Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.
Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.
Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos
Full Text Available The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL, trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites
Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões
The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated
Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes
Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.
Érico Emed Kauano
Full Text Available The "Serra do Mar" region comprises the largest remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The coast of the Paraná State is part of the core area of the "Serra do Mar" corridor and where actions for biodiversity conservation must be planned. In this study we aimed at characterizing the landscape structure in the APA-Guaraqueçaba, the largest protected area in this region, in order to assist environmental policies of this region. Based on a supervised classification of a mosaic of LANDSAT-5-TM satellite images (from March 2009, we developed a map (1:75,000 scale with seven classes of land use and land cover and analyzed the relative quantities of forests and modified areas in slopes and lowlands. The APA-Guaraqueçaba is comprised mainly by the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (68.6% of total area and secondary forests (9.1%, indicating a forested landscape matrix; anthropogenic and bare soil areas (0.8% and the Pasture/Grasslands class (4.2% were less representative. Slopes were less fragmented and more preserved (96.3% of Dense Ombrophilous Forest and secondary forest than lowlands (71.3%, suggesting that restoration initiatives in the lowlands must be stimulated in this region. We concluded that most of the region sustains well-conserved ecosystems, highlighting the importance of Paraná northern coast for the biodiversity maintenance of the Atlantic Forest.
Legaard, Kasey R; Sader, Steven A; Simons-Legaard, Erin M
Sustainable forest management is based on functional relationships between management actions, landscape conditions, and forest values. Changes in management practices make it fundamentally more difficult to study these relationships because the impacts of current practices are difficult to disentangle from the persistent influences of past practices. Within the Atlantic Northern Forest of Maine, U.S.A., forest policy and management practices changed abruptly in the early 1990s. During the 1970s-1980s, a severe insect outbreak stimulated salvage clearcutting of large contiguous tracts of spruce-fir forest. Following clearcut regulation in 1991, management practices shifted abruptly to near complete dependence on partial harvesting. Using a time series of Landsat satellite imagery (1973-2010) we assessed cumulative landscape change caused by these very different management regimes. We modeled predominant temporal patterns of harvesting and segmented a large study area into groups of landscape units with similar harvest histories. Time series of landscape composition and configuration metrics averaged within groups revealed differences in landscape dynamics caused by differences in management history. In some groups (24% of landscape units), salvage caused rapid loss and subdivision of intact mature forest. Persistent landscape change was created by large salvage clearcuts (often averaging > 100 ha) and conversion of spruce-fir to deciduous and mixed forest. In groups that were little affected by salvage (56% of landscape units), contemporary partial harvesting caused loss and subdivision of intact mature forest at even greater rates. Patch shape complexity and edge density reached high levels even where cumulative harvest area was relatively low. Contemporary practices introduced more numerous and much smaller patches of stand-replacing disturbance (typically averaging forest ecology. PMID:26106893
Torres, P C; Prado, P I
This study aimed at estimating the population size and attitudes of residents towards caring for domestic dogs, through questionnaire surveys, as well as the frequency of these animals in different habitats (anthropic and forest patch), using scent stations. The study was conducted in a severely fragmented area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A large number of unrestricted dogs was recorded, averaging 6.2 ind/km². These dogs have owners and are regularly fed. Dog records decreased from the anthropogenic matrix to the forest patch edge, which suggests that dogs act as an edge effect on forest patches. Encounters between domestic dog and wild animals can still be frequent in severely fragmented landscapes, mainly at the forest edges. However the fact that most dogs have an owner and are more frequent in the anthropic habitat suggests that their putative effects are less severe than expected for a carnivore of such abundance, but the reinforcement of responsible ownership is needed to further ameliorate such effects. PMID:21180903
Roseli F. Oliveira
Full Text Available Morphological traits, such as size and shape, may reflect a combination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Ants have been used to evaluate the relationship between the environment and species coexistence and morphology. In the present study, we analyzed the morphology of workers of Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr in different landscapes from the Atlantic Domain in southeastern Brazil, focusing on the variation in the morphological attributes of these populations compared to those from a dense ombrophilous forest. Eighteen morphological traits of functional importance for interactions between workers and the environment were measured to characterize the size and shape of the workers. In general, the results show that ants of urban areas possess some morphological attributes of smaller size, with highly overlapped morphological space between the populations in forested ecosystems. Further, some of the traits related to predation were relatively smaller in modified land areas than in the populations from preserved areas of dense ombrophilous forest. These results help broaden the knowledge regarding morphological diversity in G. striatula, suggesting that the characterization of the morphology may be important to quantify the effects of land use on morphological diversity, and presumably, to facilitate the use of ants as biological indicators.
Oosten, van, T.; Gunarso, P.; Koesoetjahjo, I.; Wiersum, F.
Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nat...
This paper discusses forest vulnerability, which represents one of the bases for directing the encroachment upon forests. We prepared two models for the assessment of forest vulnerability. A model based on a landscapeÉecological evaluation of forest represents the premise. The forest is the most complex landscapeÉecological element and as such is in great codependency with all other factors; this codependency evidences itself perfectly through the landscapeÉecological assessment. Since there ...
Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.
The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.
Cora van Oosten
Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.
Renato P. Salomão
Full Text Available Human activities in tropical forests are the main causes of forest fragmentation. According to historical factor in deforestation processes, forest remnants exhibit different sizes and shapes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dung beetle assemblage on fragments of different degree of sizes. Sampling was performed during rainy and dry season of 2010 in six fragments of Atlantic forest, using pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion. Also, we used two larger fragments as control. We used General Linear Models to determine whether the fragments presented distinguished dung beetle abundance and richness. Analysis of Similarities and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling were used to determine whether the dung beetle assemblage was grouped according to species composition. A total of 3352 individuals were collected and 19 species were identified in the six fragments sampled. Dung beetle abundance exhibited a shift according to fragment size; however, richness did not change among fragments evaluated. Also, fragments sampled and the two controls exhibited distinct species composition. The distinction on abundance of dung beetles among fragments may be related to different amount of resource available in each one. It is likely that the dung beetle richness did not distinguish among the different fragments due to the even distribution of the mammal communities in these patches, and consequent equal dung diversity. We conclude that larger fragments encompass higher abundance of dung beetle and distinct species. However, for a clearer understanding of effects of fragmentation on dung beetles in Atlantic forest, studies evaluating narrower variations of larger fragments should be conducted.
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) and High Priority Restoration (HRP) project accomplishments. These are ten...
Hurley, J.E.; Loo, J.; DesRochers, P.; Hirvonen, H.
This paper describes the key forest health issues affecting Canada's Atlantic Maritime ecozone which includes 9 main forest types known collectively as the Acadian Forest. In order to protect and conserve biological diversity, the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers adopted national criteria to measure sustainable forest management. This report describes the Acadian Forest landscape conditions, pre-industrial ecological influences, current ecological influences, and the impact of invasive alien insects and diseases on the diversity of tree species. Spruce trees in the Atlantic Maritime ecozone are threatened by the brown spruce longhorn beetle and pine trees are threatened by a pine shoot beetle recently introduced to North America from Asia. Diseases are also attacking the butternut, beech and dutch trees. The impact of land use practices such as forest harvesting on forest structure and composition was also addressed along with the impact of air pollution and climate change. It was noted that there is a direct relationship between deteriorating air quality and decline in mountain paper birch. Some of the anticipated impacts from climate change include a greater incidence of vector borne diseases resulting from the migration of new insect species in a warmer Canadian climate. An increase in extreme weather events such as ice storms may also weaken trees. refs., tabs., figs.
Costa, Janaina B. P.; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Santos, Bráulio A.; Tabarelli, Marcelo
Secondary forests are expanding in defaunated fragmented tropical landscapes, but their resilience potential remains poorly understood. In this study we used a chronosequence of advancing (19-62-yr old) Atlantic forest regeneration following slash-and-burn agriculture to infer successional shifts in seed rain in terms of seed density, species richness, taxonomic and functional composition, and local spatial distribution. After monitoring seed rain during 12 months in 60 1-m2 seed traps, we recorded over 400,000 seeds belonging to 180 morphospecies. From early to late-successional stage, seed rain decreased in density, increased in per capita species richness, gradually changed in species composition, and became less aggregated spatially. Regardless the age of forest stand, vertebrate-dispersed seeds accounted for 67-75% of all species recorded. Large-seeded species typical of old-growth forests, on the other hand, accounted for only 5-8% of the species recorded in the seed rain, a proportion around five times smaller than that reported for the old-growth forests of the same study site (31%). Our results suggest that the secondary forests considered, which are embedded in one of the largest (3500 ha) and best preserved remnant of the severely fragmented Atlantic forest of Northeast Brazil, may fail attaining older successional stages due to the reduced availability of large-seeded late-successional species. This regeneration constraint may be even stronger in smaller, more isolated forest remnants of the region, potentially reducing their ability to provide ecosystem services.
Griffith, J.A.; Stehman, S.V.; Loveland, T.R.
Landscape pattern and composition metrics are potential indicators for broad-scale monitoring of change and for relating change to human and ecological processes. We used a probability sample of 20-km ?? 20-km sampling blocks to characterize landscape composition and pattern in five US ecoregions: the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southeastern Plains, Northern Piedmont, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge Mountains. Land use/land cover (LULC) data for five dates between 1972 and 2000 were obtained for each sample block. Analyses focused on quantifying trends in selected landscape pattern metrics by ecoregion and comparing trends in land cover proportions and pattern metrics among ecoregions. Repeated measures analysis of the landscape pattern documented a statistically significant trend in all five ecoregions towards a more fine-grained landscape from the early 1970s through 2000. The ecologically important forest cover class also became more fine-grained with time (i.e., more numerous and smaller forest patches). Trends in LULC, forest edge, and forest percent like adjacencies differed among ecoregions. These results suggest that ecoregions provide a geographically coherent way to regionalize the story of national land use and land cover change in the United States. This study provides new information on LULC change in the southeast United States. Previous studies of the region from the 1930s to the 1980s showed a decrease in landscape fragmentation and an increase in percent forest, while this study showed an increase in forest fragmentation and a loss of forest cover.
The place of energy forestry in the landscape is discussed, principally with reference to Britain and Europe. The importance of design as a means of ensuring an attractive appearance, while meeting functional and economic requirements, is stressed. Simple design principles which help energy forests, mainly short rotation arable coppice, to fit into the landscape are suggested. (author)
Cano-Ortiz, Ana; Musarella, Carmelo Maria; Piñar-Fuentes, José Carlos; Pinto-Gomes, Carlos; Cano-Carmona, Eusébio
Aims: This, in conjunction with the diversity of the substrates and the fact that the island is home to the highest mountains in the Caribbean and with a high rate of endemic species, allows them to be differentiated into three major groups –dry forest, cloud forest and the transition between dry and cloud forests. The forests in the Dominican Republic grow in a tropical climate with ombrotypes ranging from arid to humid-hyperhumid due to the moisture-laden Atlantic winds; and inf...
Arnqvist, Johan; Segalini, Antonio; Dellwik, Ebba; Bergström, Hans
An analysis and interpretation of measurements from a 138-m tall tower located in a forested landscape is presented. Measurement errors and statistical uncertainties are carefully evaluated to ensure high data quality. A 40(Formula presented.) wide wind-direction sector is selected as the most re...
Samsuri Samsuri; I Nengah Surati Jaya; Cecep Kusmana; Kukuh Murtilaksono
Timber-based forest management is now shifting to as broader scope including ecosystem-based management. Timber-oriented forest management frequently affects the fragmentation of forest landscape. This paper defines the degree of forest landscape fragmentation in Batang Toru watershed, North Sumatra through indentification of correlation between forest landscape fragmentation and driving factors including biophysical and anthropogenic factors. Identification structure, pattern, and fragmentat...
Santika, Truly; Meijaard, Erik; Wilson, Kerrie A.
A multifunctional landscape approach to forest protection has been advocated for tropical countries. Designing such landscapes necessitates that the role of different land uses in protecting forest be evaluated, along with the spatial interactions between land uses. However, such evaluations have been hindered by a lack of suitable analysis methodologies and data with fine spatial resolution over long time periods. We demonstrate the utility of a matching method with multiple categories to evaluate the role of alternative land uses in protecting forest. We also assessed the impact of land use change trajectories on the rate of deforestation. We employed data from Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) at three different time periods during 2000-2012 to illustrate our approach. Four single land uses (protected areas (PA), natural forest logging concessions (LC), timber plantation concessions (TC) and oil-palm plantation concessions (OC)) and two mixed land uses (mixed concessions and the overlap between concessions and PA) were assessed. The rate of deforestation was found to be lowest for PA, followed by LC. Deforestation rates for all land uses tended to be highest for locations that share the characteristics of areas in which TC or OC are located (e.g. degraded areas), suggesting that these areas are inherently more susceptible to deforestation due to foregone opportunities. Our approach provides important insights into how multifunctional landscapes can be designed to enhance the protection of biodiversity.
Mohd Kher Hussein
Different stakeholders managed recreational forests in Selangor, Malaysia. These stakeholders' involvements have risen a question whether their development have fulfilled the sustainable landscape requirement. The aim of this study was to understand and generate more comprehensive knowledge on the recreational forest landscape management towards forest sustainability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the management of recreational forest in Selangor, Malaysia that affect landscap...
Liu Shi-rong; Lin Yong; Sun Peng-sen; Li Chong-wei; Hu Yu-zhe
Landscape ecology is playing an increasingly important role in resources management and landuse planning in recent decades and attracting much attention from resource managers and scientists in China as well as in the world. Reviews of landscape ecology development in China have been well documented, whereas forest landscape ecology and its applications receive relatively fewer reviews. In this paper, we first present a brief review of the historical development and current advances of landscape ecology in China and then introduce the applications of landscape ecology to forest park designs, urban greenspace planning, ecological restoration, biodiversity conservation and forest eco-hydrology. Finally, the problems with the application of forest landscape ecology in China, such as inadequate synthesis and integration, lack of basic research on patterns and processes, basic data shortage and model usage problem are discussed on the basis of which we suggest a future direction of forest landscape ecology in China.
BAŞKENT, Emin Zeki
The concept of forest management planning has rapidly progressed towards a more holistic approach in the last decade. Considering the whole landscape of ecosystems is the focus of landscape management. This paper examines the evolutionary process of forest management and compares and contrasts the landscape management planning concept to its predecessor, the conventional forest resource management approach. It explains the conceptual framework, provides the principles and the improvements ...
Mohd Kher Hussein
Full Text Available Different stakeholders managed recreational forests in Selangor, Malaysia. These stakeholders' involvements have risen a question whether their development have fulfilled the sustainable landscape requirement. The aim of this study was to understand and generate more comprehensive knowledge on the recreational forest landscape management towards forest sustainability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the management of recreational forest in Selangor, Malaysia that affect landscape sustainability and to gain an overview of recreational forest landscape development in Peninsular Malaysia. The study applies three methods. First is the analysis of documents relating to sustainable landscape concept. Secondly, through case studies where three recreational forest sites in Selangor were selected to analyze their management practices towards landscape sustainability. Thirdly, field observations were carried out to collect data about existing physical conditions of the study sites. The results revealed that landscape management of these recreational forests were not in accordance with landscape sustainability approaches and needs improvement. This was caused by improper planning, low understanding among the staffs regarding sustainable landscape management, shortage of knowledgeable personnel, and poor supervision. Failure to adopt and implement sustainable landscape practices which include environment protection, social improvements, good governance, aesthetics enhancement, economy benefits, and harmonized designs can lead to the increase in the 'abandon syndrome' of some recreational forest sites in Peninsular Malaysia.
Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.
We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. The boreal landscape was earlier characterized by a mosaic of open and forested wetlands and forests. Drainage and felling operation have largely changed that pattern. Several organisms depend upon the landscape mosaic. Natural ecotones between mire and forest provide food resources predictable in space and time contrasting to unpredictable edges in the silvicultured landscape. The mosaic is also a prerequisite for organisms dependent on non-substitutable resources in the landscape. The importance of swamp forests has increased as they function as refugia for earlier more widespread old-growth species. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal landscape should include the following points. First, the natural mosaic with open and forested wetlands must be maintained. Second, swamp forests must receive a general protection as they often constitute the only old-growth patches in the landscape. Third, we need to restore earlier disturbance regimes. Present strategy plans for conservation are insufficient, as they imply that a too large proportion of boreal organisms will not be able to survive outside protected areas. Instead, we need to focus more on how to preserve organisms in the man-influenced landscape. As a first step we need to understand how organisms are distributed in landscapes at various spatial scales. We need studies in landscapes where the original mosaic has faced various degrees of fragmentation. (au) 124 refs
Jencso, Kelsey; Hu, Jia; Hoylman, Zachary
Elevation dependent snowmelt magnitude and timing strongly influences net ecosystem productivity in forested mountain watersheds. However, previous work has provided little insight into how internal watershed topography and organization may modulate plant available water and forest growth across elevation gradients. We collected 800 tree cores from four coniferous tree species across a range of elevation, topographic positions and aspects in the Lubrecht Experimental Forest, Montana, USA. We compared the annual basal area increment growth rate to precipitation and temperature from a 60-year SNOTEL data record, groundwater and soil moisture data in sideslope and hollow positions, and topographic indices derived from a LiDAR digital elevation model. At the watershed scale, we evaluated the relationships between topographic indices, LiDAR derived estimates of basal area and seasonal patterns of the Landsat derived Enhanced Vegetation Index. Preliminary results indicate strong relationships between the rates of annual basal growth and the topographic wetness index (TWI), with differing slopes dependent on tree species (P. menziesii R2 = 0.66-0.71, P. ponderosa R2 = 0.87, L. occidentalis R2 = 0.71) and elevation. Generally, trees located in wetter landscape positions (higher TWI) exhibited greater annual growth per unit of precipitation relative to trees located in drier landscape positions (lower TWI). Similarly, watershed scale analysis of LiDAR derived biomass and seasonal greenness indicates differential growth response due to local convergence and divergence across elevation and insolation gradients. These observations suggest that topographically driven water redistribution patterns may modulate the effects of large scale gradients in precipitation and temperature, thereby creating hotspots for conifer productivity in semiarid watersheds.
... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...
Wang, Jialing; Yang, Xiaojun
Landscape spatial patterns have increasingly been considered to be essential for environmental planning and resources management. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical approach for landscape classification and evaluation by characterizing landscape spatial patterns across different hierarchical levels. The case study site is the Red Hills region of northern Florida and southwestern Georgia, well known for its biodiversity, historic resources, and scenic beauty. We used one Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper image to extract land-use/-cover information. Then, we employed principal-component analysis to help identify key class-level landscape metrics for forests at different hierarchical levels, namely, open pine, upland pine, and forest as a whole. We found that the key class-level landscape metrics varied across different hierarchical levels. Compared with forest as a whole, open pine forest is much more fragmented. The landscape metric, such as CONTIG_MN, which measures whether pine patches are contiguous or not, is more important to characterize the spatial pattern of pine forest than to forest as a whole. This suggests that different metric sets should be used to characterize landscape patterns at different hierarchical levels. We further used these key metrics, along with the total class area, to classify and evaluate subwatersheds through cluster analysis. This study demonstrates a promising approach that can be used to integrate spatial patterns and processes for hierarchical forest landscape planning and management.
The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...
MacKenzie, Garry Ross
This thesis considers a selection of modern landscape poetry from an ecocritical perspective, arguing that this poetry demonstrates how the term landscape might be re-imagined in relation to contemporary environmental concerns. Each chapter discusses poetic responses to a different kind of landscape: gardens, forests, rivers and islands. Chapter One explores how, in the poetry of Ian Hamilton Finlay, Douglas Dunn, Louise Glück and David Harsent, gardens are culturally constructed landscapes i...
Roering, J. J.; Booth, A. M.
One of the most fundamental characteristics that defines landscapes is the presence or absence of a soil mantle. In actively eroding terrain, soil (and other natural resources that depend on it) persists only when the rate of soil production is not eclipsed by denudation. Despite successful efforts to empirically estimate long-term rates of soil production, little predictive capability exists as soil formation results from a complex interplay of biological, physical, and chemical processes. Here, we synthesize a suite of observations from the steep, forested Oregon Coast Range (OCR) and anlayze the role of trees in the conversion of bedrock to soil. Pit/mound topography on forest floors attests to the persistent, wholesale overturning of soil by tree root activity. Using airborne LiDAR data for our study site in the western Oregon Coast Range, we calculated how terrain roughness varies with spatial scale. At scales greater than 10m, the well-established ridge/valley structure of the landscape defines the topography; whereas for scales less than 7m, terrain roughness increases rapidly reflecting the stochastic nature of bioturbation associated with large, coniferous trees. Empirical estimates of soil production in the OCR by Heimsath et al (2001, ESPL) reveal that production rates decrease exponentially with depth and the decay constant is 2.68 (1/m). From dozens of soil pits in the OCR, we show that the density of trees roots declines exponentially with depth at a similar rate, 2.57 (1/m). In other words, rates of soil production appear to be well-correlated with root density. Bedrock is often excavated during tree turnover events and we documented that the volume of bedrock incorporated in overturned coniferous rootwads increases rapidly for tree diameters greater than 0.5m (which correponds to a 60-80 yr old Douglas fir tree in Western Oregon). Smaller (and thus younger) trees entrain negligible bedrock when overturned, suggesting that their root systems are
Schaberg, Rex H; Abt, Robert C
Forested watersheds of the Mid-Atlantic Region are an important economic resource. They are also critical for maintaining water quality, sustaining important ecological services, and providing habitat to many animal and plant species of conservation concern. These forests are vulnerable to disturbance and fragmentation from changing patterns of land use in the Mid-Atlantic Region, and from harvests of commercially mature and relatively inexpensive timber. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) compiles data on forest condition by state and county. We have transformed these FIA data to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 6-digithdrologic unit code (HUC 6) watershed base, and projected trends in timber growth, inventory, and harvest to 2025 using a timber economics forecasting model (SRTS). We consider forest sustainability from the perspective of timber production, and from the perspective of landscape stability important to conservation values. Simulation data is combined with FIA planted pine acreage data to form a more complete picture of forest extent, composition, and silvicultural practice. Early recognition of prevailing economic trends which encourage the fragmentation of mature forests due to increasing timber harvests may provide managers and policy makers with a planning tool to mitigate undesirable impacts. PMID:15141449
Rubio, L.; RODRIGUEZ-FREIRE Monica; MATEO-SANCHEZ M.c.; Estreguil, Christine; Saura, Santiago
Managing forest landscapes to sustain functional connectivity is considered one of the key strategies to counteract the negative effects of climate and human-induced changes in forest species pools. With this objective, we evaluated whether a robust network of forest connecting elements can be identified so that it remains efficient when facing different types of potential land cover changes that may affect forest habitat networks and ecological fluxes. For this purpose we conside...
Boyd, Doreen S; Hill, Ross A; Hopkinson, Chris; Baker, Timothy R
Landscape-scale gap-size frequency distributions in tropical forests are a poorly studied but key ecological variable. Currently, a scale gap currently exists between local-scale field-based studies and those employing regional-scale medium-resolution satellite data. Data at landscape scales but of fine resolution would, however, facilitate investigation into a range of ecological questions relating to gap dynamics. These include whether canopy disturbances captured in permanent sample plots (PSPs) are representative of those in their surrounding landscape, and whether disturbance regimes vary with forest type. Here, therefore, we employ airborne LiDAR data captured over 142.5 km2 of mature, swamp, and regenerating forests in southeast Peru to assess the landscape-scale disturbance at a sampling resolution of up to 2 m. We find that this landscape is characterized by large numbers of small gaps; large disturbance events are insignificant and infrequent. Of the total number of gaps that are 2 m2 or larger in area, just 0.45% were larger than 100 m2, with a power-law exponent (alpha) value of the gap-size frequency distribution of 2.22. However, differences in disturbance regimes are seen among different forest types, with a significant difference in the alpha value of the gap-size frequency distribution observed for the swamp/regenerating forests compared with the mature forests at higher elevations. Although a relatively small area of the total forest of this region was investigated here, this study presents an unprecedented assessment of this landscape with respect to its gap dynamics. This is particularly pertinent given the range of forest types present in the landscape and the differences observed. The coupling of detailed insights into forest properties and growth provided by PSPs with the broader statistics of disturbance events using remote sensing is recommended as a strong basis for scaling-up estimates of landscape and regional-scale carbon balance. PMID
Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.
Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition
Bráulio A Santos
Full Text Available Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.
Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul
There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge. PMID:26820548
Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul
There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species’ flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge. PMID:26820548
Wright, H E
Both the landforms and the vegetation of the earth develop to states that are maintained in dynamic equilibrium. Short-term equilibrium of a hillslope or river valley results from intersection between erosional and depositional tendencies, controlled by gravitational force and the efficiency of the transporting medium. Long-term equilibrium of major landforms depends on crustal uplift and the resistance of the rock to weathering. In most parts of the world landscape evolves toward a peneplain, but the reduction rate approaches zero as the cycle progresses, and the counteracting force of crustal uplift intercedes before the end form is reached. Davis described this theoretical model in elegant terms. Leopold and Hack have provided a new and quantitative understanding of short-range geomorphic interactions that tend to discredit the Davisian model in the eyes of many. However, the substitute models of quasi-equilibrium or dynamic equilibrium merely describe short-range situations in which this or that Davisian stage is maintained despite uplift or downwasting. Given crustal stability and an unchanging climate, landforms would presumably still evolve through Davisian stages. However, the Davis model cannot be tested, for despite tremendous inventions in geochronology and impressive advances in stratigraphic knowledge, we cannot yet establish the rates or even the fact of crustal uplift in most areas. We are left with an unresolvable problem, for the sedimentary records of erosional history are largely inaccessible, undatable, and indecipherable, at least in the detail necessary to describe long-term evolution of the landscape. We know more about the evolution and maintenance of vegetation assemblages than about landform evolution, for even long-term vegetation sequences are within the scope of radiocarbon dating, and the biostratigraphic record is detailed. Even here, however, distinctions between short-term and long-term situations must be made, so that Clements
Su, Haiping; Krummel, J.
Fragmentation and loss of tropical forest cover alters terrestrial plant and animal population dynamics, reduces biodiversity and carbon storage capacity, and, as a global phenomenon could affect regional and global climate patterns. Lacunarity as a texture measure can offer a simple solution to characterize the texture of tropical forest landscape and determine spatial patterns associated with ecological processes. Lacunarity quantifies the deviation from translational invariance by describing the distribution of gaps within a binary image at multiple scales. As lacunarity increases, the spatial arrangement of tropical forest gaps will also increase. In this study, we used the Spatial Modeler in Imagine as a graphic programming tool to calculate lacunarity indices for a tropical forest landscape in Southern Mexico and Northern Guatemala. Lacunarity indices were derived from classified Landsat MSS images acquired in 1974 and 1984. Random-generated binary images were also used to derive lacunarity indices and compared with the lacunarity of forest patterns derived from the classified MSS images. Tropical forest area declined about 17%, with most of the forest areas converted into pasture/grassland for grazing. During this period, lacunarity increased about 25%. Results of this study suggest that tropical forest fragmentation could be quantified with lacunarity measures. The study also demonstrated that the Spatial Modeler can be useful as a programming tool to quantify spatial patterns of tropical forest landscape by using remotely sensed data.
