin model, landings varied by day of year, latitude and longitude. The effect of latitude differed by day of year and the effect of longitude differed by year. The distances between Atlantic bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring schools were significantly smaller (pBank in spring and autumn surveys respectively (p<0.01, r(2)=0.24, p<0.01, r(2)=0.42). Fishermen's logbooks contributed novel spatial and temporal information towards testing these hypotheses for the bluefin tuna fishery.

  17. Modified Herring Trawl Fish Catch Data, Gulf of Alaska Fjords, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains catch data from trawls at the sampling stations. We deployed a modified herring trawl in coastal waters within glacier fjords of Alaska....

  18. AFSC/ABL: Southeast and Prince William Sound, Alaska Herring Microsatellite data, 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring is one of the most energy-rich fish in the Alaskan ecosystem, and when populations struggle over time, such as the Lynn Canal population, there is management...

  19. Evaluation of methods to estimate lake herring spawner abundance in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Cholwek, G.A.; Evrard, L.M.; Schram, S.; Seider, M.; Symbal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, commercial fishers harvested Lake Superior lake herring Coregonus artedi for their flesh, but recently operators have targeted lake herring for roe. Because no surveys have estimated spawning female abundance, direct estimates of fishing mortality are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using acoustic techniques in combination with midwater trawling to estimate spawning female lake herring densities in a Lake Superior statistical grid (i.e., a 10′ latitude × 10′ longitude area over which annual commercial harvest statistics are compiled). Midwater trawling showed that mature female lake herring were largely pelagic during the night in late November, accounting for 94.5% of all fish caught exceeding 250 mm total length. When calculating acoustic estimates of mature female lake herring, we excluded backscattering from smaller pelagic fishes like immature lake herring and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax by applying an empirically derived threshold of −35.6 dB. We estimated the average density of mature females in statistical grid 1409 at 13.3 fish/ha and the total number of spawning females at 227,600 (95% confidence interval = 172,500–282,700). Using information on mature female densities, size structure, and fecundity, we estimate that females deposited 3.027 billion (109) eggs in grid 1409 (95% confidence interval = 2.356–3.778 billion). The relative estimation error of the mature female density estimate derived using a geostatistical model—based approach was low (12.3%), suggesting that the employed method was robust. Fishing mortality rates of all mature females and their eggs were estimated at 2.3% and 3.8%, respectively. The techniques described for enumerating spawning female lake herring could be used to develop a more accurate stock–recruitment model for Lake Superior lake herring.

  20. RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE HERRING SALTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shumanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To the salting process of fish many studies are devoted, both in experimental and in theoretical terms. Study of features of fish salting in historical terms can be divided into 3 groups. One group of researchers believes that osmotic pressure has a major influence during the salting process. Another group attributed this process to the influence of molecular diffusion. The third group considers that during this process takes place both osmosis and diffusion. Determination of the main characteristics (salinity, diffusion coefficients, time of salting, etc. is a very time-consuming task. This leads to the idea of searching for innovative research methods. Current state of science, in addition to theoretical solutions points to the possibility to determine the basic characteristics of salting and applying methods associated with the interaction of ultrasound and electromagnetic radiation with matter. In our studies, we have been producing laser beam scanning of salt solution and fish meat thickness. Scattered radiation is determined by the salt concentration, diffusion coefficients, the size of the diffusing particles. This method is called a photon correlation spectroscopy. It has been applied in our work. The dependence of the scattered light intensity on the concentration of sodium chloride solution (brine has been investigated. According to diffusion coefficient a diffusion in solution to herring skin a conclusion was made that salt solution obtains fractal structure and its size was determined. Also we determined diffusion coefficients depending on the temperature in the layers. The layers are brine-leather, leather, and herring meat thickness. The process of diffusion-osmotic equilibrium revealed at temperatures of 10-12 ° C. Suggested the possibility of higher quality of fish salting at low temperatures. On the basis of the selfsimilar solution of the differential diffusion equation, a formula for calculating time salting fish was obtained

  1. Changes in the distribution of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Maine 1979-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J Golet

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Maine, NW Atlantic Ocean, is a productive, seasonal foraging ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, but commercial landings of adult size classes were up to 40% below the allocated total allowable catch between 2004 to 2008 for the rod and reel, harpoon, and purse seine categories in the Gulf of Maine. Reduction in Atlantic bluefin tuna catches in the Gulf of Maine could represent a decline in spawning stock biomass, but given wide-ranging, complex migration patterns, and high energetic requirements, an alternative hypothesis is that their dispersal patterns shifted to regions with higher prey abundance or profitability, reducing availability to U.S. fishing fleets. This study fit generalized linear models to Atlantic bluefin tuna landings data collected from fishermen's logbooks (1979-2005 as well as the distances between bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus, a primary prey species, to test alternative hypotheses for observed shifts in Atlantic bluefin tuna availability in the Gulf of Maine. For the bluefin model, landings varied by day of year, latitude and longitude. The effect of latitude differed by day of year and the effect of longitude differed by year. The distances between Atlantic bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring schools were significantly smaller (p<0.05 than would be expected from a randomly distributed population. A time series of average bluefin tuna school positions was positively correlated with the average number of herring captured per tow on Georges Bank in spring and autumn surveys respectively (p<0.01, r(2=0.24, p<0.01, r(2=0.42. Fishermen's logbooks contributed novel spatial and temporal information towards testing these hypotheses for the bluefin tuna fishery.

  2. The Adopt-a-Herring program as a fisheries conservation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Smith, Joseph M.; Finn, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Successful conservation depends on a scientifically literate public. We developed the adopt-a-Herring program to educate nonscientists about fisheries and watershed restoration. this interactive educational and outreach project encouraged coastal residents to be involved in local watershed restoration. In the northeastern United States, river herring (Alosa spp.) are an important component of many coastal watersheds and often are the object of conservation efforts. In order to understand river herring spawning behavior and to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts, our research tracked these fish via radiotelemetry in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts. In our adopt-a-Herring Program, participating stakeholder organizations adopted and named individual tagged river herring and followed their movements online. We also made information available to our adopters on our larger research goals, the mission and activities of other research and management agencies, examples of human actions that adversely affect watersheds, and opportunities for proactive conservation. Research results were communicated to adopters through our project web page and end-of-the-season summary presentations. Both tools cultivated a personal interest in river herring, stimulated discussion about fisheries and watershed restoration, educated participants about the goals and methods of scientists in general, and initiated critical thinking about human activities that advance or impede sustainability.

  3. 76 FR 34947 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Regulatory Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... measures contemplated in Amendment 4 by 2011, so it decided to split Amendment 4 into two separate actions... offshore (GB) stock components. The GOM and GB stock components segregate during spawning and mix during... rate in a management area is higher than the amount of fish actually being caught, NMFS may...

  4. 75 FR 63791 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Amendment 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... by 2011, so it decided to split Amendment 4 into two separate actions. The Council determined that... processing operations to accept catch from U.S. vessels; TALFF was allocated to ensure fish were available to... components. These stock components segregate during spawning and mix during feeding and migration....

  5. 78 FR 33020 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Amendment 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... midwater trawl vessels' access to groundfish closed areas. DATES: Public comments must be received no later... to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel... and Management Act (MSA), and develop a sector allocation process or other limited access...

  6. 78 FR 12625 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to 2013 Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... management area 1A to account for catch overages in 2011, and to prevent overfishing. DATES: This rule is... is neither overfished nor subject to overfishing at this time. Comment 4: Earthjustice...

  7. Feasibility of Acoustic Remote Sensing of Large Herring Shoals and Seafloor by Baleen Whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Yi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has found a high spatial and temporal correlation between certain baleen whale vocalizations and peak herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. These vocalizations are apparently related to feeding activities with suggested functions that include communication, prey manipulation, and echolocation. Here, the feasibility of the echolocation function is investigated. Physical limitations on the ability to detect large herring shoals and the seafloor by acoustic remote sensing are determined with ocean acoustic propagation, scattering, and statistical theories given baleen whale auditory parameters. Detection is found to be highly dependent on ambient noise conditions, herring shoal distributions, baleen whale time-frequency vocalization spectra, and geophysical parameters of the ocean waveguide. Detections of large herring shoals are found to be physically feasible in common Gulf of Maine herring spawning scenarios at up to 10 ± 6 km in range for humpback parameters and 1 ± 1 km for minke parameters but not for blue and fin parameters even at zero horizontal range. Detections of the seafloor are found to be feasible up to 2 ± 1 km for blue and humpback parameters and roughly 1 km for fin and minke parameters, suggesting that the whales share a common acoustic sensation of rudimentary features of the geophysical environment.

  8. Fish and healthy pregnancy: more than just a red herring!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R

    1996-01-01

    In modern Western diets we eat predominantly omega-6 essential fatty acids from vegetable oils, and too little omega-3. The Department of Health recommends doubling the amount of omega-3s we eat. Omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) are derived mainly from fish oils. Omega-3s are believed to help reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. Among the main materials required for fetal brain and CNS growth in late pregnancy are omega-3s (mainly docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-6 EFAs (mainly arachidonic acid [AA]). These come from the mother's diet. Several formulae for preterm infants now contain DHA and AA to aid optimum brain, nerve and retinal development. One manufacturer has begun to include DHA and AA in formulae for term babies. Breast milk contains DHA and AA, derived from the mother's diet. Eating oily fish in pregnancy has been found to have a slight beneficial effect on birthweight and length of gestation. Eating fresh or canned oil-rich fish (e.g. kippers, herring, mackerel, salmon, sardine, pilchards, tuna) twice or three times a week can be encouraged as part of a healthy balanced diet, in pregnancy and for all the family. As well as containing omega-3 polyunsaturates, oily fish is a good source of protein and vitamins A and D. Alternatively, a fish-oil supplement may be taken. Cod liver oil is best avoided during pregnancy, because of concerns over the possible teratogenicity of vitamin A.

  9. Exploring the multidimensional nature of stock structure: a case study on herring dynamics in a transition area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    occupy areas without much environmental structuring and extensive mixing between populations occur. Many species of marine fishes have the capacity of dispersing over vast geographical areas, either passively by drifting eggs and larvae following ocean currents, or actively by migration of juveniles...... in the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic. I analyse which herring populations that are available to a mixed herring fishery in the area and their spatial and temporal occurrence. I explore the potential structuring factors causing the population diversity in the area and discuss the mechanisms...... behind these structuring factors. The results in this present thesis contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of the herring populations in the mixed pool of herring in the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic. I identify several genetically different herring populations which...

  10. Life-history data on alewife and blueback herring, Mactaquac Dam, 1982-88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, B.M.; Anderson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Creation of a large headpond by the completion of the Mataquac Dam, New Brunswick, in 1967 led to the rapid development of major stocks of alewives and blueback herring. A study was carried out to establish whether alewives and blueback herring poulations are homogeneous within the river or form distict local poulations, to evaluate the influence of commercial fishery and hydroelectric development on the populations and to provide a data base for the establishment and evaluation of a management program. Life-history data were collected annually between 1982 and 1988 for the alewife and blueback herring migrating to the Mataquac Dam, Saint John River, New Brunswick. This report tabulates the data, in various combinations, according to species, sex, length, weight, age, maturity and spawning history. 10 refs., 1 fig., 47 tabs.

  11. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Prince William Sound Herring disease program (HDP), restoration project 070819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul; Elliott, Diane G.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hansen, John D.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of pathogens in Pacific herring from 2007 – 2010 indicated that Ichthyophonus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and erythrocytic necrosis virus are endemic in Prince William Sound and throughout the NE Pacific. Laboratory studies with VHSV indicated that multiple herring stocks are equally susceptible to the resulting disease, Pacific herring shed copious levels of VHSV (as high at 5x108 plaque-forming units/day) shortly after exposure, chronic and persistent infections can occur in Pacific herring, susceptibility of Pacific herring to VHS extends to the larval life stages but not the embryonic stages, and the prior exposure history of Pacific herring to VHSV can be determined post hoc. Laboratory studies involving Ichthyophonus indicated that schizonts can be inactivated with chlorine and iodine solutions, the parasite can survive for extended periods in saltwater but not freshwater, a low potential exists for cross contamination between in vitro explant cultures, infectious schizonts are released from the skin surface of infected herring, schizonts are not uniformly distributed throughout the skeletal muscle of infected Pacific herring, multiple types of Ichthyophonus exist with different genotypes and phenotypic traits, and temperature is an important factor influencing the infectivity of Ichthyophonus. Additional field and laboratory studies indicated that Ichthyophonus negatively influences the swimming performance of infected hosts and the negative impacts effects are exacerbated by increasing temperatures, American shad are an important reservoir of Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, Pacific herring are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and Pacific herring will accept surgically implanted acoustic tags with negligible impacts on survival.

  12. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  13. Geographic variation in Pacific herring growth in response to regime shifts in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin-ichi; Rose, Kenneth A.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Schweigert, Jake; Hay, Douglas; Werner, Francisco E.; Aita, Maki Noguchi

    2015-11-01

    Pacific herring populations at eight North Pacific Rim locations were simulated to compare basin-wide geographic variations in age-specific growth due to environmental influences on marine productivity and population-specific responses to regime shifts. Temperature and zooplankton abundance from a three-dimensional lower-trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO: North Pacific Ecosystem Model for Understanding Regional Oceanography) simulation from 1948 to 2002 were used as inputs to a herring bioenergetics growth model. Herring populations from California, the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI), Prince William Sound (PWS), Togiak Alaska, the western Bering Sea (WBS), the Sea of Okhotsk (SO), Sakhalin, and Peter the Great Bay (PGB) were examined. The half-saturation coefficients of herring feeding were calibrated to climatological conditions at each of the eight locations to reproduce averaged size-at-age data. The depth of averaging used for water temperature and zooplankton, and the maximum consumption rate parameter, were made specific to each location. Using the calibrated half-saturation coefficients, the 1948-2002 period was then simulated using daily values of water temperature and zooplankton densities interpolated from monthly model output. To detect regime shifts in simulated temperatures, zooplankton and herring growth rates, we applied sequential t-test analyses on the 54 years of hindcast simulation values. The detected shifts of herring age-5 growth showed closest match (69%) to the regime shift years (1957/58, 1970/71, 1976/77, 1988/89, 1998/99). We explored relationships among locations using cluster and principal component analyses. The first principal component of water temperature showed good correspondence to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and all zooplankton groups showed a pan-Pacific decrease after the 1976/77 regime shift. However, the first principal component of herring growth rate showed decreased growth at the SO, PWS, WCVI and California

  14. Interaction mechanism of 2-aminobenzothiazole with herring sperm DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yajing [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Ji Fanying [Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University, People' s Hospital of Linyi City, No. 27 Jiefang, Road, Linyi, Shandong Province 276003 (China); Liu Rutao, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Lin Jing; Xu Qifei; Gao Canzhu [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China-America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2012-02-15

    The toxic interaction of 2-aminobenzothiazole (2-ABT) with herring sperm DNA (hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated that 2-ABT interacted with hs-DNA in a minor groove binding mode. The binding constant and the number of binding sites were 7.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} L mol{sup -1} and 0.95, respectively. Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformation change of hs-DNA in the presence of 2-ABT, which verified the minor groove binding mode. The molecular modeling results illustrated that 2-ABT tended to bind in the region of rich A-T base pairs through the hydrogen bond between A 18 and amino group of 2-ABT. Sequence specificity was confirmed by comparison on the interactions of 2-ABT with four kinds of bases. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with biomacromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-ABT interacts with hs-DNA in minor groove binding mode to form complex in the ratio 1:1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA conformation changes after binding with 2-ABT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABT-DNA complex is simulated using Autodock and binding free energy is also calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Besides Van der Waals force, hydrogen bond between adenine and 2-ABT plays an important role. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequence specificity of the binding is verified by the effect of DNA bases on 2-ABT.

  15. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p......H to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50–10kDa, 10–1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity....... Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50–10kDa and 10–1kDa peptide...

  16. Lumpers or splitters? Evaluating recovering and management plans for metapopulations of herring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kell, L.T.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Hintzen, N.T.; Nash, R.D.M.; Pilling, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term management of a stock representing a metapopulation has been simulated in a case study loosely based upon herring to the west of the British isles, where stocks are currently assessed and managed by management area, although there is evidence of mixing between stocks (in terms of conne

  17. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... during the interim years and decides to publish a second RFP. Proposals to fund research that would start..., researchers must provide the Council and NMFS with a report of research findings, which must include:...

  18. Quality of crude fish oil extracted from herring byproducts of varying states of freshness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.; Padt, van der A.; Boom, R.M.; Luten, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herring byproducts were stored at 2 and 15degreesC for up to 72 h. Over time, significant increases of total volatile bases (TVB), histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine were detected. However, only tyramine and TVB levels were temperature-dependent. The level of total polyunsaturated fatty

  19. Respiratory symptoms and ex vivo cytokine release are associated in workers processing herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Thomassen, Mads; Viskum, Sven

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers processing herring and assess ex vivo cytokine release in response to agents at their workplace. METHODS: We applied a questionnaire, and performed skin prick testing and pulmonary investigations in 36 workers at two...

  20. Climate influence on Baltic cod, sprat, and herring stock–recruitment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margonski, Piotr; Hansson, Sture; Tomczak, Maciej;

    2010-01-01

    is significantly related to spawning stock biomass, climatic forcing, and feeding conditions and (ii) by acknowledging these drivers, management decisions can be improved. Climate impact expressed by climatic indices or changes in water temperature was included in all the final models. Recruitment of the herring...

  1. Realized habitats of early-stage North Sea herring: looking for signals of environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockmann, C.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Payne, M.R.; Hal, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Realized habitats of North Sea herring for two larval and two juvenile stages were estimated over the past 30 years, using abundances from surveys tied to modelled estimates of temperature and salinity. Newly hatched larvae (NHL) were found mainly in water masses of 9–11°C, pre-metamorphosis larvae

  2. An analysis of the potential for oil spill effects on the herring population of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.H.; Elston, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; Drum, A.S.; Antrim, L.D. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the herring population in Prince William Sound, was studied. Following the incident in 1989, there was no commercial harvest of herring. However, 1990 through 1992 proved to have above average, record harvests. This was followed by a dramatic decline in 1993 which was generally attributed to the oil spill. An examination of the scientific data was conducted. The main hypotheses for the decline were tested. These hypotheses attributed the decline to: (1) the oil spill itself, (2) a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply, (3) disease, and (4) other natural stochastic processes. Based on the review of the data and the analysis of the four alternative hypotheses, it was concluded that the population decline of 1993 was the result of a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply. No connection to the Exxon Valdez incident was evident. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Modelling the mixing of herring stocks between the Baltic and the North Sea from otolith data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Post, Søren Lorentzen; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte;

    2012-01-01

    Herring catches in the western Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak consist of a mixture of stocks, mainly North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS) and western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS), which is managed through a single TAC. Catches of these two stocks are split using otolith microstructures from Danish...... as provide solutions to the complex management of this mix. The stock‐specific seasonal trends in distribution of the two main stocks from otolith data were analysed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) of stock composition. The results show a clear seasonal and age‐related pattern...... and are consistent with existing ideas about the migration patterns of WBSS and NSAS within Division IIIa and adjacent waters. This work therefore provides the foundation for the development of a more rational management of the herring stocks in this area...

  4. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    recently of developing aquacultural Americans may be developed in Port Gamble interest, is spawn-on-kelp. As the name Bay, Washington (Dwane Day...fishermen, of a more Pacific herring. They remained convinced, reliably available product through aquacultural however, that efforts should be made to...below 7 C on- seaweed fishery." Unfortunately, this fishery but not above that temperature. ended in 1977 because of silt contamination of the product (J

  5. A case study: shelf-life of smoked herring fillets by volatile compounds analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bernardi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different products of vacuum packed cold smoked herrings were analyzed at time intervals in order to evaluate the efficiency of the processing and product stability. Microbiological total counts, lactic acid bacteria, total coliforms, pH, water activity, water content, salt content (WPS were determined. Differences in hygienic conditions and salt content were found. Principal components analysis (PCA of volatile compounds determined by GC-MS analysis allowed the differentiation of the processing.

  6. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  7. Importance of Herrings classification in predicting the outcome of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Dašić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To highlight the importance of values of the Herring’s classification in the treatment planning of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD. Method The charts of 14 patients in a period of 4 years (2004-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria was unilateral LCPD and contralateral healthy hip. The patients were divided into three Herring groups according to radiographic images (A, B and C. For all patients the acetabulum/head index (AHI was determined. Results The youngest patient was 4.9 years and the oldest 9.11 years; male patients were dominant (male:female 11:3. The right hip side was more affected comparing to the left one (8:6. The distribution of patients in Herring groups was three in the Group A, six in the Group B and five patients in the Group C. The AHI index was lowest in the group C. Patients in the group C were treated surgically. Conclusion Herrings classification predicts patients with extensive changes and suggests what kind of treatment should be applied.

  8. [The content of histamine and tyramine dependent of microbiological quality of salted herring stored at different temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota; Windyga, Bozena; Sciezyńska, Halina; Jedra, Małgorzata; Badowski, Paweł; Urbanek-Karłowska, Bogumiła

    2003-01-01

    Twenty six samples of salted herring from Warsaw food market were analyzed. Herrings in high-salted brine (with 26% content of salt) were stored for 21 days at temperature of 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C; low-salted (16% content of salt in brine) herring were stored for 42 days at temperature of 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Microbiological contamination level was assessed by standard methods for fish products, and biogenic amines--histamine and tyramine content by spectrofluorometric methods. There was no level change of both amines in high-salted herrings. Significant increase of tyramine content was observed in low-salted samples, depending on the time of storage. The highest level of tyramine up to 318 mg/kg--was observed after 6 weeks of storage. Histamine content increased in low-salted sampled up to 35 mg/kg during the period of storage. Aerobic microflora in the amount up to 10(6)/g was detected during storage of low-salted samples. Such level changes were not observed in high-salted herring samples.

  9. Marine incursion: the freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are the product of a marine invasion into west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B Wilson

    Full Text Available The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25-50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics.

  10. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results...

  11. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  12. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  13. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sandlund

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  14. Technological Attempts for Production of Low Sodium Smoked Herring Fish (Renga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef S. Osheba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study three technological attempts were applied to produce low sodium smoked herring fish with high quality. The first technological attempt was reducing time of salting from 48 to 24 h. The second attempt was using wet salting method with different concentration of brine solution (8, 15 and 26% NaCl instead of dry salting method. The third attempt was replacement of sodium chloride with some salt replacers such as KCl, K-Lactate and mixture of them at different levels 20, 40 and 60%. Immediately after processing all treatments were packed in polyethylene bags under vacuum and then stored at 4ºC for 3 months. Treatments were evaluated chemically (Moisture content, salt, Na, K, pH value, TVBA, TMNA, TBA and PV, physically (WHC and plasticity, microbiologically (Total bacterial count, Psychrophilic, Halophilic, coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, Clostridium botulinum and yeast and mold counts and organoleptically. Results suggested that salt replacers (KCl, K-Lactate and mixture of them should be used until a level of 40 % and brine solution should be used at 15% NaCl and dry salting method for 24 h instead of 48 h to obtain low sodium smoked herring fish with high eating quality.

  15. The Red Herring technique: a methodological response to the problem of demand characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Kaasa, Suzanne O; Morris, Erin K; Berkowitz, Shari R; Bernstein, Daniel M; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-07-01

    In past research, we planted false memories for food related childhood events using a simple false feedback procedure. Some critics have worried that our findings may be due to demand characteristics. In the present studies, we developed a novel procedure designed to reduce the influence of demand characteristics by providing an alternate magnet for subjects' natural suspicions. We used two separate levels of deception. In addition to giving subjects a typical untrue rationale for the study (i.e., normal deceptive cover story), we built in strong indicators (the "Red Herring") that the study actually had another purpose. Later, we told subjects that we had deceived them, and asked what they believed the "real purpose" of the study was. We also interviewed a subset of subjects in depth in order to analyze their subjective experiences of the procedure and any relevant demand. Our Red Herring successfully tricked subjects, and left little worry that our false memory results were due to demand. This "double cross" technique may have widespread uses in psychological research that hopes to conceal its real hypotheses from experimental subjects.

  16. Seasonal lipid dynamics of herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea and possible implications for cod reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Støttrup, Josianne;

    if the seasonalvariation in lipid composition of herring and sprat reflects the changes in plankton. Fish weresampled five times over a year and the lipid composition of different size groups wasanalyzed. Significant seasonal variation in average lipid content in sprat was found: 14.00%in November, 11.26% in January, 7...... of essential fattyacids could be a limiting factor for cod reproduction...

  17. Microbiological quality of maatjes herring stored in air and under modified atmosphere at 4 and 10 C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyhs, U.; Lahtinen, J.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and sensory changes of maatjes herring stored in air (experiment I) and under modified atmosphere (MAP) (experiments II and III) were evaluated during storage at 4 and 10 °C. Microbial (total and psychrotrophic viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) counts and

  18. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications.

  19. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  20. Herring and chicken/pork meals lead to differences in plasma levels of TCA intermediates and arginine metabolites in overweight and obese men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Andrew; Savolainen, Otto I; Sen, Partho

    2017-01-01

    Scope: What effect does replacing chicken or pork with herring as the main dietary source of protein have on the human plasma metabolome? Method and results: A randomised crossover trial with 15 healthy obese men and women (age 24–70 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to four weeks of herring...... diet or a reference diet of chicken and lean pork, five meals per week, followed by a washout and the other intervention arm. Fasting blood serum metabolites were analysed at 0, 2 and 4 weeks for eleven subjects with available samples, using GC-MS based metabolomics. The herring diet decreased plasma...

  1. Organochlorines and heavy metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs and chicks from the same clutch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P.H. (Institut fur Vogelforschung Vogelwarte Helgoland (West Germany)); Sperveslage, H. (Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Oldenburg (West Germany))

    1989-05-01

    In an earlier paper the authors investigated the intraclutch variability in levels of toxic pollutants and compared this contamination with that of the female Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) after production of the clutch in question. In the present study, they examine the concentrations of contaminants in chicks as compared with one egg of the same clutch. Such studies are important with regard to the question as to which ontogenetic stage is most endangered by toxic pollutants. Some investigations concerning this problem have already been carried out, but they don't refer to samples taken from the same clutches. Chicks receive contaminants mainly from two sources: from the egg, which reflects directly the contamination of the breeding female as well as from the food. Moreover the concentrations of pollutants in chicks vary with growth-dependent body distribution and with a decline of the lipid content.

  2. Optimal fishery management accounting for variation in natural mortality: the Baltic sprat and herring case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Rudi; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Quaas, Martin F.

    2010-01-01

    possible, we adopt an economic objective function (present value of resource rents) and determine optimal management. In the Baltic Sea, mortality rates of sprat and young herring are strongly influenced by adult cod stock dynamics via predation. Furthermore, both clupeid stocks show temperature......–recruitment function. By applying the age‐structured ecological–economic model, we derive the optimal management strategy in terms of net present value of resource rents. We compare the relative importance of both processes (i.e. temperature increase via global change and variation in predation pressure via management......Economic–ecological modelling has received increasing attention in the effort to achieve sustainable fisheries. So far, mainly single‐species models have been used, which do not account for species interaction and/or climate change. However, both of these processes alter the associated natural...

  3. REDD herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    To enhance understanding of environmental science–policy interactions, this study analyses how environmental knowledge is produced, circulated, and applied in the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD +) programme in Zambia. Data are drawn from interviews with key actors...... in the REDD + process and an extensive critical review of policy documents and deforestation estimates. We find that research over the past 50 years has not resulted in accurate estimates of forest cover and deforestation rates, nor have major deforestation drivers been convincingly documented. Estimates...... are difficult to compare due to inconsistent use of key terms, methodological pluralism and differences in social framing. We argue that an epistemic community is able to influence production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge. Furthermore, in a situation of weak and contradictory...

  4. A phenomenological study of ripening of salted herring. Assessing homogeneity of data from different countries and laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Stefánsson, G.;

    2002-01-01

    Data from ripening experiments of herring carried out at three Nordic fishery research institutions in the period 1992-1995 were collected and analyzed by multivariate analysis. The experiments were carried out at different times, with different stocks as raw material, using different types...... research into ripening processes with these and similar data. It is shown in this paper that all data can be considered as one homogeneous data set. This is verified using resampling where latent structures are compared between different sample sets. This is done indirectly by testing regression models...... provides new information about factors that govern the ripening of salted herring and can be used in new strategic research as well as in industrial practice. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd....

  5. THE GOAL AND THE GOLD MINE: Constraints Management and the Dutch Herring Fishing Industry, 1400-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scott Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In many ways, the Netherlands set the pace for European economic growth in the fifteenth through the eighteenth centuries. The Dutch herring fishing industry was critical to this modern economic progress. A comparative study of this enterprise to the lean manufacturing tool of constraints management provides insight into how the Dutch dominated this lucrative industry. Improvements by Dutch fishing interests in technology, practice, procedures and quality control were consistent with the constraints management model. English and Scottish competitors failed to identify these constraints and thus, failed to challenge Dutch operators. The Dutch fishing industry practiced and understood constraints management and used it to monopolize the export herring market for three centuries.

  6. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz;

    2015-01-01

    containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller......In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... are employed: microfiltration (MF) (0.2 lm), ultrafiltration (UF) (50, 20, 10 and 1 kDa) and nanofiltration (NF). The most promising stages are 50 kDa UF and NF based on SDS–PAGE analyses and total amino acid concentration. The 50 kDa stage produces a protein concentrate (>17 kDa). NF produces a retentate...

  7. Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of gull species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed gull (L. marinus we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring gull complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic gull species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring gull complex is still impossible, and requires

  8. Round herring (genus Etrumeus) contain distinct evolutionary lineages coincident with a biogeographic barrier along Australia’s southern temperate coastline

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2014-08-28

    Molecular genetic surveys of marine fishes have revealed that some widely distributed species are actually a composite of multiple evolutionary lineages. This is apparent in the round herrings (genus Etrumeus), wherein a globally distributed taxon (Etrumeus sadina Mitchill 1814) has proven to contain at least seven valid taxa, with more likely awaiting discovery. Here, we survey evolutionary lineages of the nominal E. sadina (formerly E. teres, a junior synonym) across the southern temperate zone of Australia, a marine region divided into three biogeographic provinces based primarily on the distribution of intertidal faunas. Results from morphological and mitochondrial DNA data reveal two evolutionary lineages corresponding to eastern and southwestern provinces (d = 0.007 for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and d = 0.017 for cytochrome b), possibly initiated by the Bassian Isthmus between Australia and Tasmania during low sea-level stands. The Australian round herring is also genetically distinct from the nearest congeneric forms in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with a corresponding modal difference in gill-raker counts in most cases. Based on these data, we resurrect the title Etrumeus jacksoniensis for the Australian round herring. While the Bassian Isthmus may have initiated the partition of evolutionary lineages within Australia, additional oceanographic and ecological factors must reinforce this separation in order to maintain diagnostic genetic differences along a continuous temperate coastline. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Effects of environmental exposure and diet on levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in eggs of a top predator in the North Atlantic in 1980 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leat, Eliza H.K. [College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bourgeon, Sophie [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Strom, Hallvard [Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Hanssen, Sveinn A. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Petersen, AEvar [Icelandic Institute of Natural History, IS-105 Reykjavik (Iceland); Olafsdottir, Kristin; Magnusdottir, Ellen [University of Iceland, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Fisk, Aaron T.; Ellis, Sandra [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Bustnes, Jan O. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Furness, Robert W., E-mail: bob.furness@glasgow.ac.uk [College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Concentrations of POPs in Great skua eggs from Shetland are among the highest in North Atlantic seabirds, with up to 11,600 {mu}g/kg (ww) DDE and up to 17,900 {mu}g/kg ww {Sigma}PCB. Concentrations of legacy POPs were significantly lower in 2008 than 1980. Decreases were greatest for least persistent compounds. Median {Sigma}PBDEs increased from 99 {mu}g/kg ww in 1980 to 173 {mu}g/kg ww in 2008. There were changes in Great skua breeding season diet, with more adult Herring and Mackerel and less Sandeel. These changes increase exposure to POPs, since Herring and Mackerel accumulate more POPs than Sandeels. In both years, eggs with higher {delta}{sup 15}N had higher POP concentrations. In 1980, birds feeding more on demersal discard fish from trawl fisheries and less on Sandeels, had higher POP levels in eggs. In 2008, individuals feeding more on Herring and Mackerel, and less on discards, had higher POP levels in eggs. - Highlights: > POP levels in Great skua eggs are among the highest in North Atlantic seabirds. > Legacy POPs decreased from 1980 to 2008 but PBDEs increased. > Decreases in legacy POPs were greatest for least persistent compounds. > Levels in eggs varied between nests according to diets of individual females. > Levels of POPs were influenced slightly by changes in diet between decades. - Great skua eggs from Shetland show a decrease in legacy POPs and an increase in PBDEs between 1980 and 2008, and an influence of diet composition.

  10. A new compilation of stomach content data for commercially important pelagic fish species in the northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnegar, J. K.; Goñi, N.; Trenkel, V. M.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Melle, W.; Keating, J.; Óskarsson, G.

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing demand for information on predator-prey interactions in the ocean as a result of legislative commitments aimed at achieving sustainable exploitation. However, comprehensive data sets are lacking for many fish species and this has hampered development of multispecies fisheries models and the formulation of effective food-web indicators. This work describes a new compilation of stomach content data for five pelagic fish species (herring, blue whiting, mackerel, albacore and bluefin tuna) sampled across the northeast Atlantic and submitted to the PANGAEA open-access data portal (www.pangaea.de). We provide detailed descriptions of sample origin and of the corresponding database structures. We describe the main results in terms of diet composition and predator-prey relationships. The feeding preferences of small pelagic fish (herring, blue whiting, mackerel) were sampled over a very broad geographic area within the North Atlantic basin, from Greenland in the west, to the Lofoten Islands in the east and from the Bay of Biscay northwards to the Arctic. This analysis revealed significant differences in the prey items selected in different parts of the region at different times of year. Tunas (albacore and bluefin) were sampled in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. Dominant prey items for these species varied by location, year and season. This data compilation exercise represents one of the largest and most wide-ranging ever attempted for pelagic fish in the North Atlantic. The earliest data included in the database were collected in 1864, whereas the most recent were collected in 2012. Data sets are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.820041 and doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.826992.

  11. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  12. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  13. Stock status of alewives and blueback herring returning to the Mactaquac Dam, Saint John River, N.B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, B.M. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2001-07-01

    In this document, the author revealed the discovery of linear empirical stock-recruitment relations between the escapement of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis to the Mactaquac Lake, located on the Saint John River in New Brunswick, in year i and the year-class abundance at age 3 returning to the fishway at the Mactaquac Dam. The slopes related to the data were statistically significant if low. However, the slopes for the returns in years i+4 and i+5 were statistically non-significant, with the exception of one. Year-class sizes at age 3 of 500,000 to 2,000,000 fish were produced from spawning escapements of 500,000 to 1,000,000 alewives. Year-class sizes at age 3 of 100,000 to 2,500,000 fish were produced from herring escapements of 200,000 to 300,000 fish. For a given spawning escapement, the variability in returns for both species proved high. A robust regression method was used to identify outlier years. Significant stock-recruitment relations were obtained by removing outlier years, in three of six cases. A number of stock abundance and water temperatures at various depths in the Emerald Basin on the Scotian Shelf did not lead to significant correlations between the two measures. It was supposed that fishery exploitation was the cause for declining mean ages, lengths, and weights for blueback herring and alewives at first spawning. The results indicated an increase in the proportion of alewives first spawning at ages 3 and 4, and a decrease in the proportion at ages 5 and 6. In the case of the blueback herring, the proportion first spawning at ages 3 and 4 showed a slight increase, then remained constant at age 4, and then showed a decline at ages 5 and 6. A useful way of assessing stock status might be found in the proportion of previous-spawners which decreased as a result of exploitation. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  14. Influence of photoperiod on Orius thyestes Herring (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) reproduction and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alessandra R; Bueno, Vanda H P; Pedroso, Elizabeth C; Kon, Leonardo I; Diniz, Alexandre J F; Silva, Robson J

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Orius Wolff are used in biological control of thrips in protected cultivations in temperate regions, but some of them show reproductive diapause, compromising the efficiency of these agents of biological control. There are no reports on the biology of the neotropical species Orius thyestes Herring under different environmental conditions. The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of photoperiod on reproduction and longevity of this predator. Nymphs were kept in petri dishes in climatic chambers at 28+/-1 degree C, 70+/-10% RH and under the photoperiods of 12L:12D, 11L:13D, 10 L:14D e 09L:15D. The mating adults were kept in petri dishes with Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae inflorescences as oviposition substracts and eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as food. The pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity and longevity were evaluated and O. thyestes did not show reprodutive diapause in all photoperiod conditions established. The mean number of eggs obtained per female decreased with the reduction of the photophase, with a difference (P < 0.05) between the values obtained in 12h and 9h of photophase. Longevity of females and males under 9h photophase was shorter (P < 0.05) than in all other photoperiods tested. The knowledge of the biology of the natural enemy under different conditions allows to optimise the mass rearing and to predict the performance of the predator in different photoperiods which may occur along the year and in greenhouses.