Teixeira, Daniel C; Montezuma, Rita C; Oliveira, Rogério R; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V
Litterfall is believed to be the major flux of Hg to soils in forested landscapes, yet much less is known about this input on tropical environment. The Hg litterfall flux was measured during one year in Atlantic Forest fragment, located within Rio de Janeiro urban perimeter, in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The results indicated a mean annual Hg concentration of 238 ± 52 ng g(-1) and a total annual Hg deposition of 184 ± 8.2 μg m(-2) y(-1). The negative correlation observed between rain precipitation and Hg concentrations is probably related to the higher photosynthetic activity observed during summer. The total Hg concentration in leaves from the most abundant species varied from 60 to 215 ng g(-1). Hg concentration showed a positive correlation with stomatal and trichomes densities. These characteristics support the hypothesis that Tropical Forest is an efficient mercury sink and litter plays a key role in Hg dynamics. PMID:22310056
Bruno K. C. Filgueiras
Full Text Available First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This is the first record of Oxysternon silenus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Specimens were collected in the Serra Grande landscape, municipality of Ibateguara, in Alagoas State. The samples were done from August 17 to 19, 2007 with pitfall traps. Before the present study, Oxysternon silenus had been reported predominantly in Amazonian region. The finding of this species corroborates the hypothesis of the biogeographical relationships between the Amazon Rainforest and the Atlantic Forest.Primeiro relato de Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Esse é o primeiro registro de Oxysternon silenus na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Os espécimes foram coletados em Serra Grande, município de Ibateguara, Alagoas. As coletas foram realizadas de 17 a 19 de agosto de 2007 com a utilização de armadilhas do tipo pitfall. Antes do presente estudo, Oxysternon silenus tinha sido reportada apenas na região Amazônica. O encontro dessa espécie reforça a hipótese das relações biogeográficas entre a Amazônia e a Mata Atlântica.
The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The general objective of this thesis is to investigate landscape, soil and vegetation dynamics in theWaitakereRangesRegionalParkon the North Island of New Zealand, where also all the fieldwork was carried out. The main core o...
ZOUChun-jing; HANShi-jie; XUWen-duo; LIDao-tang
Sandy forest-steppe ecotone in Baiyinaobao Natural Reserve of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China is one of the special landscape types in forest-steppe vegetation zone in China. Vegetation landscape types, landscape patches and patch size were measured by the field investigation, forest photograph, and airscape. The structure of landscape patches in sandy forest-steppe ecotone, including composition structure, and size structure, was studied and the dynamics and transformation of landscape patches were analyzed. The data obtained in this study could provide theoretical basis for the research on vegetation landscape in forest-steppe ecotones and other vegetation types.
Laurance, William F
In the tropics, habitat fragmentation alters forest-climate interactions in diverse ways. On a local scale (less than 1 km), elevated desiccation and wind disturbance near fragment margins lead to sharply increased tree mortality, thus altering canopy-gap dynamics, plant community composition, biomass dynamics and carbon storage. Fragmented forests are also highly vulnerable to edge-related fires, especially in regions with periodic droughts or strong dry seasons. At landscape to regional sca...
In the project described in this thesis, structural changes that have occurred in the boreal Swedish forest during the last 150 years were studied through analysis of historical records. Historical perspectives on forest landscapes provide a better understanding of natural disturbance dynamics as well as anthropogenic changes and a frame of reference for assessing current ecological patterns and processes. The studies were performed at various spatial scales, and were conducted in two differe...
In natural forest soils, the radon transport processes can be significantly intensified due to the contribution of living organism activities to soil porosity. In this paper, the first results of the radon concentrations were obtained for soil gas from the Atlantic Forest, particularly in the Refugio Ecologico Charles Darwin, Brazil. The estimation of permeability and radon exhalation rate were carried out in this conservation unit. For forested soils, radon concentrations as high as 40 kBq m-3 were found. Based on the radon concentrations and on the permeability parameter, the results indicated considerable radon hazard for human occupation in the neighborhood. (author)
Severino R. Pinto; Felipe Melo; Marcelo Tabarelli; Aurélio Padovesi; Carlos A. Mesquita; Carlos Alberto de Mattos Scaramuzza; Pedro Castro; Helena Carrascosa; Miguel Calmon; Ricardo Rodrigues; Ricardo Gomes César; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.
In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP) is a coalition of 260+ st...
Martin‑Klimoczko, Lucille; Meunier, Hélène; Moura, Antonio
Study of primates sleeping habits is important to understand their behaviour and adaptations. Red-handed howler monkey is a new world monkey which is classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN red list. The present study aims to understand the choice of sleeping trees by these monkeys to facilitate the establishment of an adapted conservation plan. Indeed, data were collected in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest, following a wild monkey group from dawn to dusk. Trees criteria and monkey...
DINGShengyan; SHANGFude; QIANLexiang; CAOXinxiang; LIShuang
Based on the information from forest resources distribution maps of Luoning County of 1983 and 1999,six indices were used to analyze spatial patterns and dynamics of forest landscapes of the typical region in the middle of the Yihe-Luohe river basin.These indices include patch number,mean patch area,fragment index,patdch extension index,etc,The results showed that;(1) There was a rapid increase in the number of patch and total area from 1983 to 1999 in the study area,The fragment degree became very high.(2) The area of all the forest patch types had witnessed great changes,The fractal degree of each forest patch type became big from 1983 to 1999 ,The mean extension index of Robinia pseudoacacia forest ,non- forest shrub forest ,sparse forest ,and Quercus species forest in creased rapidly,but that of economic forest became zero ,The fractal dimension each showed that forest coverage has been promoted.(3)The changes of landscape patterns were different in different geomprhic regions.From 1983 to 1999 the vegetation cover area,the gross number and the density of patch,diversity and evenness of landscape were all reduced greatly in gullies and ravines,but the maximum area and the mean area of patch types were increased ,In hilly region,both the forest cover area and the number of patch increased from 1983 to 1999,but the mean area of patch was reduced greatly,In mountain region,even though the area under forest canopy reduced from 1983 to 1999 ,the patch number was increased greatly,the mean area of all patch types was reduced ,the extension index,diversity index and evenness index of landscape were all increased.Furthermore,because of different types of land use,human activtiy and terratin ,the vegetation changes on northern and southern mountain slopes were different.According to these analyses,the main driving forces,such as the policies of management,market economy,influence of human activities etc.are brought out.
Dellwik, Ebba; Arnqvist, Johan; Bergström, Hans;
Meso-scale models are increasingly used for estimating wind resources for wind turbine siting. In this study, we investigate how the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model performs using standard model settings in two different planetary boundary layer schemes for a forested landscape and how...
Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.
Freitas, Cíntia Gomes; Dambros, Cristian; Camargo, José Luís Campana
The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution of seeds in remnant fragments of the Atlantic Coastal Forest and to determine whether the species diversity, seed weight, and species composition of plant communities are altered by forest fragmentation. A transect of 100 m was established in the core of each of nine fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in a private sugarcane plantation in the state of Alagoas, NE Brazil, and ten seed-traps were distributed at intervals of 10 m each along the transects. For 12 consecutive months seeds were collected, dried, counted, weighed, and identified to species. Seeds were assigned to categories according to their size, dispersal mode, and shade tolerance. Multiple regression models and Mantel correlation tests were used to detect the effects of fragment size, percent forest cover nearby, distance from the source area, and distance from the nearest fragment on species diversity, mean seed weight, and species similarity. Analyses were carried out for all species and for subsets corresponding to each seed category. A total of 21,985 diaspores of 190 species were collected. Most seeds were small, shade-intolerant, and zoochoric, which corroborates other studies of fragmented forest landscapes and reflects the high disturbance levels in isolated forest remnants. Our data indicate that fragmentation processes such as habitat loss can alter species diversity and species composition by reducing habitat availability and increasing fragment isolation. We also found that large-seeded species are more affected by fragment isolation, possibly because their seed dispersers rarely cross non-forested areas between fragments, while zoochoric species are more strongly affected by fragment size and apparently more strongly associated with local edaphic conditions than with distance from seed sources.
Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.
Landscape-scale examination of parasitism patterns of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) revealed heterogeneous parasitism rates across the mosaic of a forest and associated oldfield communities. In a two-year study in Dutchess County, New York, we found a significantly higher parasitism rate in the forest-interior community (n = 301 nests; 17 species) than on the species in the adjacent and nearby old-field and edge (n = 328 nests; 15 species; 32.3% versus 6.5%; p lt 0.0001). Cowbirds invaded a mature 1300-ha forest stand even when their traditional host species were available in adjacent old-field and edge habitats. The forest and old field study areas were located in a 38,000-ha township with 55% forest cover and contained numerous agriculture, dairy, and horse farms that provided favorable habitat for cowbirds, within-forest examination of parasitism patterns revealed four aspects of cowbird parasitism that contrasted with patterns described in other regions; (1) parasitism was concentrated significantly more often on ground and low-nesting (nests ltoreq 1 m) forest species than on medium- and high nesting species (nests gt 1 m; 35. 01 % versus 2993%; p = 0.0393); (2) parasitism was not significantly greater on Neotropical migrant species than on short-distance migrants and residents; (3) the parasitism rate was not higher in nests close to edges; and (4) the parasitism level was low on certain forest species (such as Wood Thrush) that have experienced high parasitism levels in the Midwest. From a management perspective these data suggest that cowbirds exhibit regional differences in host and habitat use; the target host community of a particular cowbird population is unpredictable at the landscape scale; and a landscape scale should be used in designing cowbird studies to accurately assess local population dynamics.
Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara
Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach. PMID
Birdsey, R.; Pan, Y.; Wayson, C.; Johnson, K. D.; Zhang, F.; Chen, J. M.; Pinto, N.; Cook, B. D.; Masek, J. G.
Increasingly, public and private forest landowners need to estimate their carbon stocks and analyze the impacts of alternate management plans. Here we describe approaches designed to work at landscape scales: one involves estimating carbon stocks from existing Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data; another involves downscaling results from a continental-scale biogeochemistry model known as InTEC; and the third uses LiDAR remote sensing to provide high-resolution biomass maps. Combining FIA data with a biogeochemistry model gives the most useful information for analyzing causes of historical trends, while the biomass maps support implementation of management decisions. These approaches are illustrated by pilot studies in the Eastern U.S. Analysis of FIA data for Northern Wisconsin revealed that private landowners held more than half of the forest carbon but that the rate of carbon sequestration had slowed dramatically over two decades. Causes of the decline were hypothesized to include increased harvesting, aging forests, and increasing disturbances. The InTEC model for the same region revealed trends over a much longer historical period as well as providing information about changes in soil C that are lacking in the FIA data analysis. The effects of long-term forest age dynamics and higher interannual climate variability became evident, and there is evidence of a significant contribution to net sequestration from increasing soil C stocks. Using this information base, we identified several ways to increase landscape-scale average forest carbon stocks: allow some forests to reach full maturity and highest carbon stocks; manage other forests to maximize carbon uptake and transfer of harvested carbon into wood products; and avoid conversion of existing forests to nonforest land uses. Strategic implementation of these kinds of management decisions can be facilitated with high-resolution biomass maps.
Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.
Rodrigo Scarton Bergamin
Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity conservation because of its high levels of endemism and threatened areas. Three main forest types, differentiated by their floras, compose the Atlantic Forest: ‘Atlantic Forest’ sensu strictu, ‘Araucaria Mixed Forest’ and ‘Seasonal Forest’. The flora comprises taxa from the Amazon forest, Cerrado gallery forests and the Andean region, which makes the Atlantic Forest a relevant study system for ecologists and biogeographers. Here, we present data from 206 floris- tic checklists describing the occurrence of 1,916 species across the southern portion of the Atlantic Forest. This dataset can be useful for understanding mechanisms underlying plant community assembly processes and the historical relationships between different forest formations.
Amichev, Beyhan Y.
Carbon accreditation of forest development projects is essential for sequestering atmospheric CO2 under the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol. The carbon sequestration potential of surface coal-mined lands is not well known. The purpose of this work was to determine how to measure carbon sequestration and estimate the additional amount that could be sequestered using different reforestation methods compared to the common practice of establishing grasslands. I developed a thermal oxidatio...
Renato A. Ferreira de Lima; Leila Cunha de Moura
In the Atlantic Montane Rain Forest of South-eastern Brazil, a study was carried out to describe and evaluate canopy gap colonization. Gap composition by herb species was assessed through their soil coverage and woody species by measuring and identifying all individuals taller than one meter. Gap structure (gap size, number and diameter of treefalls), topographic position and surrounding vegetation were also measured. Two genera of Marantaceae were markedly frequent and abundant inside gaps. ...
de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A
Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703
Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia
Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347
Rodrigo Lima Massara
Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.
Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia
Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347
Mondal, Pinki; Nagendra, Harini
Protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but small parks alone cannot support wide-ranging species, such as the tiger. Hence, forest dynamics in the surrounding landscapes of PAs are also important to tiger conservation. Tiger landscapes often support considerable human population in proximity of the PA, sometimes within the core itself, and thus are subject to various land use activities (such as agricultural expansion and road development) driving habitat loss and fragmentation. We synthesize information from 27 journal articles in 24 tiger landscapes to assess forest-cover dynamics in tiger-range countries. Although 29% of the PAs considered in this study have negligible change in overall forest cover, approximately 71% are undergoing deforestation and fragmentation. Approximately 58% of the total case studies have human settlements within the core area. Most changes—including agricultural expansion, plantation, and farming (52%), fuelwood and fodder collection (43%), logging (38%), grazing (38%), and tourism and development (10%)—can be attributed to human impacts largely linked to the nature of the management regime. This study highlights the need for incorporating new perspectives, ideas, and lessons learned locally and across borders into management plans to ensure tiger conservation in landscapes dominated by human activities. Given the increasing isolation of most parks due to agricultural, infrastructural, and commercial developments at the periphery, it is imperative to conduct planning and evaluation at the landscape level, as well as incorporate multiple actors and institutions in planning, instead of focusing solely on conservation within the PAs as is currently the case in most tiger parks.
Mondal, Pinki; Nagendra, Harini
Protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but small parks alone cannot support wide-ranging species, such as the tiger. Hence, forest dynamics in the surrounding landscapes of PAs are also important to tiger conservation. Tiger landscapes often support considerable human population in proximity of the PA, sometimes within the core itself, and thus are subject to various land use activities (such as agricultural expansion and road development) driving habitat loss and fragmentation. We synthesize information from 27 journal articles in 24 tiger landscapes to assess forest-cover dynamics in tiger-range countries. Although 29% of the PAs considered in this study have negligible change in overall forest cover, approximately 71% are undergoing deforestation and fragmentation. Approximately 58% of the total case studies have human settlements within the core area. Most changes-including agricultural expansion, plantation, and farming (52%), fuelwood and fodder collection (43%), logging (38%), grazing (38%), and tourism and development (10%)-can be attributed to human impacts largely linked to the nature of the management regime. This study highlights the need for incorporating new perspectives, ideas, and lessons learned locally and across borders into management plans to ensure tiger conservation in landscapes dominated by human activities. Given the increasing isolation of most parks due to agricultural, infrastructural, and commercial developments at the periphery, it is imperative to conduct planning and evaluation at the landscape level, as well as incorporate multiple actors and institutions in planning, instead of focusing solely on conservation within the PAs as is currently the case in most tiger parks. PMID:21786183
Isabella De Meo; Maria Giulia Cantiani; Fabrizio Ferretti; Alessandro Paletto
Social sustainability is a key concept introduced in recent decades by international environmental and forestry policies. The paper illustrates the process of stakeholder consultation for the definition of the objectives of the forest landscape plan conducted in a district of the Italian Apennines. Special attention was given to the farmers group, by reason of the great importance of wood pasture in the management system of this area. The results show that the majority of the interviewees fee...
Gian Battista Bischetti; Enrico Antonio Chiaradia
In mountainous-forested soil mantled landscapes all around the world, rainfall-induced shallow landslides are one of the most common hydro-geomorphic hazards, which frequently impact the environment and human lives and properties. In order to produce shallow landslide susceptibility maps, several models have been proposed in the last decade, combining simplified steady state topography- based hydrological models with the infinite slope scheme, in a GIS framework. In the present paper, two of ...
van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien
Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness ...
van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David Anthony; Coppi, Andrea; Bestias, Cristina C; Dawud, Seid Muhie; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Mueller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus
Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality. PMID:26979952
DENG Hongbing; WANG Yingming; ZHANG Qiaoxian; YAN Yan
Based on the spatial information techniques such as RS, GIS, and GPS, the forest landscape patterns in the Helan Mountain, western China, were studied. The Landsat 5 TM data were used to classify the forest landscapes through RS digital cartography, and then, the landscape characteristics and landscape pattern were analyzed quantificationally. Furthermore, through spatial data collection and spatial analysis of the main disturbances in this area, the cause of landscape formation was studied. The results showed that the total 1177 forest landscape patches could be classified into 21 landscape types, and the forest landscape in the Helan Mountain was island pattern, which was encircled by deserta as matrix. The values of landscape diversity index and landscape fragmentation index were 2.61 and 0.43, respectively. In this area, the landscape pattern was clearly formed and continuously changed in response to geological processes, climate, activities of organisms, forest fire, desertification, human activities and so on. This landscape pattern had an obviously negative effect on the stability and ecosystem services of forests. So, scientific landscape planning and protection should be adopted to improve the sustainability of forest management in this area.
Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is considered a vital element of landscape structure because of its importance to population survival. The difficulty surrounding the notion of landscape connectivity is that it must be assessed at the scale of the interaction between an organism and the landscape. We present a unique method for measuring connectivity between patches as a function of organism vagility. We used this approach to assess connectivity between harvest, old-growth, and recent wildfire patches in a real forested landscape in southeast British Columbia. By varying a distance criterion, habitat patches were considered connected and formed habitat clusters if they fell within this critical distance. The amount of area and distance to edge within clusters at each critical distance formed the basis of connectivity between patches. We then assessed landscape connectivity relative to old-growth associates within our study area based on species' dispersal abilities. Connectivity was greatest between harvest patches, followed by old-growth, and then wildfire patches. In old-growth patches, we found significant trends between increased connectivity and increased total habitat amount, and between decreased connectivity and increased old-growth harvesting. Highly vagile old-growth associates, such as carnivorous birds, perceive this landscape as connected and are able to access all patches. Smaller, less vagile species, such as woodpeckers, chickadees, and nuthatches, may be affected by a lack of landscape connectivity at the scale of their interaction with old-growth patches. Of particular concern is the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus, which we predict is limited in this landscape due to relatively weak dispersal abilities.
Litterfall is believed to be the major flux of Hg to soils in forested landscapes, yet much less is known about this input on tropical environment. The Hg litterfall flux was measured during one year in Atlantic Forest fragment, located within Rio de Janeiro urban perimeter, in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The results indicated a mean annual Hg concentration of 238 ± 52 ng g−1 and a total annual Hg deposition of 184 ± 8.2 μg m−2 y−1. The negative correlation observed between rain precipitation and Hg concentrations is probably related to the higher photosynthetic activity observed during summer. The total Hg concentration in leaves from the most abundant species varied from 60 to 215 ng g−1. Hg concentration showed a positive correlation with stomatal and trichomes densities. These characteristics support the hypothesis that Tropical Forest is an efficient mercury sink and litter plays a key role in Hg dynamics. - Highlights: ► The litter production from an Atlantic Forest was measured by one year. ► Concentration and flux of mercury was measured from these litter samples. ► The Hg concentrations from 5 trees were taken. ► Correlations between the data found and meteorological and anatomical plant parameters were confronted. ► The high Hg values found and their distribution points to a great sequester potential from this biome. - Hg high values in litter are a pattern found at Tropical Forest, it seems to be correlated with physio-anatomical plant characteristics from this biome.
Domestic dogs in a fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: abundance, habitat use and caring by owners Cães domésticos em uma paisagem fragmentada na Mata Atlântica: abundância, uso de habitat e manejo pela população humana
PC. Torres; PI. Prado
This study aimed at estimating the population size and attitudes of residents towards caring for domestic dogs, through questionnaire surveys, as well as the frequency of these animals in different habitats (anthropic and forest patch), using scent stations. The study was conducted in a severely fragmented area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A large number of unrestricted dogs was recorded, averaging 6.2 ind/km². These dogs have owners and are regularly fed. Dog records decreased from the ...
Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. M.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.
Tropical forests are important biomes by several things, among them, they are important reservoirs of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water (Bonan, 2008). In Brazil, at Sao Paulo State, the coastal Atlantic Forest runs along an altitudinal gradient from near seal level (Lowland Forest) up to more than 1,000m (Montane Forest). Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as well as above ground biomass are higher at the Montante Forest in relation to the Lowland Forest. In contrast, annual fluxes of N2O and riverine N output are higher lower altitudes, although. Therefore, it seems that lower temperature at higher altitude limits N transfer between different reservoirs, which in turn leads to higher N stocks. In this study we test if the litter decomposition of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves at higher altitudes also decomposes slower than at low altitudes. At the same time we also test if Fabaceae leaves decompose faster than non Fabaceae leaves due to the higher N content and lower C:N ratio of the former in comparison to the later. Preliminary results indicate that both hypothesis seems to be right.
Philipp Werner Hopp; Edilson Caron; Richard Ottermanns; Martina Roß-Nickoll
Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment) and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage...
Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health
In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe)
The aim of this study was to improve current understandings of fire regimes. The estimation of biomass dynamics at the stand scale is essential for understanding landscape scale biomass dynamics, particularly in order to understand the potential effects of fire regimes. This study presented a synthesis of research results obtained from stand scale studies together with fire behaviour and weather variables. Landscape structure, topography and climate conditions were also considered. Integration of the data was conducted with the SEM-LAND model, a spatially explicit model for landscape dynamics. Equations for the model were presented, including fire initiation and spread, as well as a lightning fire process and simulated fire suppression. Results indicated that fire suppression could alter the distribution of fire sizes. The effect of tree and stand mortality on forest biomass estimates was also discussed along with the impact of climate change on fire regimes. Results indicate that fire activities are likely to increase. Results also demonstrate that fire frequency and size distribution are correlated without human intervention. Theoretical negative exponential forest age distribution is not always supported by empirical observations. Point-based fire frequency and fire cycle definitions are special cases from a computational perspective. Detection of quantitative interrelationships may simplify preconditions for estimating fire regimes, and serve as a means to address incomplete empirical observations. 12 refs., 3 figs
The accumulation of chemical elements in biological compartments is one of the strategies of tropical species to adapt to a low-nutrient soil. This study focuses on the Atlantic Forest because of its eco-environmental importance as a natural reservoir of chemical elements. About 20 elements were determined by INAA in leaf, soil, litter and epiphyte compartments. There was no seasonality for chemical element concentrations in leaves, which probably indicated the maintenance of chemical elements in this compartment. Considering the estimated quantities, past deforestation events could have released large amounts of chemical elements to the environment. (author)
Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.
During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela morphology. The latter is proposed as a replacement name for Mikania dentata G.M.Barroso, a later homonym of M. dentata Spreng. Line drawings and comments about conservation status are made for bot...
Isabella De Meo
Full Text Available Social sustainability is a key concept introduced in recent decades by international environmental and forestry policies. The paper illustrates the process of stakeholder consultation for the definition of the objectives of the forest landscape plan conducted in a district of the Italian Apennines. Special attention was given to the farmers group, by reason of the great importance of wood pasture in the management system of this area. The results show that the majority of the interviewees feel a strong bond with their territory and with the traditional activities still carried out there, such as forest grazing. However, there are internal differences within the group, mostly linked to age and territory of origin. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA supported the investigation of these differences and the analysis of the relationship between farmers and their territory. Information emerged from the interviews with farmers allowed a better understanding of the dynamics of the territory and was revealed to be useful for the development of the forest landscape plan.
Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista; Maria Jesus Nogueira Rodal; José Antonio Aleixo da Silva; Ana Carolina Borges Lins e Silva; Francisco Tarcisio Alves Junior; José Márcio de Mello
ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragm...
Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments. PMID:21271055
Paletto A; Lora C; Frattegiani M; De Meo I; Ferretti F
Forest landscape planning analyses all forest aspects (economic, ecological and social) and defines long-term forest management guidelines. Various actors are involved in landscape planning; therefore the analysis needs to take into account goals and targets of the different stakeholders. The participatory process can strongly support the development of a bottom-up forest plan definition when stakeholders are involved throughout the decision-making process. In this way, management guidelines ...
Pfund, Jean-Laurent; Watts, John Daniel; Boissière, Manuel; Boucard, Amandine; Bullock, Renee Marie; Ekadinata, Andree; Dewi, Sonya; Feintrenie, Laurène; Levang, Patrice; Rantala, Salla; Sheil, Douglas; Sunderland, Terence Clarence Heethom; Urech, Zora Lea
We examine five forested landscapes in Africa (Cameroon, Madagascar, and Tanzania) and Asia (Indonesia and Laos) at different stages of landscape change. In all five areas, forest cover (outside of protected areas) continues to decrease despite local people’s recognition of the importance of forest products and services. After forest conversion, agroforestry systems and fallows provide multiple functions and valued products, and retain significant biodiversity. But there are indications that ...
Full Text Available Although stomatal conductance for ozone (O3 correlates with leaf to air water vapor difference (VPDLA at the leaf level, uncertainty in up-scaling to the whole tree level can be overcome by means of sap flow measurements at the tree trunk. Further up-scaling to the stand level is possible by relating whole tree O3 flux to silvicultural and/or tree-allometric data. In such a way, canopy conductance and O3 uptake can be related to ground surface area. When normalized, canopy conductance is demonstrated to follow a functional relationship to VPDLA across several forest ecosystems thus allowing a generalization of model approaches. Further up-scaling to the landscape level, however, needs further investigations due to differences in the response of canopy conductance to environmental drivers in forest stands and grassland ecosystems, respectively.
Fidalgo, B.; Salas, R.; Gaspar, J.; Morais, P
In Europe traditional mosaic landscapes have been experienced dramatic changes through either intensification or abandonment of land use. Both trends are thought to affect plant diversity in forest areas. To evaluate the sustainability of specific forest systems we need approaches for 1) assessment of the contribution of different land use systems for plant species diversity and 2) identification of habitat and landscape features that lead to patterns of biodiversity. Despite good theoreti...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is highly endangered and only about 7% of the original forest remains, most of which consists of fragments of secondary forest. Small mammals in the Atlantic Forest have differential responses to this process of fragmentation and conversion of forest into anthropogenic habitats, and have varying abilities to occupy the surrounding altered habitats. We investigated the influence of vegetation structure on the micro-scale distribution of five small mammal species in six secondary forest remnants in a landscape of fragmented Atlantic Forest. We tested whether the occurrence of small mammal species is influenced by vegetation structure, aiming to ascertain whether species with different degrees of vulnerability to forest fragmentation (not vulnerable: A. montensis, O. nigripes and G. microtarsus; vulnerable: M. incanus and D. sublineatus; classification of vulnerability was based on the results of previous studies are associated with distinct vegetation characteristics. Results Although vegetation structure differed among fragments, micro-scale distribution of most of the species was influenced by vegetation structure in a similar way in different fragments. Among the three species that were previously shown not to be vulnerable to forest fragmentation, A. montensis and G. microtarsus were present at locations with an open canopy and the occurrence of O. nigripes was associated to a low canopy and a dense understory. On the other hand, from the two species that were shown to be vulnerable to fragmentation, M. incanus was captured most often at locations with a closed canopy while the distribution of D. sublineatus was not clearly influenced by micro-scale variation in vegetation structure. Conclusion Results indicate the importance of micro-scale variation in vegetation structure for the distribution of small mammal species in secondary forest fragments. Species that are not vulnerable to
DING Sheng-yan; QIAN Le-xiang; CAO Xin-xiang; LI Shuang; LI Hao-min
With the help of ARC/INFOR and ERDAS software, based on the information from forest resources distribution maps and TM images, four indices were chosen to analyze spatial pattern changes of forest landscape of Luoning County, Henan Province from 1983 to 1999. The results showed that: 1) The number and total area of patches were rapidly increased with time changes. The fragmentation degree of the landscape was increasing great-ly. 2) The area of some forest patch types, especially shrub forest, economic forest, Populus spp. Forest, Quercus spp. Forest, sparse forest, deserted grassland etc. Had been greatly changed. 3) The fragemation degree of each forest patch type became greater from 1983 to 1999.4) The transition probabilities of deserted forest, economic forest,Pi-nus tabulaeformis forest, Populus spp. Forest exceed 85%,Robinia pseuoacacia forest, deserted grassland, 65% and Quercus spp. Forest, non-forest, shrub forest had smaller ones, which were 26.5%, 29.1% and 45.3%, respec-tively. The main transition trends of various patches were non-forest and Quercus spp. Forest. During the course of transition, the types that 50% of area was remained were Quercus spp. Forest, non-forest and shrub forest. Accord-ing to above analyses, the main driving forces, such as the management policies, market economy factors and influ-ences of human activities etc. Were brought out.
Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Alves, Luciana Ferreira; Aidar, Marcos; Araujo, Luciana Spinelli; Baker, Tim; Batista, Joao Luis Ferreira; Campos, Mariana Cruz; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Chave, Jerome; Delitti, Welington Braz Carvalho; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Keller, Michael; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio
The main objective of this paper is to present and discuss the best methods to estimate live above ground biomass in the Atlantic Forest. The methods presented and conclusions are the products of a workshop entitled "Estimation of Biomass and Carbon Stocks: the Case of Atlantic Rain Forest". Aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests is mainly contained in trees. Tree biomass is a function of wood volume, obtained from the diameter and height, architecture and wood density (dry weight per ...
Tatiana Gibertoni; Carla Rejane Sousa de Lira; Georgea Santos Nogueira de Melo; Ianne Maria Macedo de Miranda Henriques; Lídia Silva Araújo Neta; Mirela Natália Santos; Rayanne Thallita Gusmão da Costa; Renata dos Santos Chikowski; Valéria Ferreira da Silva; Victor Rafael Matos Coimbra; Felipe Wartchow
The Atlantic Rain Forest represents a group of extra-amazonic forests, among which the coastal and montane (“brejos de altitude”) are the most common in Northeast Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013, 110 field trips were performed in nine reserves in the domain of the Atlantic Rain Forest. Two thousand two hundred sixty three Agaricomycetes were collected and represented 271 species, among which several new species to science, new occurrences to the continent, country, region, biome and States were...
Willian Moura Aguiar; Maria Cristina Gaglianone
Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine...
Pedro Giovâni da Silva; Malva Isabel Medina Hernández
ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. Th...
Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander
the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.
Juliana Santos Bianchi
Full Text Available Forest fragmentation affects biological communities by reducing habitat and increasing edges, thus reducing the effective size of the habitable zones. The subtropical atlantic Araucaria forest, typical on the southern Brazil, in some regions has been reduced to less than 1% of its original size lasting only in small isolated fragments. This study aimed to analyse the impact the edge has on vascular epiphyte ensemble in a remnant of Araucaria forest. We surveyed 40 host trees in four transects: one at the edge; and three at 15, 30 and 60 m from the edge. On each host tree we estimated the epiphyte biomass, using four size classes. We compared the transects using Jackknife estimator of absolute species number, diversity indices, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and multi-response permutation procedure analysis. We recorded 85 epiphytes species. Absolute species richness and diversity were lower at the edge and higher at 60 m in from the edge. Shannon's evenness did not differ significantly among transects and Simpson's evenness values were inconsistent. The vascular epiphyte community under study was significantly altered by the edge.
... Environmental Impact Statement for the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project in the Federal Register (75 FR... Creek Landscape Management Project was published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR... Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National...
Lingua, Emanuele; Garbarino, Matteo; Urbinati, Carlo; Carrer, Marco
High altitude Himalayan regions are geo-dynamically very active and very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances due to their steep slopes, variations of precipitations with elevation and short growing periods. Nonetheless, even in this remote region human pressure is often the most important factor affecting forest landscape. In the last decades the firewood demand has increased each year between September to December. The increase in the number of tourists, mountaineering, guides, porters, carpenters, lodges lead to a peak in the use of fuelwood. In order to understand anthropogenic impacts on forest, resources landscape and stand scale dynamics were analyzed in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and its Buffer Zone in the Khumbu Valley (Nepal, Eastern Himalaya). Biological and historical data sources were employed, and a multi-scale approach was adopted to capture the influence of human activities on the distribution of tree species and forest structure. Stand structure and a range of environmental variables were sampled in 197 20x20 m square plots, and land use and anthropogenic variables were derived in a GIS environment (thematic maps and IKONOS, Landsat and Terra ASTER satellite images). We used multivariate statistical analyses to relate forest structure, anthropogenic influences, land uses, and topography. Fuel wood is the prime source of energy for cooking (1480-1880 Kg/person/year) and Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Pinus wallichiana, among the others, are the most exploited species. Due to lack of sufficient energy sources deforestation is becoming a problem in the area. This might be a major threat causing soil erosion, landslides and other natural hazards. Among the 25 species of trees that were found in the Buffer Zone Community Forests of SNP, Pinus wallichiana, Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum are the dominant species. The total stand density ranged from 228 to 379 tree/ha and the
Meso-scale models are increasingly used for estimating wind resources for wind turbine siting. In this study, we investigate how the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model performs using standard model settings in two different planetary boundary layer schemes for a forested landscape and how this performance is changed when enhancing the roughness by a factor four in one of the schemes. The model simulations were evaluated using data from a 138 m tall mast in southeastern Sweden, where an experiment with six sonic anemometers and standard meteorological instrumentation was performed 2010-2012. The land cover around the mast is dominated by forest and for the most common wind direction, the forest extends more than 200 km from the mast. The two low-roughness simulations showed differences both in terms of estimated wind resource and wind shear. The simulation with enhanced roughness results in an improved correlation with measured data for near-neutral situations in the observed height range, whereas the correlation is deteriorated relative to the standard setup for stable atmospheric stratifications for heights above approximately 80 m. The inclusion of the displacement height in the post-processing of the results is also discussed
Pedro Giovâni da Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. The aim of this study is to identify associations between the spatial distribution of dung beetle species and Atlantic Forest structure. The spatial distribution of some dung beetle species was associated with structural forest features. The number of species among the sampling sites ranged widely, and few species were found in all remnant areas. Principal coordinates analysis indicated that species composition, abundance and biomass showed a spatially structured distribution, and these results were corroborated by permutational multivariate analysis of variance. The indicator value index and redundancy analysis showed an association of several dung beetle species with some explanatory environmental variables related to Atlantic Forest structure. This work demonstrated the existence of a spatially structured distribution of dung beetles, with significant associations between several species and forest structure in Atlantic Forest remnants from Southern Brazil.
Santos, A; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B
Free proline was significantly (phoneys from the atlantic forest, caatinga and cerrado biomes. Honeys from the atlantic forest and cerrado had a significantly (pHMF than angico. Fructose and glucose in angico honeys were significantly (phoneys from the atlantic forest and caatinga. Use of cluster analysis permitted the three kinds of honey to be grouped independently. Angico was closest to caatinga honey, but both were significantly (phoney. GC/SNIFFING showed that linalool oxide, 2-ethyl hexanol, phenylethanol, and phenylacetic acid may be important contributors to the flavour of angico honey. PMID:25308689
Donato S. La Mela Veca; Sebastiano Cullotta; Sebastiano Sferlazza; Federico G. Maetzke
This paper analyzes and quantifies the land use/land cover changes of the main forest and semi-natural landscape types in Sicily between 1955 and 2012. We analyzed seven representative forest and shrubland landscapes in Sicily. These study areas were chosen for their importance in the Sicilian forest panorama. We carried out a diachronic survey on historical and current aerial photos; all the aerial images used to survey the land use/land cover changes were digitalized and georeferenced in th...
Jones, Simon; Soto-Berelov, Mariela; Suarez, Lola; Wilkes, Phil; Woodgate, Will; Haywood, Andrew
This paper presents a methodology for the attribution and characterisation of Sclerophyll forested landscapes over large areas. First we define a set of woody vegetation data primitives (e.g. canopy cover, leaf area index (LAI), bole density, canopy height), which are then scaled-up using multiple remote sensing data sources to characterise and extract landscape woody vegetation features. The advantage of this approach is that vegetation landscape features can be described from composites of these data primitives. The proposed data primitives act as building blocks for the re-creation of past woody characterisation schemes as well as allowing for re-compilation to support present and future policy and management and decision making needs. Three main research sites were attributed; representative of different sclerophyll woody vegetated systems (Box Iron-bark forest; Mountain Ash forest; Mixed Species foothills forest). High resolution hyperspectral and full waveform LiDAR data was acquired over the three research sites. At the same time, land management agencies (Victorian Department of Environment, Land Water and Planning) and researchers (RMIT, CRC for Spatial Information and CSIRO) conducted fieldwork to collect structural and functional measurements of vegetation, using traditional forest mensuration transects and plots, terrestrial lidar scanning and high temporal resolution in-situ autonomous laser (VegNet) scanners. Results are presented of: 1) inter-comparisons of LAI estimations made using ground based hemispherical photography, LAI 2200 PCA, CI-110 and terrestrial and airborne laser scanners; 2) canopy height and vertical canopy complexity derived from airborne LiDAR validated using ground observations; and, 3) time-series characterisation of land cover features. 1. Accuracy targets for remotely sensed LAI products to match within ground based estimates are ± 0.5 LAI or a 20% maximum (CEOS/GCOS) with new aspirational targets of 5%). In this research we
Charles P-A Bourque
Full Text Available Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content, yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ≥ 33% of all trees in a plot, than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species. This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently
Stuart C Brown
Full Text Available Landscape classification and hydrological regionalisation studies are being increasingly used in ecohydrology to aid in the management and research of aquatic resources. We present a methodology for classifying hydrologic landscapes based on spatial environmental variables by employing non-parametric statistics and hybrid image classification. Our approach differed from previous classifications which have required the use of an a priori spatial unit (e.g. a catchment which necessarily results in the loss of variability that is known to exist within those units. The use of a simple statistical approach to identify an appropriate number of classes eliminated the need for large amounts of post-hoc testing with different number of groups, or the selection and justification of an arbitrary number. Using statistical clustering, we identified 23 distinct groups within our training dataset. The use of a hybrid classification employing random forests extended this statistical clustering to an area of approximately 228,000 km2 of south-eastern Australia without the need to rely on catchments, landscape units or stream sections. This extension resulted in a highly accurate regionalisation at both 30-m and 2.5-km resolution, and a less-accurate 10-km classification that would be more appropriate for use at a continental scale. A smaller case study, of an area covering 27,000 km2, demonstrated that the method preserved the intra- and inter-catchment variability that is known to exist in local hydrology, based on previous research. Preliminary analysis linking the regionalisation to streamflow indices is promising suggesting that the method could be used to predict streamflow behaviour in ungauged catchments. Our work therefore simplifies current classification frameworks that are becoming more popular in ecohydrology, while better retaining small-scale variability in hydrology, thus enabling future attempts to explain and visualise broad-scale hydrologic
Philip D. Taylor
Full Text Available To explore the spatial scales at which boreal forest birds respond to landscape structure and how those responses are influenced by forest harvest, we quantified the relationship between amounts of forest in the landscape at multiple spatial scales and the occurrence of 11 common boreal songbirds in western Newfoundland. The habitat type was assessed at a local scale (25 m diameter area and amounts of forest habitat were measured at neighborhood (300 m and landscape (2500 m scales. We further compared how these relationships differed, depending on whether the landscape had been harvested or not, i.e., the landscape context. Landscape-scale metrics were related to occurrence for 7 of 11 species. For five of these seven, landscape context was also important. Landscape context was not important in models that did not contain a landscape-scale term. In four of five of the models including landscape context, there was an interaction of the term with either landscape or neighborhood effects, indicating that, not only was there an effect of forest harvest at the broad scale, but that effect altered the response of the species to other metrics. For the majority of species, overall occurrence tended to be higher in natural than in harvested landscapes, especially at higher levels of forest cover. Interestingly, for some species, occurrence was relatively similar across levels of forest cover within harvested, but not natural, landscapes. The results suggest some scale-invariance in species' responses to landscape structure, and that some species respond to landscape structure at scales that are broader than those implied by our current knowledge of territorial or dispersal distances. Collectively, the results also suggest that forest management needs to consider not only how local-scale processes might be influenced by local-scale changes in amounts of forest, but also how the broader scale context might interact with those local-scale changes to produce
Bouget, C; Parmain, G
Increasing the density of natural reserves in the forest landscape may provide conservation benefits for biodiversity within and beyond reserve borders. We used 2 French data sets on saproxylic beetles and landscape cover of forest reserves (LCFR) to test this hypothesis: national standardized data derived from 252 assessment plots in managed and reserve stands in 9 lowland and 5 highland forests and data from the lowland Rambouillet forest, a forested landscape where a pioneer conservation policy led to creation of a dense network of reserves. Abundance of rare and common saproxylic species and total saproxylic species richness were higher in forest reserves than in adjacent managed stands only in highland forests. In the lowland regional case study, as LCFR increased total species richness and common species abundance in reserves increased. In this case study, when there were two or more reserve patches, rare species abundance inside reserves was higher and common species richness in managed stands was higher than when there was a single large reserve. Spillover and habitat amount affected ecological processes underlying these landscape reserve effects. When LCFR positively affected species richness and abundance in reserves or managed stands, >12-20% reserve cover led to the highest species diversity and abundance. This result is consistent with the target of 17% forested land area in reserves set at the Nagoya biodiversity summit in 2010. Therefore, to preserve biodiversity we recommend at least doubling the current proportion of forest reserves in European forested landscapes. PMID:26084716
Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Silvio Fronsini de Barros Ferraz; Jorge Marcos de Moraes; Rodrigo Trevisan; Gustavo Bicci Seghesi; Juliano Daniel Groppo; Luiz Felippe Salemi
The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously cover...
Lobão, A.Q.; Maas, P.J.M.; de Mello-Silva, R.
Guatteria emarginata and G. stenocarpa, two new species from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil, are presented here. Guatteria emarginata is characterized by narrowly obovate, verruculose leaves, densely covered with cinereous hairs on the lower side and an emarginate apex. Guatteria stenocarpa is remarkable among the Atlantic Forest species of the genus for its narrowly ellipsoid to cylindric monocarps of 22–25 mm long.
Guilherme do Carmo Silveira; Anderson Machado Nascimento; Silvia Helena Sofia; Solange Cristina Augusto
Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil. Euglossine bees, attracted to scent baits of cineole, eugenol and vanillin, were collected with entomological nets, from December 1998 to November 1999. Samplings were carried out once a month simultaneously by two collectors positioned in two different sites in an Atlantic Forest remnant in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 859 male euglossine bees, belonging t...
Johnson, Deborah A.
landscapes such as clear-cut forests, coal mining, and conventional drilling that linger in forests, in the minds of older residents, and photos of the past. Contest ensues between "green forces" and industry that utilize different tools for land use control. Differences surface between what the oil and gas industry knew before, and what it is learning in the early 21st century. The magnitude of shale gas technology includes larger and more sophisticated machinery, higher pressured fracking, increased material amounts, varied land use, and impact on public infrastructure. Cultural differences occur between Texan gas field workers and local Pennsylvanians generated by different physical geography, climate, and regulatory framework. Further findings demonstrate a wide gap in communication between those of differing ideologies. Some stakeholders show up in the matrix as "omitted" from decision-making including small businesses and conventional drillers, public health sector professionals, and water well drillers. Other findings show an unwillingness to share in the costs of energy development. Interviewees explain the costs that they endure as the country pursues energy security, while others outside of Pennsylvania take in only the benefits. Over time, society conforms as a new "normal" is formed. All of this takes place while the world is watching Pennsylvania evolve through the early stages and unknown outcomes of shale gas extraction.
Mertz, O.; Muller, D.; Sikor, T.; Hett, C.; Heinimann, A.; Castella, Jean-Christophe; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Ryan, C. M.; D. S. Reay; Schmidt-Vogt, D.; Danielsen, F.; Theilade, I.; van Noordwijk, M.; L. V. Verchot; Burgess, N.D.
International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and p...
Prita Indah Pratiwi
Full Text Available Forest is not only assessed for timber production, but also for public interests. It is not easy to measure the multiple functions and existence values that forests represent to local residents. The purposes of this research were to classify landscape image aspects of students using LIST (Landscape Image Sketching Technique, to know students' attributes influencing perception, and to formulate the differences of forest landscape characters. The research was conducted in three stages: landscape image survey, landscape image analysis, and forest landscape interpretation. LIST method was applied to classify landscape image aspects. Chi-square test was applied to examine the significant differences between students of Japan and Indonesia to perceive forest landscape, while cluster analysis was applied to characterize forest landscape. The results showed that 10 prominent components were detected in both countries. The only attribute influencing perception for Indonesian students was gender. Japanese students categorized forest type into needle leaf, broadleaf, and unknown forest type, while Indonesian students classified forest type into broadleaf and unknown forest type. The results of this study might be useful as a guidance for forest landscape design in Japan and Indonesia.
Kimmel, Thomas Magnus
This work treats the degradation of the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco and its natural regeneration. It has three focuses: the vulnerability of tree species dispersed by specific animals, the dispersal and pollination modes of woody species of young secondary forest and the germination and survival of seedlings of native tree species directly seeded in secondary vegetation.
Bianca L Reinert; Júlio C Pinto; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Mauro Pichorim; Miguel Â. Marini
Five hundred and eigh body masses of 74 forest birds, and measurements of wing, tail, tarsus and beak of 14 poorly known species mist-netted at two sites in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraná State, southern Brazil, are presented.
The application of Geographic Information System(GIS), Remote Sensing(RS) and Global Position System(GPS) in the research of forest landscape is outlined in this paper. The integration of the 3S technique is also described. In the 3S system, RS is used to obtain the various information of forest landscape. GPS is used to obtain the ground data of orientation and guide the people to the different places. And GIS is used in information management and processing.
Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla
Full Text Available Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late. We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches. Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in
Inaldo do Nascimento Ferreira
Full Text Available Some species belonging to the Bromeliaceae family are called tank-bromeliads, due to the arrangement of its leave in rosettes that accumulate water and organic debris, allowing the development of diversified organisms. Considering that information about the presence of myxomycetes on Bromeliaceae is scarce, we evaluated the availability and occupation of microhabitats for these organisms offered by bromeliads in fragments of Atlantic Forest located in the Pernambuco Endemism Center. Sampling of sporocarps and substrates for cultivation in moist chambers was carried out at the Janga Ecological Reserve (Paulista Municipality, Tapacurá Ecological Station (São Lourenço da Mata Municipality and Mata do Estado (São Vicente Férrer Municipality, between 2007 and 2008. Ten species were present in the dead parts of representatives of Bromelioideae and Tillandsioideae: Arcyria cinerea, Craterium leucocephalum, C. paraguayense, Cribraria intricata, Diachea silvaepluvialis, Hemitrichia serpula, Physarum compressum, P. nucleatum, Stemonitis fusca and Trichia affinis. All taxa are newly reported for the sites studied, including rare species in Brazil, such as D. silvaepluvialis. The microhabitat studied had high taxonomic diversity, and the species recorded in it were rare or occasional.
Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan
Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.
van der Velde, Ype; Temme, Arnaud
Fresh water is crucial for society and ecosystems. However, our ability to secure fresh water resources under climatic and anthropogenic change is impaired by the complexity of interactions between human society, ecosystems, soils, and topography. These interactions cause landscape properties to co-evolve, continuously changing the flow paths of water through the landscape. Such co-evolution driven flow path changes are, to-date, poorly understood. In this presentation we investigate hydrological interactions and feedbacks within a boreal landscape with forests, peat forming wetlands and rivers during the holocene. We introduce a spatially distributed landscape co-evolution model that simulates interactions between vegetation, soil organic matter, groundwater and rivers under a wide range of climates. Typical interactions of this model are that a denser vegetation (forest) evaporates more than the low biomass vegetation of a wetland, making the forest dryer and the wetland wetter. Wet conditions favour peat formation with a high water content that further reduces groundwater fluctuations, making the landscape even more wet. At the same time these wet condition cause runoff creating incising rivers that drain the peat and favour tree growth. To understand how positive and stabilizing feedbacks within the model structure form complex landscape patterns of forests, peat forming wetlands and rivers, we stepwise increase spatial connectivity within the model. This setup allows us to untangle the effects of climate, groundwater flow and stream erosion on landscape patterns and better understand observed landscape patterns.
Roberta Paresque; Alexandre Uarth Christoff; Valéria Fagundes
Juliomys is a small rodent from the family Cricetidae which inhabits the Atlantic forest and forests from Argentina to eastern Brazil. The three species recognized so far have different karyotypes. In this paper, we describe a new karyotype with 2n = 32, FN = 48 found in Juliomys specimens from a high-altitude area in the Atlantic forest of southern Brazil. The karyotype was analyzed after G- and C-banding and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NOR) and its G-banding patte...
Ludwig, Martin; Schlinkert, Hella; Holzschuh, Andrea; Fischer, Christina; Scherber, Christoph; Trnka, Alfréd; Tscharntke, Teja; Batáry, Péter
Landscape-scale agricultural intensification has caused severe declines in biodiversity. Hedges and forest remnants may mitigate biodiversity loss by enhancing landscape heterogeneity and providing habitat to a wide range of species, including birds. However, nest predation, the major cause of reproductive failure of birds, has been shown to be higher in forest edges than in forest interiors. Little is known about how spatial arrangement (configuration) of hedges affects the avian nest predation. We performed an experiment with artificial ground and elevated nests (resembling yellowhammer and whitethroat nests) baited with quail and plasticine eggs. Nests were placed in three habitat types with different degrees of isolation from forests: forest edges, hedges connected to forests and hedges isolated from forests. Nest predation was highest in forest edges, lowest in hedges connected to forests and intermediate in isolated hedges. In the early breeding season, we found similar nest predation on ground and elevated nests, but in the late breeding season nest predation was higher on ground nests than on elevated nests. Small mammals were the main predators of ground nests and appeared to be responsible for the increase in predation from early to late breeding season, whereas the elevated nests were mainly depredated by small birds and small mammals. High predation pressure at forest edges was probably caused by both forest and open-landscape predators. The influence of forest predators may be lower at hedges, leading to lower predation pressure than in forest edges. Higher predation pressure in isolated than connected hedges might be an effect of concentration of predators in these isolated habitats. We conclude that landscape configuration of hedges is important in nest predation, with connected hedges allowing higher survival than isolated hedges and forest edges.
Full Text Available More than 20% of the world's biodiversity is located in Brazilian forests and only a few plant extracts have been evaluated for potential antibacterial activity. In the present study, 705 organic and aqueous extracts of plants obtained from different Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 100 µg/ml, using a microdilution broth assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. One extract, VO581, was active against S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 140 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 160 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems and two extracts were active against E. faecalis, SM053 (MIC = 80 µg/ml and MBC = 90 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from aerial parts, and MY841 (MIC = 30 µg/ml and MBC = 50 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems. The most active fractions are being fractionated to identify their active substances. Higher concentrations of other extracts are currently being evaluated against the same microorganisms.
Donato S. La Mela Veca
Full Text Available This paper analyzes and quantifies the land use/land cover changes of the main forest and semi-natural landscape types in Sicily between 1955 and 2012. We analyzed seven representative forest and shrubland landscapes in Sicily. These study areas were chosen for their importance in the Sicilian forest panorama. We carried out a diachronic survey on historical and current aerial photos; all the aerial images used to survey the land use/land cover changes were digitalized and georeferenced in the UTM WGS84 system. In order to classify land use, the Regional Forest Inventory 2010 legend was adopted for the more recent images, and the CORINE Land Cover III level used for the older, lower resolution images. This study quantifies forest landscape dynamics; our results show for almost all study areas an increase of forest cover and expansion, whereas a regressive dynamic is found in rural areas due to intensive agricultural and pasturage uses. Understanding the dynamics of forest landscapes could enhance the role of forestry policy as a tool for landscape management and regional planning.
Hermann Behling; Raquel R.B. Negrelle
The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes) of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa). The calculated average influx of...
Milena Wachlevski; Luciana Kreutz Erdtmann; Paulo Christiano de Anchietta Garcia
The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species,...
Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf
We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.
Gustavo Borba de Miranda
Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.
Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf
We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions. PMID:26092051
Mohd-Taib, F. S.; Rabiatul-Adawiyah, S.; Md-Nor, S.
Urbanization is one form of forest modification for development purposes. It produces forest fragments scattered in the landscape with different intensity of disturbance. We want to determine the effect of forest fragmentation towards bird community in urbanized landscapes in Kuala Lumpur, namely Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (FR), Bukit Nenas FR and Bukit Sungei Puteh FR. We used mist-netting and direct observation method along established trails. These forests differ in size, vegetation composition and land use history. Results show that these forests show relatively low number of species compared to other secondary forest with only 39 bird species recorded. The largest fragment, Sg. Besi encompassed the highest species richness and abundance with 69% species but lower in diversity. Bukit Nenas, the next smallest fragment besides being the only remaining primary forest has the highest diversity index with 1.866. Bkt. Sg. Puteh the smallest fragment has the lowest species richness and diversity with Shanon diversity index of 1.332. The presence of introduced species such as Corvus splendens (House crow) in all study areas suggest high disturbance encountered by these forests. Nonetheless, these patches comprised of considerably high proportion of native species. In conclusion, different intensity of disturbance due to logging activities and urbanization surrounding the forest directly influenced bird species richness and diversity. These effects however can be compensated by maintaining habitat complexity including high vegetation composition and habitat structure at the landscape level.
Galetti, Mauro; Donatti, C.I.; A. Pires; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Jordano, Pedro
About 45 palm species occur in the Atlantic forest of Brazil, and most of them are affected by loss of seed dispersers resulting from forest fragmentation and hunting. Here we report the effects of habitat loss and defaunation on the seed dispersal system of an endemic palm, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum. We evaluated seed removal, insect and rodent seed predation, and scatter-hoarding in nine sites, ranging from 19 ha to 79 000 ha. We report the seedling, juvenile and adult ...
Caio Vinicius Vivas
Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a phytogeographic domain with a high rate of endemism and large species diversity. The Sapotaceae is a botanical family for which species identification in the Atlantic Forest is difficult. An approach that facilitates species identification in the Sapotaceae is urgently needed because this family includes threatened species and valuable timber species. In this context, DNA barcoding could provide an important tool for identifying species in the Atlantic Forest. In this work, we evaluated four plant barcode markers (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region -ITS in 80 samples from 26 species of Sapotaceae that occur in the Atlantic Forest. ITS yielded the highest average interspecific distance (0.122, followed by trnH-psbA (0.019, matK (0.008 and rbcL (0.002. For species discrimination, ITS provided the best results, followed by matK, trnH-psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, the combined analysis of two, three or four markers did not result in higher rates of discrimination than obtained with ITS alone. These results indicate that the ITS region is the best option for molecular identification of Sapotaceae species from the Atlantic Forest.
Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Beard, Karen H; Crump, Martha L
Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in
Renato A. Ferreira de Lima
Full Text Available In the Atlantic Montane Rain Forest of South-eastern Brazil, a study was carried out to describe and evaluate canopy gap colonization. Gap composition by herb species was assessed through their soil coverage and woody species by measuring and identifying all individuals taller than one meter. Gap structure (gap size, number and diameter of treefalls, topographic position and surrounding vegetation were also measured. Two genera of Marantaceae were markedly frequent and abundant inside gaps. The more abundant and frequent woody species were shade tolerant. Species-rich families found inside gaps did not differ from the forest as a whole. Results revealed that direct and indirect influences of topography were important to determine gap composition of woody species. Evidently gap colonization had a considerable influence of topography and pre-established individuals besides variables of gap structure.Na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Montana do Sudeste Brasileiro, foi realizado um estudo para descrever e avaliar a colonização de clareiras. A composição de clareiras foi levantada através da cobertura do solo para as espécies herbáceas enquanto que todos os indivíduos lenhosos maiores que um metro de altura foram mensurados e identificados. Também foram coletadas informações sobre a estrutura das clareiras (área da clareira, número e diâmetro das quedas, posição topográfica e vegetação circundante. Dois gêneros de Marantaceae apresentaram considerável freqüência e abundância nas clareiras. As espécies lenhosas mais freqüentes e abundantes pertenceram ao grupo não-pioneiro e as famílias mais ricas encontradas nas clareiras não diferiram quando comparado à floresta como um todo. Como para as variáveis do estrato herbáceo e da vegetação circundante, os resultados revelaram que efeitos diretos e indiretos da topografia são importantes na determinação da composição interna de clareiras por espécies lenhosas. Estes
Brunet, Yves; Fourcaud, Thierry; Achim, Alexis; Belcher, Rex; Calmet, Isabelle; Caltagirone, Jean-Paul; Cleugh, Helen; Coligny, François de; Devalance, Marc; Druilhet, Aimé; Finnigan, John; Foudhil, Hadjira; Gamboa-Marrufo, Mauricio; Gardiner, Barry; Guyon, Dominique
The Venfor project was set up in the aftermath of the December 1999 stroms that strongly affected European forests. Its ultimate goal is to provide tools for predicting tree motion in various turbulent fields representing the natural environment of a tree, relative to its position in a forested landscape (distance to the edge, edge shape, forest fragmentation...). The project is structured along four main directions: (1) development of a biomechanical model able to simulate instantaneous...