  15. [Role of layered double hydroxide (LDH) in the protection of herring testis DNA from heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Ni; Wu, Ping-Xiao; Zhu, Neng-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The role of layered double hydroxide (LDH) in the protection of herring testis DNA from heavy metals Cd2+ and Pb2+ was studied by X-ray diffraction ( XRD) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Cyclic Voltammetry and Ultraviolet Spectrometry. Size expansion of the basal spacing (003) from 0. 76 nm in LDH to 2. 30 nm was observed in the resulting DNA-LDH nanohybrids and it gave peaks corresponding to C=O (1 534 cm(-1) and 1488 cm(-1)) in skeleton and bases, C-O stretching vibration (1228 cm(-1)), and P-O symmetrical stretching vibration (1096 cm(-1)) in functional groups of DNA, indicating that DNA were intercalated into the LDH by the ion exchange. However, the displacement of NO3(-) was not fully complete (partial intercalation of DNA). The DNA outside LDH interlayers was absorbed on the surface of LDH. The cyclic voltammetric curves showed that DNA in the composites exhibited a very similar peaks, which corresponded to the two reduction current peaks (E(P) = - 1.2 mV and E(P) = -2.4 mV) of free DNA. Also there was no cathode sag emerging in cyclic voltammetric curves, suggesting that both Cd2+ and Pb2+ cannot insert into the groove of DNA to associate with base pairs or other groups when DNA was bound on LDH. The results showed that, on the one hand, both Cd2+ and Pb2+ were absorbed on the external surface of LDH for immobilization, on the other hand, the layer of LDH provided ideal space for DNA by the action of protecting DNA molecules from Cd2+ and Pb2+.

  16. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... western Atlantic Ocean, white marlin and blue marlin from the North Atlantic Ocean, and longbill spearfish from the entire Atlantic Ocean; described objectives for the Atlantic billfish fishery; and established... Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). Currently, Atlantic billfish managed by NMFS include Atlantic...

  17. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  18. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  19. Identifying molecular effects of diet through systems biology: influence of herring diet on sterol metabolism and protein turnover in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intawat Nookaew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr -/- mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity.

  20. Segregation of herring larvae from inshore and offshore spawning grounds in the north-western North Sea — Implications for stock structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M.

    Herring larvae hatching from spawning sites around the Scottish coast are dispersed by water currents during the weeks following hatching. Hydrographic data, observations on the distribution of caesium-137 and measurements of current velocities by moored meters and drifting buoys, suggest that larvae from offshore spawning sites around the north of Scotland should be more rapidly dispersed than those hatching in inshore areas. This has been confirmed by direct observations on the advection of herring larvae in different regions of the north western North Sea. The conclusion is that larvae hatching in inshore areas, especially in the Moray Firth, are most likely to contribute to nearby juvenile populations, whereas larvae from offshore spawning sites should be widely dispersed over the North Sea. Tagging and parasitology investigations have shown that adult herring spawning in the north-western North Sea have been widely dispersed in the North Sea and adjacent waters as juveniles (six months — one and a half years old). However, a high proportion of adult fish caught at inshore spawning sites and in the Moray Firth were found to have been recruited from more local areas. Taken together with the observations on larval drift, these observations suggest that the stock structure of herring in the northern North Sea may in part be a consequence of the physical oceanography of the area.

  1. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National... hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region, and blacknose sharks and non-blacknose SCS in the Atlantic...

  2. Herring spawning and other data from aircraft from the Bering Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 07 May 1977 to 28 October 1978 (NODC Accession 8100538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring spawning and other data were collected from aircraft from the Bering Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)....

  3. Herring spawning and other data from aircraft as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 12 April 1976 to 12 July 1976 (NODC Accession 7601911)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring spawning and other data were collected from aircraft as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP). Data were collected...

  4. Herring spawning and other data from aircraft from Bristol Bay and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 12 April 1976 to 12 July 1976 (NODC Accession 7601910)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring spawning and other data were collected from aircraft from Bristol Bay and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment...

  5. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction mechanisms of safranin T with herring sperm DNA using acridine orange as a fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Wang, Xing-ming; Xu, Dong-ling; Ding, Li-sheng

    2014-03-01

    Under the condition of physiological pH environment (pH = 7.40), the interactions of safranin T (ST) with herring sperm DNA were studied by means of spectral methods using acridine orange (AO) as a fluorescence probe. The spectroscopic characteristics of DNA-AO in the case of ST (along with the increase of concentration) were observed in an aqueous medium. The binding constants for ST stranded DNA and competitive bindings of ST interacting with DNA-AO systems were examined by fluorescence spectra, and the binding mechanism of ST with DNA was researched via viscosity measurements. All the testimony manifested that bonding modes between ST and DNA were evidenced to be intercalative binding and electrostatic binding, and the combining constant of ST with DNA was obtained. The binding of ST to DNA was driven by entropy and enthalpy through the calculated thermodynamic parameters (Δr Hm (Ө), Δr Sm and Δr Gm (Ө)).

  6. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  7. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  8. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  9. Time trends and congener profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Baltic herring off the coast of Finland during 1978-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, R; Hallikainen, A; Rantakokko, P; Ruokojärvi, P; Vuorinen, P J; Parmanne, R; Verta, M; Mannio, J; Kiviranta, H

    2014-11-01

    In Finland, consumption of Baltic fatty fish may lead to high exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which might have hazardous health effects. Monitoring of POPs in Baltic fish enables the health authorities to keep dietary advice on fish consumption up to date. In this study, which is a compilation of analytical data from earlier studies, time trends and congener profiles of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic herring are reported. Altogether 344 samples of Baltic herring from 1978-2009 were collected across the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory with high resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry. During the 31-year period, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations decreased on approximately 80%, from approximately 20 to 5 pg/g fw, expressed as WHO2005 TEQ. The PBDE concentrations experienced a 4-10 fold increase during late 1980s-early 1990s, and declined to 1978s levels of approximately 2 ng/g fw by 2009. The current concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in Baltic herring are relatively low, and mostly below EU maximum accepted levels, and are expected to continue decreasing. In the future, it may be possible to re-evaluate the consumption restrictions for this specific Baltic fatty fish.

  10. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: (800) 445-8667 or (843) 308- 9330. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council,...

  11. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September...

  12. Effects of contaminant exposure and food restriction on hepatic autophagic lysosomal parameters in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegseth, Marit Nøst; Gorbi, Stephania; Bocchetti, Raffaella; Camus, Lionel; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Lysosomal autophagic responses, such as lysosomal membrane stability, neutral lipids (NL), lipofuscin (LF), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, are valuable measures of cellular early-onset effects induced by environmental stress factors, such as contaminant exposure and fasting. In this study, these parameters were analysed and related to levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in 40 Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks. Chicks were experimentally exposed to HOCs through diet and went through a period of nutrient deprivation at the end of the experiment. HOC exposure and fasting were conducted separately and in combination. NL storages were depleted, and lysosomal membranes were destabilised after HOC exposure and nutrient deprivation. These responses were not related specifically to one type of stress or the extent of the treatment. No synergistic or additive effects from the combination of HOC exposure and fasting were observed. LF accumulated, and MDA levels increased as a result of fasting, but were unaffected by HOC exposure. LF accumulation was strongly associated with the percent weight change in the chicks. Large weight loss was associated with high LF levels, and slight weight gain was associated with low LF levels. Hence, food deprivation affected all the measured parameters, and HOC exposure decreased NL levels and lysosomal membrane stability in HG chick liver. Furthermore, autophagic lysosomal parameters have frequently been applied as biomarkers of cellular health status in previous studies of marine and terrestrial invertebrates, and this study suggests that these parameters may be good candidates for biomarkers of cellular health status in seabirds as well.

  13. Hybridization of glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) in Iceland: mitochondrial and microsatellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigfúsdóttir, Freydís; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Ingólfsson, Agnar

    2008-09-12

    Large white-headed gulls provide an interesting group of birds for studies of hybridization. The group is composed of 20 species of recent origin, often with weak reproductive barriers. Here we report the results from a study on the glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, an Arctic species which has been breeding in Iceland for centuries, and the herring gull Larus argentatus which has a wide distribution in Europe but colonized Iceland in 1920s. Previous studies, based on morphological variation indicated hybridization between the two species in Iceland, have been questioned as it may just reflect variation within the species. Here we evaluate whether hybridization has occurred between the two species in Iceland by studying variation in microsatellites and mtDNA. The analysis is based on feathers taken from wings sampled in Iceland over a period of 40 years. The results are compared with samples obtained from East Greenland and published sequences of samples obtained throughout Europe. The genetic analysis reveals a distinctive grouping of the two species, although they present a shallow genealogy and an extensive sharing of the genetic variants between the two species. Several individuals show admixture for molecular markers, which may result from an incomplete lineage sorting although geographical patterns of both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellites strongly indicate a recent hybridization in Iceland.

  14. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  15. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  16. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  17. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  18. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  19. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  20. Parasites as biological tags of marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes in North America from the Tropics to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field.

  1. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally,...

  2. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  3. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  4. Biochemical, physical, and temperature data from BT casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1924-02-26 to 1959-12-23 (NODC Accession 0000325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biochemical, physical, and temperature data were collected from the EXPLORER and CLUPEA from February 26, 1924, to December 23, 1959. Data were collected using BT...

  5. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  6. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  7. Distribution patterns in Atlantic hydroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medel, M.D.; López-González, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The present study is a first attempt to comparing the hydroid faunas of the various Zoogeographie areas of the Atlantic Ocean. We restricted ourselves to species of the orders Antho- and Leptomedusae, of which 1050 species were taken into account. The classification of zoogeographic areas used follo

  8. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  9. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  10. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and conc......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  11. 78 FR 48653 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC). SUMMARY: The SAFMC will... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC...

  12. 78 FR 59916 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...; fax: (843) 744- 4472. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber...

  13. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting...

  14. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  15. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark...

  16. 77 FR 3393 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas were adjusted based on over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  17. Ontogenetic loops in habitat use highlight the importance of littoral habitats for early life-stages of oceanic fishes in temperate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, Patrick; Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena

    2017-01-01

    General concepts of larval fish ecology in temperate oceans predominantly associate dispersal and survival to exogenous mechanisms such as passive drift along ocean currents. However, for tropical reef fish larvae and species in inland freshwater systems behavioural aspects of habitat selection are evidently important components of dispersal. This study is focused on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) distribution in a Baltic Sea retention area, free of lunar tides and directed current regimes, considered as a natural mesocosm. A Lorenz curve originally applied in socio-economics to describe demographic income distribution was adapted to a 20 year time-series of weekly larval herring distribution, revealing size-dependent spatial homogeneity. Additional quantitative sampling of distinct larval development stages across pelagic and littoral areas uncovered a loop in habitat use during larval ontogeny, revealing a key role of shallow littoral waters. With increasing rates of coastal change, our findings emphasize the importance of the littoral zone when considering reproduction of pelagic, ocean-going fish species; highlighting a need for more sensitive management of regional coastal zones. PMID:28205543

  18. Ontogenetic loops in habitat use highlight the importance of littoral habitats for early life-stages of oceanic fishes in temperate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, Patrick; Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena

    2017-02-01

    General concepts of larval fish ecology in temperate oceans predominantly associate dispersal and survival to exogenous mechanisms such as passive drift along ocean currents. However, for tropical reef fish larvae and species in inland freshwater systems behavioural aspects of habitat selection are evidently important components of dispersal. This study is focused on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) distribution in a Baltic Sea retention area, free of lunar tides and directed current regimes, considered as a natural mesocosm. A Lorenz curve originally applied in socio-economics to describe demographic income distribution was adapted to a 20 year time-series of weekly larval herring distribution, revealing size-dependent spatial homogeneity. Additional quantitative sampling of distinct larval development stages across pelagic and littoral areas uncovered a loop in habitat use during larval ontogeny, revealing a key role of shallow littoral waters. With increasing rates of coastal change, our findings emphasize the importance of the littoral zone when considering reproduction of pelagic, ocean-going fish species; highlighting a need for more sensitive management of regional coastal zones.

  19. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  20. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  1. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red..., the NMFS Assistant Administrator has determined that this rule is consistent with the Atlantic...

  2. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan...

  3. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab...

  4. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... finalized 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable... Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) allow NMFS to make an in-season adjustment to...

  5. Study on Interaction between Apigenin and Herring Sperm DNA by Acridine Orange as a Fluorescence Probe%吖啶橙为荧光探针研究芹菜素与DNA的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚永辉; 李华; 孙家娟; 刘彬

    2011-01-01

    在pH值为7.40的Tris-HC1缓冲溶液中,采用吸收光谱法、荧光光谱法以及粘度法研究了芹菜素(Ap)与鲱鱼精DNA(fsDNA)的相互作用.研究表明,Ap与fsDNA相互作用生成了结合比nAp:nDNA=2:1的复合物,温度300 K和310 K的结合常数Kb分别为1.068×104 L·m01-1和1.137×104 L·mol-1;300 K温度下Ap与DNA相互作用的△rHm为1.899×103 J·mol-1,△rSm为83.475 J·mo1-1·K-1,△rGm为-2.306×104 J·mo1-1,表明两者的结合过程为熵驱动反应.粘度测定结果进一步确定实验条件下Ap与fsDNA的作用方式为插入模式.%The interaction of apigenin with herring sperm DNA was studied with acridine orange as a fluorescence probe. The fluorescence spectra indicated that a kind of compound of apigenin and herring sperm DNA was formed at pH = 7. 40. The binary compound ratio was napigenin:nDNA = 2:1; the binding constants of apigenin with herring sperm DNA compound were 1. 068×104 L·mol-1 (300 K) and 1. 137× 104L·mol-1 (310 K) respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the interaction were calculated as follows:△rHm = l. 899× 103 J·mol-1,△rSm = 83. 475 J·mol-1·K-1, △rGm =-2. 306×104 J·mol-1 at the 300 K. The interaction of apigenin with DNA was also studied through method of viscosity. The results confirmed that the intercalation model was the major mode of the interaction between apigenin and herring sperm DNA, and the binding of apigenin with herring sperm DNA was an entropy-driven reaction.

  6. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  7. Life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, John; Haedrich, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Popular articles about the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) usually state that ‘the Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species’, e.g. publications by the Atlantic Salmon Federation (North America), Atlantic Salmon Trust (UK), and WWF (World Wildlife Fund), and the life history is depicted as migration of juveniles from fresh water to the marine environment, with a return to where the fish were born as spawning adults. This article reviews the life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland...

  8. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  9. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  10. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  11. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  12. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  13. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  14. Decadal cyclone variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksch, U.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Raible, C.C. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Inst., Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The unstable midlatitude ocean-atmosphere coupling motivates the definition of two decadal regimes with distinct implications for the North Atlantic cyclone variability. Phases with low (high) decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which are connected with an annular (sectoral) spatial scale of the geopotential height teleconnection pattern, are identified as a hemispheric (regional) regime. In the hemispheric regime during a positive El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (warm event), the North Atlantic cyclones and the regions of enhanced precipitation shift southward while over northern Europe the cyclone activity and the rainfall are reduced. During the regional regime this impact of ENSO on the Atlantic storm track is extremely small and a clear interpretation over Europe is inhibited. (orig.)

  15. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  16. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  17. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  18. A Perspective on the Toxicity of Low Concentrations of Petroleum-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Early Life Stages of Herring and Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David S.; Chapman, Peter M.; Landrum, Peter F.; Neff, Jerry; Elston, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of two groups of studies that reported adverse effects to salmon and herring eggs and fry from exposure to 1 μg/L or less of aqueous total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH), as weathered oil, and a more toxic aqueous extract of “very weathered oil.” Exposure media were prepared by continuously flowing water up through vertical columns containing gravel oiled at different concentrations of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Uncontrolled variables associated with the use of the oiled gravel columns included time- and treatment-dependent variations in the PAH concentration and composition in the exposure water, unexplored toxicity from other oil constituents/degradation products, potential toxicity from bacterial and fungal activity, oil droplets as a potential contaminant source, inherent differences between control and exposed embryo populations, and water flow rate differences. Based on a review of the evidence from published project reports, peer-reviewed publications, chemistry data in a public database, and unpublished reports and laboratory records, the reviewed studies did not establish consistent dose (concentration) response or causality and thus do not demonstrate that dissolved PAH alone from the weathered oil resulted in the claimed effects on fish embryos at low μg/L TPAH concentrations. Accordingly, these studies should not be relied on for management decision-making, when assessing the risk of very low–level PAH exposures to early life stages of fish. PMID:22754275

  19. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils.

  20. Response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to South Atlantic sources of buoyancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Sterl, A.; Drijfhout, S.

    2002-01-01

    The heat and salt input from the Indian to Atlantic Oceans by Agulhas Leakage is found to influence the Atlantic overturning circulation in a low-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. The model used is the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model, which is forced by mixed boundary condition

  1. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... management alternatives available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and...

  2. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries (sandbar sharks, non-sandbar large coastal sharks, blue sharks, porbeagle sharks, and pelagic sharks (other than porbeagle and blue sharks), non-blacknose small...

  3. 76 FR 53652 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus...-427-8503 or by fax: 301-713-1917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Atlantic shark fisheries...

  4. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery...

  5. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any..., fishing opportunities for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. The proposed measures...

  6. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with the findings...

  7. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or... for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. These actions could affect...

  8. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark... adjustments, and applies to commercial Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer...

  9. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks...

  10. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E–W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (≈126 Ma when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ≈17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the

  11. Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: Atlantic Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the Atlantic and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various Atlantic reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the Atlantic. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in Atlantic reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-Atlantic, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism

  12. Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A

    2014-03-01

    Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes.

  13. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the prediction of North Atlantic sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöwer, M.; Latif, M.; Ding, H.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Park, W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), a major current system in the Atlantic Ocean, is thought to be an important driver of climate variability, both regionally and globally and on a large range of time scales from decadal to centennial and even longer. Measurements to monitor the AMOC strength have only started in 2004, which is too short to investigate its link to long-term climate variability. Here the surface heat flux-driven part of the AMOC during 1900-2010 is reconstructed from the history of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the most energetic mode of internal atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector. The decadal variations of the AMOC obtained in that way are shown to precede the observed decadal variations in basin-wide North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) which strongly impacts societally important quantities such as Atlantic hurricane activity and Sahel rainfall. The future evolution of the AMO is forecast using the AMOC reconstructed up to 2010. The present warm phase of the AMO is predicted to continue until the end of the next decade, but with a negative tendency.

  14. Impact of interbasin exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Dijkstra, H.A.; Leeuwen, P.J. van

    2002-01-01

    The thermohaline exchange between the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean is analyzed, using a data set based on WOCE hydrographic data. It is shown that the salt and heat transports brought about by the South Atlantic subtropical gyre play an essential role in the Atlantic heat and salt budgets. It is

  15. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in models and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We use a simplified model of the North Atlantic ocean to study the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is a low-frequency variation found in sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic ocean. A mechanism for the AMO has previously been described; here we study the excitation of

  16. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  17. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  18. 77 FR 70551 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Part 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... shark stock assessments that were completed from 2009 to 2012. The assessments for Atlantic...

  19. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , emphasizing black and white racial binaries and outdated geographical boundaries, The American South and the Atlantic World seeks larger thematic and spatial contexts. This is the first book to focus explicitly on how contacts with the peoples, cultures, ideas, and economies of the Atlantic World have...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...... of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction. William A. Link, Richard J. Milbauer Professor of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History....

  20. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  1. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-10-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  2. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... practical effect on the legal supply chain. Swordfish are monitored for compliance with minimum size... the supply chain and limit NOAA's ability to enforce minimum size requirements. Miscellaneous Comment... Atlantic swordfish quotas and implement the management measures contained in Recommendation...

  3. 78 FR 36685 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... discard estimate used to set the specifications is wrong, especially if it is too high and as a result the... the Federal Register, emailing individuals who have subscribed to the Atlantic HMS News...

  4. 78 FR 4129 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    .... Receive an update on the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Communication Group Social Media Workshop. 3... Airport Hotel, 4381 Tanger Outlet Boulevard, North Charleston, SC 29418; telephone: (800) 503-5762 or...

  5. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., or selling of hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) caught in association with ICCAT fisheries. This rule...

  6. 76 FR 62331 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... blacknose sharks, NMFS is declaring the following stock status determinations. Sandbar sharks are still overfished, but no longer experiencing overfishing. Dusky sharks are still overfished and still...

  7. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Suite 201, 800 N. State... overfishing. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: February 12, 2013. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director,...

  8. Response of the South Atlantic circulation to an abrupt collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurian, Audine [University of Hawai' i at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Drijfhout, Sybren S. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The South Atlantic response to a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is investigated in the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model. A reduced Agulhas leakage (about 3.1 Sv; 1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) is found to be associated with a weaker Southern Hemisphere (SH) supergyre and Indonesian throughflow. These changes are due to reduced wind stress curl over the SH supergyre, associated with a weaker Hadley circulation and a weaker SH subtropical jet. The northward cross-equatorial transport of thermocline and intermediate waters is much more strongly reduced than Agulhas leakage in relation with an AMOC collapse. A cross-equatorial gyre develops due to an anomalous wind stress curl over the tropics that results from the anomalous sea surface temperature gradient associated with reduced ocean heat transport. This cross-equatorial gyre completely blocks the transport of thermocline waters from the South to the North Atlantic. The waters originating from Agulhas leakage flow somewhat deeper and most of it recirculates in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, leading to a gyre intensification. This intensification is consistent with the anomalous surface cooling over the South Atlantic. Most changes in South Atlantic circulation due to global warming, featuring a reduced AMOC, are qualitatively similar to the response to an AMOC collapse, but smaller in amplitude. However, the increased northward cross-equatorial transport of intermediate water relative to thermocline water is a strong fingerprint of an AMOC collapse. (orig.)

  9. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  10. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar

    2007-12-01

    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  11. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  12. Study on Processing Technology of Soft Canned Herring%即食鲱鱼软罐头加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳俐; 程艳; 陈丽娇

    2011-01-01

    探讨了鲱鱼软包装罐头的加工技术,研究了鲱鱼调味配方、干燥工艺、油炸条件和杀菌条件,并确定出最佳生产工艺参数。试验结果表明:鲱鱼调味汁的最佳配方为精盐0.3%,味精1.5%,陈皮0.3%,八角0.25%,桂皮0.3%,甘草0.3%,椒粉0.8%。用陈醋将鱼肉pH调节为4.23后,放置于60℃的电热鼓风干燥箱中脱水8h,再于145℃的油锅中油炸60s。沥干油,于紫外灯下灭菌30min,抽真空封口,100℃水中杀菌30min后可达到商业无菌并长期保存。%The paper probed into the processing technology of soft canned herring, focusing on the recipes ofherring, the drying technology, the conditions of deep-fried and sterilization, therefore the optimal processing parameters were determined. The experimental results indicated that: the best recipes are 0.3% salt, 1.5% monosodium glutamate, 0.3% dried tangerine peel, 0.25% star anise, 0.3% cinnamon, 0.3% licorice, 0.8% pepper powder. First, use vinegar to adjust fish's pH to 4.23 and place them into the electric drying oven at 60℃ for 8 hours. Second, fry them at 145℃ for 60 seconds. Third, Drain the oil, and use UV light to sterilize them for 30 minutes, vacuum sealed, then sterilize them at 100℃ for 30 minutes. This can make products be of commercial sterilization and preserved for a long time.

  13. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). American Shad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    vi NOMENCLATURE/TAXONOMY/RANGE. .. .... ...... ....... ....... 1 MORPHOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION AIDS. .. ....... ...... ....... 3...MORPHOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION AIDS congeneric alewife (A. useudoharenus) and blueback herring (A. aestivalis) The following description of have fewer than 55...the Connecticut River because the eggs are highly sought as above Holyoke Dam, Massachusetts, food by consumers (Ulrich et al. mainly consumed

  14. Response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre to persistent North Atlantic oscillation like forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Katja; Bentsen, Mats [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Drange, Helge [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    The response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) to a persistent positive (or negative) phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model forced with idealized atmospheric reanalysis fields. The integrations are analyzed with reference to a base-line integration for which the model is forced with idealized fields representing a neutral state of the NAO. In the positive NAO case, the results suggest that the well-known cooling and strengthening of the SPG are, after about 10 years, replaced by a warming and subsequent weakening of the SPG. The latter changes are caused by the advection of warm water from the subtropical gyre (STG) region, driven by a spin-up of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the effect of an anomalous wind stress curl in the northeastern North Atlantic, which counteracts the local buoyancy forcing of the SPG. In the negative NAO case, however, the SPG response does not involve a sign reversal, but rather shows a gradual weakening throughout the integration. The asymmetric SPG-response to the sign of persistent NAO-like forcing and the different time scales involved demonstrate strong non-linearity in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation response to atmospheric forcing. The latter finding indicates that analysis based on the arithmetic difference between the two NAO-states, e.g. NAO+ minus NAO-, may hide important aspects of the ocean response to atmospheric forcing. (orig.)

  15. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  16. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  17. Coherent water transport across the South Atlantic

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Beron-Vera, F J

    2015-01-01

    The role of mesoscale eddies in transporting Agulhas leakage is investigated using a recent technique from nonlinear dynamical systems theory applied on geostrophic currents inferred from the over two-decade-long satellite altimetry record. Eddies are found to acquire material coherence away from the Agulhas retroflection, near the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic. Yearly, 1 to 4 coherent material eddies are detected with diameters ranging from 40 to 280 km. A total of 23 eddy cores of about 50 km in diameter and with at least 30% of their contents traceable into the Indian Ocean were found to travel across the subtropical gyre with minor filamentation. No more than 5\\% of such cores pour their contents on the North Brazil Current. While ability of eddies to carry Agulhas leakage northwestward across the South Atlantic is supported by our analysis, this is more restricted than suggested by earlier ring transport assessments.

  18. Wind Stress Increases Glacial Atlantic Overturning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, J.; Schmittner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) showed ambiguous results on transports and structure. Here we analyze the most recent PMIP3 models, which show a consistent increase (on average by 41%) and deepening (580 m) of the AMOC for all models with respect to pre-industrial control (PIC) simulations (see Figure), in contrast to some reconstructions. Changes in wind stress alone lead to similar AMOC responses in a climate-ocean circulation model, suggesting that atmospheric circulation changes in the North Atlantic due to the presence of ice sheets are an important control in the PMIP3 models' LGM response. These results improve our understanding of the LGM AMOC's driving forces and are relevant for the evaluation of models that are used in the IPCC's Assessment Reports for future climate projections, as well as for the currently ongoing design of the next round of PMIP.

  19. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva; de Balbín Behrmann, Rodrigo; Laporte, Luc; Gouezin, Philippe; Barroso Bermejo, Rosa; Hernanz Gismero, Antonio; Gavira-Vallejo, José M.; Iriarte Cela, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding pan...

  20. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  1. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  2. Plankton respiration in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carol; Serret, Pablo; Tilstone, Gavin; Teira, Eva; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Rees, Andrew P.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.

    2002-05-01

    Concurrent measurements of dark community respiration (DCR), gross production (GP), size fractionated primary production ( 14C PP), nitrogen uptake, nutrients, chlorophyll a concentration, and heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial abundance were collected from the upper 200 m of a latitudinal (32°S-48°N) transect in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean during May/June 1998. The mean mixed layer respiration rate was 2.5±2.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=119) for the whole transect, 2.2±1.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=32) in areas where chlorophyll a was dissolved oxygen consumption, was 0.8 ( n=11). At the time of the study, plankton community respiration exceeded GP in the picoautotroph dominated oligotrophic regions (Eastern Tropical Atlantic [15.5°S-14.2°N] and North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre [21.5-42.5°N]), which amounted to 50% of the stations sampled along the 12,100 km transect. These regions also exhibited high heterotrophic: autotrophic biomass ratios, higher turnover rates of phytoplankton than of bacteria and low f ratios. However, the carbon supply mechanisms required to sustain the rates of respiration higher than GP could not be fully quantified. Future research should aim to determine the temporal balance of respiration and GP together with substrate supply mechanisms in these ocean regions.

  3. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  4. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  5. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  6. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  7. 78 FR 32995 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  8. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  9. Red herrings and rotten fish

    CERN Document Server

    West, Geoffrey B; Gillooly, J; Enquist, B J; Woodruff, W H; Brown, J H; West, Geoffrey B.; Savage, Van M.; Gillooly, James; Enquist, Brian J.; Woodruff, William H.; Brown, James H.

    2002-01-01

    A longstanding problem in biology has been the origin of pervasive quarter-power allometric scaling laws that relate many characteristics of organisms to body mass (M) across the entire spectrum of life from molecules and microbes to ecosystems and mammals. In particular, whole-organism metabolic rate, B=aM^b, where a is a taxon-dependent normalisation constant and b is approximately equal to 3/4 for both animals and plants. Recently Darveau et al. (hereafter referred to as DSAH) proposed a "multiple-causes model" for B as "the sum of multiple contributors to metabolism", B_i, which were assumed to scale as M^(b_i). They obtained for average values of b: 0.78 for the basal rate and 0.86 for the maximally active rate. In this note we show that DSAH contains serious technical, theoretical and conceptual errors, including misrepresentations of published data and of our previous work. We also show that, within experimental error, there is no empirical evidence for an increase in b during aerobic activity as sugge...

  10. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  11. 76 FR 2640 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... status quo management measures for 2011, which would result in a TAL identical to the 2010 TAL, or 29.264... analyzed three alternatives (including a no action/status quo alternative) for the 2011 Atlantic bluefish... recreational sector. Alternative 3 (status quo) would allocate 10.051 million lb (4,559 mt) to the...

  12. 77 FR 72762 - Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2013 Fishing Quotas for Atlantic Surfclams and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog fisheries for 2013 will remain status quo. Regulations governing these... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9177; fax (978) 281-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 648.72(c) of the regulations implementing the fishery management plan...

  13. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...). Alternative 3, the no action alternative, is considered to be synonymous with status quo management measures... a given phase in the rebuilding period, or the status quo F, whichever is less. According to... alternatives (including a no action/status quo alternative) for 2010 Atlantic bluefish fishery. All...

  14. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Caribbean Sea under authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Act (16 U.S.C. 1811, 16 U.S.C. 1854(f)(3)). The... Atlantic sharks be offloaded with fins naturally attached; and Collecting shark life history information... proactive in management and explore methods to establish more flexible regulations that would consider...

  15. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... fisheries, related industries, research, teaching, writing, conservation, or management of marine organisms... environmental community active in the conservation and management of Atlantic HMS, and the academic community... requirements of participating in the data and/or assessment workshop, the designee must receive...

  16. The Equatorial Undercurrent in the central Atlantic and its relation to tropical Atlantic variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; Tantet, Alexis; Johns, William E.; Fischer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal to interannual variations of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) in the central Atlantic at 23?Ware studied using shipboard observation taken during the period 1999–2011 as well as moored velocity time series covering the period May 2005–June 2011. The sea- sonal variations are dominated by a

  17. 77 FR 31562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... considering the inclusion of Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks in an amendment to the 2006 Consolidated Highly..., sandbar, and blacknose sharks. A new stock assessment is ongoing for Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks,...

  18. 75 FR 50715 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service.... This change ensures that the process is preserved for adjusting annual shark quotas based on over- and..., among other things, pelagic shark quotas and annual quota adjustments. The instructions,...

  19. 78 FR 24148 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Plan (FMP) to address the results of recent shark stock assessments for several shark species, including dusky sharks. In that notice, based on the 2010/2011 Southeast Data, Assessment and Review...

  20. Some hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, D.R.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    An account is given of some hydroids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, collected during dives of submersibles "Nautile" (operated by IFREMER, France) and "Alvin" (operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S.A). The specimens came from three main sectors of the ridge: 15 species from localities

  1. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... conditions, and recommends research and monitoring needs. The assessment is independently peer reviewed at...: August 6, 2010: 12 p.m. - 4 p.m. Assessment panelists will (1) discuss red snapper model base runs, (2... Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic red snapper AGENCY: National Marine...

  2. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  3. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...

  4. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  5. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  6. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review). Issued: February 17, 2012....

  7. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  8. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  9. Origin and fate of the North Atlantic Current at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenfelder, Tilia; Myers, Paul G.; Rhein, Monika; Pennelly, Clark; Hu, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Warm, salty tropical and subtropical water is brought into the subpolar gyre by the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The NAC is the northward extension of the Gulf Stream and is part of the upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The warm, salty water is further transported into the Nordic Seas via the Rockall Trough, into the Denmark Strait and, finally into the Labrador Sea, where it plays an important role in the deep water formation process. On its way into the Labrador Sea the water mass increases its density by dissipating heat to the atmosphere and thereby influencing the local climate. To further understand the processes behind warm water transport towards higher latitudes, we start our investigation at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Here, the NAC flows from the western to eastern basin of the North Atlantic and crosses the MAR via the Charlie-Gibbs, Faraday and Maxwell Fracture Zones. The role of the subpolar and subtropical gyre on the different water masses, and their properties, originating or reaching the MAR is studied using the lagrangian tool ARIANE with the 3D velocity fields taken from a 1/12° AGRIF nest set in a regional NEMO configuration. One result of this investigation is that the majority of particles released at the MAR, distributed over the entire water column, recirculate. Most of the remaining particles make their way into the East Greenland Current or turn in the eastern basin towards the south. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by studying the pathways of the NAC and their properties during different NAO phases.

  10. Seafloor Asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S.Gao; K.H.Liu

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of seafloor asymmetry at about 360000 pairs of conjugate points along 1250 profiles across the mid-Atlantic Ridge(MAR)provide new constraints on models for the upwelling of the buoyant asthenosphere. The sign and amplitude of the asymmetry vary systematically and are functions of the distance between the spreading center and the location of the inferred location of maximum regional buoyancy(LMRB)in the asthenosphere. The LMRB is a smooth line derived from the observed asymmetry and is more centered at the regional topographic high than the spreading center. These observations are best explained by active upwelling of the underlying buoyant asthenosphere rather than by pressure-release melting.

  11. Observations of shifts in cetacean distribution in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eNøttestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess possible shifts in distributional patterns of cetaceans residing in the Norwegian Sea, and if possible relate the distribution to their feeding ecology during the summer seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2012. During this same period, historically large abundances in the order of 15 million tonnes pelagic planktivorous fish such as Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, have been reported feeding in the Norwegian Sea during the summer. There is also observed elevated average surface temperatures and a reduction in zooplankton biomasses. Such changes might influence species composition, distribution patterns and feeding preferences of cetaceans residing the region. Our results show higher densities of toothed whales, killer whales (Orcinus orca and pilot whales (Globicephala melas, than the previous norm for these waters. Baleen whales, such as minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus, which is often associated with zooplankton, displayed a distribution overlap with pelagic fish abundances. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae were observed in low numbers, indicating shift in habitat preference, compared to sighting data collected only few years earlier. Our study illustrate that both small and large cetaceans that reside in the Norwegian Sea have the capability to rapidly perform shifts in distribution and abundance patterns dependent of the access to different types and behaviour of prey species.

  12. Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie; Sweezey, Michael; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAFs; oil dissolved in water) and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAFs; oil dispersed in water with Corexit 9500A) of Medium South American (MESA) crude oil. The CEWAF was approximately 100-fold more toxic than WAF based on nominal loadings of test solutions (% v/v). In contrast, the ratio of WAF and CEWAF toxicity expressed as measured oil concentrations approximated 1.0, indicating that the higher toxicity of CEWAFs was caused by an increase in exposure to hydrocarbons with chemical dispersion. In a second experiment, the chronic toxicity of Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil 7102 (HFO 7102) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos was compared to chemically dispersed Nujol, a nontoxic mineral oil. Dispersant alone was toxic, but caused different signs of toxicity than HFO 7102. Nujol at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20 was nontoxic, suggesting that dispersant was sequestered by oil and not present at toxic concentrations. In contrast, the same nominal loadings of dispersed HFO 7102 caused concentration-dependent increases in toxicity. Both experiments suggest that chemically dispersed oil was more toxic to fish embryos than solutions created by mechanical mixing due to the increased exposure of fish to petroleum hydrocarbons and not to changes in hydrocarbon toxicity. The Nujol control discriminated between the toxicity of oil and chemical dispersant and would be a practical addition to programs of dispersant testing.

  13. Development and validation of a range of endogenous controls to support the implementation of practical Taqman real-time PCR-based surveillance for fish diseases within aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, F; McIntosh, R; Bain, N; Snow, M

    2012-06-01

    The use of Taqman real-time PCR-based technology has recently become more frequent in the detection of pathogens in the aquaculture industry. This interest has necessitated the development of robust and reliable pathogen-detection assays. The development of a range of endogenous control assays to be run alongside these diagnostic assays works to further increase confidence in the latter. This study describes the design of a range of endogenous control assays based on the elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) gene specific to a range of fish species including Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; brown trout, Salmo trutta; cod, Gadus morhua; haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus; saithe, Pollachius virens; whiting, Merlangius merlangus; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii; carp (family Cyprinidae), roach, Rutilus rutilus; European eel, Anguilla anguilla; and herring, Clupea harengus, as well as a number of fish cell lines. Evidence is provided of the validation of these assays for specific species, a range of tissue types and cell lines as well as an example of the potential uses of these assays.

  14. Range compensation for backscattering measurements in the difference-frequency nearfield of a parametric sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of acoustic backscattering properties of targets requires removal of the range dependence of echoes. This process is called range compensation. For conventional sonars making measurements in the transducer farfield, the compensation removes effects of geometrical spreading and absorption. For parametric sonars consisting of a parametric acoustic transmitter and a conventional-sonar receiver, two additional range dependences require compensation when making measurements in the nonlinearly generated difference-frequency nearfield: an apparently increasing source level and a changing beamwidth. General expressions are derived for range compensation functions in the difference-frequency nearfield of parametric sonars. These are evaluated numerically for a parametric sonar whose difference-frequency band, effectively 1-6 kHz, is being used to observe Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in situ. Range compensation functions for this sonar are compared with corresponding functions for conventional sonars for the cases of single and multiple scatterers. Dependences of these range compensation functions on the parametric sonar transducer shape, size, acoustic power density, and hydrography are investigated. Parametric range compensation functions, when applied with calibration data, will enable difference-frequency echoes to be expressed in physical units of volume backscattering, and backscattering spectra, including fish-swimbladder-resonances, to be analyzed.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  16. Seasonal variation in parasite infection patterns of marine fish species from the Northern Wadden Sea in relation to interannual temperature fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Franziska M.; Raupach, Michael J.; Mathias Wegner, K.