Ching-Rong Lin; Joseph Buongiorno
Markov decision process (MDP) models were effective in analyzing forest management policies. Even the simplest standard results gave useful insights into forest ecology, such as how landscape diversity is shaped by natural catastrophes, and how forests mature through successional phases. The methods were also useful to predict the effects of different management policies on ecological and economic criteria. Optimization augmented the usefulness of the approach, suggesting that income from Wis...
Gian Battista Bischetti
Full Text Available In mountainous-forested soil mantled landscapes all around the world, rainfall-induced shallow landslides are one of the most common hydro-geomorphic hazards, which frequently impact the environment and human lives and properties. In order to produce shallow landslide susceptibility maps, several models have been proposed in the last decade, combining simplified steady state topography- based hydrological models with the infinite slope scheme, in a GIS framework. In the present paper, two of the still open issues are investigated: the assessment of the validity of slope stability models and the inclusion of root cohesion values. In such a perspective the “Stability INdex MAPping” has been applied to a small forested pre-Alpine catchment, adopting different calibrating approaches and target indexes. The Single and the Multiple Calibration Regions modality and three quantitative target indexes – the common Success Rate (SR, the Modified Success Rate (MSR, and a Weighted Modified Success Rate (WMSR herein introduced – are considered. The results obtained show that the target index can 34 003_Bischetti(569_23 1-12-2010 9:48 Pagina 34 significantly affect the values of a model’s parameters and lead to different proportions of stable/unstable areas, both for the Single and the Multiple Calibration Regions approach. The use of SR as the target index leads to an over-prediction of the unstable areas, whereas the use of MSR and WMSR, seems to allow a better discrimination between stable and unstable areas. The Multiple Calibration Regions approach should be preferred, using information on space distribution of vegetation to define the Regions. The use of field-based estimation of root cohesion and sliding depth allows the implementation of slope stability models (SINMAP in our case also without the data needed for calibration. To maximize the inclusion of such parameters into SINMAP, however, the assumption of a uniform distribution of
Zhang, Yujuan; Qu, Jianguang; Liu, Dandan; Yang, Jinling; Li, Dan
This paper analyses the forest landscape diversity of the study area with the help of ArcGIS10 and GS+ software. The forest landscape diversity and spatial interpolation and spatial differentiation are also carried out. The result shows that the maximum value of SHDI in 1997is 2.0463 and the minimum value is 0.2544 , which are 1.9722 and 0.2418 in the year of 2009. The advantage religion of SHDI mainly distributes in the middle of the study region , showing a band region from southwest to northeast . The forest landscape diversity and the space location have a moderate spatial correlation and a obvious structural under a forest level.
Prita Indah Pratiwi; Bambang Sulistyantara; Andi Gunawan; Katsunori Furuya
Forest is not only assessed for timber production, but also for public interests. It is not easy to measure the multiple functions and existence values that forests represent to local residents. The purposes of this research were to classify landscape image aspects of students using LIST (Landscape Image Sketching Technique), to know students' attributes influencing perception, and to formulate the differences of forest landscape characters. The research was conducted in three stages: landsca...
Prita Indah Pratiwi; Bambang Sulistyantara; Andi Gunawan; Katsunori Furuya
Forest is not only assessed for timber production, but also for public interests. It is not easy to measure the multiple functions and existence values that forests represent to local residents. The purposes of this research were to classify landscape image aspects of students using LIST (Landscape Image Sketching Technique), to know students' attributes influencing perception, and to formulate the differences of forest landscape characters. The research was conducted in three stages: landsca...
Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.
Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.
Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus
Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)
Busing, Richard T.
FOREL (a FOREst Landscape model) is an individual-based, multi-scale simulator of forest and climate dynamics. Rationale and design of the model are presented in relation to other forest patch models. Information on implementation of the model is also provided. Capabilities of the FOREL model are demonstrated for forest composition, structure and dynamics along climatic gradients. The model relies on a patch simulation approach that has been tested and developed by independent ecologists for more than three decades. Improvements made over the last decade to the simulation of climate effects on trees are incorporated in the landscape model. A single parameterization of the model is capable of simulating major shifts in forest composition and structure across broad climatic gradients. It is responsive along moisture gradients and temperature gradients. The landscape model is flexible and can be altered easily to test various assumptions about the effects of climate on trees, and the effects of spatial pattern on processes operating within and among forest stands. The spatial structure of the model makes interaction of patches possible. Interactions may include dispersal of propagules and competition for light. The model is a useful tool for projecting temporal climate change effects on forested sites, landscapes and regions.
Rodolpho Menezes; Sergio Andena; A.F. Carvalho; Costa, M A
Abstract Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic...
Silveira, Cynthia B; Ricardo P Vieira; Alexander M Cardoso; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rodolpho M Albano; Martins, Orlando B.
Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Meth...
Walker, R. H.; Epstein, H. E.; McGarvey, J.; Thompson, J.; Mills, A. L.
Throughout the eastern United States, forests are experiencing regrowth, and the sequestration of carbon (C) associated with this regrowth makes these forests a key component of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies (Albani et al., 2006). Through production and decomposition of plant biomass, the C and nitrogen (N) cycles are closely coupled, suggesting that N has a major impact on the cycling of C in N-limited Mid-Atlantic forest systems. The majority of C and N in a temperate forest system is located in the soil organic matter (Templer et al., 2012), so understanding soil N is important for estimating the potential for C sequestration in soils as Mid-Atlantic forests mature (Knicker, 2010). Due to the scarcity of old growth forest stands in the region, previous empirical studies of Mid-Atlantic forests in the old growth stage of succession are limited. I sampled soil C and N in twenty-five remnant old growth forests and matched secondary stands in the Mid-Atlantic to identify differences in soil organic C and N mass and concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. No significant differences were observed between the old growth and secondary growth concentrations of inorganic N species, N fraction, and C:N ratio. Rather, secondary growth values for these variables were found to have significant, positive linear relationships with old growth values, indicating that biotic and abiotic factors varying on a regional scale are driving variability seen in these N characteristics. Further, this suggests that as forest stands reach approximately 75 years in age, these N characteristics are largely established and not likely to change significantly as stands enter the old growth successional stage. Both N fraction and O-horizon depth were shown to have significant negative correlations with old growth stand age. These results indicate that old growth forest stands have a more efficient microbial decomposer community, which could have significant implications for both soil N and
Lindenmayer, David B; Hobbs, Richard J; Gene E Likens; Krebs, Charles J.; Banks, Samuel C.
We describe the “landscape trap” concept, whereby entire landscapes are shifted into, and then maintained (trapped) in, a highly compromised structural and functional state as the result of multiple temporal and spatial feedbacks between human and natural disturbance regimes. The landscape trap concept builds on ideas like stable alternative states and other relevant concepts, but it substantively expands the conceptual thinking in a number of unique ways. In this paper, we (i) review the lit...
Luiz dos Anjos
Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset
Paletto, A.; Ferretti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de
Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP) is intended to have an intermediate role between forest management plans on a regional level and forest management on a unit level. FLMP addresses long-term management issues, with special attention to social and environmental functions, normally not meticulously considered when working on a single forest property level. This paper presents a method to evaluate forest multi functionality, in order to define management guidelines and support forest planning. A FLMP was conducted in a district of the Basilicata region (Italy). A total of 92 inventory plots comprising the main forest types: i) turkey oak, Hungarian oak, and sessile oak forests (Quercus cerris L. dominant), ii) downy oak forests (Quercus pubescens Willd. dominant), iii) Mediterranean evergreen oak forests (Quercus ilex L. dominant), were considered. Technicians evaluated the multifunctionality of each area by estimating in the context of an Index of Importance of Function (I) the capacity of each forest to fulfil different functions. The index was successively aggregated according to forest type and forest system (high forest and coppice). The results showed that the higher level of multifunctionality was found in the high forests. According to the synthetic indicators of multifunctionality, the turkey oak forests obtained the highest values among all forest types. The last part of the paper illustrates an approach to multi-functional forest management, analysing how different silvicultural systems are able to fulfil the main forest functions. This method, as shown in the results, seems to provide a useful support for technicians to evaluate multifunctionality related to forest types and different silvicultural treatments. (Author) 55 refs.
Léo Fernandes Ávila
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815739The analyze of pluvial precipitation and its interaction on the different hydrologic cycle phases in forested watersheds are essential in order to water balance characterization due to its relevant participation in the hydrological processes and to its spatial-temporal variability as function of edaphic, topographic, climatic and vegetation elements. Due to heterogeneity of Atlantic Forest associated to temporal and spatial variability of pluvial precipitation regime, the study of mechanisms that allow describing and linking the hydrological cycle elements are very important. This way, the objective of this study was to analyze the partitioning of pluvial precipitation at a micro-catchment entirely occupied by Atlantic Forest remnant, in Mantiqueira Range, during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hydrological years, relating it with the seasonal evolution of this ecosystem which was monitored by the application of normalized difference vegetation indexes (NDVI. It was observed greater percentage of internal pluvial precipitation during the periods with less rainfall. It was also verified greater water storage capacity of the Atlantic Forest’s canopy throughout rainy season. Yet, a plausible correlation was obtained between water storage capacity of Atlantic Forest and the regeneration of vegetation demonstrated by NDVI what can be associated to the processes responsible for Atlantic Forest’s growth.
Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial
Full Text Available Shifting cultivation is a traditional agricultural practice in most tropical regions of the world and has the potential to provide for human livelihoods while hosting substantial biodiversity. Little is known about the resilience of shifting cultivation to increasing agricultural demands on the landscape or to unexpected disturbances. To investigate these issues, we develop a simple social-ecological model and implement it with literature-derived ecological parameters for six shifting cultivation landscapes from three continents. Analyzing the model with the tools of dynamical systems analysis, we show that such landscapes exhibit two stable states, one characterized by high forest cover and agricultural productivity, and another with much lower values of these traits. For some combinations of agricultural pressure and ecological parameters both of these states can potentially exist, and the actual state of the forest depends critically on its historic state. In many cases, the landscapes' 'ecological resilience', or amount of forest that could be destroyed without shifting out of the forested stability domain, declined substantially at lower levels of agricultural pressure than would lead to maximum productivity. A measure of 'engineering resilience', the recovery time from standardized disturbances, was independent of ecological resilience. These findings suggest that maximization of short-term agricultural output may have counterproductive impacts on the long-term productivity of shifting cultivation landscapes and the persistence of forested areas.
Lyons, Evan Albert
The boreal forest circles the high northern latitudes but it is far from a continuous carpet of evergreen trees. Rather, the boreal forest is a patchwork of land cover types in constant flux as they recover from wildfire and then are burned again. This fast turnover of land cover makes the boreal forest particularly susceptible to rapid change in response to climate. Furthermore, the boreal forest is an important component of the climate system that pumps heat into the atmosphere and signi...
Duran Cordeiro, Guaraci; Boff, Samuel; Almeida Caetano, Tiago; Fernandes, Paulo; Alves-Dos-Santos, Isabel
We investigated the diversity of euglossine bees in ten areas of Atlantic Forest Domain in São Paulo State, Brazil. Bees were collected with odor baits for 2 years, from March 2007 to March 2009. From a standardized effort during the first year of sampling, we compare the four areas using indexes of diversity, evenness, and similarity of euglossine communities. In the second year, we added six new places for presenting a general overview on the Atlantic forest in São Paulo. A total of 2,395 i...
Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Andena, Sergio R; Carvalho, Antonio F; Costa, Marco A
Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State. PMID:22368453
Full Text Available Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo. S. septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This finding extends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for S. septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State.
Daniela Camargos Costa
Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.
Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.
Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability
Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A
Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops--rubber and oil palm plantations--has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900--1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s--1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s--1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country's "health" and sustainability. The
Full Text Available Deforestation and forest degradation are associated and progressive processes result in the anthropogenic stress, climate change, and conversion of the forest area into a mosaic of mature forest fragments, pasture, and degraded habitat. The present study addresses forest degradation assessment of landscape using landscape metrics. Geospatial techniques including GIS, remote sensing and fragstat methods are powerful tools in the assessment of forest degradation. The present study is carried out in Shendurney wildlife sanctuary located in the mega biodiversity hot spot of Western ghats, Kerala. A large extent of forest is affected by degradation in this region leading to depletion of forest biodiversity. For conservation of forest biodiversity and implementation of conservation strategies, forest degradation assessment of habitat destruction area is important. Two types of data are used in the study i.e. spatial and non-spatial data. Non-spatial data include both anthropogenic stress and climate data. The study shows that the disturbance index value ranges from 2.5 to 7.5 which has been reclassified into four disturbance zones as low disturbed, medium disturbed, high disturbed and very high disturbed. The analysis would play a key role in the formulation and implementation of forest conservation and management strategies.
Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan
Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management. PMID:18419066
Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Knapp, David E.; Sinca, Felipe
Tropical forest functional diversity, which is a measure of the diversity of organismal interactions with the environment, is poorly understood despite its importance for linking evolutionary biology to ecosystem biogeochemistry. Functional diversity is reflected in functional traits such as the concentrations of different compounds in leaves or the density of leaf mass, which are related to plant activities such as plant defence, nutrient cycling, or growth. In the Amazonian lowlands, river movement and microtopography control nutrient mobility, which may influence functional trait distributions. Here we use airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy to develop maps of 16 forest canopy traits, throughout four large landscapes that harbour three common forest community types on the Madre de Dios and Tambopata rivers in southwestern Amazonia. Our maps, which are based on quantitative chemometric analysis of forest canopies with visible-to-near infrared (400-2,500 nm) spectroscopy, reveal substantial variation in canopy traits and their distributions within and among forested landscapes. Forest canopy trait distributions are arranged in a nested pattern, with location along rivers controlling trait variation between different landscapes, and microtopography controlling trait variation within landscapes. We suggest that processes of nutrient deposition and depletion drive increasing phosphorus limitation, and a corresponding increase in plant defence, in an eastward direction from the base of the Andes into the Amazon Basin.
Nagendra, Harini; Paul, Somajita; Pareeth, Sajid; Dutt, Sugato
In the tropics and sub-tropics, where high levels of biodiversity co-exist with some of the greatest levels of population density, achieving complete exclusion in protected area contexts has proved close to impossible. There is a clear need to recognize that parks are significantly impacted by human-environment interactions in the larger landscape within which they are embedded, and to move the frontier of research beyond the boundaries of protected areas in order to examine larger landscapes where multiple forms of ownership and access are embedded. This research evaluates forest change and fragmentation between 1990 and 2000, in a landscape surrounding the Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary in the Indian state of West Bengal. This protected forest is bounded to the south by a less intensively protected area, the Baikunthapur Reserve Forest, and surrounded by a mosaic of unprotected, largely private land holdings. Results indicate differences in the extent and spatial pattern of forest cover change in these three zones, corresponding to different levels of government protection, access and monitoring. The two protected areas experience a trend toward forest regrowth, relating to the cessation of commercial logging by park management during this period. Yet, there is still substantial clearing toward peripheral areas that are well connected to illegal timber markets by transportation networks. The surrounding landscape, although experiencing some forest regrowth within less intensively cultivated tea plantations, is also becoming increasingly fragmented, with potentially critical impacts on the maintenance of effective wildlife corridors in this ecologically critical region.
Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Marra, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S.
Old-growth forest ecosystems comprise a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the fraction of the landscape in any particular state relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Tropical forest studies commonly assume that plots covering only a small fraction of the landscape representatively sample this mosaic, and that departures from steady-state represent trends. Here a critical test of this equilibrium assumption for a Central Amazon old-growth forest landscape is carried out by combining extensive forest field plot data, remote sensing analysis to generate disturbance probability distribution functions, and simulation modeling to place plot-level results into a landscape context. Results show that succession-inducing disturbances had a return frequency of ~100 years, and that these episodic events have been poorly sampled by existing forest sample plots. Overall, key ecosystem attributes of small patches are expected to constantly change in the Central Amazon, and long significant trends can result from purely stochastic processes. The role of episodic disturbances will be discussed in terms of Amazon forest carbon balance, and regional tree diversity patterns.
Severino R. Pinto
Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.
Daniela O. de Lima; Bethânia O. Azambuja; Vagner L. Camilotti; Nilton C. Cáceres
We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913), Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829), Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphi...
Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Menini Neto,Luiz; Almeida,Thais; Mortara,Sara; Stehmann,Joao R; Amorim,André Márcio; Guimaraes,Elsie; A. Nadruz Coelho,Marcus; Zanin,Ana; Forzza,Rafaela
Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list ...
Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin,Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini
Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive spec...
Ismael Martins Pereira; Vera Lúcia Gomes-Klein; Milton Groppo
We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae) which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm ...
Léo Fernandes Ávila; Carlos Rogério de Mello; Leandro Campos Pinto; Antônio Marciano da Silva
http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815739The analyze of pluvial precipitation and its interaction on the different hydrologic cycle phases in forested watersheds are essential in order to water balance characterization due to its relevant participation in the hydrological processes and to its spatial-temporal variability as function of edaphic, topographic, climatic and vegetation elements. Due to heterogeneity of Atlantic Forest associated to temporal and spatial variability of pluvial precipi...
Graziele H. Volpato; Edson V. Lopes; Luciana B. Mendonça; Roberto Boçon; Maria V. Bisheimer; Patrícia P. Serafini; Luiz dos Anjos
The point count method has been widely used in tropical forest for sampling bird communities. In the present study, we investigated if data on richness and abundance acquired using the point count method are different comparing spring/summer (breeding season) and fall/winter (non-breeding season) in three types of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Twelve sites were sampled seasonally during one year. In general we recorded more species and individuals during the breeding seasons. However, bird c...
Alencar, Ane A; Brando, Paulo M; Asner, Gregory P; Putz, Francis E
Changes in weather and land use are transforming the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes in Amazonia, with important effects on the functioning of dense (i.e., closed-canopy), open-canopy, and transitional forests across the Basin. To quantify, document, and describe the characteristics and recent changes in forest fire regimes, we sampled 6 million ha of these three representative forests of the eastern and southern edges of the Amazon using 24 years (1983-2007) of satellite-derived annual forest fire scar maps and 16 years of monthly hot pixel information (1992-2007). Our results reveal that changes in forest fire regime properties differentially affected these three forest types in terms of area burned and fire scar size, frequency, and seasonality. During the study period, forest fires burned 15% (0.3 million ha), 44% (1 million ha), and 46% (0.6 million ha) of dense, open, and transitional forests, respectively. Total forest area burned and fire scar size tended to increase over time (even in years of average rainfall in open canopy and transitional forests). In dense forests, most of the temporal variability in fire regime properties was linked to El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related droughts. Compared with dense forests, transitional and open forests experienced fires twice as frequently, with at least 20% of these forests' areas burning two or more times during the 24-year study period. Open and transitional forests also experienced higher deforestation rates than dense forests. During drier years, the end of the dry season was delayed by about a month, which resulted in larger burn scars and increases in overall area burned later in the season. These observations suggest that climate-mediated forest flammability is enhanced by landscape fragmentation caused by deforestation, as observed for open and transitional forests in the Eastern portion of the Amazon Basin. PMID:26552259
Baratozzi, L.; Cagnoli, P.; Filippi, N.; Gherardi, L.; Montaletti, V.; Poli, G.; Scarelli, M. [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Assessorato Territorio, Programmazione e Ambiente, Servizio Paesaggio, Parchi e Patrimonio Naturale, Bologna (Italy); Basili, M.; Battista, A.; Colonna, N.; Del Ciello, R.; Forni, A.; Olivetti, I.; Regina, P.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche della Casaccia, Rome (Italy)
The Atlante Project applied in Emilia-Romagna region, has the objective in management of transformations in landscape, evaluating the sustainability of choice of programming. [Italian] Il progetto Atlante, si e' posto l'obiettivo di verificare la validita' delle Unita' di Paesaggio, come riferimento per una gestione delle trasformazioni del territorio, che permetta di anticipare la valutazione della sostenibilita' delle scelte della programmazione superando l'attuale prassi di verifica amministrativa a posteriori, che l'esperienza degli ultimi anni ha dimostrato non essere efficace.
Maria Laura Carranza
Full Text Available Several studies attempt to describe changes in the spatial patterns of forests over time, resorting to the comparison of landscape pattern indices (LPI, but new methods for quantifying landscape differences in a statistical context are necessary. In this paper, we quantified and assessed the statistical significance of the forests pattern changes, which have occurred since the end of WWII in Central Italy (Isernia. To do this; based on the proportion of forest cover (pi and contagion (H of three land cover maps (1954–1981–2006; we generated 100 forest maps with predictable results through the midpoint displacement algorithm. Then, for both observed and simulated maps, we computed a set of LPI (number of patches, cohesion, largest forest patch index and area weighted mean shape index and we derived their empirical distributions; finally, we compared the empirical distributions using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Our results show significant changes in the spatial pattern of forests and underline the process of natural forest re-growth, which, in the area, is constrained by “remnants” of traditional activities. The adopted approach could be extended to a large ensemble of landscapes and spatial scales and could become a standard procedure when comparing patterns in time.
Fries, Clas; Lämås, Tomas
Five management regimes were theoretically applied and evaluated in a 10 000 ha boreal forest landscape. Four regimes were designed to enhance conditions for biodiversity conservation, by establishing reserves and by modifying stand management. One regime was purely for timber production. Effects on biodiversity were assessed in terms of changes in population sizes within species or as number of species within ecological groups of the Red-listed species in the landscape. Assessments were base...
Daniela O. de Lima
Full Text Available We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913, Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829, Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840 - were captured. Thaptomys nigrita is recorded in the state of Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Species richness was poor when compared with communities in the central portions of the Atlantic Forest, but equivalent to that found in the Araucaria and Dense Ombrophilous forests of southern Brazil. The species most often captured in our study, A. montensis and O. nigripes, are also the most common in the majority of faunistic studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. Akodon montensis and S. angouya used places with high abundance of bamboo, possibly to avoid predators. Oligorizomys nigripes used areas with a high density of scrubs, what could facilitate aboveground movements, and was negatively correlated to mature forest indicators, which reinforce the idea that this species has opportunistic habits.
Maurício Lamano Ferreira; Jaqueline Luana Silva; Edna Elisa Pereira; Ana Paula do Nascimento Lamano-Ferreira
Litter fall consists of all organic material deposited on the forest floor, being of extremely important for the structure and maintenance of the ecosystem through nutrient cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the production and decomposition of litter fall in a secondary Atlantic forest fragment of secondary Atlantic Forest, at the Guarapiranga Ecological Park, in São Paulo, SP. The litter samples were taken monthly from May 2012 to May 2013. To assess the contribution of litter fall forty ...
Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini
Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706
Twedt, D.J.; Uihlein, W.B., III
Thousands of ha of cleared wetlands are being reforested annually in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Despite the expansive and long-term impacts of reforestation on the biological communities of the MAV, there is generally a lack of landscape level planning in its implementation. To address this deficiency we used raster-based digital data to assess the value of forest restoration to migratory landbirds for each ha within the MAV. Raster themes were developed that reflected distance from 3 existing forest cover parameters: (1) extant forest, (2) contiguous forest patches between 1,012 and 40,000 ha, and (3) forest cores with contiguous area 1 km from an agricultural, urban, or pastoral edge. Two additional raster themes were developed that combined information on the proportion of forest cover and average size of forest patches, respectively, within landscapes of 50,000, 100,000, 150,000, and 200,000 ha. Data from these 5 themes were amalgamated into a single raster using a weighting system that gave increased emphasis to existing forest cores, larger forest patches, and moderately forested landscapes while deemphasizing reforestation near small or isolated forest fragments and within largely agricultural landscapes. This amalgamated raster was then modified by the geographic location of historical forest cover and the current extent of public land ownership to assign a reforestation priority score to each ha in the MAV. However, because reforestation is not required on areas with extant forest cover and because restoration is unlikely on areas of open water and urban communities, these lands were not assigned a reforestation priority score. These spatially explicit reforestation priority scores were used to simulate reforestation of 368,000 ha (5%) of the highest priority lands in the MAV. Targeting restoration to these high priority areas resulted in a 54% increase in forest core - an area of forest core that exceeded the area of simulated reforestation
Gond, Valéry; Freycon, Vincent; Molino, Jean-François; Brunaux, Olivier; Ingrassia, Florent; Joubert, Pierre; Pekel, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Thierron, Viviane; Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Sabatier, Daniel
Detecting broad scale spatial patterns across the South American rainforest biome is still a major challenge. Although several countries do possess their own, more or less detailed land-cover map, these are based on classifications that appear largely discordant from a country to another. Up to now, continental scale remote sensing studies failed to fill this gap. They mostly result in crude representations of the rainforest biome as a single, uniform vegetation class, in contrast with open vegetations. A few studies identified broad scale spatial patterns, but only when they managed to map a particular forest characteristic such as biomass. The main objective of this study is to identify, characterize and map distinct forest landscape types within the evergreen lowland rainforest at the sub-continental scale of the Guiana Shield (north-east tropical South-America 10° North-2° South; 66° West-50° West). This study is based on the analysis of a 1-year daily data set (from January 1st to December 31st, 2000) from the VEGETATION sensor onboard the SPOT-4 satellite (1-km spatial resolution). We interpreted remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) from field and high resolution remote sensing data of 21 sites in French Guiana. We cross-analyzed remote sensing data, field observations and environmental data using multivariate analysis. We obtained 33 remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) among which five forest-RSLC representing 78% of the forested area. The latter were classified as different broad forest landscape types according to a gradient of canopy openness. Their mapping revealed a new and meaningful broad-scale spatial pattern of forest landscape types. At the scale of the Guiana Shield, we observed a spatial patterns similarity between climatic and forest landscape types. The two most open forest-RSLCs were observed mainly within the north-west to south-east dry belt. The three other forest-RSLCs were observed in wetter and less anthropized areas
Jean-Pierre Sorg; Lanto Andriambelo; Clémence Dirac
In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places wh...
van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago;
Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a ...
Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.
We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053
Luiz Henrique Rosa; Marina Capelari
Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil.
Luiz Henrique Rosa
Full Text Available Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil.
Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Capelari, Marina
Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24031432
Montti, Lía; Campanello, Paula I.; Goldstein, Guillermo
Chusquea ramosissima is a semelparous woody bamboo growing in the understory of the semideciduous Atlantic Forest that increases in abundance after disturbance and consequently has profound effects on vegetation dynamics. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima may open a window of opportunity leaving space vacant for the recruitment of tree seedlings. We describe the flowering pattern and seedling demography of this species at different spatio-temporal scales between the years 2001 and 2009, and evaluate if tree seedling abundance of canopy species increased after the flowering event. At a landscape scale, flowering sites were interspersed with sites that did not flower. At a local scale, the flowering extended over 5 years, with flowering and non-flowering culms intermingled, also in small patches (i.e., 4 m 2). Seeds germinated soon after flowering and die-back. Four successive seedling cohorts were studied. Mortality rate was high during the first 4 months after seedling emergence but several fast-growing seedlings were able to become established successfully. At the end of the study, 10%-20% of the initial number of bamboo seedlings in each cohort survived. Seedling abundance of tree canopy species was similar in flowering and non-flowering sites. C. ramosissima was able to re-colonize and perpetuate in sites it previously occupied. The coexistence of flowering and non-flowering culms at different spatio-temporal scales and clonal growth by rhizomes, together with the successful bamboo seedlings establishment, enhanced bamboo persistence in gaps and disturbed sites. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima did not facilitate seedling growth of canopy tree species.