    2016-07-01

    Marine environmental conditions are naturally changing throughout the year, affecting life cycles of hosts as well as parasites. In particular, water temperature is positively correlated with the development of many parasites and pathogenic bacteria, increasing the risk of infection and diseases during summer. Interannual temperature fluctuations are likely to alter host-parasite interactions, which may result in profound impacts on sensitive ecosystems. In this context we investigated the parasite and bacterial Vibrionaceae communities of four common small fish species (three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, Atlantic herring Clupea harengus, European sprat Sprattus sprattus and lesser sand eel Ammodytes tobianus) in the Northern Wadden Sea over a period of two years. Overall, we found significantly increased relative diversities of infectious species at higher temperature differentials. On the taxon-specific level some macroparasite species (trematodes, nematodes) showed a shift in infection peaks that followed the water temperatures of preceding months, whereas other parasite groups showed no effects of temperature differentials on infection parameters. Our results show that even subtle changes in seasonal temperatures may shift and modify the phenology of parasites as well as opportunistic pathogens that can have far reaching consequences for sensitive ecosystems.

  17. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  18. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    CERN Document Server

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the S\\~ao Paulo High. We model an initial E-W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times ($\\approx$126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial $\\approx$17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Br...

  19. An Anatomy of the 1960s Atlantic Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan

    2014-05-01

    North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North Atlantic SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North Atlantic display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North Atlantic warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and Atlantic Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s Atlantic cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s Atlantic cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling period in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the Atlantic Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical Atlantic. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North Atlantic. This period also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North Atlantic during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes

  20. Origin of Quasi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintges, Annika; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the leading mode of internal atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic sector. It depicts significant quasi-decadal variability that is well documented, but the underlying mechanism is still under discussion. Other quantities in the North Atlantic sector such as sea surface temperature (SST) exhibit variability on a similar timescale. Here we present results from a global climate model which simulates the quasi-decadal NAO and North Atlantic SST variability consistent with observations. The quasi-decadal NAO variability is suggested to originate from large-scale air-sea interactions, where the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) basically sets the timescale. Wind-driven ocean circulation changes provide a fast positive feedback on North Atlantic SST through anomalous Ekman currents and the establishment of an "intergyre" gyre. A delayed negative feedback on SST is accomplished through surface heat flux-driven changes of the AMOC and associated heat transport. The results stress the importance of both wind-induced and thermohaline-induced changes in the ocean circulation for quasi-decadal climate variability in the North Atlantic sector.

  1. Interaction between the Pacific and Atlantic storm tracks and its implication on the North Atlantic Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouard, M.; Rivière, G.; Arbogast, P.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the connection between the Pacific and Atlantic storm tracks is investigated to better understand the influence of the Pacific flow on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The type of wave breaking in the North Atlantic area and the phase of the NAO have been shown to depend on the properties of the Pacific atmospheric flow (Franzke et al. 2004; Rivière and Orlanski 2007), but the key ingredients in the Pacific flow that influence the NAO are not well identified. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of the Pacific flow on the NAO by performing numerical experiments with the Marshall and Molteni (1993) three-level quasi-geostrophic model and by comparing our results with ECMWF data reanalysis. The NAO, defined by the first EOF of the geopotential height in the North Atlantic area, is well reproduced by long term simulations of the model forced by ERA40 data. Similar properties appear in the observed NAO and simulated NAO, in particular, the nature of the waves breaking (more anticyclonic during positive phase events and more cyclonic during negative phase events), their spatial scale (large-scale waves dominate during positive phase events and small-scale waves dominate during negative phase events) and the presence of a large-scale ridge in the eastern Pacific that reaches its maximum four days before the maximum of the positive phase events. In order to investigate the influence of this ridge onto the NAO, diagnostic tools (such as the refractive index) are first used. Then, different strategies of sensitivity numerical experiments (such as initial-value problems) are considered to confirm the role played by the Pacific ridge.

  2. Atlante project; Progetto atlante. Quadro di riferimento, analisi degli strumenti esistenti, implementazione metodologica e applicazione prototipale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratozzi, L.; Cagnoli, P.; Filippi, N.; Gherardi, L.; Montaletti, V.; Poli, G.; Scarelli, M. [Regione Emilia Romagna, Assessorato Territorio, Programmazione e Ambiente, Servizio Paesaggio, Parchi e Patrimonio Naturale, Bologna (Italy); Basili, M.; Battista, A.; Colonna, R.; Del Cellio, R.; Forni, A.; Olivetti, I.; Regina, P.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the Atlante project a joint program of Emilia Romagna region and Italian ENEA based on the concept of substantiality and the most important methods and models used in the territorial planning. [Italian] La redazione del presente volume e' stata articolata in modo da bilanciare, da un lato l'esigenza di rispettare il programma di attivita' previsto nell'ambito della Convenzione fra Regione Emilia Romagna ed ENEA.

  3. Estimation of Atlantic-Mediterranean netflow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common period (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, periods from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the Atlantic - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - Atlantic

  4. Atlantic Hurricane Activity: 1851-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsea, C. W.

    2001-12-01

    This presentation reports on the second year's work of a three year project to re-analyze the North Atlantic hurricane database (or HURDAT). The original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database - which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC's) Webpage - has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity. Unfortunately, HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. One problem with HURDAT is that there are numerous systematic as sell as some random errors in the database which need correction. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as our understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database that have not been addressed. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall. Finally, recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 1800s and early 1900s led by Jose Fernandez-Partagas have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events, which are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years. As part of the re-analyses, three files will be made available: {* } The revised Atlantic HURDAT (with six hourly intensities

  5. South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2 kyr event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ljung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most distinct climate fluctuations during the Holocene is the short and rapid event centred around 8200 years ago, the 8.2 kyr event, which was most likely triggered by glacial melt-water forcing from the receding Laurentide ice-sheet. Evidence for this cooling has primarily been reported from sites around the North Atlantic, but an increasing number of observations imply a more wide-spread occurrence. Palaeoclimate archives from the Southern Hemisphere have hitherto failed to uncover a distinct climatic anomaly associated with the 8.2 kyr event. Here we present a lake sediment record from Nightingale Island in the central South Atlantic showing enhanced precipitation between 8275 and 8025 cal. yrs BP, most likely as a consequence of increased sea surface temperature (SST. We show that this is consistent with climate model projections of a warming of the South Atlantic in response to reduced north-ward energy transport during the 8.2 kyr event.

  6. Bladder stones – red herring for resurgence of spasticity in a spinal cord injury patient with implantation of Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal delivery of baclofen – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurpreet

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased spasms in spinal cord injury (SCI patients, whose spasticity was previously well controlled with intrathecal baclofen therapy, are due to (in order of frequency drug tolerance, increased stimulus, low reservoir volume, catheter malfunction, disease progression, human error, and pump mechanical failure. We present a SCI patient, in whom bladder calculi acted as red herring for increased spasticity whereas the real cause was spontaneous extrusion of catheter from intrathecal space. Case Presentation A 44-year-old male sustained a fracture of C5/6 and incomplete tetraplegia at C-8 level. Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy was implanted 13 months later to control severe spasticity. The tip of catheter was placed at T-10 level. The initial dose of baclofen was 300 micrograms/day of baclofen, administered by a simple continuous infusion. During a nine-month period, he required increasing doses of baclofen (875 micrograms/day to control spasticity. X-ray of abdomen showed multiple radio opaque shadows in the region of urinary bladder. No malfunction of the pump was detected. Therefore, increased spasticity was attributed to bladder stones. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of bladder stones was carried out successfully. Even after removal of bladder stones, this patient required further increases in the dose of intrathecal baclofen (950, 1050, 1200 and then 1300 micrograms/day. Careful evaluation of pump-catheter system revealed that the catheter had extruded spontaneously and was lying in the paraspinal space at L-4, where the catheter had been anchored before it entered the subarachnoid space. A new catheter was passed into the subarachnoid space and the tip of catheter was located at T-8 level. The dose of intrathecal baclofen was decreased to 300 micrograms/day. Conclusion Vesical calculi acted as red herring for resurgence of spasticity. The real cause for increased spasms was spontaneous extrusion

  7. Spatial and temporal diet patterns of subadult and small adult striped bass in Massachusetts estuaries: Data, a synthesis, and trends across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, K.H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Subadult and small adult (375–475 mm total length) striped bass Morone saxatilis are abundant and represent an important component of the recovered U.S. Atlantic coast stocks. However, little is known about these large aggregations of striped bass during their annual foraging migrations to New England. A quantitative understanding of trends in the diets of subadult and small adult migrants is critical to research and management. Because of the complexity of the Massachusetts coast, we were able to compare diets at multiple spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales and evaluate which of these provided the greatest insights into the foraging patterns of this size of fish. Specifically, during spring through autumn, we quantified the diets of 797 migratory striped bass collected from 13 Massachusetts estuaries distributed among three geographic regions in two biogeographic provinces. Our data provided three useful results. First, subadult and young adult striped bass ate a season-specific mixture of fish and invertebrates. For example, more juvenile Atlantic herring Clupea harengus were eaten in spring than in summer or autumn, more juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were eaten in autumn than in spring or summer, amphipods were eaten primarily in the southern biogeographic province, and shrimp Crangon sp. were eaten in all locations and seasons. Second, examining diets by season was essential because of the temporal variability in striped bass prey. Grouping prey by fish and invertebrates revealed the potential for predictable differences in growth across geographic locations and seasons, based on the output from simple bioenergetics simulations. Third, of the three spatial scales examined, region provided the most quantitative and interpretable ecological trends. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparing multiple scales to evaluate the best way to depict diet trends in a migrating predator that seasonally uses different geographic locations.

  8. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0302, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  9. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0201, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  10. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0101, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  11. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0002, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  12. NEFSC Small Pelagics Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9903, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The small pelagics cruise will map the distribution of small pelagic species such as Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic herring, silver hake, butterfish, and squid, in the...

  13. Ocean station data collected using bottle casts from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From Northwest Atlantic and Southwest Atlantic Ocean from 30 October 1980 to 21 August 1982 (NODC Accession 9000164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean station data were collected using seechi disk, meteorological sensors, and bottle casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Southwest Atlantic...

  14. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due...... to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics...... model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  16. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species...

  17. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  18. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  19. Atlantic Sharpnose and Blacknose Shark Congressional Supplemental Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Life history data were collected from Atlantic sharpnose and blacknose sharks during the Congressional Supplemental Program during 2011. Data collected include...

  20. Atlantic City, New Jersey Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic City, New Jersey Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Atlantic Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...

  2. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  3. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  4. Science and Society: The Third Dimension of the Atlantic Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarskis, Michel

    1983-01-01

    Discusses North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) activities related to science and society. NATO Scientific Exchanges Programme; pilot studies (pollution control, natural resources, health and technological risks, quality of life, and planning); and cultural exchanges are among the areas considered. (JN)

  5. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  6. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  8. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic areas within an...

  9. South Atlantic Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart A - General...

  10. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  11. Transport of salt and freshwater in the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Andreas; Stocker, Thomas F.; Sandø, Anne Britt

    2016-09-01

    Transport of salt in the Irminger Current, the northern branch of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre coupling the eastern and western subpolar North Atlantic, plays an important role for climate variability across a wide range of time scales. High-resolution ocean modeling and observations indicate that salinities in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic decrease with enhanced circulation of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG). This has led to the perception that a stronger SPG also transports less salt westward. In this study, we analyze a regional ocean model and a comprehensive global coupled climate model, and show that a stronger SPG transports more salt in the Irminger Current irrespective of lower salinities in its source region. The additional salt converges in the Labrador Sea and the Irminger Basin by eddy transports, increases surface salinity in the western SPG, and favors more intense deep convection. This is part of a positive feedback mechanism with potentially large implications for climate variability and predictability.

  12. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  13. Introduction to the Mid-Atlantic Education Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Crouse

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-Atlantic Education Review is a peer-reviewed, online journal that provides a forum for studies pertaining to educational issues of interest to educators and researchers in the Mid-Atlantic region. The Review publishes articles that contribute to the knowledge base of researchers, policy-makers, teachers, and administrators. To appeal to a broad educational audience, articles cover a spectrum in their level of analysis, subject focus, and methodological approach.

  14. Introduction to the Mid-Atlantic Education Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Crouse

    2013-01-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Education Review is a peer-reviewed, online journal that provides a forum for studies pertaining to educational issues of interest to educators and researchers in the Mid-Atlantic region. The Review publishes articles that contribute to the knowledge base of researchers, policy-makers, teachers, and administrators. To appeal to a broad educational audience, articles cover a spectrum in their level of analysis, subject focus, and methodological approach.

  15. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. Recent Decadal Trend in the North Atlantic Wind Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the climatic trend of the North Atlantic wind energy using cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP wind data for the period 1988–2011. Results show the following. (1 The North Atlantic WPD exhibited a significant increasing trend of 4.45  (W/m2/yr over the past 24 years. (2 The variation in the North Atlantic Ocean WPD shows a noticeable regional difference. More than half of the North Atlantic Ocean has a significantly increasing trend in WPD. The increasing trend in the mid-high latitudes is stronger than that in the low latitudes, and the trend is stronger in the west than in the east. The area with the strongest increasing trend is located along the southern coast of Greenland of 35 (W/m2/yr. (3 There is a noticeable seasonal difference in the variation of WPD. The strongest increasing trend occurs in December-January-February (DJF, followed by September-October-November (SON and March-April-May (MAM, and the weakest occurs in June-July-August (JJA. The increasing trend in different areas is dominated by different seasons. (4 There is no leading or lagging correlation between WPD and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. However, there is a noticeable negative correlation between the Niño3 index and WPD in most of the North Atlantic.

  17. Reorganization of the North Atlantic Oscillation during early Holocene deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Dietrich, Stephan; Fietzke, Jan; Fohlmeister, Jens; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Richter, Detlev K.; Sabaoui, Abdellah; Spötl, Christoph; Lohmann, Gerrit; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.

  18. Atlantic effects on recent decadal trends in global monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Li, Xichen; Xie, Shang-Ping; Ueda, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Natural climate variability contributes to recent decadal climate trends. Specifically the trends during the satellite era since 1979 include Atlantic and Indian Ocean warming and Pacific cooling associated with phase shifts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and enhanced global monsoon (GM) circulation and rainfall especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Here we evaluate effects of the oceanic changes on the global and regional monsoon trends by partial ocean temperature restoring experiments in a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Via trans-basin atmosphere-ocean teleconnections, the Atlantic warming drives a global pattern of sea surface temperature change that resembles observations, giving rise to the enhanced GM. The tropical Atlantic warming and the resultant Indian Ocean warming favor subtropical deep-tropospheric warming in both hemispheres, resulting in the enhanced monsoon circulations and precipitation over North America, South America and North Africa. The extratropical North Atlantic warming makes an additional contribution to the monsoon enhancement via Eurasian continent warming and resultant land-sea thermal gradient over Asia. The results of this study suggest that the Atlantic multidecadal variability can explain a substantial part of global climate variability including the recent decadal trends of GM.

  19. Characterization of the interaction of a mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin-capped CdTe quantum dots-methylene blue/methylene green system with herring sperm DNA using a spectroscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yizhong; Liu, Shaopu; Wang, Lei; Yin, Pengfei; He, Youqiu

    2014-11-01

    Novel, water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ~ 4.0 nm in diameter were synthesized in aqueous solution, and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A fluorescence-sensing system based on the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs was then designed to measure the interaction of phenothiazine dyes [methylene blue (MB) and methylene green (MG)] with herring sperm DNA (hsDNA). This fluorescence-sensing system was based on a fluorescence "OFF-ON" mode. First, MB/MG adsorbed on the surface of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs effectively quenches the fluorescence of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs through PET. Then, addition of hsDNA restores the fluorescence intensity of (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs, because hsDNA can bind with MB/MG and remove it from the as-prepared (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs. In addition, detailed reaction mechanisms of the (mono-6-thio-β-CD)-CdTe QDs-MB/MG-hsDNA solution system were studied using optical methods, by comparison with the TGA-CdTe QDs-MB/MG-hsDNA solution system.

  20. 席夫碱Cu(II)配合物与鲱鱼精DNA的相互作用研究%Interaction of Schiff base copper complex with herring sperm DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小芳; 冯小强; 杨声

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of schiff base copper complex and herring sperm DNA was studied by cyclic voltammetry,UV-Vis and flu-orescence methods. Adding DNA into the schiff base copper complex solution,the redox peak current decreased and the peak poten-tial shifted to positive. Moreover,the ultraviolet absorption intensity of DNA was strengthened by the schiff base copper complex,and the fluorimetric intensity of schiff base copper complex was increased by DNA. All results showed that the schiff base copper com-plex and DNA was interacted according to the mode of intercalation.%采用电化学和光谱法,研究了糠醛缩对氨基苯磺酸席夫碱Cu( II)配合物与鲱鱼精DNA的相互作用。结果发现:糠醛缩对氨基苯磺酸席夫碱Cu( II)中加入DNA后,氧化还原峰电流降低,式量电位正移;席夫碱Cu(II)配合物使DNA的最大吸收峰强度增强,DNA使席夫碱Cu(II)配合物的荧光强度增强。表明席夫碱Cu( II)配合物以嵌插模式与DNA作用。

  1. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  2. Current velocity and hydrographic observations in the Southwestern North Atlantic Ocean: Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies (STACS), 1989 (NCEI Accession 9100033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objective of the STACS program are to increase our understanding of the dynamics of the North Atlantic circulation and the role of the ocean circulation...

  3. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  4. 77 FR 74119 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures...

  5. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  6. 77 FR 70149 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) and its Visioning and Strategic Planning ] Working Group will hold public...

  7. Inventory of Atlantic White-Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report addresses Atlantic white cedar swamp restoration in North Carolina refuges. The ecology, use, and historical distribution of Atlantic white-cedar (AWC)...

  8. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  9. 75 FR 31421 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit; Horseshoe Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  10. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC689 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  11. 77 FR 55457 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC220 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  12. 75 FR 34092 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AY41 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Such action is authorized under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act...

  13. 77 FR 38775 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC042 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... Shark Identification workshop originally scheduled for August 9, 2012, in Rosenberg, TX, has been... 77471. The July and September workshop dates remain unchanged. Atlantic Shark Identification...

  14. EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, S.; Carranza, M.L.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Acosta, A.T.R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredune habitats of European interest, focusing on floristic, structural and ecological features. We selected two representative sites of Atlantic (The Netherlands) and Mediterranean (Italy) coastal dunes. From a georeferenced vegetation

  15. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Atlantic federal waters. All wells in the Atlantic Region were completed and abandoned...

  16. Marine ecosystem response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Edwards

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North Atlantic temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal periods. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time period. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North Atlantic we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North Atlantic and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North Atlantic plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.