Geri F.; Giordano M; Nucci A; Chiarucci A; Rocchini D
The analysis of land use and land cover change has long been a key topic in landscape ecology. In particular, forest fragmentation is known to affect plant species composition and diversity, thus threatening the integrity of forest habitats. In many areas of Mediterranean basin, a particular pattern of land cover change has been reported, consisting in the increasing agriculture use of plain areas and the abandonment of hilly and mountain areas, with these latter undergoing a process of natur...
Tellería, J. L.; J.A. Díaz; Pérez–Tris, J.; Juana, E. de; De la Hera, I.; Iraeta, P.; Salvador, A.; Santos, T.
We analysed the effects of a 25–year–old motorway on the distribution of five vertebrates inhabiting a fragmented forest landscape and differing in their ability to move across linear infrastructures. We found clear evidence of barrier effects on the distribution of the forest lizard Psammodromus algirus. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was also unequally distributed on both sides of the motorway, but this could also be due, at least in part, to fragmentation. The eyed lizard (Timon lepidu...
Baltzer, J. L.; Quinton, W. L.; Sonnentag, O.
Boreal forests occupy latitudes that are experiencing the greatest rates of warming on earth, a pattern that is expected to continue over the coming decades. Much of the Boreal is underlain by permafrost, which can be expected to have important consequences for forest structure, composition and functioning as the climate warms. The southern margin of permafrost is especially susceptible to warming, since in this region, the permafrost is discontinuous, relatively thin, warm and ice-rich. In the discontinuous permafrost zone, permafrost often forms the physical foundation on which trees develop, forming tree-covered peat plateaus where trees contribute to permafrost maintenance and aggradation processes through reductions in radiation load and changes in snow accumulation. Forests are restricted to peat plateaus while wetland communities occupy intervening permafrost-free areas. The extent and distribution of each land cover type is an important determinant of how boreal forest-wetland landscapes in the discontinuous permafrost zone function as part of the climate system. Climate warming is rapidly thawing permafrost leading to ground surface subsidence and transformation of the forests into wetlands, increasing both the areal extent and connectivity of the latter. In this presentation, we will use an integrative framework at the ForestGEO Scotty Creek Forest Dynamics Plot site near Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada to demonstrate the changes in ecological, hydrological and biosphere-atmosphere interactions within this boreal forest-wetland landscape characterized by rapidly degrading permafrost.
Desalegn Desissa Daye
Full Text Available Sacred forests often exist as isolated patches of natural forest even after conversion of the surrounding matrix to different forms of land-use. This study set out to: (1 evaluate land-cover changes and patch fragmentation in a landscape containing sacred and non-sacred forest patches over 15 years and (2 compare the effects at an individual patch level between sacred and non-sacred forests. Past changes in area and patch fragmentation of land cover classes and individual forest patches in the Gamo Highlands, Ethiopia, were assessed using maximum-likelihood classification of LANDSAT images. Large changes in land-cover occurred during 1995–2010, with 109.4% increase in area of farm and settlement and 36.6% decrease of forest area, with a decrease in number of forest patches by 16.1%, mean size by 26.8%, edge density by 29.1% and shape index by 13.3%. While all four individually studied non-sacred forests decreased in size over this period only four of the six individual sacred forests patches showed reduction in area. Forest patches with sacred status had greater protection by local communities than non-sacred forests in the Gamo Highlands. However, their small size and increasing edge density indicate high vulnerability, especially if an erosion of traditional cultural values reduces their protection.
Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada
We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.
Pidgeon, A M; Radeloff, V C; Flather, C H; Lepczyk, C A; Clayton, M K; Hawbaker, T J; Hammer, R B
In the United States, housing density has substantially increased in and adjacent to forests. Our goal in this study was to identify how housing density and human populations are associated with avian diversity. We compared these associations to those between landscape pattern and avian diversity, and we examined how these associations vary across the conterminous forested United States. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the U.S. Census, and the National Land Cover Database, we focused on forest and woodland bird communities and conducted our analysis at multiple levels of model specificity, first using a coarse-thematic resolution (basic models), then using a larger number of fine-thematic resolution variables (refined models). We found that housing development was associated with forest bird species richness in all forested ecoregions of the conterminous United States. However, there were important differences among ecoregions. In the basic models, housing density accounted for ecoregion, where 29% of variation in richness of the permanent resident guild was associated with housing density. Model improvements due to regional stratification were most pronounced for cavity nesters and short-distance migrants, suggesting that these guilds may be especially sensitive to regional processes. The varying patterns of association between avian richness and attributes associated with landscape structure suggested that landscape context was an important mediating factor affecting how biodiversity responds to landscape changes. Our analysis suggested that simple, broadly applicable, land use recommendations cannot be derived from our results. Rather, anticipating future avian response to land use intensification (or reversion to native vegetation) has to be conditioned on the current landscape context and the species group of interest. Our results show that housing density and residential land cover were significant predictors of forest bird species
Aguilar Vásquez, Yunin; Aliphat Fernández, Mario Manuel; Caso Barrera, Laura; Del Amo Rodríguez, Silvia; Sánchez Gómez, Maria De Lourdes; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel
The ever-increasing establishment of landscape mosaics is expressed as a surrounding matrix of agricultural activities, which frames patches or remnants of the original vegetation cover. Conservation actions should be aimed to establish or to increase those interactive systems, which help to maintain the land- scape flow through linkages. Spaces occupied by traditional management systems retain and support this func- tion. In this paper, we used Geographic Information Systems to evaluate the importance of traditionally managed forest units ('acahuales'-coffee plantations) and to assess landscape connectivity in the indigenous Popoluca area of Sierra de los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The cartographic material used to establish the types of vegetation and their coverture included the period 1991-2008. At landscape level, four indices were used to assess the general situation of the habitat network, and to identify the patches of high priority. Individually, indices evaluated if patches were important for their area, their potential flow or their connecting function. Results showed that the landscape is functioning as a single system, but having low connectivity. Values improved when traditionally managed forest patches were considered as viable habitat. We detected 367 patches of very high priority, 80% belonging to forests managed traditionally. Patches were important for their potential flow (size and topologi- cal relationships). Only 70 patches were significant for their function as biological corridors between largest forests located at the top of the volcanoes, and are mostly managed forest (75%). We concluded that the units of traditionally managed forest play a significant role in landscape connectivity maintenance. PMID:25412538
Maria Regina Torres Boeger; Luiz Carlos Alves; Raquel Rejane Bonatto Negrelle
We examined the leaf morphology and anatomy of 89 tree species growing in an area of coastal Atlantic Forest in South Brazil. The majority of the species (> 75%) had small (notophyll and microphyll) elliptical simple leaves with entire margins. These leaves presented a typical anatomical structure consisting of a single epidermal cell layer, single palisade parenchyma cell layer, and spongy parenchyma with 5 to 8 cell layers. The sclerenchyma was limited to the vascular bundles. The majority ...
Philipp Werner Hopp
Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.
Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain Forest represents a group of extra-amazonic forests, among which the coastal and montane (“brejos de altitude” are the most common in Northeast Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013, 110 field trips were performed in nine reserves in the domain of the Atlantic Rain Forest. Two thousand two hundred sixty three Agaricomycetes were collected and represented 271 species, among which several new species to science, new occurrences to the continent, country, region, biome and States were found. Besides recently collected material, 309 exsiccates of Agaricomycetes deposited in the Herbarium URM were revised and represented 38 species, among which several new occurrences to the region and States. The results indicate the importance of the constant inventories and also of revisions of material deposited in herbaria as tools to improve the knowledge about the Brazilian micota.
Soares, Leiza Aparecida S S; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M; Talora, Daniela C; Cazetta, Eliana
Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to
Dias, Daniela; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo L; Moratelli, Ricardo
We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clarify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type locality of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla peracchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats. PMID:26171531
Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S.; Dai, Limin
Improper forest harvesting can potentially degrade forest ecosystem functions and services. Human-assisted regeneration (e.g., planting) is often used to increase the rate of forest recovery and thereby reduce regeneration failure. Seed dispersal is a fundamental ecological process that can also influence spatio-temporal patterns of forest regeneration. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of planting and seed dispersal on forest regeneration at landscape scales. Because s...
Miranda, J. P.; Silva, L. M.; Lima, R. L.; Donagemma, G. K.; Bertolino, A. V. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Correa, F. M.; Polidoro, J. C.; Tato, G.
Soil tillage plays a major role in changing physical and hydrological properties of soils through time, and in consequence, in the dynamics of infiltration, soil water and erosion. In the hilly landscape of southeastern Brazil, many areas originally occupied by the Atlantic Forest (one the most threatened biomes on the planet) have been continuously transformed in the last decades into agricultural systems, usually associated with small farming properties. Traditionally, the agricultural activities in these areas incorporate rotational systems which include a fallow period, where previously farmed areas repose for at least five years. In some areas, vegetation grows so fast that after 7 or 8 years these sites may be considered by regulator agencies as forests, impeding their use again for farming. As a consequence, farmers tend to decrease the amount of time used fallow impeding the recovery of original soil properties, reducing in consequence the infiltration rate, and increasing the runoff and erosion. Currently, the Brazilian laws allow that the farmers use the fallow system for 10 years in areas where this technique has been used traditionally. So, a major issue here is for how long the farming plots should be left reposing. Therefore, this study aims both to characterize the effects of continuous farming on soil physical and hydrological properties, as well as to define the impacts of different fallow periods on the improvement of soil properties and in the reduction of runoff and erosion. The experiments were carried out in a cultivation site located at Bom Jardim city, close to Rio de Janeiro city. The area is situated at about 800m of elevation in the hilly steep topography of the Serra do Mar, a coast range in southeastern Brazil, with an average total annual rainfall of 2000 mm. In this study, carried out in a typical farm of the area, we compared the effects of 5 different soil usages on soil properties: banana, coffee, F2 (2-year fallow), F5 (5-year
Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente
Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.
The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time
Graziele H. Volpato
Full Text Available The point count method has been widely used in tropical forest for sampling bird communities. In the present study, we investigated if data on richness and abundance acquired using the point count method are different comparing spring/summer (breeding season and fall/winter (non-breeding season in three types of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Twelve sites were sampled seasonally during one year. In general we recorded more species and individuals during the breeding seasons. However, bird communities vary seasonally among the forest types and functional groups. We demonstrate that the use of point counts in tropical forest should be adjusted considering the differences in forest types and feeding guilds.
Halldin, S.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Gottschalk, L.;
at 13 ground-based sites and at various airborne platforms. Flux aggregation was a central issue in the heterogeneous, patchy NOPEX landscape. It is shown that simple land-use-weighted averaging of fluxes from fields/forests/lakes agree well with regional fluxes. Momentum fluxes can be parameterised...
J. Schure; V. Ingram; J.C. Tieguhong; C. Ndikumagenge
This contribution examines the multiple impacts of artisanal mining in the high-biodiversity forest of the Congo Basin’s Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS), and proposes measures for improving livelihoods in the area. It was concluded from a literature review, interviews and site visits that: diamo
Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Smith, Benjamin; Løfgren, Anders;
The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of satellite images of leaf area index (LAI) with processbased vegetation modeling for the accurate assessment of the carbon balances of Swedish forest ecosystems at the scale of a landscape. Monthly climatologic data were used as inputs in a...
Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement
Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina
Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement
Lyons, E. A.; Sheng, Y.
Circling the northern high latitudes, the boreal forest is the largest contiguous forest ecoregion in the world. Far from a homogeneous carpet of trees, the boreal forest is a patchwork of land cover types including evergreen and deciduous trees, meadows, lakes, and wetlands. Due to its size, location, and structure, the boreal forest is an important component of the regional and global climate system through storage of carbon in cold organic soils and direct influence on the solar energy budget. This study integrates remote sensing and GIS products from different sub-fields working in the pan-Arctic region to investigate fire and permafrost-degradation, the land cover shaping processes that help determine the fate of the boreal forest. These disturbance processes are subject to change with climate and hold the potential for rapid change to the structure of the boreal forest. We identify regions at risk for rapid change, quantify the contributions of different disturbance processes, and analyze patterns of post disturbance recovery.
Umberto Di Salvatore
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.
Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Turton, Stephen M; Pert, Petina L; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F
Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m(2) of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity. PMID:27435389
Luiz Antonio Martinelli
Full Text Available The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously covered by tropical rain forest. To reach this goal we measured the precipitation, soil matric potential, discharge, surface runoff and water table levels during one year. The results indicated that there is a decrease in surface soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, as low intensity rainfall prevails, the lower water conductivity does not necessarily leads to a substantially higher surface runoff generation. Regarding soil water matric potential, the pasture presented higher moisture levels than forest during the dry season. This increase in soil moisture implies in higher water table recharge that, in turn, explain the higher runoff ratio. This way, land-use change conversion from forest to pasture implies a higher annual streamflow in pasture catchments. Nonetheless, this increase in runoff due to forest conversion to pasture implies in losses of biological diversity as well as lower soil protection.
On this map the landscape-ecological limitations of intensive forest-economic activity on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. Suitability of territory of intensive agricultural activity is the result of assessment of landscape-ecological limitations given by types of abiotic complexes of legal nature protection and protection of natural resources and the action of stress factors. Suitability of exploitation by forest-economic activity was assessed in similar way. The method of assessment was ruled by the principle that if in all three cases there were suitable conditions for the development of the particular activity, the limitations were classified as very low. If at least one landscape-ecological limitation was of the highest degree, the limitation of the particular activity was classified as high. The territory characterised in this way provides the general idea of possible development of the assessed activities. (authors)
An inventory of spiders was made in woodlots, which are situated in an agricultural landscape in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that good dispersers, like spiders, will be distributed randomly over habitat patches and consequently, that there will be
Li, Yue-Hui; Wu, Wen; Li, Na-Na; Bu, Ren-Cang; Hu, Yuan-Man
In some European and North American countries where forestry is highly developed, both public and private forest ownership regimes have being existed for a long time. Currently, the researches about both the dynamics of forest landscape and habitat pattern and the relationship between habitat pattern and biological conservation in multi-ownership forest landscape are increasingly becoming important. This paper reviewed the effects of multi-ownership regime on forest landscape pattern and animal habitat and emphasized on the ecological consequences of forest parcelization and land divestiture, including the provision of diverse habitats and fragmentation of the existing large-area habitat. This paper also summarized two ways (changing the ownership pattern and integrating the multi-ownership management by cross boundary coordination) for handling the conflicts between small-scaled multi-ownership management and biological conservation at large scale in forestry-developed countries and analyzed the reasons that those countries prefer to adopt the latter one. Furthermore, the methodological limitations in simulating ownership pattern were pointed out. Finally, the present status, challenges and opportunities in the above-mentioned research issues in China were discussed, and the suggestions for further researches were provided. PMID:24175540
Full Text Available Retention forestry, including the retention of woodland key habitats (WKH at the forest stand scale, has become an essential management practice in boreal forests. Here, we investigate the spatial distribution of 9470 habitat patches, mapped according to the Complementary Habitat Inventory method (CHI habitats, as potential WKHs in 10 sample areas in Norway. We ask whether there are parts of the forest landscapes that have consistently low or high density of CHI habitats compared to the surveyed landscape as a whole, and therefore have a low or high degree of conflict with harvesting, respectively. We found that there was a general pattern of clumped distribution of CHI habitats at distances up to a few kilometres. Furthermore, results showed that most types of CHI habitats were approximately two to three times as common in the 25% steepest slopes, lowest altitudes and highest site indices. CHI habitats that are most common in old-growth forests were found at longer distances from roads, whereas habitats rich in deciduous trees were found at shorter distances from roads than expected. Both environmental factors and the history of human impact are needed to explain the spatial distribution of CHI habitats. The overrepresentation of WKHs in parts of the forest landscapes represents a good starting point to develop more efficient inventory methods.
DESBUREAUX, Sebastien; Eric Nazindigouba KERE; Combes Motel, Pascale
This paper analyzes deforestation leakages from natural rainforests to anthropized habitats following the creation of Protected Areas in Madagascar. A simple theoretical framework highlights that a conservation constraint does not necessarily create deforestation leakages on secondary forests. An original dataset is built combining fine scale vegetation cover images and spatialized census data over the period 2000 to 2012. Cover images allow us to distinguish a mosaic of landscapes. Multileve...
Hanberry, Brice B; Dey, Daniel C; He, Hong S
Regionally-distinctive open oak forest ecosystems have been replaced either by intensive agriculture and grazing fields or by denser forests throughout eastern North America and Europe. To quantify changes in tree communities and density in the Missouri Plains, a grassland-forest landscape, we used historical surveys from 1815 to 1864 and current surveys from 2004 to 2008. To estimate density for historical communities, we used the Morisita plotless density estimator and applied corrections for surveyor bias. To estimate density for current forests, we used Random Forests, an ensemble regression tree method, to predict densities from known values at plots using terrain and soil predictors. Oak species decreased from 62% of historical composition to 30% of current composition and black and white oaks historically were dominant species across 93% of the landscape and currently were dominant species across 42% of the landscape. Current forest density was approximately two times greater than historical densities, demonstrating loss of savanna and woodlands and transition to dense forest structure. Average tree diameters were smaller than in the past, but mean basal area and stocking remained similar over time because of the increase in density in current forests. Nevertheless, there were spatial differences; basal area and stocking decreased along rivers and increased away from rivers. Oak species are being replaced by other species in the Missouri Plains, similar to replacement throughout the range of Quercus. Long-term commitment to combinations of prescribed burning and silvicultural prescriptions in more xeric sites may be necessary for oak recruitment. Restoration of open oak ecosystems is a time-sensitive issue because restoration will become increasingly costly as oaks are lost from the overstory and the surrounding matrix becomes dominated by non-oak species. PMID:24496032
Busing, R.T.; Solomon, A.M.; McKane, R.B.; Burdick, C.A.
The FORCLIM model of forest dynamics was tested against field survey data for its ability to simulate basal area and composition of old forests across broad climatic gradients in western Oregon, USA. The model was also tested for its ability to capture successional trends in ecoregions of the west Cascade Range. It was then applied to simulate present and future (1990-2050) forest landscape dynamics of a watershed in the west Cascades. Various regimes of climate change and harvesting in the watershed were considered in the landscape application. The model was able to capture much of the variation in forest basal area and composition in western Oregon even though temperature and precipitation were the only inputs that were varied among simulated sites. The measured decline in total basal area from tall coastal forests eastward to interior steppe was matched by simulations. Changes in simulated forest dominants also approximated those in the actual data. Simulated abundances of a few minor species did not match actual abundances, however. Subsequent projections of climate change and harvest effects in a west Cascades landscape indicated no change in forest dominance as of 2050. Yet, climate-driven shifts in the distributions of some species were projected. The simulation of both stand-replacing and partial-stand disturbances across western Oregon improved agreement between simulated and actual data. Simulations with fire as an agent of partial disturbance suggested that frequent fires of low severity can alter forest composition and structure as much or more than severe fires at historic frequencies. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.
Triviño, María; Juutinen, Artti; Mazziotta, Adriano; Miettinen, Kaisa; Podkopaev, Dmitry; Reunanen, Pasi; Mönkkönen, Mikko
-offs between a provisioning (revenues from timber selling) and regulating (carbon storage and sequestration) ecosystem services among seven alternative forest management regimes in a large boreal forest production landscape. First, we estimate the potential of the landscape to produce harvest revenues and...... store/sequester carbon across a 50-year time period. Then, we identify conflicts between harvest revenues and carbon storage and sequestration. Finally, we apply multiobjective optimization to find optimal combinations of forest management regimes that maximize harvest revenues and carbon storage....../sequestration. Our results show that no management regime alone is able to either maximize harvest revenues or carbon services and that a combination of different regimes is needed. We also show that with a relatively little economic investment (5% decrease in harvest revenues), a substantial increase in carbon...
Abram, Nicola K; Xofis, Panteleimon; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; MacMillan, Douglas C; Ancrenaz, Marc; Chung, Robin; Peter, Lucy; Ong, Robert; Lackman, Isabelle; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius; Knight, Andrew T
Lowland tropical forests are increasingly threatened with conversion to oil palm as global demand and high profit drives crop expansion throughout the world's tropical regions. Yet, landscapes are not homogeneous and regional constraints dictate land suitability for this crop. We conducted a regional study to investigate spatial and economic components of forest conversion to oil palm within a tropical floodplain in the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The Kinabatangan ecosystem harbours significant biodiversity with globally threatened species but has suffered forest loss and fragmentation. We mapped the oil palm and forested landscapes (using object-based-image analysis, classification and regression tree analysis and on-screen digitising of high-resolution imagery) and undertook economic modelling. Within the study region (520,269 ha), 250,617 ha is cultivated with oil palm with 77% having high Net-Present-Value (NPV) estimates ($413/ha-yr-$637/ha-yr); but 20.5% is under-producing. In fact 6.3% (15,810 ha) of oil palm is commercially redundant (with negative NPV of $-299/ha-yr-$-65/ha-yr) due to palm mortality from flood inundation. These areas would have been important riparian or flooded forest types. Moreover, 30,173 ha of unprotected forest remain and despite its value for connectivity and biodiversity 64% is allocated for future oil palm. However, we estimate that at minimum 54% of these forests are unsuitable for this crop due to inundation events. If conversion to oil palm occurs, we predict a further 16,207 ha will become commercially redundant. This means that over 32,000 ha of forest within the floodplain would have been converted for little or no financial gain yet with significant cost to the ecosystem. Our findings have globally relevant implications for similar floodplain landscapes undergoing forest transformation to agriculture such as oil palm. Understanding landscape level constraints to this crop, and transferring these into policy
Wen J Wang
Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak
Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Beard, Karen H.; Crump, Martha L.
Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil’s Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in
Siegert, C. M.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Leathers, D. J.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Mitchell, M. J.
The partitioning of precipitation within the forest canopy into throughfall and stemflow is controlled by biotic and abiotic factors, which include storm characteristics (e.g., intensity, duration, and magnitude) and canopy structural parameters. Our research uses novel applications of weather map classification to relate synoptic scale weather patterns to the surface environment. A daily synoptic calendar was developed in the Mid-Atlantic (USA) to categorize the subcanopy hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes during storm events in an eastern deciduous forest. Synoptic classification identified 6 low pressure systems, 4 high pressure systems, 1 cold front, 3 northerly flow regimes, 3 southerly flow regimes, and 5 weak patterns across 4 seasons. The low pressure systems were commonly associated with the largest average flux-based enrichment ratios of solutes in throughfall and stemflow compared to rainfall solute concentrations. Low pressures such as the Weak Coastal Low, centered off the Mid-Atlantic coast with easterly winds over the study region, were associated with large rainfall events with moderate intensities falling over a long period of time. This combination of meteorological conditions allowed complete washoff of antecedent atmospheric deposition and maximum canopy leaching as storm systems of this magnitude were able to wet the entire canopy. The lowest flux-based enrichment ratios occurred during the passage of cold fronts and under weak southwest flow regimes, which were both characterized by moderately high rainfall amounts that occurred over short periods of time (i.e., 5 mm h-1). As a result, the water from these storm systems passed through the forest canopy very quickly and with minimal contact time thus resulting in minimal enrichment of throughfall and stemflow. The distinct chemical signatures of synoptic types provide evidence that this novel application of storm classification in forest hydrology is useful for estimating hydrologic and
Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Wilson, Scott; Leimgruber, Peter; Lookingbill, Todd
Low-density residential development (i.e., exurban development) is often embedded within a matrix of protected areas and natural amenities, raising concern about its ecological consequences. Forest-dependent species are particularly susceptible to human settlement even at low housing densities typical of exurban areas. However, few studies have examined the response of forest birds to this increasingly common form of land conversion. The aim of this study was to assess whether, how, and at what scale forest birds respond to changes in habitat due to exurban growth. We evaluated changes in habitat composition (amount) and configuration (arrangement) for forest and forest-edge species around North America Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) stops between 1986 and 2009. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect change points in species occurrence at two spatial extents (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results show that exurban development reduced forest cover and increased habitat fragmentation around BBS stops. Forest birds responded nonlinearly to most measures of habitat loss and fragmentation at both the local and landscape extents. However, the strength and even direction of the response changed with the extent for several of the metrics. The majority of forest birds' responses could be predicted by their habitat preferences indicating that management practices in exurban areas might target the maintenance of forested habitats, for example through easements or more focused management for birds within existing or new protected areas. PMID:23826325
Leandro Lourenço Dumas; Jorge Luiz Nessimian
A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Cernotina Ross, 1938, with 64 extant species, is a New World genus of caddisflies. In Brazil, there are 31 described species of which 28 are recorded from the Amazon basin. Cernotina puri sp. nov. is described and figured based on specimens collected in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished by the shape of the interm...
Baltazar JM; Drechsler-Santos ER; Ryvarden L; MAQ. Cavalcanti; Gibertoni TB
The Atlantic Forest is the better known Brazilian biome regarding polypore diversity. Nonetheless, species are still being added to its mycota and it is possible that the knowledge of its whole diversity is far from being achieved. On the other hand Caatinga is one of the lesser known. However, studies in this biome have been undertaken and the knowledge about it increasing. Based in recent surveys in Atlantic Forest and Caatinga remnants in the Brazilian States of Bahia, Pernambuco and Sergi...
Cruz, Roberta; Santos, Cledir; de Lima, Juliana Silva; Moreira, Keila; Motta, Cristina Souza
Caatinga is characterised as being a unique semi-arid biome only found in Brazil. It is characterised mainly for its soil poor in mineral and organic nutrients, and low water activity. On the other hand, Atlantic Forest is mainly characterised by its nutrient-rich soil, and its high water activity. Fungi are important constituents of both biomes. Among the fungi frequently isolated from soil of both Caatinga and Atlantic Forest, species of Penicillium are prominent. The richness, abundance, e...
Abstract The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particula...
Nilton C. Cáceres; Wellington Hannibal; Dirceu R. Freitas; Edson L. Silva; Cassiano Roman; Janaina Casella
This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites) and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80) within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23) were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled ...
Cardoso Márcio Z; Quek Swee-Peck; Albuquerque de Moura Priscila; Kronforst Marcus R
Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on po...
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the density and species composition of viable seeds buried in four stands of a tropical montane forest at Parque Estadual Intervales, Brazil. The objective was to understand: (1 how numbers and composition of the soil seed bank change as the forest regrows, and (2 how such changes affect the species available for regeneration if forests of different ages are cut down. In each forest stand (5, 18, 27-yr-old and a mature forest, 57 soil samples were collected (0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm deep. Viable seed density of herbaceous species ranged between 11,003 seeds. m-2 (5-yr-old vegetation and 482 (mature forest, and between 25 (5-yr-old vegetation and 389 seeds. m-2 (mature forest for woody plant species in the 0-5 cm soil layer, suggesting a decrease in seed stocks in the course of forest regeneration. Seeds buried in the 0-2.5 cm soil layer represented between 56.9% and 67.4% of all viable seeds. Most of the viable seeds belonged to weeds of Asteraceae, Poaceae, Malvaceae and Solanaceae. The results provide evidence that, in forests of different ages, the soil does not store seeds of the same key ecological groups involved in the regeneration of Atlantic forest. Allochthonous seeds from remaining patches of forest, as well as their vertebrate dispersers, are needed for forest regeneration since the soil seed bank does not store large seeds of shade-tolerant species.
Paul D. Pickell
Full Text Available The accelerated development of energy resources around the world has substantially increased forest change related to oil and gas activities. In some cases, oil and gas activities are the primary catalyst of land-use change in forested landscapes. We discuss the challenges associated with characterizing ecological change related to energy resource development using North America as an exemplar. We synthesize the major impacts of energy development to forested ecosystems and offer new perspectives on how to detect and monitor anthropogenic disturbance during the Anthropocene. The disturbance of North American forests for energy development has resulted in persistent linear corridors, suppression of historical disturbance regimes, novel ecosystems, and the eradication of ecological memory. Characterizing anthropogenic disturbances using conventional patch-based disturbance measures will tend to underestimate the ecological impacts of energy development. Suitable indicators of anthropogenic impacts in forests should be derived from the integration of multi-scalar Earth observations. Relating these indicators to ecosystem condition will be a capstone in the progress toward monitoring forest change in landscapes undergoing rapid energy development.
Full Text Available Plant-frugivore networks play a key role in the regeneration of sub-tropical forest ecosystems. However, information about the impact of habitat characteristics on plant-frugivore networks in fragmented forests is scarce. We investigated the importance of fruit abundance, fruiting plant species richness and canopy cover within habitat fragments for the structure and robustness of plant-frugivore networks in a mosaic forest landscape of South Africa. In total, 53 avian species were involved in fruit removal of 31 fleshy-fruiting plant species. Species specialisation was always higher for plants than for frugivores. Both species and network-level specialisation increased with increasing fruit abundance and decreased with increasing fruiting plant species richness and canopy cover within fragments. Interaction diversity was unaffected by fruit abundance and canopy cover, but increased slightly with increasing fruiting plant species richness. These findings suggest that especially the availability of resources is an important determinant of the structure of plant-frugivore networks in a fragmented forest landscape.
LIShu-juan; SUIYu-zheng; FENGHai-qing; WANGFeng-you; LIYu-wen
Mao'ershan region is a representative natural secondary forested region in the eastern mountainous region, northeast of China. Under the support of ARC/INFO, the landscape pattern and landscape diversity of Mao'erhshan region were sudied by combining the forest type map (1:10 000), which was drawn from the aerial photographs (1999), field investigation and land utilization map (1:10 000). The selected indices included patch number, patch size, patch density index, richness index,dominance index, evenness index and diversity index. The results showed that the landscape dominant forest type in Mao'ershan region was softwood broad-leaved forest. In all landscape types, the average patch area of natural secondary forests was bigger than that of artificial forest. The patch density index of each landscape formed in artificial forest was higher than that of natural secondary forest. The landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index of natural forest were highest, the landscape heterogeneity was also, but the landscape dominance was lower. In natural forest, the control effects of landscape elements on landscape-structure, function and its change were weakened. The artificial forest was on the contrary.
Roura-Pascual, N.; Brotons, L.; Garcia, D.; Zamora, R.; Caceres, M. de
The study of the spatial patterns of species allows the examination of hypotheses on the most plausible ecological processes and factors determining their distribution. To investigate the determinants of parasite species on Mediterranean forests at regional scales, occurrence data of the European Misletoe (Viscum album) in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) were extracted from forest inventory data and combined with different types of explanatory variables by means of generalized linear mixed models. The presence of mistletoes in stands of Pinus halepensis seems to be determined by multiple factors (climatic conditions, and characteristics of the host tree and landscape structure) operating at different spatial scales, with the availability of orchards of Olea europaea in the surroundings playing a relevant role. These results suggest that host quality and landscape structure are important mediators of plant-plant and plant-animal interactions and, therefore, management of mistletoe populations should be conducted at both local (i.e. clearing of infected host trees) and landscape scales (e.g. controlling the availability of nutrient-rich food sources that attract bird dispersers). Research and management at landscape-scales are necessary to anticipate the negative consequence of land-use changes in Mediterranean forests. (Author) 38 refs.
Guedje, N.M.; Lejoly, J.; Nkongmeneck, B.A.; Jonkers, W.B.J.
Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,
Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1995. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health
In promoting ecology research, the federal ministry of science and technology (BMBF) pursues the aim to enhance understanding of the natural resources indispensable to the life of man, animals and plant societies and their interrelations, and to point out existing scope for action to preserve or replenish them. Consequently, ecology research makes an essential contribution towards effective nature conservancy and environmental protection. The interactions between climate and ecosystems also form an important part of this. With regard to topical environmental issues concerning agricultural landscapes, rivers and lakes, forests and urban-industrial agglomerations, system interrelations in representative ecosystems are investigated. The results are to be embodied in directives for the protection or appropriate use of these ecosystems in order to contribute towards a sustainable development of these types of landscapes. The book also evaluates and assesses which types of nuisances, interventions and modes of use represent hazards for the respective systems. (orig./VHE)
Marcelo Trindade Nascimento; Ezequiel Moraes dos Santos
This paper assesses the population structure of Symphonia globulifera in forest fragments of lowland Atlantic Forest in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve (RBPA) and the União Biological Reserve (RBU), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A comparative analysis of the role of seed and vegetative reproduction in the plant population structure was also carried out. Three sampling areas were selected in the RBPA (PORT, CM and ARI) and one area in the RBU. Two types of population structure were found: 1) p...
Zhang, Yuan; Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xu, Ruofeng; Lin, Cong
Forest cover change is one of the most important land cover changes. Intensified economic development and population growth have led to extensive deforestation and afforestation, and greatly altered the forest landscape patterns. This paper analyzed how socioeconomic drivers influenced the forest extent and landscape patterns in a lagged manner within the Li River Basin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, during the period of 1991 to 2013. First, the temporal variations of forest extent and landscape patterns as quantified by six forest cover metrics were analyzed. The cross-correlation analysis was employed to examine the lagged responses of forest cover metrics to each socioeconomic driver across regions. Last, the fixed effects regression models were built to quantitatively assess the spatially variant relationships. The results demonstrated that the influence of socioeconomic drivers lagged, and the lagged influence varied across regions.
Adriele Karlokoski Cunha
Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.
Darroch M. Whitaker
Full Text Available There exists little information on demographic responses of boreal songbirds to logging. We conducted a 4-yr (2003-2006 songbird mark-recapture study in western Newfoundland, where land cover is a naturally heterogeneous mosaic of productive spruce-fir forest, stunted taiga, and openings such as bogs, fens, and riparian zones. We compared apparent survival and rate of transience for adults of 14 species between areas having forests fragmented primarily by either natural openings or 3-7 yr-old clearcuts. Data were collected on three landscape pairs, with birds being marked on three 4-6 ha netting sites on each landscape (total = 18 netting sites. Survival rates were estimated using multi-strata mark-recapture models with landscape types specified as model strata. Landscape type was retained in the best model for only two species, Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Yellow-rumped Warbler, in both cases indicating lower apparent survival in landscapes having clearcuts. Though parameter estimates suggested lower survival in clearcut landscapes for several species, meta-analysis across all species detected no general difference between landscape types. Further, we did not detect any relation between landscape differences in survival and a species' habitat affinity, migratory strategy, or the proportion of transients in its population. Although sensitivity to logging was limited, we observed high interspecific variation in rates of breeding season apparent survival (48% [Dark-eyed Junco] to 100% [several species], overwinter apparent survival (0.3% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet] to 86.5% [Gray Jay], and transience (≈0% [several species] to 61% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet in clearcut landscapes]. For Lincoln's and White-throated Sparrows, over-winter apparent survival was >2× higher for males than females, and rate of transience was > 8× higher for White-throated Sparrow males than females. Moderately male-biased sex ratios suggested that both lower mortality and higher
Bushey, J. T.; Driscoll, C. T.; Mitchell, M. J.; Selvendiran, P.; Montesdeoca, M. R.
Concentrations and fluxes of mercury (Hg) species in surface waters of forested watersheds are affected by hydrological events. The mechanisms of Hg transport during events are poorly understood and yet may influence Hg bioavailability and exposure to aquatic biota. Three storm events were investigated (June, September, and November 2005) at a forested watershed in the Adirondack region of New York State, USA, with varying magnitude and intensity. Concentrations of Hg species increased during events both above and below wetlands in the watershed. While Hg flux was higher from wetland drainage, the Hg flux from the upland site exhibited a greater relative response to elevated watershed saturation. Hg species concentrations were not correlated with discharge, DOC, or TSS, with particulate Hg flux during events potassium and nitrate (pbioavailability.
A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.
Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.
Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández
Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...
Claudiney Biral dos Santos; Adelson Luiz Ferreira; Aloísio Falqueto
A new species of Sycorax Curtis, 1839 (Diptera, Psychodidae) from the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Sycorax bravoi Santos, Ferreira & Falqueto sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on samples collected with a Möricke trap installed on the ground at the Biological Station of Santa Lúcia, municipality of Santa Teresa, in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Males have a paramere with a spiniform prolongation on the distal surface and an aedeagus with a long posterior membranou...
Rodrigo B. Ferreira; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P., Jr
We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in th...
Loise Araujo Costa; Luís Fernando Pascholati Gusmão
Abstract We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season y...
Diego Dias da Silva; Bruno Cavalcante Bellini
Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa), a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus f...
Adriele Karlokoski Cunha; Igor Soares de Oliveira; Marilia Teresinha Hartmann
The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2), Bufonidae (2), Centrolenidae (1), Cycloramphidae (1), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (18), Hylodidae (1), Leiuperidae (2), Leptodactylidae (3), and Microhylidae (1). Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while ...
Kreiter, Serge; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane
The phytoseiid mite Ragusaseius ferraguti n. gen., n. sp. is described from the primary Atlantic Forest Mata Atlantica in Brazil, based on specimens collected on Cyphomandra calycina Sendth (Solanaceae). This mite is unique in the following combination of characters: setae J3 and J4 present; dorsal setae medium to long, except for J5, and serrated; ventrianal shield anteriorly eroded, containing only JV2 and occasionally ZV2 in addition to circumanal setae.
Piero Angeli Ruschi; José Eduardo Simon; Fernando Moreira Flores
The breeding behavior of the Yellow-browed Woodpecker (Piculus aurulentus) is unknown like in many other woodpecker species. Here we describe some aspects of its biology based on a nest found in Atlantic Forest habitat of southeastern Brazil. The nest construction matches the pattern typically observed in this family, consisting of a vertical cavity excavated in a trunk tree. Clutch size was two eggs. Our findings include details about the mating display, nest excavation, incubation, parental...
Daniela Camargos Costa; Vanessa Pecini da Cunha; Gabriela Maria Pereira de Assis; Júlio César de Souza Junior; Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano; Mércia Eliane de Arruda; Flora Satiko Kano; Luzia Helena Carvalho; Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito
Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the po...
Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia
Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to a...
Gustavo Borba de Miranda; Mateus Da Fré; Márcia Regina Wolfart; Elaine Maria Lucas
The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We register...
Castilho, Camila S.; Marins-Sá, Luiz G.; Rodrigo C. Benedet; de Freitas, Thales R. O.
The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, o...
Raphael S Pimenta; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Carlos A Rosa
We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered fro...
Laura Rodriguez; Ross Mitchell; Carlson, Matthew J.
A common challenge facing land use planning is assessment of the future performance of land use options. The challenge can be acute in developing regions where land use is expanding rapidly and funding and data needed for planning are scarce. To inform land use planning for a biosphere reserve located in Paraguay's Atlantic forest region, a scenario analysis explored the relative merits of conventional and conservation agricultural practices, sustained yield forestry, and protection. Sim...
Rocha-Filho, L. C.; Krug, C; C. I. Silva; C. A. Garófalo
In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of...
Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Fabíola M. Carvalho; Claudia E Thompson; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T. R.; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F
Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related...
Cruz, R.; Lima, J. S.; Fonseca, J. C.; Ferreira, M. J. S.; Moreira, K. A.; Santos, C; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria
Penicillium spp. are capable of degrading plant wastes by producing large amounts of enzymes such as cellulases. These form a complex capable of acting on cellulosic materials and producing sugars with industrial interest (e.g., ethanol production). Cellulases are also used for (a) pulp and paper industry (b) in the textile industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellulolytic capability of 17 strains of Penicillium isolated from soil of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest...
Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa; Raul F. D. Sales; Eliza M. X. Freire
We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49) were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also co...
André Filipe Testoni; Sérgio Luiz Althoff; André Paulo Nascimento; Francisco Steiner-Souza; Ives José Sbalqueiro
Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nin...
Skaloš, J.; Novotný, M.; Woitsch, Jiří; Zacharová, J.; Berchová, K.; Svoboda, M.; Křováková, K.; Romportl, D.; Keken, Z.
Roč. 58, March (2015), s. 206-216. ISSN 0143-6228 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Forest history * Change trajectories * GIS * Mining landscape Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.494, year: 2014
Paul F. Hessburg
Full Text Available Land managers in the western US are beginning to understand that early 20th century forests displayed complex patterns of composition and structure at several different spatial scales, that there was interplay between patterns and processes within and across scales, and that these conditions have been radically altered by management. Further, they know that restoring integrity (see Definition of Terms of these conditions has broad implications for the future sustainability (see Definition of Terms of native species, ecosystem services, and ecological processes. Many are looking for methods to restore (see Definition of Terms more natural landscape patterns of habitats and more naturally functioning disturbance regimes; all in the context of a warming climate. Attention is turning to evaluating whole landscapes at local and regional scales, deciphering recent changes in trajectories, and formulating landscape prescriptions that can restore ecological functionality and improve landscape resilience (see Definition of Terms. The business of landscape evaluation and developing landscape prescriptions is inherently complex, but with the advent of decision support systems, software applications are now available to conduct and document these evaluations. Here, we review several published landscape evaluation and planning applications designed with the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS software, and present an evaluation we developed in support of a landscape restoration project. We discuss the goals and design of the project, its methods and utilities, what worked well, what could be improved and related research opportunities. For readability and compactness, fine and broad-scale landscape evaluations that could be a part of multi-scale restoration planning, are not further developed here.
Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias
The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is Brazil. PMID:26667031
Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne De; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A.; Niklasson, Mats
Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone.
Cardoso Márcio Z
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on population connectivity in butterflies with home-range behavior. Results We generated microsatellite, AFLP and mtDNA sequence data for 136 Heliconius erato specimens from eight collecting locations and 146 H. melpomene specimens from seven locations. Population genetic analyses of the data revealed high levels of genetic diversity in H. erato relative to H. melpomene, widespread genetic differentiation among populations of both species, and no evidence for isolation-by-distance. Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the extensive habitat fragmentation along Brazil's Atlantic Forest has reduced dispersal of Heliconius butterflies among neighboring habitat patches. The results also lend support to the observation that fine-scale population genetic structure may be common in Heliconius. If such population structure also exists independent of human activity, and has been common over the evolutionary history of Heliconius butterflies, it may have contributed to the evolution of wing pattern diversity in the genus.
Renewable energy sources are expected to represent a growing proportion of the primary energy sources for the production of electricity. Environmental and social reasons support this tendency. European and Spanish energy plans assign a role of primary importance to biomass in general and, especially, to forest biomass for the period up to 2010. This paper reviews, organises and quantifies the potentials and values of this renewable resource in the foremost Spanish Region in terms of silviculture. The non-market externalities (environmental, economic and social) are classified, and some of them are quantified to present a synthesis of the benefits of a partial substitution of fossil fuels by forest biomass for electricity generation. (author)
Full Text Available Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during the breeding season. We selected 21 forest patches (3.3-797.8 ha as study sites. In each forest patch, we used infra-red-triggered cameras for a total of 60 camera days per site. We inspected each photo to determine whether it was of an adult or a pup. Although we found adult raccoon dogs in all 21 forest patches, pups were found only in 13 patches. To estimate probability of occurrence and detection for raccoon in 21 forest fragments, we used single season site occupancy models in PRESENCE program. Model selection based on AIC and model averaging showed that the occupancy probability of pups was positively affected by patch area. This result suggests that large forests improve breeding success of raccoon dogs. A major reason for the low habitat value of small, isolated patches may be the low availability of food sources and the high risk of being killed on the roads in such areas. Understanding the effects of local and landscape parameters on species breeding success may help us to devise and implement effective long-term conservation and management plans.
Renata C. Campos
Full Text Available Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung or carcasses (carrion and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the diversity of dung beetle communities inhabiting fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with the purpose of describing the ecology of the species in southern Brazil. This study was conducted in the region of Campos Novos, in Santa Catarina, where twenty sites of Atlantic forest fragments were sampled. Samplings of dung beetles were conducted using 200 pitfall traps, of which 100 were baited with human feces and another 100 with carrion. Size and environmental complexity were also measured for each forest fragment. A total of 1,502 dung beetles, belonging to six tribes, 12 genera and 33 species, were collected. Results of the Levin's index of niche breadth indicated that 11 species were categorized as being coprophagous, ten as generalists, and two as necrophagous. Most species are tunnelers (19, nine of rollers and four of dwellers. The great diversity of Scarabaeinae in the region of Campos Novos, including several rare species, adds important data to the Scarabaeinae fauna in the central-western region of Santa Catarina. It may also help choosing priority areas for conservation in the region, where human impact, with large areas of monoculture, increasingly threatens the fragments of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.
Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane
Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991
Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion
Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.
Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation due to both natural and anthropogenic forces continues to threaten the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. This is of particular concern in tropical regions that are experiencing elevated rates of habitat loss. Although less well-studied than tropical rain forests, tropical dry forests (TDF contain an enormous diversity of species and continue to be threatened by anthropogenic activities including grazing and agriculture. However, little is known about the processes that shape genetic connectivity in species inhabiting TDF ecosystems. We adopt a landscape genetic approach to understanding functional connectivity for leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylus tuberculosus at multiple sites near the northernmost limit of this ecosystem at Alamos, Sonora, Mexico. Traditional analyses of population genetics are combined with multivariate GIS-based landscape analyses to test hypotheses on the potential drivers of spatial genetic variation. Moderate levels of within-population diversity and substantial levels of population differentiation are revealed by FST and Dest. Analyses using structure suggest the occurrence of from 2 to 9 genetic clusters depending on the model used. Landscape genetic analysis suggests that forest cover, stream connectivity, undisturbed habitat, slope, and minimum temperature of the coldest period explain more genetic variation than do simple Euclidean distances. Additional landscape genetic studies throughout TDF habitat are required to understand species-specific responses to landscape and climate change and to identify common drivers. We urge researchers interested in using multivariate distance methods to test for, and report, significant correlations among predictor matrices that can impact results, particularly when adopting least-cost path approaches. Further investigation into the use of information theoretic approaches for model selection is also warranted.
Full Text Available Secondary forests are extensive in the tropics. Currently, these plant communities are the available habitats for wildlife and in the future they will possibly be some of the most wide-spread ecosystems world-wide. To understand the potential role of secondary forests for wildlife conservation, three ungulate species were studied: Mazama temama, Odocoileus virginianus and Pecari tajacu. We analyzed their relative abundance and habitat use at two spatial scales: (1 Local, where three different successional stages of tropical deciduous forest were compared, and (2 Landscape, where available habitats were compared in terms of landscape composition (proportion of forests, pastures and croplands within 113 ha. To determine the most important habitat-related environmental factors influencing the Sign Encounter Rate (SER of the three ungulate species, 11 physical, anthropogenic and vegetation variables were simultaneously analyzed through model selection using Akaike’s Information Criterion. We found, that P. tajacu and O. virginianus mainly used early successional stages, while M. temama used all successional stages in similar proportions. The latter species, however, used early vegetation stages only when they were located in landscapes mainly covered by forest (97%. P. tajacu and O. virginianus also selected landscapes covered essentially by forests, although they required smaller percentages of forest (86%. All ungulate species avoided landscape fragments covered by pastures. For all three species, landscape composition and human activities were the variables that best explained SER. We concluded that landscape is the fundamental scale for ungulate management, and that secondary forests are potentially important landscape elements for ungulate conservation.
Two sites of the Cross River within the Lebialem-Mone forest landscape of Cameroon were chosen, one of the sites faced with human activities (test site) and the other with no human pressure (control site). The lengths and weights of fish obtained from both sites were analyzed in SPSS. Fish communities living within these 2 sites were compared after collecting fish from them using gill nets within 2 months of sampling (September-October 2009). Questionnaires were distributed to the fishers to ...
Full Text Available Downed logs on the forest floor provide habitat for species, fuel for forest fires, and function as a key component of forest nutrient cycling and carbon storage. Ground-based field surveying is a conventional method for mapping and characterizing downed logs but is limited. In addition, optical remote sensing methods have not been able to map these ground targets due to the lack of optical sensor penetrability into the forest canopy and limited sensor spectral and spatial resolutions. Lidar (light detection and ranging sensors have become a more viable and common data source in forest science for detailed mapping of forest structure. This study evaluates the utility of discrete, multiple return airborne lidar-derived data for image object segmentation and classification of downed logs in a disturbed forested landscape and the efficiency of rule-based object-based image analysis (OBIA and classification algorithms. Downed log objects were successfully delineated and classified from lidar derived metrics using an OBIA framework. 73% of digitized downed logs were completely or partially classified correctly. Over classification occurred in areas with large numbers of logs clustered in close proximity to one another and in areas with vegetation and tree canopy. The OBIA methods were found to be effective but inefficient in terms of automation and analyst’s time in the delineation and classification of downed logs in the lidar data.
Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco
We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616
Full Text Available We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l. located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams, through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1, Brachycephalidae (3, Bufonidae (4, Centrolenidae (2, Ceratophryidae (1, Craugastoridae (7, Eleutherodactylidae (2, Hemiphractidae (2, Hylidae (42, Hylodidae (1, Leptodactylidae (7, Microhylidae (3, Siphonopidae (1, Odontophrynidae (3 and Pipidae (1. Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot.
Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species, among which Aplastodiscus cochranae, A. ehrhardti, and Hypsiboas poaju are included in the list of endangered species in the state. The highest number of species was associated to spring and summer. The most frequent anuran species were H. bischoffi, Adenomera araucaria, and Physalaemus nanus, registered throughout the study period. The daily activity of males was concentrated between 8 p.m. and 12 p.m., but some species keep vocalizing overnight, indicating that vocal activity can differ among species undergoing the same weather conditions. The diversity of anurans recorded in our study was high, including endangered species and species with poor biological knowledge, reinforcing the relevance of Serra do Tabuleiro as a priority area for preserving the Atlantic Forest.
Melati, Dian N.; Nengah Surati Jaya, I.; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Zuhdi, Muhammad; Fehrmann, Lutz; Magdon, Paul; Kleinn, Christoph
Land use/land cover (LULC) in forested tropical landscapes is very dynamically developing. In particular, the pace of forest conversion in the tropics is a global concern as it directly impacts the global carbon cycle and biodiversity conservation. Expansion of agriculture is known to be among the major drivers of forest loss especially in the tropics. This is also the case in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia where it is the mainly expansion of tree crops that triggers deforestation: oil palm and rubber trees. Another transformation system in Jambi is the one from natural forest into jungle rubber, which is an agroforestry system where a certain density of forest trees accompanies the rubber tree crop, also for production of wood and non-wood forest products. The spatial distribution and the dynamics of these transformation systems and of the remaining forests are essential information for example for further research on ecosystem services and on the drivers of land transformation. In order to study land transformation, maps from the years 1990, 2000, 2011, and 2013 were utilized, derived from visual interpretation of Landsat images. From these maps, we analyze the land use/land cover change (LULCC) in the study region. It is found that secondary dryland forest (on mineral soils) and secondary swamp forest have been transformed largely into (temporary) shrub land, plantation forests, mixed dryland agriculture, bare lands and estate crops where the latter include the oil palm and rubber plantations. In addition, we present some analyses of the spatial pattern of land transformation to better understand the process of LULC fragmentation within the studied periods. Furthermore, the driving forces are analyzed.
Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation represents an important component of green infrastructure in the agricultural landscape, where natural and semi-natural forest cover has only a low land use proportion. This paper focuses on linear woody vegetation structures along roads in the agricultural landscape and analyses them in three study areas in the Nitra Region, Slovakia. We evaluate species composition and diversity, species occurrence frequency or spatial distribution, their structure according to relatively achievable age and origin. For the evaluation of occurrence frequency, a Frequency Factor was proposed and applied. This factor allows a better comparison of different study areas and results in more representative findings. The study areas were divided into sectors based on visual landscape features, which are easily identifiable in the field, such as intersections and curves in roads, and intersections of roads with other features, such as cadastral or land boundaries, watercourses, etc. Based on the species abundance, woody plants present within the sectors were categorised into 1 predominant, 2 complementary and 3 mixed-in species; and with regard to their origin into 1 autochthonous and 2 allochthonous. Further, trees were categorised into 1 long-lived, 2 medium-lived and 3 short-lived tree species. The main finding is that among trees, mainly allochthonous species dominated. Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the predominant tree species in all three study areas. It was up to 4 times more frequent than other predominant tree species. Introduced tree species prevailed also among complementary and mixed-in species. Among shrubs, mainly native species dominated, while non-native species had a significantly lower proportion and spatial distribution. Based on these findings, several measures have been proposed to improve the overall ecological stability, the proportion and spatial distribution of native woody plant species. The recommendations and
... for proposed forest management options and in collaborative and participatory approaches to planning... submission request toward Office of Management and Budget approval. Dated: March 29, 2010. Gloria...
Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Mario E. FAVILA
Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reser...
S.Lamsal; D.M.Rizzo; R.K.Meentemeyer
Large areas assessments of forest biomass distribution are a challenge in heterogeneous landscapes,where variations in tree growth and species composition occur over short distances.In this study,we use statistical and geospatial modeling on densely sampled forest biomass data to analyze the relative importance of ecological and physiographic variables as determinants of spatial variation of forest biomass in the environmentally heterogeneous region of the Big Sur,California.We estimated biomass in 280 forest plots (one plot per 2.85 km2) and measured an array of ecological (vegetation community type,distance to edge,amount of surrounding non-forest vegetation,soil properties,fire history) and physiographic drivers (elevation,potential soil moisture and solar radiation,proximity to the coast) of tree growth at each plot location.Our geostatistical analyses revealed that biomass distribution is spatially structured and autocorrelated up to 3.1 km.Regression tree (RT) models showed that both physiographic and ecological factors influenced biomass distribution.Across randomly selected sample densities (sample size 112 to 280),ecological effects of vegetation community type and distance to forest edge,and physiographic effects of elevation,potentialsoil moisture and solar radiation were the most consistent predictors of biomass.Topographic moisture index and potential solar radiation had a positive effect on biomass,indicating the importance of topographicallymediated energy and moisture on plant growth and biomass accumulation.RT model explained 35% of the variation in biomass and spatially autocorrelated variation were retained in regession residuals.Regression kriging model,developed from RT combined with kriging of regression residuals,was used to map biomass across the Big Sur.This study demonstrates how statistical and geospatial modeling can be used to discriminate the relative importance of physiographic and ecologic effects on forest biomass and develop
Barbosa, Jomar Magalhães; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Bitencourt, Marisa Dantas
Remotely sensed images have been widely used to model biomass and carbon content on large spatial scales. Nevertheless, modeling biomass using remotely sensed data from steep slopes is still poorly understood. We investigated how topographical features affect biomass estimation using remotely sensed data and how such estimates can be used in the characterization of successional stands in the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We estimated forest biomass using a modeling approach that included the use of both satellite data (LANDSAT) and topographic features derived from a digital elevation model (TOPODATA). Biomass estimations exhibited low error predictions (Adj. R2 = 0.67 and RMSE = 35 Mg/ha) when combining satellite data with a secondary geomorphometric variable, the illumination factor, which is based on hill shading patterns. This improved biomass prediction helped us to determine carbon stock in different forest successional stands. Our results provide an important source of modeling information about large-scale biomass in remaining forests over steep slopes.
Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva
Full Text Available The northeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest is the region with the greatest diversity of bryophytes in the country. However, knowledge about bryophytes is irregularly distributed among Brazilian regions. Therefore, we aimed to contribute to knowledge about bryophytes on a regional scale in the northeastern Atlantic forest, to identify the centers of bryophyte diversity in that region, and to reiterate the importance and identify locations for which new protected areas should be created. We built a database of bryophytes in 23 locations of the region, based on a literature review and new floristic inventories. To identify the locations of greatest relevance to bryophyte conservation, we considered 1 total and endemic species richness, 2 phylogenetic diversity (PD, and 3 functional diversity (proportion of shade specialists. The northeastern Atlantic rainforest contains 396 spp., representing 26% of the taxa occurring in the country, 13 of which are endemic. Generalist species predominated (164 spp., followed by shade (133 spp. and sun (92 spp. specialists. The Murici Ecological Station had the highest richness, number of endemic species, and phylogenetic diversity.
Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.
Healey, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.; Morrison, J. F.; Garrard, C.; Peduzzi, A.; Hernandez, A. J.