  17. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2013-11-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata] were studied via electroretinography (ERG. Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  18. Preparation and Modification of Nanosilver and the Interaction between it and Herring Sperm DNA%纳米银的制备、修饰及与鲱鱼精DNA的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀斌; 李怀祥; 马丽英; 荣先国; 朱崇艳

    2013-01-01

    The nanosilver was prepared by redox and the SiO2 layer successfully coated on the surface of silver nanoparticles in ethanol dissolvent, obtained Ag-SiO2 core-shell structure (Ag@ SiO2, Ag core, SiO2 shell), The silver nanoparticles and Ag@ SiO2 structure were characterized by transmission electron microscope ( TEM ) , Uv-vis absorption spectrum ( Uv-vis ) , fluorescence spectrum respectively. The experiments show that the formation of Ag@ SiO2 is affected by the order of ammonia addition. The SiO2 shell thickness plays a notable role in spectral properties. The maximum absorption peak of Ag core is red-shifed and intensity is declined after the coverage of SiO2 shell. But the maximum absorption peak of Ag core is blue-shifed and intensity is increased when the thickness of SiO2 shell is more than 50 nm in this experiment. The emission spectrum indicates that the fluorescence intensity of nanosilver core is reduced by SiO2 shell. Moreover, the interaction between Ag@ SiO2 and herring sperm DNA was investigated by spectrometry. The results display that the absorption spectrum of herring sperm DNA and the emission spectrum of Ag @ SiO2 do not apparently change. Ag @ SiO2 nanoparticles have good biocompatibility, which provides an important basis for the safety of Ag@ SiO2 nanoparticles, both toxicology and biomedicine aspects.%采用氧化还原法制备了纳米银粒子,在乙醇溶剂中,纳米银粒子表面成功包覆上了SiO2层.利用透射电镜、紫外可见吸收光谱、荧光光谱对纳米银及包覆结构(Ag为核,SiO2为壳,Ag@SiO2)进行了表征.实验表明:氨水的加入顺序对Ag@SiO2核壳结构具有一定的影响;随着SiO2壳层的不断加厚,纳米银的特征吸收峰红移,吸收强度降低,在本实验中当厚度大于50nm时,特征吸收峰发生蓝移,吸收强度增大.纳米银的发射光谱表明SiO2壳层的包覆使纳米银的发射强度降低.另外,采用光谱法考察了Ag@SiO2纳米粒子与鲱鱼精DNA的相

  19. Seasonal Variability of South Atlantic Central Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega Passos, E.; de Freitas Assad, L.; Landau, L.

    2013-05-01

    The South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) is constituted by different density water masses. Among these, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is formed on the Brazil-Falkland Confluence region (BFC) and once formed, it becomes part of the Subtropical Gyre. When approaching again the Brazilian coast, this water mass bifurcates next to São Tomé Cape and part of it flows to the North and part to the South. There is another bifurcation that formed the sub-gyre of the SAO and occurs near 30°S. This work aims to analyze the seasonal variability associated to the SACW trajectory on the SAO basin. To achieve this goal, ECCO2 project's time series of prognostic fields were analysed. The parameters evaluated were temperature, salinity and the zonal and meridional velocity components in averaged monthly fields between January 1992 and November 2010. First a climatological year was calculated and was composed by means from all time series for each month. And second, it was estimate seasonally means for the south hemisphere to summer, autumn, winter and springer. For the analysis, the SACW was separated from the rest of the water masses by isolating it for its temperature, salinity and density index. Then the volume transport (VT) was calculated for seven different sections: A (10°S and 36°W-30°W), B (35°S and 55°W-45°W), C (40°W and 37°S-43°S), D (34°S and 7°E-20°E), E (20°E and 34°S-45°S), F (20°W and 27°S-33°S) and G (10°W and 20°S-25°S). The VT integrated on the water column occupied by SACW was calculated from the zonal and meridional velocities. The analysis showed that the VT balance between the sections is consistent with the climatologic analysis, according to scientific references. The analysis of the climatological VT showed that the VT field integrated in SAWC levels is also consistent with scientific reference. On the seasonal analysis, the sections A and F show a stronger VT during autumn. Since section A is formed from part of the flux of section

  20. On multiple equilibria of the global ocean circulation and the preference for North Atlantic sinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the ocean circulation there is the peculiar feature that heat transport is northwards throughout the entire Atlantic ocean. This means that the Atlantic heat transport in the southern hemisphere is towards the equator. Also, the heat transport in the Atlantic is much larger that in the Pacific. T

  1. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... Atlantic Fleet study area as described in Alternative 2 for the proposed action. Under Alternative 2, the... for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies...

  2. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North... maintenance of the NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald...

  3. 76 FR 64074 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA670 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... Shark Identification workshop scheduled for November 17, 2011, in Charleston, SC, has been changed. This.... Atlantic Shark Identification workshops are mandatory for Atlantic Shark Dealer permit holders or...

  4. 75 FR 54598 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW44 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... cancelling the Atlantic Shark Identification workshop that was scheduled for September 2, 2010, in Wilmington... South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403. DATES: The Atlantic Shark Identification Workshop...

  5. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Array Analysis of North Atlantic Microseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Möllhoff, Martin; Donne, Sarah; Lokmer, Ivan; Le Pape, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Oceans generate persistent low frequency background seismic signals known as microseisms through a mechanical coupling with the Earth's crust. Microseism energy originates as regions of low barometric pressure (depressions) over the oceans where it is transmitted to the sea-floor and propagates as elastic energy in the Earths crust. Consequently microseisms carry important meteorological information relating to both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The significance of microseisms as climate indicators has previously been investigated in several studies (Essen et al., 1999; Aster et al., 2010) and to estimate ocean wave parameters using onshore seismometer data (Bromirski et al., 1999). Also many modern seismological methods make use of microseism signals, for example "noise tomography" (Shapiro et al., 2005); spectral ratio techniques ; and cross-correlation techniques (Wapenaar et al., 2011; Brenguier et al., 2014). The continental shelf near Ireland is a known generation are for microseisms and an important region for European weather forecasting and climate studies. There has also been seismometers in the region since the 1960s. There is a single station in Valentia observatory in south-west Ireland and a small scale seismic array in Scotland which offer potential climate records for the region. To make use of this information it is first necessary to understand how microseisms recorded in Ireland relate to the local ocean wavefield. The WAVEOBS project was set established with three primary goals; to get a better fundamental understanding of microseism sources; to investigate the use of ocean generated microseisms as real time ocean wave height data; and to investigate their use as a climate proxy. Using spectral analysis and array methods the microseism wavefield in the North-East Atlantic near Ireland is described with reference to the ocean wavefield.

  7. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  8. Paintings in Atlantic Megalithic Art: Barnenez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of technique is usually considered in European megalithic art as an indicator of the level of culture sophistication attained by a particular community. Traditionally, it was considered that only the Iberian Peninsula is home to painted dolmens. The analysis of chamber H of the Barnenez tumulus together with some information scattered over the continent, prove that painting was part of the graphic programs in the most archetypal Atlantic sites, such as Brittany. A highly rewarding panorama appears for European megalithic art with potential new readings. The most suitable method of detecting paintings and interpreting them in funerary contexts must be reviewed.

    La técnica ha venido estableciéndose en el arte megalítico europeo como una categoría cultural. Solo la Península Ibérica disponía de dólmenes pintados. Pero algunos datos dispersos en el resto del continente, junto con los análisis que se aportan procedentes de la cámara H del túmulo de Barnenez, certifican que la pintura formó parte de los programas gráfi cos de los más clásicos conjuntos atlánticos, como es el bretón. Se abre un panorama muy enriquecedor de nuevas lecturas para un arte megalítico europeo en el que habrá de contemplarse la metodología pertinente para la detección de pinturas y su interpretación en los discursos funerarios.

  9. South Scandinavian joints and Alpine/Atlantic-ridge tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Field observations and studies of the joints and dykes in an area shed light on its younger tectonic development; thus, joint orientations measured in Southern Sweden and in Norway have been statistically studied and compared regarding their tectonic significance with studies from Europe and the mid-Atlantic ridge. The present investigation indicates that the surface joint systems in Sweden agree with those in Europe; they are the result of the intracratonic stress field and the mechanical response associated with the Alpine orogeny. The stress systems in Southern Norway, on the other hand, are the result of the ongoing extensional or wrench-fault tectonism in the Atlantic crust associated with the stresses near the mid-Atlantic ridge, which act normally to the contiguous coastlines from Scandinavia to France, Portugal and North Africa.

  10. Saharan dust transport and deposition towards the Tropical Northern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schepanski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Saharan dust export towards the tropical North Atlantic using the regional dust emission, transport and deposition model LM-MUSCAT. Horizontal and vertical distribution of dust optical thickness, concentration, and dry and wet deposition rates are used to describe seasonality of dust export and deposition towards the eastern Atlantic for three exemplary months in different seasons. Deposition rates strongly depend on the vertical dust distribution, which differs with seasons. Furthermore the contribution of dust originating from the Bodélé Depression to Saharan dust over the Atlantic is investigated. A maximum contribution of Bodélé dust transported towards the Cape Verde Islands is evident in winter when the Bodélé source area is most active and dominant with regard activation frequency and dust emission. Limitations of using satellite retrievals to estimate dust deposition are highlighted.

  11. Paleoceanography. Onset of Mediterranean outflow into the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Molina, F Javier; Stow, Dorrik A V; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Acton, Gary; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger; Flores, José-Abel; Furota, Satoshi; Grunert, Patrick; Hodell, David; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Llave, Estefania; Lofi, Johanna; Lourens, Lucas; Miller, Madeline; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Roque, Cristina; Pereira, Hélder; Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Sierro, Francisco J; Singh, Arun Deo; Sloss, Craig; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Williams, Trevor; Xuan, Chuang

    2014-06-13

    Sediments cored along the southwestern Iberian margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 provide constraints on Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) circulation patterns from the Pliocene epoch to the present day. After the Strait of Gibraltar opened (5.33 million years ago), a limited volume of MOW entered the Atlantic. Depositional hiatuses indicate erosion by bottom currents related to higher volumes of MOW circulating into the North Atlantic, beginning in the late Pliocene. The hiatuses coincide with regional tectonic events and changes in global thermohaline circulation (THC). This suggests that MOW influenced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), THC, and climatic shifts by contributing a component of warm, saline water to northern latitudes while in turn being influenced by plate tectonics.

  12. Predicted slowdown in the rate of Atlantic sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Stephen G.; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate models initialized from historical climate states and subject to anthropogenic forcings can produce skillful decadal predictions of sea surface temperature change in the subpolar North Atlantic. The skill derives largely from initialization, which improves the representation of slow changes in ocean circulation and associated poleward heat transport. We show that skillful predictions of decadal trends in Arctic winter sea ice extent are also possible, particularly in the Atlantic sector. External radiative forcing contributes to the skill of retrospective decadal sea ice predictions, but the spatial and temporal accuracy is greatly enhanced by the more realistic representation of ocean heat transport anomalies afforded by initialization. Recent forecasts indicate that a spin-down of the thermohaline circulation that began near the turn of the century will continue, and this will result in near-neutral decadal trends in Atlantic winter sea ice extent in the coming years, with decadal growth in select regions.

  13. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  14. Towards a governance agenda for the emerging Atlantic Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Basin is re-emerging as an important subsystem within the global political economy: inter-linked flows of people and energy, money and weapons,goods and services, technology and terror,drugs and crime; greater access to each other’s markets, resources, and talent. Yet,growing interdependencies gene-rate new vulnerabilities and challenges: cooperation over resources and energy connections; promotion of trade and investment; migration and integration; building resilient societies; enhancement of good governance; investment in human development; and the fight against transnational criminal organisations and their growing links to terrorists and insurgents. However, while governance mechanisms and diplomatic cooperation based on a pan-Atlantic framework are in their infancy, a host of developments suggests that broadranging, interwoven hemispheric cooperation may be possible. In fact, the Atlantic Basin may emerge as a global laboratory for interregional, networked governance between developed and emerging countries.

  15. Atlantic surfclam connectivity within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.

    2016-05-01

    Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (period of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle Atlantic shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water

  16. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhua, T. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Steinfeldt, R. [University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Brown, P. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Perez, F.F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Kortzinger, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Velo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, CSIC, Vigo, Spain; Schuster, U. [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Van Heuven, S. [University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Stendardo, I. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Hoppema, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Olsen, Are [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Pierrot, D. [Cooperative Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. Miami; Schirnick, C. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  17. Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.; Winton, Michael; Alexander, Michael A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment of projected global and regional ocean temperature change is based on global climate models that have coarse (˜100 km) ocean and atmosphere resolutions. In the Northwest Atlantic, the ensemble of global climate models has a warm bias in sea surface temperature due to a misrepresentation of the Gulf Stream position; thus, existing climate change projections are based on unrealistic regional ocean circulation. Here we compare simulations and an atmospheric CO2 doubling response from four global climate models of varying ocean and atmosphere resolution. We find that the highest resolution climate model (˜10 km ocean, ˜50 km atmosphere) resolves Northwest Atlantic circulation and water mass distribution most accurately. The CO2 doubling response from this model shows that upper-ocean (0-300 m) temperature in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf warms at a rate nearly twice as fast as the coarser models and nearly three times faster than the global average. This enhanced warming is accompanied by an increase in salinity due to a change in water mass distribution that is related to a retreat of the Labrador Current and a northerly shift of the Gulf Stream. Both observations and the climate model demonstrate a robust relationship between a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and an increase in the proportion of Warm-Temperate Slope Water entering the Northwest Atlantic Shelf. Therefore, prior climate change projections for the Northwest Atlantic may be far too conservative. These results point to the need to improve simulations of basin and regional-scale ocean circulation.

  18. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  19. A day in the life of fish larvae: modeling foraging and growth using quirks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus B Huebert

    Full Text Available This article introduces "Quirks," a generic, individual-based model synthesizing over 40 years of empirical and theoretical insights into the foraging behavior and growth physiology of marine fish larvae. In Quirks, different types of larvae are defined by a short list of their biological traits, and all foraging and growth processes (including the effects of key environmental factors are modeled following one unified set of mechanistic rules. This approach facilitates ecologically meaningful comparisons between different species and environments. We applied Quirks to model young exogenously feeding larvae of four species: 5.5-mm European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, 7-mm Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, 13-mm Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, and 7-mm European sprat (Sprattus sprattus. Modeled growth estimates explained the majority of variability among 53 published empirical growth estimates, and displayed very little bias: 0.65% ± 1.2% d(-1 (mean ± standard error. Prey organisms of ∼ 67% the maximum ingestible prey length were optimal for all larval types, in terms of the expected ingestion per encounter. Nevertheless, the foraging rate integrated over all favorable prey sizes was highest when smaller organisms made up >95% of the prey biomass under the assumption of constant normalized size spectrum slopes. The overall effect of turbulence was consistently negative, because its detrimental influence on prey pursuit success exceeded its beneficial influence on prey encounter rate. Model sensitivity to endogenous traits and exogenous environmental factors was measured and is discussed in depth. Quirks is free software and open source code is provided.

  20. Life cycle assessment of Icelandic Atlantic salmon Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the environmental impacts of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in sea cages in Tálknafjörður, North West of Iceland. Methodologically the study was based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and the functional unit was 1 metric tonne of the whole Atlantic salmon produced in sea cage system and delivered to a processing plant in Patreksfjörður. The life cycle model included the feed production (including feed raw materials production), hatchery, sea-cage farm, faming equipmen...

  1. The Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program: The North Atlantic Study, 1981; The Tropical Atlantic Study, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Smethie, William M.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific papers here collected result from the Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program. The two parts of this major geochemical and physical oceanographie expedition took place in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1981 and in the Tropical Atlantic in 1983 on the research vessel Knorr of the Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution. The expeditions, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy (North Atlantic only), were designed to observe the passage of man-made geochemical tracers into the interior of the ocean. The foundations for such an experiment were laid in the 1972-1978 GEOSECS program. Here, for the first time, a systematic survey revealed the penetration into the thermocline and deep ocean of the products of man's military/industrial activities, principally tritium and carbon-14 resulting from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which terminated with the nuclear test ban treaty in 1962.

  2. Management of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus in the arctic Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Wiig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the management of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus past and present in the four range states—Canada, Greenland, Norway and Russia—which have permanent populations of Atlantic walruses. Populations in all four countries have been depleted, although the extent of depletion is not well known. Inuit in Arctic Canada and Greenland hunt Atlantic walruses for subsistence while they have been protected at Svalbard (Norway since 1952 and in the western Russian Arctic since 1956. Since the second half of the 20th Century Canada and Greenland have increased protection of their walrus. Generally the number of walruses landed in Canada is governed by the number of hunters and/or people in the settlement and not by stock-specific quotas. Although quotas have been set in few communities, it is not known if they are adequate to prevent overhunting. A quota system for walrus hunting in Greenland began in 2006. The current control system is largely effective in ensuring the quotas are applied and that reporting is correct. Greenland currently sets quotas based on recommendations from scientific assessments using recent population estimates to allow population growth from a depleted population.  A challenge with respect to managing walrus hunting remains the variable and sometimes high rates of lost animals. Since the 1960s changes in socio-economics in hunting areas of Arctic Canada and Greenland (and the use of snowmobiles instead of dog sleds in Canada have led to a general decrease in interest in hunting of walruses and reduced harvest on walrus stocks in these countries. Although there is an active ongoing cooperation between Canada and Greenland scientists regarding assessments of shared populations of walruses currently there is no formal agreement between the two range states on co-management of shared stocks. Protection of walrus from other anthropogenic impacts generally focusses on large-scale industrial activity. The level

  3. The South Atlantic Anticyclone as a key player for the representation of the tropical Atlantic climate in coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry V.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Fink, Andreas H.; Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Alvarez, Francisco; Izquierdo, Alfredo; Keenlyside, Noel; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    The key role of the South Atlantic Anticyclone (SAA) on the seasonal cycle of the tropical Atlantic is investigated with a regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model for two different coupled domains. Both domains include the equatorial Atlantic and a large portion of the northern tropical Atlantic, but one extends southward, and the other northwestward. The SAA is simulated as internal model variability in the former, and is prescribed as external forcing in the latter. In the first case, the model shows significant warm biases in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Angola-Benguela front zone. If the SAA is externally prescribed, these biases are substantially reduced. The biases are both of oceanic and atmospheric origin, and are influenced by ocean-atmosphere interactions in coupled runs. The strong SST austral summer biases are associated with a weaker SAA, which weakens the winds over the southeastern tropical Atlantic, deepens the thermocline and prevents the local coastal upwelling of colder water. The biases in the basins interior in this season could be related to the advection and eddy transport of the coastal warm anomalies. In winter, the deeper thermocline and atmospheric fluxes are probably the main biases sources. Biases in incoming solar radiation and thus cloudiness seem to be a secondary effect only observed in austral winter. We conclude that the external prescription of the SAA south of 20°S improves the simulation of the seasonal cycle over the tropical Atlantic, revealing the fundamental role of this anticyclone in shaping the climate over this region.

  4. 75 FR 10693 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic (FMP). The FMP was prepared by...

  5. 78 FR 57337 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ..., 2011, NMFS published a notice of agency action (76 FR 78245) designating the South Atlantic Council as..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval,...

  6. Chlorofluorocarbon-113 in the northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.; Watson, Andrew J.; Liddicoat, Malcolm I.

    1995-06-01

    An automated gas Chromatographic technique to measure the concentrations of chlorofluorocarbon 113 (CFC-113:CCl2FCClF2) dissolved in seawater has been developed. The method also quantifies chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 (CFC-11:CCl3F and CFC-12:CCl2F2). Seawater collected from Niskin bottles in ground-glass syringes is stripped by a gas stream and concentrated on a cryogenic trap in the manner of Bullister and Weiss (1988) and Gammon et al. (1982). By isolating and heating the trap, the chlorofluorocarbon compounds are reliberated and injected onto a high-resolution capillary gas Chromatographie column, followed by electron-capture detection. The analysis time for each sample is less than 15 min. Surface seawater precisions are 2.9%, 2.4%, and 1.2% for CFC-113, CFC-11, and CFC-12, with detection limits of 0.003-0.004, 0.02, and 0.03-0.05 pmol L-1, respectively. Although these statistics do not compare favorably with other CFC-11 and CFC-12 techniques (precision ˜1%, detection limit ˜0.005 pmol L-1 (Bullister and Weiss, 1988)), the dynamic ranges of the CFC-113:CFC-11 and CFC-113:CFC-12 "ventilation ages" are 20:1, better than that of the best CFC-11:CFC-12 age, albeit with inferior precisions. Estimates of the solubility ratios of CFC-113:CFC-11 and CFC-113:CFC-12 are 0.303 and 1.22, disagreeing with the work of Wisegarver and Gammon (1988), whose CFC-113 results are believed to be boosted by coelution with methyl bromide. The optimum tracer ventilation age resolution is ±0.9 years for both CFC-113:CFC-11 and CFC-113:CFC-12 from a cast considered in the northeastern Atlantic. A plot of CFC-113:CFC-12 ventilation age is presented on an outcropping isopycnal. A strong correlation with pressure and dissolved oxygen concentration is noted and an oxygen utilization rate between 4.2 and 5.5±0.4 μmol L-1 yr-1 is implied, depending on the choice of CFC-113 atmospheric history.

  7. Imaging riometer observation in South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kazuo; Hoshino, Mituo; Kato, Yasuo; Masanori, Nishino; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Foppiano, Alberto J.; Ovalle, Ellias; Tanaka, Yoshi; Monreal, Ricardo

    The total geomagnetic field intensity is especially weak around the southern part of Latin America. This region is called South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). We named this singularity region as "Geomagnetic Hole". High energetic particles larger than 100keV are precipitating into Geomagnetic Hole from Radiation belt. Since the intensity of Geomagnetic Hole is sharply decreasing now, the quantity of particle precipitation in this region will become more large near future. In order to examine Geomagnetic Hole phenomena, imaging riometer, photometer and other instruments are installed at INPE southern space observatory (SSO) and started observation since 1997. We also installed similar instruments and continue the observation at Concepcion / Punta Arenas in Chile and Kakioka in Japan. We study Cosmic Noise Absorption (CNA) obtained by imaging riometer and their relationships to particle data by GOES Satellite. From our analysis results, typical CNA events are observed in associated with big geomagnetic storm period at SSO and GOES particle date shows sharp decrease of energetic particle in this time. It suggests that radiation belt particles are precipitating to Geomagnetic Hole during ge-omagnetic storm period. Sometimes, CNA events are also observed during big substorm period and during the X-ray flare event. We also examined Punta Arenas, Concepcion and Kakioka imaging riometer data during geomagnetic storm time. However, typical CNA corresponding to SSO event is not found in our analysis. Our preliminary result suggests that particle precip-itation region is confined in a limited area around SSO, Brazil. On the other hands, Traveling Ionosphere Disturbance (TID) events are also observed at Concepcion and Kakioka as well as SSO by imaging riometer. Generally, number density of ionosphere electron increases and electron density disturbance with stripe-like structures are traveling during TID event. From imaging riometer observation, similar stripe-like CNA structure are

  8. Opportunistically recorded acoustic data support Northeast Atlantic mackerel expansion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, vander Jeroen; Fassler, S.M.M.; Stephens, D.; Readdy, Lisa; Scott, B.; Roel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries independent monitoring of widely distributed pelagic fish species which conduct large seasonal migrations is logistically complex and expensive.One of the commercially most important examples of such a species in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is mackerel for which up to recently only an int

  9. Influence of the North Atlantic on simulated atmospheric variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. X. Li

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the influence of the North Atlantic Ocean on atmospheric variability. The study covers the period from 1950 to 1994. The observed sea surface temperature and sea ice extension are used to force the atmospheric model. Several configurations of the oceanic boundary conditions were made to isolate the role of the North Atlantic and to study its non-linear interaction with forcings from other oceanic basins. The multi-realization character of the experiments distinguishes between the internal random part and the external forced part of the total variability. The potential predictability can thus be evaluated. The response of the atmosphere is also studied with a modal approach in terms of hemispheric teleconnection patterns. The North Atlantic Ocean has a direct influence on both the Northern Hemisphere annular mode and the Pacific-North-America pattern, leading to a weak predictability. However the direct response is largely modulated by forcings from other oceanic basins. The non-linearity of the system compensates the predictable component of the annular mode induced by the North Atlantic forcing. Furthermore it reduces the forced component of the Pacific-North-America pattern, increasing its chaoticity.

  10. Trans-Atlantic rafting by the brooding reef coral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Roos, P.J.; Cadée, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Specimens of the brooding reef coral Favia fragum were found on man-made flotsam stranded on the North Sea shore of the Netherlands. Based on the associated epifauna originating from the southeast USA, we estimate that the corals must have crossed the Atlantic Ocean, transported by the Gulf Stream a

  11. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  12. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus Biometrics and Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rodriguez-Marin

    Full Text Available The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled, covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR. The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  13. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.;

    2000-01-01

    Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  14. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Euro-Atlantic Integrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Filipović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to highlight reasons of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s slow progress on its Euro-Atlantic path, in order to propose a final solution. The importance of this issue is relevant particularly now, because on the one hand, Bosnia and Herzegovina submitted its official application to join the European Union in February 2016, and on the other hand, it has been blocked since April 2010 on its NATO integration path due to the Dayton Peace Agreement Constitution’s paradoxes and historical disagreements. Many authors have previously written about Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Euro-Atlantic Integrations but not many of them published academic works after the Bosnian formal application for the European Union membership, which represents an important step for this post-war country. The main approach used is analytical; which includes academic research and understanding of Bosnian contemporary history as a root of current political, economic and social crisis. Finally, the result is that Bosnia and Herzegovina’s progress is not satisfactory and moreover, the only solution for the future of Euro-Atlantic Integrations is a reform of its current Constitution, but equally a change of the international community’s attitude towards Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper aims to contribute to further academic research in the field of international relations regarding future integration of the Western Balkans in the Euro-Atlantic bloc.

  15. Tropical Atlantic-Korea teleconnection pattern during boreal summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu; Kug, Jong-Seong; Kimoto, Masahide; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    The remote impact of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) variability on Korean summer precipitation is examined based on observational data analysis along with the idealized and hindcast model experiments. Observations show a significant correlation (i.e. 0.64) between Korean precipitation anomalies (averaged over 120-130°E, 35-40°N) and the tropical Atlantic SST index (averaged over 60°W-20°E, 30°S-30°N) during the June-July-August (JJA) season for the 1979-2010 period. Our observational analysis and partial-data assimilation experiments using the coupled general circulation model demonstrate that tropical Atlantic SST warming induces the equatorial low-level easterly over the western Pacific through a reorganization of the global Walker Circulation, causing a decreased precipitation over the off-equatorial western Pacific. As a Gill-type response to this diabatic forcing, an anomalous low-level anticyclonic circulation appears over the Philippine Sea, which transports wet air from the tropics to East Asia through low-level southerly, resulting an enhanced precipitation in the Korean peninsula. Multi-model hindcast experiments also show that predictive skills of Korean summer precipitation are improved by utilizing predictions of tropical Atlantic SST anomalies as a predictor for Korean precipitation anomalies.

  16. Procamacolaimus Dorylaimus Sp. Nov. (Nematoda: Leptolaimidae) from the southern atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    Procamacolaimus dorylaimus sp. nov. is described from the Southern Atlantic (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The species is characterised by 3.4-3.5 mm long body; coarsely annulated cuticle without lateral field, epidermal glands and body pores absent, somatic setae present; labial sensilla pap

  17. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  18. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments. PMID:26505476

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  20. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two

  1. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  2. Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the dissolved iron (DFe) binding organic ligands were determined during 3 Dutch GEOTRACES cruises covering the length of the West Atlantic Ocean. Adsorptive Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdDPCSV) with TAC as competing ligand was used to measure Fe binding

  3. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Marin, Enrique; Ortiz, Mauricio; Ortiz de Urbina, José María; Quelle, Pablo; Walter, John; Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  4. Atlantic City and the Boardwalk: 1932--1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Donald W

    2008-04-01

    Memories of the meetings in Atlantic City of the two major academic medical societies, the AAP and the ASCI, are enveloped by a vague and unsettling nostalgia. Dominating the scene was the Boardwalk--a site of unexpected encounters, often with long-forgotten colleagues, evoking a feeling of shared intellectual excitement and rich personal ties.

  5. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  6. President Ilves at the Atlantic Council / Ago Ambre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ambre, Ago

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest 19. märtsil 2010 Washingtonis transatlantilisi suhteid arendavas rahvusvahelises välis- ja julgeolekupoliitilises mõttekojas ja poliitikakeskuses Atlantic Council. Kohtumisest Atantic Council'i Ameerika Ühendriikide poolsete juhtidega. Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 17.-23.03.2010

  7. Chloromethane and dichloromethane in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolusu, Seshagiri Rao; Schlünzen, K. Heinke; Grawe, David; Seifert, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Chloromethane and dichloromethane were measured in the air of marine environment and in seawater during a cruise from the Port of Spain to Rio de Janeiro in the tropical Atlantic Ocean in April and May of 2009. Variation of chloromethane and dichloromethane concentrations was analysed as a function of latitude. There is no correlation observed between chloromethane and dichloromethane concentrations in the seawater suggest that they may not have a common oceanic source. In addition, a relation of concentrations, fluxes and sea surface temperature were studied to determine a dependency of concentrations and fluxes on sea surface temperature. Sea surface temperature does not show any significant effect on dichloromethane concentrations in surface seawater. Chloromethane and dichloromethane are supersaturated in the seawater during the cruise. This implies that the tropical Atlantic Ocean emits chloromethane and dichloromethane into the atmosphere. The tropical Atlantic Ocean mean fluxes of chloromethane and dichloromethane during the cruise were 150 nmol m-2 d-1 and 81 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The backward trajectory analysis revealed that the tropical Atlantic Ocean and African coast were primary and secondary source regions for chloromethane and dichloromethane respectively, during the Meteor cruise.

  8. 77 FR 61727 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... rule (76 FR 75492) and type approval notice (76 FR 75523) updating VMS requirements in Atlantic HMS... possessed onboard, and location and timing of landing. These requirements were originally effective March 1... specifying target species, gear possessed onboard, and location and timing of landing. However, no...

  9. 75 FR 13681 - Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications... amended, to allocate not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television,...

  10. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisz, Mary; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating...... to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings...

  11. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    , time and amplitude (where possible) of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic (65-0 Ma). Our compilation is based on published results from reflection seismic studies, AFT (apatite fission track) studies, VR (vitrinite reflectance) trends, maximum burial, sediment supply...

  12. Planktonic coelenterates collected in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1973-01-01

    This short faunistic note contains a report on the species of Scyphozoa, Hydromedusae, Siphonophora and Ctenophora that were collected by OWS “Cirrus” and “Cumulus”, R.V. “Tridens” and HMS “Snellius” in the North Atlantic Ocean between 22° N and 66° N. In all, 61 species have been captured. New reco

  13. Microbial communities on Australian modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Tamplin, M L

    2012-05-01

    The role of specific spoilage organisms (SSO) in products such as Atlantic salmon has been well documented. However, little is known about what other micro-organisms are present and these organisms may indirectly influence spoilage by their interactions with the SS0. We used a combination of culture-based and DNA-based methods to explore the microbial communities found on Atlantic salmon fillets packed in a modified atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. After 15 days the communities were dominated by Shewanella spp. or Carnobacterium spp. and a variety of other genera were present in smaller numbers. Variability in the microbial community composition in packages processed on the same day was also observed. This was mostly due to differences in the presence of minor members of the community including species from genera such as Iodobacter, Serratia, Morganella and Yersinia. The combination of culture-based and culture-independent methods provided greater insight into the development of microbial communities on Atlantic salmon than would have been possible using only one method. This work highlights the potential importance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fresh Atlantic salmon stored under modified atmosphere conditions.

  14. The spatial distribution and evolution characteristics of North Atlantic cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Gray, S.

    2009-09-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones play a large role in determining the day-to-day weather conditions in western Europe through their associated wind and precipitation patterns. Thus, their typical spatial and evolution characteristics are of great interest to meteorologists, insurance and risk management companies. In this study a feature tracking algorithm is applied to a cyclone database produced using the Hewson-method of cyclone identification, based on low-level gradients of wet-bulb potential temperature, to produce a climatology of mid-latitude cyclones. The aim of this work is to compare the cyclone track and density statistics found in this study with previous climatologies and to determine reasons for any differences. This method is found to compare well with other cyclone identification methods; the north Atlantic storm track is reproduced along with the major regions of genesis. Differences are attributed to cyclone lifetime and strength thresholds, dataset resolution and cyclone identification and tracking methods. Previous work on cyclone development has been largely limited to case studies as opposed to analysis of climatological data, and does not distinguish between the different stages of cyclone evolution. The cyclone database used in this study allows cyclone characteristics to be tracked throughout the cyclone lifecycle. This enables the evaluation of the characteristics of cyclone evolution for systems forming in different genesis regions and a calculation of the spatial distribution and evolution of these characteristics in composite cyclones. It was found that most of the cyclones that cross western Europe originate in the east Atlantic where the baroclinicity and sea surface temperature gradients are weak compared to the west Atlantic. East Atlantic cyclones also have higher low-level relative vorticity and lower mean sea level pressure at their genesis point than west Atlantic cyclones. This is consistent with the hypothesis that they are secondary

  15. Extratropical North Atlantic SST influence on Sahel rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Chiang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We present evidence suggesting that the late 1960's Sahel drought was linked to an abrupt cooling in the extratropical North Atlantic, whose influence was then propagated to the Sahel by atmospheric teleconnection. Such linkages have been observed in paleoclimate during abrupt climate changes of the last glacial period. They have also occurred in coupled model simulations of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) slowdown, the latter being the leading cause of said paleoclimate abrupt changes. The AMOC-slowdown simulations show a characteristic global pattern of climate changes, including a northern hemispheric-wide cooling and increased surface pressure, and weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons. We show that an observed northern-hemispheric pattern of changes, resembling the AMOC slowdown, occurred during the late 1960's, co-incident with the Sahel drought. A combined principal component analysis of 20th century surface temperature, sea level pressure and precipitation extracts a leading mode whose spatial pattern closely resemble the impacts of AMOC slowdown. A similar analysis of AMIP-type simulations forced by 20th century observed forcings shows a similar result, suggesting that the origins of the climate change reside in SST changes, in particular over extratropical North Atlantic. Taken together, the results suggests the influence of extratropical North Atlantic cooling on the 20th century Sahel drought, and a teleconnection pathway through surface/tropospheric cooling. Motivated by our observational result, we investigated atmospheric teleconnection mechanisms of extratropical North Atlantic cooling in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) coupled with slab ocean. Our results indicate the central role of tropospheric cooling in communicating the influence on the Sahel. We explicitly show this using regional climate model simulation of the Sahel, with air temperature and associated humidity anomalies from the GCM simulation

  16. Southwest Atlantic water mass evolution during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, D. C.; Tessin, A. C.; Hoffman, J. L.; Schmittner, A.

    2015-05-01

    The rise in atmospheric CO2 during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1; 14.5-17.5 kyr B.P.) may have been driven by the release of carbon from the abyssal ocean. Model simulations suggest that wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean can liberate 13C-depleted carbon from the abyss, causing atmospheric CO2 to increase and the δ13C of CO2 to decrease. One prediction of the Southern Ocean hypothesis is that water mass tracers in the deep South Atlantic should register a circulation response early in the deglaciation. Here we test this idea using a depth transect of 12 cores from the Brazil Margin. We show that records below 2300 m remained 13C-depleted until 15 kyr B.P. or later, indicating that the abyssal South Atlantic was an unlikely source of light carbon to the atmosphere during HS1. Benthic δ18O results are consistent with abyssal South Atlantic isolation until 15 kyr B.P., in contrast to shallower sites. The depth dependent timing of the δ18O signal suggests that correcting δ18O for ice volume is problematic on glacial terminations. New data from 2700 to 3000 m show that the deep SW Atlantic was isotopically distinct from the abyss during HS1. As a result, we find that mid-depth δ13C minima were most likely driven by an abrupt drop in δ13C of northern component water. Low δ13C at the Brazil Margin also coincided with an ~80‰ decrease in Δ14C. Our results are consistent with a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and point toward a northern hemisphere trigger for the initial rise in atmospheric CO2 during HS1.

  17. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide.

  18. Bathypelagic Food Web Structure of the Northern Atlantic Mid-Atlantic Ridge Based on Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to characterize the trophic connections of the dominant fishes of the deep-pelagic region of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) with respect to vertical distribution using carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis. Our goals were to id...

  19. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass resource. DATES: This rule is effective October 4... overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs from being... ACLs for eight snapper-grouper species in the FMP that are undergoing overfishing, including black...

  20. Genetic evidence of local exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a coastal subsistence fishery in the Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Ian R.; Hamilton, Lorraine C.; Rafferty, Sara; Meerburg, David; Poole, Rebecca; Dempson, J. Brian; Robertson, Martha J.; Reddin, David G.; Bourret, Vincent; Dionne, Mélanie; Chaput, Gerald J.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; King, Tim L.; Candy, John R.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries targeting mixtures of populations risk the over utilization of minor stock constituents unless harvests are monitored and managed. We evaluated stock composition and exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a subsistence fishery in coastal Labrador, Canada using genetic mixture analysis and individual assignment with a microsatellite baseline (15 loci, 11 829 individuals, 12 regional groups) encompassing the species western Atlantic range. Bayesian and maximum likelihood mixture analyses of fishery samples over six years (2006-2011; 1 772 individuals) indicate contributions of adjacent stocks of 96-97%. Estimates of fishery associated exploitation were highest for Labrador salmon (4.2-10.6% per year) and generally < 1% for other regions. Individual assignment of fishery samples indicated non-local contributions to the fishery (e.g., Quebec, Newfoundland) were rare and primarily in southern Labrador, consistent with migration pathways utilizing the Strait of Belle Isle. This work illustrates how genetic analysis of mixed stock Atlantic salmon fisheries in the northwest Atlantic using this new baseline can disentangle exploitation and reveal complex migratory behaviours.

  1. Monazite in Atlantic shore-line features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Lincoln; Miller, Glen A.

    1954-01-01

    This report is a survey of present and potential production of monazite from part of the Maryland-Florida section of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The part of the Coastal Plain covered here is the outer (shore-ward) half. In this area, all the large heavy-mineral placers so far discovered occur in sand bodies that, by their shape, size, orientation, and lithology, appear to be ancient beaches, spits, bars, or dunes. Smaller placers have produced from recent shore-line features. The inner part of the Coastal Plain, to be treated in another report, is underlain generally by older rocks, ranging in age from Cretaceous to older Pleistocene. Only two large heavy-mineral placers are now in production at Trail Ridge, and near Jacksonville, both in Florida. Production is planned for the near future near Yulee, Fla.: in Folkston, Ga.: and at one or two localities in eastern North Carolina. Each of these three will produce monazite as a byproduct; the total new reserve for the three placers is about 33,000 tons of monazite. In large heavy-mineral placers of this type, monazite has not been found to run more than about 1 percent of total heavy minerals. In some large placers, notably Trail Ridge, it is almost or completely lacking. No reason for its sporadic occurrence has been found in this investigation. Two placers of potential economic value have been found by this project in Virginia, one west and one east of Chesapeake Bay. Neither is of promise for monazite production, but if they serve to open up exploration or production in the area, there is a chance for monazite as a byproduct from other placers. A discovery of considerable scientific interest has to do with the occurrence of two different suites of heavy minerals in the Coastal Plain, at least south of Virginia. One, an “older” suite, lacks epidote, hornblende, and garnet; this suite occurs in all older formations and in Pleistocene deposits lying above about 50 or 60 feet above sea level. The other,

  2. Ca-ALC络合物和鱼精子DNA反应的电化学与光谱研究%Studies of Ca-ALC interacting with herring sperm DNA by electrochemical,fluorimetric and UV-spectrophotometric method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜; 杨丽珠; 蒋丽萍; 李新民; 陆光汉

    2005-01-01

    In the buffer solution of (CH2)6N4(pH=6.0), Ca-ALC(alizarin complexone) complex can react with herring sperm DNA(hsDNA) to form an electrochemically non-active supermolecular complex DNA-Ca-ALC within 2 min at room temperature, which results in the maximum decrease of the peak current of Ca-ALC and a negative shift of the peak potential. The Ip is proportional to hsDNA concentration from 0.1 to 3 μg·mL-1. So this method can be used for the determination of DNA. Compared with some other methods, the procedure is simple, rapid, selective and practical. In the presence of DNA, the electrochemical parameters(the electron transfer coefficient α, the standard rate constant Ks) show significant change. In addition, by the use of fluorimetric and UV-spectrophotometric methods, it is assumed that the binding mode is intercalation.%在pH为6.0的六次甲基四胺缓冲溶液中,Ca-ALC(茜素)络合物与鱼精子DNA在室温下2 min内结合生成了非电活性的超分子化合物,导致络合物的峰电流降低和峰电位的负移,峰电流值在一定范围内与DNA的浓度成线性关系,线性范围为0.1 ~ 3 μg/mL,方法可以用于DNA的测定.和其它方法相比,该方法简便,快速,有较强的选择性和实用性.在加入DNA的条件下,电化学参数(电子转移系数α,标准速率常数Ks)显示了较大的改变.同时,结合荧光法和UV光谱法,推断反应的结合方式可能为嵌入结合.

  3. Introduction to: Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation(AMOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Carton, James A.

    2011-01-01

    A striking conclusion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 report is the crucial role that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) may play in anthropogenic climate change. However, these IPCC coupled climate simulations show a broad range of uncertainty in the magnitude and timing of AMOC transport change ranging from none to nearly complete collapse within the 21st century. The potential consequences of large changes in the characteristics of AMOC have motivated the creation in the United States of an interagency program and implementation plan to develop monitoring and prediction capabilities for the AMOC This program parallels the development of substantial monitoring efforts by European, South American and African countries -- notably the UK Rapid and Rapid-Watch programs. The papers contained in this volume are derived from presentations at the First U.S. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) Meeting held 4 - 6 May, 2009 to review the US implementation plan and its coordination with other monitoring activities. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation consists of multiple components illustrated in an attached figure. Water enters the South Atlantic at upper and intermediate depths through both western and eastern routes (where eddy transport is especially important) and is transported northward across the equator, where it recirculates within the northern subtropical and subpolar gyres. The northern end is defined by the sinking regions of the Nordic Seas and the Labrador Sea where the waters that eventually form the upper and lower branches of North Atlantic Deep Water are conditioned. High surface salinities, the result of high net evaporation in the tropics and subtropics (including the Mediterranean Sea), and presence of regions of the Arctic Ocean that remain ice-free even in winter allow for the rapid cooling and thus densification of surface water. This dense surface water becomes the source of deep

  4. North Atlantic explosive cyclones and large scale atmospheric variability modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the extratropics, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the last decades Europe witnessed major damage from winter storms such as Lothar (December 1999), Kyrill (January 2007), Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010), Gong (January 2013) and Stephanie (February 2014) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. In fact, most of these storms crossed the Atlantic in direction of Europe experiencing an explosive development at unusual lower latitudes along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track and reaching Iberia with an uncommon intensity (Liberato et al., 2011; 2013; Liberato 2014). Results show that the explosive cyclogenesis process of most of these storms at such low latitudes is driven by: (i) the southerly displacement of a very strong polar jet stream; and (ii) the presence of an atmospheric river (AR), that is, by a (sub)tropical moisture export over the western and central (sub)tropical Atlantic which converges into the cyclogenesis region and then moves along with the storm towards Iberia. Previous studies have pointed to a link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and intense European windstorms. On the other hand, the NAO exerts a decisive control on the average latitudinal location of the jet stream over the North Atlantic basin (Woollings et al. 2010). In this work the link between North Atlantic explosive cyclogenesis, atmospheric rivers and large scale atmospheric variability modes is reviewed and discussed. Liberato MLR (2014) The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the north Atlantic: Large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia. Weather and Climate Extremes, 5-6, 16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.wace.2014.06.002 Liberato MRL, Pinto JG, Trigo IF, Trigo RM. (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66:330-334. doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato

  5. Linking The Atlantic Gyres: Warm, Saline Intrusions From Subtropical Atlantic to the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean state estimates from SODA assimilation are analyzed to understand how major shifts in the North Atlantic Current path relate to AMOC, and how these shifts are related to large scale ocean circulation and surface forcing. These complement surface-drifter and altimetry data showing the same events. SODA data indicate that the warm water limb of AMOC, reaching to at least 600m depth, expanded in density/salinity space greatly after 1995, and that Similar events occurred in the late 1960s and around 1980. While there were large changes in the upper limb, there was no immediate response in the dense return flow, at least not in SODA, however one would expect a delayed response of increasing AMOC due to the positive feedback from increased salt transport. These upper limb changes are winddriven, involving changes in the eastern subpolar gyre, visible in the subduction of low potential vorticity waters. The subtropical gyre has been weak during the times of the northward intrusions of the highly saline subtropical waters, while the NAO index has been neutral or in a negative phase. The image of subtropical/subpolar gyre exchange through teleconnections within the AMOC overturning cell will be described.

  6. Summer North Atlantic Oscillation and flood variability in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Juan Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Badoux, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The study analyses the possible links between flood frequency in Switzerland and the North Atlantic dynamics over the last two centuries. Given the intricate topography of Switzerland, it will generate a territorial division to retain main physiographic and environmental dissimilarities between different regions. The flood variability in Switzerland over the period 1800-2010 has been determined from a flood damage index for July and August months. The index considers very severe and catastrophic floods from existing flood inventories, summarizing both the severity of these events, their spatial extent and the regional differences. Special attention will be focused on the disparities between flood dynamics at northern and southern slopes of the Alps. The analysis of the possible links between floods and North Atlantic dynamics is focused on the low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Summer climate in the North Atlantic-European sector shows a principal pattern of year-to-year variability, although this pattern is weaker than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter and is confined to northern latitudes. By analogy the climatology community refers to this pattern as the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO), which is defined as the main empirical orthogonal function of the standardized anomalies of the European mean sea level pressure during July and August. The flood damage index provides evidences of floods clusters in: 1830-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005 to present. These clusters coincide with those reported from Switzerland and from some areas of the European continent such as the Czech Republic, Italy and the eastern half of the Iberian Peninsula. This link is not so close when compared with the flood occurrences in Germany. The analysis of the principal mode of low-frequency atmospheric variability shows that the Swiss river catchments situated on the center and southern flank of the Alps are affected by atmospherically unstable areas

  7. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean. The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example

  8. Remote influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on the South Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hosmay; Dong, Shenfu; Lee, Sang-Ki; Campos, Edmo

    2016-08-01

    This study explores potential factors that may influence decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (SAMOC) by using observational data as well as surface-forced ocean model runs and a fully coupled climate model run. Here we show that SAMOC is strongly correlated with the leading mode of sea surface height (SSH) variability in the South Atlantic Ocean, which displays a meridional dipole between north and south of 20°S. A significant portion ( 45%) of the South Atlantic SSH dipole variability is remotely modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Further analysis shows that anomalous tropical Pacific convection associated with the IPO forces robust stationary Rossby wave patterns, modulating the wind stress curl over the South Atlantic Ocean. A positive (negative) phase IPO increases (decreases) the westerlies over the South Atlantic, which increases (decreases) the strength of the subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic and thus the SAMOC.

  9. South Atlantic intermediate water advances into the North-east Atlantic with reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Bonneau, Lucile; Colin, Christophe; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Montagna, Paolo; Blamart, Dominique; Hebbeln, Dierk; Van Rooij, David; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Hemsing, Freya; Wefing, Anne-Marie; Frank, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    The Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd) of seawater and cold-water coral (CWC) samples from the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran Sea, at a depth of 280-827 m were investigated in order to constrain middepth water mass dynamics within the Gulf of Cádiz over the past 40 ka. ɛNd of glacial and Holocene CWC from the Alboran Sea and the northern Gulf of Cádiz reveals relatively constant values (-8.6 to -9.0 and -9.5 to -10.4, respectively). Such values are similar to those of the surrounding present-day middepth waters from the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW; ɛNd ˜ -9.4) and Mediterranean Sea Water (MSW; ɛNd ˜ -9.9). In contrast, glacial ɛNd values for CWC collected at thermocline depth (550-827 m) in the southern Gulf of Cádiz display a higher average value (-8.9 ± 0.4) compared to the present-day value (-11.7 ± 0.3). This implies a higher relative contribution of water masses of Mediterranean (MSW) or South Atlantic origin (East Antarctic Intermediate Water, EAAIW). Our study has produced the first evidence of significant radiogenic ɛNd values (˜ -8) at 19, 23-24, and 27 ka, which are coeval with increasing iceberg discharges and a weakening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Since MOW ɛNd values remained stable during the last glacial period, it is suggested that these radiogenic ɛNd values most likely reflect an enhanced northward propagation of glacial EAAIW into the eastern Atlantic Basin.

  10. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, B; Muir, D C G; Backus, S; Born, E W; Dietz, R; Haug, T; Metcalfe, T; Metcalfe, C; Øien, N

    2008-05-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and SigmaCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170+/-110 and 41+/-39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800+/-4100 and 1100+/-780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters.

  11. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt changes in climate have occurred in many locations around the globe over the last glacial cycle, with pronounced temperature swings on timescales of decades or less in the North Atlantic. The global pattern of these changes suggests that they reflect variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). This review examines the evidence from ocean sediments for ocean circulation change over these abrupt events. The evidence for changes in the strength and structure of the AMOC associated with the Younger Dryas and many of the Heinrich events is strong. Although it has been difficult to directly document changes in the AMOC over the relatively short Dansgaard-Oeschger events, there is recent evidence supporting AMOC changes over most of these oscillations as well. The lack of direct evidence for circulation changes over the shortest events leaves open the possibility of other driving mechanisms for millennial-scale climate variability.

  12. Spin-Down of the North Atlantic Subpolar Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, S.; Rhines, P. B.

    2004-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in the mid-to-high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean as evidenced by TOPEX/Poseidon observations of sea surface height (SSH) in the subpolar gyre and the Gulf Stream. Analysis of altimeter data shows that subpolar SSH has increased during the 1990s and the geostrophic velocity derived from altimeter data shows a decline in the gyre circulation. Direct current-meter observations in the boundary current of the Labrador Sea support the trend in the 199Os, and, together with hydrographic data show that in the mid-late 1990s the trend extends deep in the water column. We find that buoyancy forcing over the northern North Atlantic has a dynamic effect consistent with the altimeter data and hydrographic observations: a weak thermohaline forcing and the subsequent decay of the domed structure of the subpolar isopycnals would give rise to the observed anticyclonic circulation trend.

  13. Summer North Atlantic Oscillation: decadal change, impact, and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.

    2010-12-01

    Summer North Atlantic Oscillation: decadal change, impact, and possible mechanisms Jianqi Sun, Huijun Wang, and Wei Yuan Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre (NZC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. Email: sunjq@mail.iap.ac.cn It is well known that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is strong in winter, so most previous studies focused on the NAO in winter time. However, actually the NAO is also one of the teleconnection patterns that have a year-round presence. For example, some studies have indicated that the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) is still a dominant pattern over the North Atlantic region. So it is of importance to investigate the SNAO’s variability and influences. Our recent studies revealed that the summer (SNAO) experienced a significant decadal change around the late 1970s, with the southern action center located farther eastward after the late 1970s as compared to before. Such decadal change of the SNAO pattern altered its relationship with the Northern Hemispheric summer climate. In the period before the late 1970s, the connection of the SNAO on the Northern Hemispheric land surface air temperature is weak, but after that time the impact of the SNAO is significantly enhanced. Our further analysis indicated that the decadal change of the SNAO pattern is to some extend attributed to the decadal variability of the Mediterranean-Black Sea (MBS) sea surface temperature (SST). In 1951-1975, the variability of the MBS SST is quite weak, but in 1978-2002 it becomes more active. The active MBS SST can enhance the interaction between the sea and its overlying atmosphere, thus strengthening the activity of the east part of the SNAO southern center after the late 1970s and consequently producing an eastward SNAO southern center shift. This observational analysis result is further confirmed by sensitivity experiments. Besides the MBS SST, the decadal variability of the tropical Atlantic SST

  14. The South Atlantic in the Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Stevens

    Full Text Available The geographical area covered by the Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM includes that part of the South Atlantic south of 24°S. A description of the dynamics and thermodynamics of this region of the model is presented. Both the mean and eddy fields in the model are in good agreement with reality, although the magnitude of the transients is somewhat reduced. The heat flux is northward and in broad agreement with many other estimates. Agulhas eddies are formed by the model and propagate westward into the Atlantic providing a mechanism for fluxing heat from the Indian Ocean. The confluence of the Brazil and Falkland currents produces a strong front and a large amount of mesoscale activity. In the less stratified regions to the south, topographic steering of the Antarctic circumpolar current is important.

  15. China’s growing role in the South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Erthal Abdenur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the flow of goods, people and ideas across the South Atlantic has increased considerably, due not only to growing trade and cooperation ties between South America and Africa, but also to the new interests of extra-regional emerging powers such as the People’s Republic of China. This article examines China’s growing role in the region in three different spheres (economic, political andsecurity interests in light of its changing strategy in developing countries; the role of non-state actors such as corporations and diaspora communities is also included. The authors conclude that, even though the Chinese state does not yet have a “South Atlantic policy”, the region has gained strategic importance for China. Finally, the article highlights China’s renewed interest in Antarctica.

  16. Synchronous climate changes in Antarctica and the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steig, E.J.; Brook, E.J.; White, J.W.C.; Sucher, C.M.; Bender, M.L.; Lehman, S.J.; Morse, D.L.; Waddington, E.D.; Clow, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Central Greenland ice cores provide evidence of abrupt changes in climate over the past 100,000 years. Many of these changes have also been identified in sedimentary and geochemical signatures in deep-sea sediment cores from the North Atlantic, confirming the link between millennial-scale climate variability and ocean thermohaline circulation. It is shown here that two of the most prominent North Atlantic events - the rapid warming that makes the end of the last glacial period and the Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas oscillation - are also recorded in an ice core from Taylor Dome, in the western Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. This result contrasts with evidence from ice cores in other regions of Antarctica, which show an asynchronous response between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  17. Stability predicts genetic diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Hickerson, Michael J; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Moritz, Craig

    2009-02-06

    Biodiversity hotspots, representing regions with high species endemism and conservation threat, have been mapped globally. Yet, biodiversity distribution data from within hotspots are too sparse for effective conservation in the face of rapid environmental change. Using frogs as indicators, ecological niche models under paleoclimates, and simultaneous Bayesian analyses of multispecies molecular data, we compare alternative hypotheses of assemblage-scale response to late Quaternary climate change. This reveals a hotspot within the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot. We show that the southern Atlantic forest was climatically unstable relative to the central region, which served as a large climatic refugium for neotropical species in the late Pleistocene. This sets new priorities for conservation in Brazil and establishes a validated approach to biodiversity prediction in other understudied, species-rich regions.

  18. Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuidema, P [University of Miami; Chiu, C [University of Reading; Fairall, CW [NOAA - Environmental Technology Laboratory; Ghan, SJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Kollias, P [Stony Brook University; McFarguhar, GM; Mechem, DB [University of Kansas; Romps, DM [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Wong, H; Yuter, SE [North Carolina State University; Alvarado, MJ [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.; DeSzoeke, SP; Feingold, G [NOAA - Earth System Research Laboratory; Haywood, JM; Lewis, ER [Brookhaven National Laboratory; McComiskey, A [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Redemann, J [NASA - Ames Research Center; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wood, R [University of Washington; Zhu, P [Florida International University

    2015-12-01

    Southern Africa is the world’s largest emitter of biomass-burning (BB) aerosols. Their westward transport over the remote southeast Atlantic Ocean colocates some of the largest atmospheric loadings of absorbing aerosol with the least examined of the Earth’s major subtropical stratocumulus decks. Global aerosol model results highlight that the largest positive top-of-atmosphere forcing in the world occurs in the southeast Atlantic, but this region exhibits large differences in magnitude and sign between reputable models, in part because of high variability in the underlying model cloud distributions. Many uncertainties contribute to the highly variable model radiation fields: the aging of shortwave-absorbing aerosol during transport, how much of the aerosol mixes into the cloudy boundary layer, and how the low clouds adjust to smoke-radiation and smoke-cloud interactions. In addition, the ability of the BB aerosol to absorb shortwave radiation is known to vary seasonally as the fuel type on land changes.

  19. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.

  20. Deep ocean early warning signals of an Atlantic MOC collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Qing Yi; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is a crucial part of the climate system because of its associated northward heat transport. The present-day MOC is sensitive to freshwater anomalies and may collapse to a state with a strongly reduced northward heat transport. A future collapse of the Atlantic MOC has been identified as one of the most dangerous tipping points in the climate system. It is therefore crucial to develop early warning indicators for such a potential collapse based on relatively short time series. So far, attempts to use indicators based on critical slowdown have been marginally successful. Based on complex climate network reconstruction, we here present a promising new indicator for the MOC collapse that efficiently monitors spatial changes in deep ocean circulation. Through our analysis of the performance of this indicator we formulate optimal locations of measurement of the MOC to provide early warning signals of a collapse. Our results imply that an increase in spatial reso...