Forests have the capacity to store atmospheric carbon, and forest management is seen as a potential way to partially offset high anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, application of carbon cycle research in this area will depend upon development of new approaches for decision support which address, in a transparent way, the local ecological complexities facing managers without relying upon specialized monitoring campaigns. The Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF) has been developed to meet these needs. Forest carbon stocks and flows are modeled by applying carbon dynamics from a robust simulation tool (FVS: the Forest Vegetation Simulator) to high-resolution (30m) maps of forest structure and disturbance over the last 25 years. The defining feature of ForCaMF is that the maps used to represent landscape dynamics are modified in two ways: 1) stochastically, to simulate the potential effects of map bias and random error on flux estimates, and 2) purposively, to investigate effects of alternative disturbance scenarios. An empirical measure of the uncertainty of carbon stock and flux estimates associated with each scenario is obtained from the variance of output estimates as inputs are iteratively varied to propagate potential input errors. The immediate and long-term carbon processes of real or hypothetical disturbances can be considered in the context of the larger matrix of undisturbed areas. This approach currently relies only upon inventory and satellite data which are uniformly available across the United States, and could be adapted to data available elsewhere. ForCaMF is being applied in the Northern region of the US National Forest System, which covers approximately 10 million hectares of forest over 5 states. Results are expected to support formal consideration of carbon storage as an environmental service in future regional forest planning efforts.
Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Segalini, A.;
A velocity spectral tensor model was evaluated from the single-point measurements of wind speed. The model contains three parameters representing the dissipation rate of specific turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulence length scale and the turbulence anisotropy. Sonic anemometer measurements taken...... over a forested and an agricultural landscape were used to calculate the model parameters for neutral, slightly stable and slightly unstable atmospheric conditions for a selected wind speed interval. The dissipation rate above the forest was nine times that at the agricultural site. No significant...... constant with height at the forest site, whereas the turbulence became more isotropic with height for the agricultural site. Using the three parameters as inputs, we quantified the performance of the model in coherence predictions for vertical separations. The model coherence of all the three velocity...
Tellería, J. L.
Full Text Available We analysed the effects of a 25–year–old motorway on the distribution of five vertebrates inhabiting a fragmented forest landscape and differing in their ability to move across linear infrastructures. We found clear evidence of barrier effects on the distribution of the forest lizard Psammodromus algirus. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was also unequally distributed on both sides of the motorway, but this could also be due, at least in part, to fragmentation. The eyed lizard (Timon lepidus, that can move through open fields, showed no evidence of barrier effects. The distribution of two small birds (Erithacus rubecula and Phylloscopus bonelli was unaffected by the motorway. Our results show that a motorway may severely restrict the distribution of species which can withstand high levels of forest fragmentation but show limited dispersal ability, highlighting the role of linear infrastructures in shaping species’ ranges at regional scales.
Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E
Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species. PMID:20673066
Alaine A. Ball
Full Text Available Implementation of forest restoration projects requires cross-scale and hybrid forms of governance involving the state, the market, civil society, individuals, communities, and other actors. Using a case study from the Atlantic Forest Hotspot, we examine the governance of a large-scale forest restoration project implemented by an international non-governmental organization (NGO on family farmer landholdings located within protected areas of sustainable development. In addition to forest restoration, the project aims to provide an economic benefit to participating farmers by including native species with market potential (fruits, timber in restoration models and by contracting farmers in the planting phase. We employed qualitative methods such as structured interviews and participant observation to assess the effect of environmental policy and multi-scalar governance on implementation and acceptability of the project by farmers. We demonstrate that NGO and farmer expectations for the project were initially misaligned, hampering farmer participation. Furthermore, current policy complicated implementation and still poses barriers to project success, and projects must remain adaptable to changing legal landscapes. We recommend increased incorporation of social science methods in earlier stages of projects, as well as throughout the course of implementation, in order to better assess the needs and perspectives of participants, as well as to minimize trade-offs.
This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...
Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza
Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.
Renner, S; Sahlén, G; Périco, E
We surveyed 15 bodies of water among remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil for adult dragonflies and damselflies to test whether an empirical selection method for diversity indicators could be applied in a subtropical ecosystem, where limited ecological knowledge on species level is available. We found a regional species pool of 34 species distributed in a nested subset pattern with a mean of 11.2 species per locality. There was a pronounced difference in species composition between spring, summer, and autumn, but no differences in species numbers between seasons. Two species, Homeoura chelifera (Selys) and Ischnura capreolus (Hagen), were the strongest candidates for regional diversity indicators, being found only at species-rich localities in our surveyed area and likewise in an undisturbed national forest reserve, serving as a reference site for the Atlantic Forest. Using our selection method, we found it possible to obtain a tentative list of diversity indicators without having detailed ecological information of each species, providing a reference site is available for comparison. The method thus allows for indicator species to be selected in blanco from taxonomic groups that are little known. We hence argue that Odonata can already be incorporated in ongoing assessment programs in the Neotropics, which would also increase the ecological knowledge of the group and allow extrapolation to other taxa. PMID:26686194
Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Angelstam, Per; Sporrong, Ulf
Termination of fire along with active removal of deciduous trees in favor of conifers together with anthropogenic transformation of productive forest into agricultural land, have transformed northern European coniferous forests and reduced their deciduous component. Locally, however, in the villages, deciduous trees and stands were maintained, and have more recently regenerated on abandoned agricultural land. We hypothesize that the present distribution of the deciduous component is related to the village in-field/out-field zonation in different regions, which emerges from physical conditions and recent economic development expressed as land-use change. We analyzed the spatial distribution of deciduous stands in in-field and out-field zones of villages in 6 boreal/hemiboreal Swedish regions (Norrbotten, Angermanland, Jämtland, Dalarna, Bergslagen, Småland). In each region 6 individual quadrates 5 x 5 km centered on village areas were selected. We found significant regional differences in the deciduous component (DEC) in different village zones. At the scale of villages Angermanland had the highest mean proportion of DEC (17%) and Jämtland the lowest (2%). However, the amounts of the DEC varied systematically in in-field and out-field zones. DEC was highest in the in-field in the south (Småland), but generally low further north. By contrast, the amount of DEC in the out-field was highest in the north. The relative amount of DEC in the forest edge peaked in landscapes with the strongest decline in active agriculture (Angermanland, Dalarna, Bergslagen). Because former and present local villages are vital for biodiversity linked to the deciduous component, our results indicate a need for integrated management of deciduous forest within entire landscapes. This study shows that simplified satellite data are useful for estimating the spatial distribution of deciduous trees and stands at the landscape scale. However, for detailed studies better thematic resolution is
Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal
A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. PMID:21864959
On this map the selected landscape-ecological limitations of development of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities on the territory of the Slovak Republic is shown. Suitability of location of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities was determined after assessment of three classes of landscape-ecological limitations as given by the types of abiotic complexes, nature protection of nature and natural resources, and the action of stress factors. Their interaction determines the number and class of limitations of agricultural and forest-economic activity. The procedure of processing used is similar to that applied to the maps 4 and 8. (authors)
Li, Xiaona; He, Hong S.; Wu, Zhiwei; Liang, Yu; Schneiderman, Jeffrey E.
Forest management under a changing climate requires assessing the effects of climate warming and disturbance on the composition, age structure, and spatial patterns of tree species. We investigated these effects on a boreal forest in northeastern China using a factorial experimental design and simulation modeling. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model (LANDIS) to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: climate (current and expected future), fire regime (current and ...
de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R
Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species. PMID:23079985
Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.
Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our
Rubas, L. C.
Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that
Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito
Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of
Full Text Available Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon, Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata, Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis, Japanese marten (Martes melampus, Japanese badger (Meles anakuma, and wild boar (Sus scrofa generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape. Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale
Vanessa C. Mattozo; Luiz R. R. Faria; Gabriel A. R. Melo
Surveys of orchid bees at the Brazilian Atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. For this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at Atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of São Paulo (Sete Barras, Faz. Morro do Capim: SP3) and state of Paraná (Antonina, Reserva Natural do Rio Cachoeira: PR3), in southern Brazil. In PR3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for...
This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)
Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: email@example.com; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)
Viviane Gianluppi Ferro; Helena Piccoli Romanowski
The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest) and in a transition zone (forest edge). The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected...
Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for
Full Text Available The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley – Basilicata region occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.
Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.
The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (high Agri Valley - Basilicata region) that occurred over 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European onshore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the forest/non-forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, and expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.
The exogenous material that adheres to the leaf surface affects the elemental composition of the plant itself, thereby constituting one of the major error sources in plant analysis. The present work investigated the surface contamination of leaves from the Atlantic Forest. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess the efficiency of leaf EDTA-washing. Chemical element concentrations were corrected using Sc (soil tracer) since resuspended soil is the main source of contamination in leaves. As a result, EDTA-washing should be used mainly for the evaluation of terrigenous elements, while the Sc-corrected concentrations are considered satisfactory for the other elements. (author)
Environmental quality assessment studies have been conducted with tree species largely distributed in the Atlantic Forest. Leaf and soil samples were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) nearby the industrial complex of Cubatao, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results were compared to background values obtained in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB). The higher As, Fe, Hg and Zn mass fractions in the tree leaves of PESM indicated anthropogenic influence on this conservation unit. (author)
The sterile castes of Ibitermes inflatus sp. nov. from Rio Tinto, State of Paraíba, Brazil are described and illustrated. This is the first record of a species of Ibitermes from the Brazilian northeast and from the Atlantic Forest biome. The absence of ridges in the molar plate of the left mandible and the presence of granules of sand and silt mixed with organic matter in advanced stage of decomposition in the digestive tube of workers suggest that the species is a typical humus feeding termi...
Frederico Lencioni-Neto; Albino M. Sakakibara
Enchenopa luizae sp. nov. (holotype female from Brazil, State of São Paulo, municipality of São José dos Campos, Parque Natural Municipal Augusto Ruschi at 23°04'05°S", 45°56'22"W, 06.VIII.2011, R. La Rosa leg. deposited in DZUP) is described and diagnosed from the Atlantic Forest Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is very similar to Enchenopa monoceros (Germar, 1821) in overall aspects but much larger and with inconspicuous lateral secondary carinae. The fourth instar nymph ...
Full Text Available Enchenopa luizae sp. nov. (holotype female from Brazil, State of São Paulo, municipality of São José dos Campos, Parque Natural Municipal Augusto Ruschi at 23°04'05°S", 45°56'22"W, 06.VIII.2011, R. La Rosa leg. deposited in DZUP is described and diagnosed from the Atlantic Forest Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is very similar to Enchenopa monoceros (Germar, 1821 in overall aspects but much larger and with inconspicuous lateral secondary carinae. The fourth instar nymph is also briefly characterized.
Barbosa, Anne C; Cadete, Raquel M; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A
Three strains of a novel yeast species, Candida materiae sp. nov., were isolated from rotting wood in an Atlantic rain forest site in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA showed that this species belonged to the Spathaspora clade and was related to Candida jeffriesii and Spathaspora passalidarum. Unlike C. jeffriesii and S. passalidarum, C. materiae sp. nov. did not ferment xylose. The type strain of C. materiae sp. nov. is UFMG-07-C15.1BT (=CBS 10975T=CBMAI 956T). PMID:19605715
Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were
Full Text Available Classic ecological concepts and forestry language regarding old growth are not well suited to frequent-fire landscapes. In frequent-fire, old-growth landscapes, there is a symbiotic relationship between the trees, the understory graminoids, and fire that results in a healthy ecosystem. Patches of old growth interspersed with younger growth and open, grassy areas provide a wide variety of habitats for animals, and have a higher level of biodiversity. Fire suppression is detrimental to these forests, and eventually destroys all old growth. The reintroduction of fire into degraded frequent-fire, old-growth forests, accompanied by appropriate thinning, can restore a balance to these ecosystems. Several areas require further research and study: 1 the ability of the understory to respond to restoration treatments, 2 the rate of ecosystem recovery following wildfires whose level of severity is beyond the historic or natural range of variation, 3 the effects of climate change, and 4 the role of the microbial community. In addition, it is important to recognize that much of our knowledge about these old-growth systems comes from a few frequent-fire forest types.
Morgan J Trimble
Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrate that old-growth forest remnants and vegetation regenerating after anthropogenic disturbance provide habitat for birds in a human modified coastal dune forest landscape in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. However, occurrence does not ensure persistence. Based on a 13-year monitoring database we calculated population trends for 37 bird species and general trends in overall bird density in different vegetation types. We evaluated species' characteristics as covariates of population trend and assessed changes in rainfall and proportional area and survey coverage per vegetation type. 76% of species assessed have declined, 57% significantly so at an average rate of 13.9% per year. Overall, bird density has fallen at 12.2% per year across old-growth forest and woody regenerating vegetation types. Changes in proportional area and coverage per vegetation type may partly explain trends for a few species but are unlikely to account for most. Below average rainfall may have contributed to bird declines. However, other possibilities warrant further investigation. Species with larger range extents tended to decline more sharply than did others, and these species may be responding to environmental changes on a broader geographical scale. Our results cast doubt on the future persistence of birds in this human modified landscape. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms driving population decline in the study area and to investigate whether the declines identified here are more widespread across the region and perhaps the continent.
Soil analysis could improve environmental studies since soil is the main source of chemical elements for plants. In this study, soil samples collected at 0-10 cm depth under tree crown projection were analyzed by INAA. Using the chemical composition of the leaf previously determined, the leaf-soil transfer factors of chemical elements could be estimated for the Atlantic Forest. Despite the variability of the intra-species, the transfer factors were specific for some plant species due to their element accumulation in the leaves. Similar Br-Zn combined transfer factors were obtained for the species grouped according to habitats in relation to their position (understory or dominant species) in the forest canopy. (author)
Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A
The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota. PMID:26628227
Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Shen, C.; Smart, P. L.; Richards, D. A.
Precipitation in the Amazon Basin is largely related to the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the tropical Atlantic which undergoes a regular seasonal migration. We chose a site south of the present day rainforest in semiarid northeastern Brazil, in order to study the timing of pluvial periods when the southern extend of the ITCZ would have been much further south than today. Shifts in the ITCZ position may have influenced the dynamics of rain forest and species diversity. We collected speleothems from northern Bahia state, located southeast of Amazonia. Age determinations with U-series dating methods show that samples grew rapidly during relatively short intervals (several hundreds of years) of glacial periods in the last 210 kyr. In addition, paleopluvial phases delineated by speleothem growth intervals show millennial-scale variations. Pluvial phases coincide with the timing of weak East Asian summer monsoon intensities (Wang et al., 2001, Science 294: 2345-2348), which have been correlated to the timing of stadials in Greenland ice core records and Heinrich events (Bond and Lotti, 1995, Science 267: 1005-1010). Furthermore, these intervals correspond to the periods of light color reflectance of Cariaco Basin sediments from ODP Hole 1002C (Peterson et al., 2000, Science, 290: 1947-1951), which was suggested to be caused by a southward shift of the northernmost position of the ITCZ and decreased rainfall in this region. Abrupt precipitation changes in northeastern Brazil may be due to the southward displacement of the southernmost position of the ITCZ associated with atmosphere-ocean circulation changes caused by (1) an increase in northern high latitude-tropical temperature gradient (Chiang et al., 2003, Paleoceanography, in press), and/or (2) the bipolar seesaw mechanism (Broecker et al., 1998, Paleoceanography 13: 119-121) during these Heinrich events. Pluvial phases are also coincident with higher insolation at 10° S during austral autumn. This
Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi
Full Text Available Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32% in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55% of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites. Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest
Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia
Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the
Bradstock, R A; Cary, G J; Davies, I; Lindenmayer, D B; Price, O F; Williams, R J
Wildfires pose significant risks to people and human infrastructure worldwide. The treatment of fuel in landscapes may alter these risks but the magnitude of this effect on risk is poorly understood. Evidence from Australian Eucalyptus forests suggests that mitigation of risk using prescribed burning as a fuel treatment is partial because weather and fuel dynamics are conducive to regular high intensity fires. We further examine the response of risk to treatment in eucalypt forests using landscape simulation modelling. We model how five key measures of wildfire activity that govern risk to people and property may respond to variations in rate and spatial pattern of prescribed fire. We then model effects of predicted climate change (2050 scenarios) to determine how the response of risk to treatment is likely to be altered in the future. The results indicate that a halving of risk to people and property in these forests is likely to require treatment rates of 7-10% of the area of the landscape per annum. Projections of 2050 weather conditions under climate change further substantially diminished the effect of rate of treatment. A large increase in rates of treatment (i.e. circa. 50% over current levels) would be required to counteract these effects of climate change. Such levels of prescribed burning are unlikely to be financially feasible across eucalypt dominated vegetation in south eastern Australia. Despite policy imperatives to expand fuel treatment, a reduction rather than an elimination of risk will result. Multi-faceted strategies will therefore be required for the management of risk. PMID:22531752
Valéria Cid Maia; Sheila Patrícia Carvalho-Fernandes
ABSTRACT Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil): Galling insects in Rio de Janeiro state are known by their great diversity, despite most of the surveys have been done in restinga. This paper investigated the insect galls from a remnant of Atlantic Forest located in São Francisco de Itabapoana municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galling insect fauna was surveyed from March, 2013 to April, 2014 at the Estação Ecológic...
Blandón, A.C.; Perelman, S.B.; Ramírez, M.; López, A.; Javier, O.; Robbins, Chandler S.
Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the main causes of species extinctions, particularly in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of tropical bird communities in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation in eastern Guatemala. We evaluated five bird community dynamic parameters for forest specialists and generalists: (1) species extinction, (2) species turnover, (3) number of colonizing species, (4) relative species richness, and (5) a homogeneity index. For each of 24 landscapes, community dynamic parameters were estimated from bird point count data, for the 1998–1999 and 2008–2009 periods, accounting for species’ detection probability. Forest specialists had higher extinction rates and a smaller number of colonizing species in landscapes with higher fragmentation, thus having lower species richness in both time periods. Alternatively, forest generalists elicited a completely different pattern, showing a curvilinear association to forest fragmentation for most parameters. Thus, greater community dynamism for forest generalists was shown in landscapes with intermediate levels of fragmentation. Our study supports general theory regarding the expected negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the temporal dynamics of biotic communities, particularly for forest specialists, providing strong evidence from understudied tropical bird communities.
Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragments of 87 ha (F1 and 388 ha (F2. We calculated the annual rates of mortality and recruitment, the mean annual increment, and the basal area for each of the 3-year periods. Data from the first and second surveys were used to project the third inventory measurements, which were compared to the observed values in the permanent plots using chi-squared tests (a = 0.05. In F1, a decrease in the number of individuals was observed due to mortality rates being higher than recruitment rates; however, there was an increase in the basal area. In this fragment, the fit to the Markov model was adequate. In F2, there was an increase in both the basal area and the number of individuals during the 6-year period due to the recruitment rate exceeding the mortality rate. For this fragment, the fit of the model was unacceptable. Hence, for the studied fragments, the demographic rates influenced the stem density more than the floristic composition. Yet, even with these intense dynamics, both fragments showed active growth.
Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies
Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.
Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Gumiere, Thiago; de Lourdes Colombo Mescolotti, Denise; Oehl, Fritz; Nogueira Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran
The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was studied in the Atlantic Forest in Serra do Mar Park (SE Brazil), based on seven host plants in relationship to their soil environment, altitude and seasonality. The studied plots along an elevation gradient are located at 80, 600, and 1,000 m. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in four seasons from SE Brazilian winter 2012 to autumn 2013. AMF spores in rhizosperic soils were morphologically classified and chemical, physical and microbiological soil caracteristics were determined. AMF diversity in roots was evaluated using the NS31/AM1 primer pair, with subsequent cloning and sequencing. In the rhizosphere, 58 AMF species were identified. The genera Acaulospora and Glomus were predominant. However, in the roots, only 14 AMF sequencing groups were found and all had high similarity to Glomeraceae. AMF species identities varied between altitudes and seasons. There were species that contributed the most to this variation. Some soil characteristics (pH, organic matter, microbial activity and microbial biomass carbon) showed a strong relationship with the occurrence of certain species. The highest AMF species diversity, based on Shannon's diversity index, was found for the highest altitude. Seasonality did not affect the diversity. Our results show a high AMF diversity, higher than commonly found in the Atlantic Forest. The AMF detected in roots were not identical to those detected in rhizosperic soil and differences in AMF communities were found in different altitudes even in geographically close-lying sites. PMID:26304552
Denise Cristina Sant’Ana
Full Text Available Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT. Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43% and CDC-LT (19.73%. Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2 showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27% of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82% or the CDC-A traps (20.91%. Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.
Etto, Rafael Mazer; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; Galvão, Franklin; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Reynaud Steffens, Maria Berenice
The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are essential for maintenance of the Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. While these ecosystems are closely linked to conservation issues, their microbial community ecology and composition remain unknown. In this work, histosol samples were collected from three acidic peatland regions during dry and rainy seasons and their chemical and microbial characteristics were evaluated. Culturing and culture-independent approaches based on SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing were used to survey the bacterial community and to identify environmental factors affecting the biodiversity and microbial metabolic potential of the Brazilian peatlands. All acidic peatlands were dominated by the Acidobacteria phylum (56-22%) followed by Proteobacteria (28-12%). The OTU richness of these phyla and the abundance of their Gp1, Gp2, Gp3, Gp13, Rhodospirillales and Caulobacteriales members varied according to the period of collection and significantly correlated with the rainy season. However, despite changes in acidobacterial and proteobacterial communities, rainfall did not affect the microbial metabolic potential of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest peatlands, as judged by the metabolic capabilities of the microbial community. PMID:24893336
Loise Araujo Costa
Full Text Available AbstractWe investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011 and dry (January 2013 seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141 and taxa (76 compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa. The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort. PMID:24789402
Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola
Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.
Weishampel, P.; Kolka, R.; King, J.
We characterized the distribution of carbon and annual NPP in a mixed forest and peatland landscape in the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota, USA. We estimated vegetation biomass and production (aboveground and belowground) and the carbon content of detrital pools (forest floor, woody debris, and mineral soil or peat) in a 1-km2 area that encompassed multiple vegetation cover types, including forested uplands dominated by aspen, mixed-hardwood, or pine, and peatlands dominated by alder, conifers, or ericaceous shrubs and Sphagnum mosses (open peatlands). In aspen dominated areas, which account for >70% of our study area, total C storage was 164 ± 9 Mg C ha-1 while pine and hardwood dominated averaged 190 ± 16 and 153 ± 19 Mg C ha-1 respectively. Total ecosystem carbon content in peatland areas averaged 1380 ± 170 Mg C ha-1 and was highly dependent upon peat depth. Among upland cover types, NPP was greatest in pine-dominated areas (6.2 ± 0.6 Mg C ha-1) and similar in aspen- and hardwood- dominated areas (4.7 ± 0.2 and 4.5 ± 0.5 Mg C ha-1, respectively). We found considerable variability in NPP among peatland cover types; in coniferous peatlands, alder peatlands, and open peatlands, NPP was 6.0, 2.8 ± 0.4 and 1.4 ± 0.2 Mg C ha-1 respectively. Large differences in NPP among peatland cover types as well as smaller but significant differences between deciduous and coniferous upland cover types illustrate the importance of these cover types when scaling carbon cycling to landscape and regional levels.
Full Text Available During the FAO Expert Consultation on Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 (Kotka - Finland 1996, the importance of Trees Outside Forests (TOF and the need for complete and detailed information about these stands were underlined for the first time. Since then and thanks to some pilot studies launched by FAO at the end of the ninenties, the international attention focused on three main topics: the definition of TOF and its classification (linear features, small woods, scattered and individual trees; the effective sampling methods to assess TOF, that are usually rare elements; the ecological role and the economic and social importance of TOF in industrialized and developing countries. Basing on these considerations, the sampling points of the second Italian National Forest Inventory (National Inventory of Forests and Carbon Sinks - INFC intercepting small woods or linear features were recorded. Consequently, the INFC provides information about a substantial portion of the TOF of the country. Thanks to the availability of these data, a specific study was undertaken, aimed at improving information on TOF features and their role in the landscape. The present paper reports on the first results of this study for four regions of the Central Italy (Lazio, Marche, Toscana and Umbria, where the TOF are particularly significant.
Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.
Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplaying effects of environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes are practically unexplored. We used high-fidelity airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistently with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap Size Frequency Distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and informal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced; the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and the peat deph gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery being modulated by environmental conditions.
Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme; Tiago Osório Ferreira; Marco Antonio Assis; Pablo Vidal Torrado; Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato
In tropical forests, the environmental heterogeneity can provide niche partitioning at local scales and determine the diversity and plant species distribution. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the variations of tree species structure and distribution in response to relief and soil profile features in a portion of the largest remnant of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. All trees ³ 5 cm diameter at breast height were recorded in two 0.99 ha plots. Topographic survey and a soil characterizat...
Alves Rômulo RN; Hanazaki Natalia; Begossi Alpina
Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 nati...
Reginato, M.; Goldenberg, R.
Two species of Leandra that occur in the Atlantic Forest, in the state of Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil, are described and illustrated here. Leandra cristata has been found in the understory of montane rain forest, and can be recognized by the distinct nodal ridges on the young branches, by the leaves with decurrent bases and transversal nerves consistently perpendicular to the main nerve, by the triangular external teeth, and by the dorsal bump on the stamen connective. Leandra fontanae has...
Ango, Tola Gemechu
The intertwined challenges of food insecurity, deforestation, and biodiversity loss remain perennial challenges in Ethiopia, despite increasing policy interventions. This thesis investigates smallholding farmers’ tree- and forest-based livelihoods and management practices, in the context of national development and conservation policies, and examines how these local management practices and policies transform the agriculture–forest mosaic landscapes of southwestern Ethiopia. The thesis is gui...
Sunarto, Sunarto; Kelly, Marcella J; Parakkasi, Karmila; Klenzendorf, Sybille; Septayuda, Eka; Kurniawan, Harry
The critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929) is generally known as a forest-dependent animal. With large-scale conversion of forests into plantations, however, it is crucial for restoration efforts to understand to what extent tigers use modified habitats. We investigated tiger-habitat relationships at 2 spatial scales: occupancy across the landscape and habitat use within the home range. Across major landcover types in central Sumatra, we conducted systematic detection, non-detection sign surveys in 47, 17×17 km grid cells. Within each cell, we surveyed 40, 1-km transects and recorded tiger detections and habitat variables in 100 m segments totaling 1,857 km surveyed. We found that tigers strongly preferred forest and used plantations of acacia and oilpalm, far less than their availability. Tiger probability of occupancy covaried positively and strongly with altitude, positively with forest area, and negatively with distance-to-forest centroids. At the fine scale, probability of habitat use by tigers across landcover types covaried positively and strongly with understory cover and altitude, and negatively and strongly with human settlement. Within forest areas, tigers strongly preferred sites that are farther from water bodies, higher in altitude, farther from edge, and closer to centroid of large forest block; and strongly preferred sites with thicker understory cover, lower level of disturbance, higher altitude, and steeper slope. These results indicate that to thrive, tigers depend on the existence of large contiguous forest blocks, and that with adjustments in plantation management, tigers could use mosaics of plantations (as additional roaming zones), riparian forests (as corridors) and smaller forest patches (as stepping stones), potentially maintaining a metapopulation structure in fragmented landscapes. This study highlights the importance of a multi-spatial scale analysis and provides crucial information relevant to
Full Text Available The critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 is generally known as a forest-dependent animal. With large-scale conversion of forests into plantations, however, it is crucial for restoration efforts to understand to what extent tigers use modified habitats. We investigated tiger-habitat relationships at 2 spatial scales: occupancy across the landscape and habitat use within the home range. Across major landcover types in central Sumatra, we conducted systematic detection, non-detection sign surveys in 47, 17×17 km grid cells. Within each cell, we surveyed 40, 1-km transects and recorded tiger detections and habitat variables in 100 m segments totaling 1,857 km surveyed. We found that tigers strongly preferred forest and used plantations of acacia and oilpalm, far less than their availability. Tiger probability of occupancy covaried positively and strongly with altitude, positively with forest area, and negatively with distance-to-forest centroids. At the fine scale, probability of habitat use by tigers across landcover types covaried positively and strongly with understory cover and altitude, and negatively and strongly with human settlement. Within forest areas, tigers strongly preferred sites that are farther from water bodies, higher in altitude, farther from edge, and closer to centroid of large forest block; and strongly preferred sites with thicker understory cover, lower level of disturbance, higher altitude, and steeper slope. These results indicate that to thrive, tigers depend on the existence of large contiguous forest blocks, and that with adjustments in plantation management, tigers could use mosaics of plantations (as additional roaming zones, riparian forests (as corridors and smaller forest patches (as stepping stones, potentially maintaining a metapopulation structure in fragmented landscapes. This study highlights the importance of a multi-spatial scale analysis and provides crucial
Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G
Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745
Full Text Available Extreme wind events are among the most damaging weather-related hazards in the Czech Republic, forestry is heavily affected. In order to successfully run a landscape model dealing with such effects, spatial distribution of extreme wind speed statistics is needed. The presented method suggests using sector-wise wind field calculations together with extreme value statistics fitted at a reference station. A special algorithm is proposed to provide the data in the form expected by the landscape model, i.e. raster data of annual wind speed maxima. The method is demonstrated on the area of Bohemian Forest that represents one of largest and most compact forested mountains in Central Europe. The reference meteorological station Churáňov is located within the selected domain. Numerical calculations were based on linear model of WAsP Engineering methodology. Observations were cleaned of inhomogeneity and classified into convective and non-convective cases using index CAPE. Due to disjunct sampling of synoptic data, appropriate corrections were applied to the observed extremes. Finally they were fitted with Gumbel distribution. The output of numerical simulation is presented for the windiest direction sector. Another map shows probability that annual extreme exceeds required threshold. The method offers a tool for generation of spatially variable annual maxima of wind speed. It assumes a small limited model domain containing a reliable wind measurement. We believe that this is typical setup for applications similar to one presented in the paper.
Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.
Tiago S Vasconcelos
Full Text Available Anurans are a highly diverse group in the Atlantic Forest hotspot (AF, yet distribution patterns and species richness gradients are not randomly distributed throughout the biome. Thus, we explore how anuran species are distributed in this complex and biodiverse hotspot, and hypothesize that this group can be distinguished by different cohesive regions. We used range maps of 497 species to obtain a presence/absence data grid, resolved to 50×50 km grain size, which was submitted to k-means clustering with v-fold cross-validation to determine the biogeographic regions. We also explored the extent to which current environmental variables, topography, and floristic structure of the AF are expected to identify the cluster patterns recognized by the k-means clustering. The biogeographic patterns found for amphibians are broadly congruent with ecoregions identified in the AF, but their edges, and sometimes the whole extent of some clusters, present much less resolved pattern compared to previous classification. We also identified that climate, topography, and vegetation structure of the AF explained a high percentage of variance of the cluster patterns identified, but the magnitude of the regression coefficients shifted regarding their importance in explaining the variance for each cluster. Specifically, we propose that the anuran fauna of the AF can be split into four biogeographic regions: a less diverse and widely-ranged species that predominantly occur in the inland semideciduous forests; b northern small-ranged species that presumably evolved within the Pleistocene forest refugia; c highly diverse and small-ranged species from the southeastern Brazilian mountain chain and its adjacent semideciduous forest; and d southern species from the Araucaria forest. Finally, the high congruence among the cluster patterns and previous eco-regions identified for the AF suggests that preserving the underlying habitat structure helps to preserve the historical
Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel
The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will
Ecosystem patterns and disturbance processes at one spatial scale often interact with processes at another scale, and the result of such cross-scale interactions can be nonlinear dynamics with thresholds. Examples of cross-scale pattern-process relationships and interactions among forest dieback, fire, and erosion are illustrated from northern New Mexico (USA) landscapes, where long-term studies have recently documented all of these disturbance processes. For example, environmental stress, operating on individual trees, can cause tree death that is amplified by insect mortality agents to propagate to patch and then landscape or even regional-scale forest dieback. Severe drought and unusual warmth in the southwestern USA since the late 1990s apparently exceeded species-specific physiological thresholds for multiple tree species, resulting in substantial vegetation mortality across millions of hectares of woodlands and forests in recent years. Predictions of forest dieback across spatial scales are constrained by uncertainties associated with: limited knowledge of species-specific physiological thresholds; individual and site-specific variation in these mortality thresholds; and positive feedback loops between rapidly-responding insect herbivore populations and their stressed plant hosts, sometimes resulting in nonlinear "pest" outbreak dynamics. Fire behavior also exhibits nonlinearities across spatial scales, illustrated by changes in historic fire regimes where patch-scale grazing disturbance led to regional-scale collapse of surface fire activity and subsequent recent increases in the scale of extreme fire events in New Mexico. Vegetation dieback interacts with fire activity by modifying fuel amounts and configurations at multiple spatial scales. Runoff and erosion processes are also subject to scale-dependent threshold behaviors, exemplified by ecohydrological work in semiarid New Mexico watersheds showing how declines in ground surface cover lead to non
Gilberto S Gazêta; Marinete Amorim; David EP Bossi; Arício X Linhares; Nicolau M Serra-Freire
From June 1999 to May 2001, small mammals were captured in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil and examined for ectoparasites. Analysis of ectoparasites revealed the presence of a new chigger genus and species, Caamembecaia gratiosus, from Trinomys gratiosus. This is the first record of a chigger from T. gratiosus.
Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE. We searched for bird inventories in the literature and also analysed our own survey data using limited-radius point counts along an 800 m elevational gradient in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We found 10 investigations of elevational diversity of Atlantic Forest birds and identified five different elevational patterns: monotonic decreasing diversity, constant at low elevations, constant at low elevations but increasing towards the middle, and two undescribed patterns for Atlantic Forest birds, trough-shaped and increasing diversity. The average MDE fit was low (r² = 0.31 and none of the MDE predictions were robust across all gradients. Those studies with good MDE model fits had obvious sampling bias. Although it has been proposed that the MDE may be positively associated with the elevational diversity of birds, it does not fit the Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird elevational diversity.
Little, Patrick J.; Richardson, John S.; Alila, Younes
The highly diverse shifting-mosaic of forest patches of an alluvial forest within the Carmanah River valley on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia was studied to examine the hydrogeomorphic disturbance regime that structures it. We used a landscape-scale analysis to quantify historical channel migrations and changes in the extent of specific forest types. This GIS-based analysis using a 70-year aerial photographic record was complemented by field-based research. Thirty-eight plots containing 4509 trees were sampled for forest structure, age, and elevation above the contemporary channel. These data, including a vegetation chronosequence spanning over 500 years, were used to examine channel and landscape dynamics. Our findings support a general conceptual model that describes cycles of patch development and destruction in unconfined alluvial forests of the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Over the past century, Carmanah River has eroded nearly 30% of the alluvial forest in this study area, and approximately 65% over the past 500 years. At least 80% of the 2007 channel was forested area within the past 70 years. Younger landforms were disturbed more frequently than mature forest patches, which suggest that as biogeomorphic succession progresses the likelihood of future disturbance decreases. Estimated half lives of landforms ranged from 24 years for pioneer bars to over 1500 years for old growth terraces. Years of regional high magnitude floods resulted in a net loss of floodplain forest area indicating that disturbance was climate driven in this pluvial watershed, whereby rain events result in flood disturbance that converted forests to channel. These events initiate a subsequent course of vegetation succession and geomorphic development, and often result in the deposition of large wood that modifies the channel environment and contributes to channel avulsion and further hydrogeomorphic disturbance. The composition of the landscape is a reflection of the
Rosângela A. Tristão Borém
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the effects of forest degradation on the supplyand contents of nutrients in the litter of two toposequences. The study area is located in a fragment ofthe Atlantic Forest, in Silva Jardim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (42°31'W and 22°31'S. The twotoposequences are under low and high degrees of human intervention. They were divided in lower,middle and upper slope, and the vegetation sampled with plots of 600m2. The litter was collected forquantitative and qualitative characterisation using a wood frame of 0,25m2 randomly distributedwithin the sample plots. Litter collection was carried out in two distinct dates in order to capture seasonalpatterns. The average litter production did not differ significantly between the toposequences.The total litter production was higher at the end of the dry season, and lower at the end of the rainyseason, indicating the seasonal pattern of the forest. The chemical analyses showed that the nutrientscontents varied widely between the toposequences. The lower and middle slope of the toposequenceunder high degree of human intervention presented the highest nutrient contents in the litter.
Full Text Available Islands can serve as model systems for understanding how biological invasions affect native species. Here we examine the negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil. Anchieta Island has the highest density of mammals of the entire Atlantic forest, especially nest predators such as marmosets and coatis, introduced more than 20 years ago. This indiscriminate introduction of mammals may have affected directly the bird community, nowadays represented by 100 species comprised mainly by water-crossing birds, being 73 forest-dwelling species. A small component of these remnant bird species nests in tree holes and on the forest floor, null model analysis suggest that birds within these two nest types are under-represented on Anchieta Island. All guilds were affected negatively, but "opportunist insectivorous/omnivorous". Experiments using artificial nests showed a predation of 73% of nests on the floor while only 26% on the mainland. Camera traps recorded predation by coatis, agoutis, and opossums. The restoration of the bird community on this island is highly constrained by the high density of hyper abundant nest predators.
Lookingbill, Todd R.
Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development) is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development’s attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more compacted
Full Text Available Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1, which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1 depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise
Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B; Mackey, Brendan G; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko
Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1), which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1) depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities
Brown, P. M.; Kaufmann, M. R.; Sheppard, W. D.
Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine – Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire-scarred trees and inferences from forest stand ages. We crossdated 153 fire-scarred trees from an approximately 4000 ha study...
McCarthy, M.S.; Lester, J.D.; Howe, Eric John; M. Arandjelovic; Stanford, C.B.; Vigilant, L.
Background As habitat degradation and fragmentation continue to impact wildlife populations around the world, it is critical to understand the behavioral flexibility of species in these environments. In Uganda, the mostly unprotected forest fragment landscape between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests is a potential corridor for chimpanzees, yet little is known about the status of chimpanzee populations in these fragments. Results From 2011 through 2013, we noninvasively collected 865 chimpanzee ...
Sunarto, Sunarto; Kelly, Marcella J.; Parakkasi, Karmila; Klenzendorf, Sybille; Septayuda, Eka; Kurniawan, Harry
The critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929) is generally known as a forest-dependent animal. With large-scale conversion of forests into plantations, however, it is crucial for restoration efforts to understand to what extent tigers use modified habitats. We investigated tiger-habitat relationships at 2 spatial scales: occupancy across the landscape and habitat use within the home range. Across major landcover types in central Sumatra, we conducted systema...
Mouillot, Florent; Ratte, J. P.; Joffre, R.; Mouillot, D.; S. Rambal
Two hundred years of landscape changes were studied on a 3,760 ha area of central Corsica (France) representing a typical Mediterranean environment. Different historical sources, including an accurate land-cover map from 1774 and statistics on land cover from 1848 and 1913, were used. Three additional maps (1960, 1975 and 1990) were drawn, and a complete fire history from 1957 to 1997 was created. Forests expanded slowly by a border effect. Forest expansion was more rapid in unburnt sites (0....
Roman, Miguel O. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Schaaf, Crystal [Boston University; Woodcock, Curtis E. [Boston University; Strahler, Alan [Boston University; Yang, Xiaoyuan [Boston University; Braswell, Rob H. [Complex Systems Research Center, Durham, NH; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Davis, Kenneth J. [Pennsylvania State University; Dragoni, Danilo [Indiana University; Goulden, Michael L. [University of California, Irvine; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hollinger, David Y [ORNL; Meyers, Tilden P. [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN; Wilson, Tim B. [NOAA; Munger, J. William [Harvard University; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University; Privette, Jeffrey L. [NOAA; Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard University
A new methodology for establishing the spatial representativeness of tower albedo measurements that are routinely used in validation of satellite retrievals from global land surface albedo and reflectance anisotropy products is presented. This method brings together knowledge of the intrinsic biophysical properties of a measurement site, and the surrounding landscape to produce a number of geostatistical attributes that describe the overall variability, spatial extent, strength of the spatial correlation, and spatial structure of surface albedo patterns at separate seasonal periods throughout the year. Variogram functions extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) retrievals of surface albedo using multiple spatial and temporal thresholds were used to assess the degree to which a given point (tower) measurement is able to capture the intrinsic variability of the immediate landscape extending to a satellite pixel. A validation scheme was implemented over a wide range of forested landscapes, looking at both deciduous and coniferous sites, from tropical to boreal ecosystems. The experiment focused on comparisons between tower measurements of surface albedo acquired at local solar noon and matching retrievals from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection V005) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo algorithm. Assessments over a select group of field stations with comparable landscape features and daily retrieval scenarios further demonstrate the ability of this technique to identify measurement sites that contain the intrinsic spatial and seasonal features of surface albedo over sufficiently large enough footprints for use in modeling and remote sensing studies. This approach, therefore, improves our understanding of product uncertainty both in terms of the representativeness of the field data and its relationship to the larger satellite pixel.
Hu, Jia; Jencso, Kelsey; Looker, Nathaniel; Martin, Justin; Hoylman, Zachary
Across the Western U.S., declining snowpacks have resulted in increased water limitation, leading to reduced productivity in high elevation forests. While our current understanding of how forests respond to climate change is typically focused on measuring/modeling the physiological responses and climate feedbacks, our study aims to combine physiology with hydrology to examine how landscape topography modulates the sensitivity of forests to climate. In a forested watershed in Western Montana, we linked climate variability to the physical watershed characteristics and the physiological response of vegetation to examine forest transpiration and productivity rates. Across the entire watershed, we found a strong relationship between productivity and the topographic wetness index, a proxy for soil moisture storage. However, this relationship was highly dependent on the intensity of solar radiation, suggesting that at high elevations productivity was limited by temperature, while at low elevations productivity was limited by moisture. In order to identify the mechanisms responsible for this relationship, we then examined how different coniferous species respond to changing environmental and hydrologic regimes. We first examined transpiration and productivity rates at the hillslope scale at four plots, ranging in elevation and aspect across the watershed. We found trees growing in the hollows had higher transpiration and productivity rates than trees growing in the side slope, but that these differences were more pronounced at lower elevations. We then used oxygen isotope to examine water source use by different species across the watershed. We found that trees growing in the hollows used snowmelt for a longer period. This was most likely due to upslope subsidies of snowmelt water to the hollow areas. However, we found that trees growing at lower elevations used proportionally more snowmelt than trees at the higher elevations. This was most likely due to the trees at lower
Mackay, D. S.; Ahl, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Samanta, S.; Burrows, S. N.; Gower, S. T.
Remotely sensed vegetation data is a primary data source for land surface hydrology models. For example, leaf area index (LAI), is widely seen as a key variable in modeling water, carbon, and energy at the land surface. On the other hand, species-specific knowledge of land cover types is often considered less important at the landscape scale. We hypothesize that this assumption might not hold in a managed forest with changing patterns of forest cover types. We tested the significance of site-specific remotely sensed land cover classification for making regional estimates of evapotranspiration in northern Wisconsin, USA. We developed a site-specific land cover classification at 15m resolution using NASA's Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS). A field campaign consisted of detailed ground control for image geometry correction and registration, and 324 permanent plots for vegetation cover types and leaf area index and other ecosystem parameters. We then identified four major forest cover types (forested wetland, aspen/fir, northern hardwoods, and conifers) that represent 85 percent of the 100 km2 landscape around our site. In representative stands for each cover type we made continuous sap flux and micrometeorological measurements, from which stand-type parameter sets were developed for use in a regional hydrologic model. Simulated transpiration flux with this detailed model was then compared with a less detailed parameterization based on limited cover type information and BIOME-BGC type parameter values. Disparity between the more aggregated parameter approach and the detailed approach was due to nonlinear mixing of different forest stomatal physiology. For instance, the aspen/fir stands transpire at a rate of 2 mm/day, but northern hardwoods transpire at 1 mm/day, for the same LAI. The results indicate that land cover classification may be as critical as LAI for land surface modeling at large scales. The detailed information could, for example, be
Azcárate, Francisco M.; Seoane, Javier; Castro, Sara; Peco, Begoña
Drove roads are the traditional corridors used by pastoralists for seasonal movements of livestock (transhumance). They cover a considerable land area in Mediterranean countries and, although they are an obvious source of landscape diversity, their influence on the diversity and composition of animal assemblages has not been documented. Ant communities were studied on four active drove roads, two in forests (submediterranean and conifer) and two in open environments (croplands and rangelands). They were compared with the respective matrix communities and their contribution to local species richness was evaluated. The effects were heavily dependent on the open or closed nature of the matrix. In forest environments, drove roads increased ant species richness at the local scale, acting as clear keystone structures. Their species richness and functional diversity were highest on the fine scale, species composition was different, and a slight edge effect in the matrix was detected. In contrast, drove roads had little or even a negative effect in open environment locations. We conclude that drove roads have a high conservation value for ants in Mediterranean forest environments, in addition to their importance as reservoirs of plant biodiversity and generators of ecological goods and services.
Full Text Available Population life-history traits such as the propensity to move across inhospitable landscapes should be shaped by exposure to landscape structure over evolutionary time. Thus, birds that recently evolved in landscapes fragmented by natural disturbances such as fire would be expected to show greater behavioral and morphological vagility relative to conspecifics that evolved under less patchy landscapes shaped by fewer and finer-scaled disturbances, i.e., the resilience hypothesis. These predictions are not new, but they remain largely untested, even for well-studied taxa such as neotropical migrant birds. We combined two experimental translocation, i.e., homing, studies to test whether Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla, from the historically dynamic boreal mixedwood forest of north-central Alberta (n = 55 is more vagile than Ovenbird from historically less dynamic deciduous forest of southern Québec (n = 89. We found no regional difference in either wing loading or the response of homing Ovenbird to landscape structure. Nevertheless, this study presents a heuristic framework that can advance the understanding of boreal landscape dynamics as an evolutionary force.
R. M. Etto
Full Text Available The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are ecosystems essential for the maintenance of the Atlantic Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. In this work, we investigated the composition of prokaryotic communities in four histosols of three acidic peatland regions by constructing small-subunit (SSU rRNA gene libraries and sequencing. SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (38.8% and Proteobacteria (27.4% of the Bacteria domain and Miscellaneous (58% and Terrestrial (24% groups of Crenarchaeota of the Archaea domain. As observed in other ecosystems, archaeal communities showed lower richness than bacterial communities. We also found a limited number of Euryarchaeota and of known methanotrophic bacteria in the clone libraries.
Pimenta, Raphael S; Alves, Priscila D D; Almeida, Gabriel M F; Silva, Juliana F M; Morais, Paula B; Corrêa, Ary; Rosa, Carlos A
We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324
Verônica A. Thode
Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Verbenoxylum reitzii (Verbenaceae, a tree endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, to investigate their usefulness in population genetic studies. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in the related genera Recordia and Duranta. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from an enriched library of V. reitzii and characterized. The primers were tested on 60 individuals from three populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 11, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 1.0 and from 0.088 to 0.758, respectively. Ten loci successfully amplified in R. boliviana and all failed in D. vestita. Conclusions: Our results suggest the usefulness of the microsatellite loci developed here to access genetic variability for phylogeographic and population genetic studies in V. reitzii, which are important for the conservation of this rare species.
Plowes, Robert Merrick
Treefall gaps in rainforest landscapes play a crucial role in providing opportunities for establishment and growth of rare, light-demanding plants such as Passifora vines in Corcovado rainforests, Costa Rica. This study considers the interplay of landscape dynamics with plant life history traits and strategies in an ephemeral patch network. In Chapter One, I show how patch quality dynamics and propagule dispersal affect colonization of treefall gaps by Passifora vitifolia. Recruitment required high patch quality, exceeding 3 hours of sunlight and patches closed after about 6 years. Colonization by seed dispersal (80%) was constrained by patch quality and isolation, while clonal growth from dormant plants (20%) was limited to rare adjacent patches. Since patch turnover is critical in these systems, Chapter Two is focused on factors affecting canopy structure. I showed that prior landuse altered the dynamics of frequent, small-scale disturbances during succession following a single, large deforestation event. Here, I used Landsat subpixel analysis, aerial photographs and field surveys to demonstrate major changes in dynamics of regenerating canopies following release from agricultural activity in 1975. Little work has considered the role of life history traits in persistence of patchy populations, and so in Chapter Three I asked what life history strategies are used by 9 Passiflora species that occur in these transient forest gaps. Although Passiflora species exhibited differences in dormancy or dispersal strategies, abundance was not associated with any one strategy. Elasticities of vital rates (stasis, growth and fecundity) of P. vitifolia differed empirically in old growth and regenerating forests. To explore population responses to changes in landscape parameters or life history strategies, I created a spatially-explicit individual-based model. Simulations indicate that plant types with a dormancy phase have a greater suite of responses since they persist after
Cynthia B Silveira
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical
The expansion of agriculture is posited as one of the main dynamics of forest landscape change globally, and the robust modeling of these processes is important for policy as well as academic concern. This paper concerns a relatively small area of Yiluo River catchment where considerable attention has been paid to slow down the process of the expansion of agriculture into the remaining natural forests. In the present study, we reconstructed the former forest landscape structure and elucidated the landscape change during a period of about 15 years. Three sets (1987, 1996 and 2002) of maps derived from Landsat-5 images were used for analyses. The result showed that there was a decrease in the area of the forest landscape from 995.60 km2 in 1987 to 650.50 km2 in 2002. Then we examined the degree to which forest landscape conversion could be attributed to a set of factors identified as significant at broader scales, namely topography, distribution of the village clusters (centroids), distance from villages (centroids), and distance from forest edge (1987). By using "spatial analysis" in Arc/gis 8.3, the correlation between forest landscape change and driving factors was constructed. This study found that forest landscape conversion in this region was largely explained by elevation, slope and proximity to village.
Schure, J.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Ndikumagenge, C.
This paper examines the institutional framework of artisanal mining in the forests of the Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS) in the Congo Basin. Artisanal miners in Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR) commonly make sacrifices to their god of diamonds, to improve fortunes. This study loo
Full Text Available The article describes the results of a choice experiment aimed at valuing landscape benefits of different kinds of forests in NE Germany by using computer generated images. Preferences for broadleaved/mixed forests over conifers amount to 40-85 euro per year and household, additional visual diversity has a monetary value of about 20 euro/a. This is true for the summer aspect of forests only. The same experiment conducted with winter images reveals no general preference for broadleaves, whereas visual diversity is valued even higher under winter conditions.The results are part of a study which aimed at valuing the impacts of a regional forest conversion programme. Beyond landscape value, the valuation has covered recreational value, the value for climate protection as well as timber production value. The development of landscape values over time can compensate for diminished timber returns until about 2080; afterwards the balance becomes negative. Carbon values are relatively minor in comparison to landscape and timber values.
Halas, Petr; Vlková, V.
Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2008, s. 104-107 ISBN 978-80-210-4600-9. [Geografické aspekty středoevropského prostoru. Brno (CZ), 13.09.2007-13.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : ecotones * herb layer * forest plant species * cultural landscape Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography
Rapalee, G.; Trumbore, S.E.; Davidson, E.A.; Harden, J.W.; Veldhuis, H.
Boreal forests and wetlands are thought to be significant carbon sinks, and they could become net C sources as the Earth warms. Most of the C of boreal forest ecosystems is stored in the moss layer and in the soil. The objective of this study was to estimate soil C stocks (including moss layers) and rates of accumulation and loss for a 733 km2 area of the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site in northern Manitoba, using data from smaller-scale intensive field studies. A simple process-based model developed from measurements of soil C inventories and radiocarbon was used to relate soil C storage and dynamics to soil drainage and forest stand age. Soil C stocks covary with soil drainage class, with the largest C stocks occurring in poorly drained sites. Estimated rates of soil C accumulation or loss are sensitive to the estimated decomposition constants for the large pool of deep soil C, and improved understanding of deep soil C decomposition is needed. While the upper moss layers regrow and accumulate C after fires, the deep C dynamics vary across the landscape, from a small net sink to a significant source. Estimated net soil C accumulation, averaged for the entire 733 km2 area, was 20 g C m-2 yr-1 (28 g C m-2 yr-1 accumulation in surface mosses offset by 8 g C m-2 yr-1 lost from deep C pools) in a year with no fire. Most of the C accumulated in poorly and very poorly drained soils (peatlands and wetlands). Burning of the moss layer in only 1% of uplands would offset the C stored in the remaining 99% of the area. Significant interannual variability in C storage is expected because of the irregular occurrence of fire in space and time. The effects of climate change and management on fire frequency and on decomposition of immense deep soil C stocks are key to understanding future C budgets in boreal forests.
Dancose, Karine; Fortin, Daniel; Guo, Xulin
Functional connectivity is a key determinant of animal distributions in heterogeneous landscapes. Patch connectivity depends on both patch preference and accessibility, but few studies have integrated habitat selection and movement analyses to gain a general understanding of functional connectivity. In this paper, we define functional connectivity by identifying which factors influence the choice of the patch that is visited next, the location from which animals leave the current patch, and the inter-patch trajectory. Our study provides tools to anticipate movement trajectories and, therefore, animal distribution in patchy landscapes. We followed 23 radio-collared bison across the meadow network of Prince Albert National Park between 2005 and 2008. Selection of the next meadow visited over available meadows was assessed by comparing their characteristics and land cover composition of the area separating them from the departure meadow. Additionally, we used 196 bison trails originating from 29 meadows to evaluate movement rules during inter-patch travels. Bison preferred to travel in deciduous rather than in conifer stands during summer and fall but displayed no preference during winter and spring. They also selected meadows offering higher plant biomass in winter than in other seasons. Throughout the year, meadow proximity was an important determinant of meadow selection. Inter-patch trajectory was influenced by directional persistence, as well as movement biases toward the next meadow and toward canopy gaps. Unlike the choices individuals made in selecting their next meadow, bison displayed no preference between forest stands during inter-meadow travel, indicating that functional connectivity involves hierarchical movement decisions. We showed that the behavioral determinants of functional connectivity varied over spatiotemporal scales. First, forest stand composition between meadows influenced the next target, but not the trajectory during inter-meadow travels
de Oliveira Cardoso, Mércia; Pedrosa, Elvira M R; Rolim, Mário M; Silva, Enio F F E; de Barros, Patrícia A
Nematodes present high potential as a biological indicator of soil quality. In this work, it was evaluated relations between soil physical properties and nematode community under sugarcane cropping and remaining of Atlantic Forest areas in Northeastern Pernambuco, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from September to November 2009 along two 200-m transects in both remaining of Atlantic Forest and sugarcane field at deeps of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm. For soil characterization, it was carried out analysis of soil size, water content, total porosity, bulk density, and particle density. The level of soil mechanical resistance was evaluated through a digital penetrometer. Nematodes were extracted per 300 cm(3) of soil through centrifugal flotation in sucrose being quantified, classified according trophic habit, and identified in level of genus or family. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation at 5% of probability. Geostatistical analysis showed that the penetration resistance, water content, total porosity, and bulk density on both forest and cultivated area exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale, and their experimental semivariograms were fitted to spherical and exponential models. In forest area, the ectoparasites and free-living nematodes exhibited spherical model. In sugarcane field, the soil nematodes exhibited pure nugget effect. Pratylenchus sp. and Helicotylenchus sp. were prevalent in sugarcane field, but in forest, there was prevalence of Dorylaimidae and Rhabditidae. Total amount of nematode did not differ between environments; however, community trophic structure in forest presented prevalence of free-living nematodes: omnivores followed by bacterial-feeding soil nematodes, while plant-feeding nematodes were prevalent in sugarcane field. The nematode diversity was higher in the remaining of Atlantic Forest. However, the soil mechanical resistance was higher under sugarcane cropping, affecting more directly the free
Newell, W.L.; Dejong, B.D.
The effects of Pleistocene cold-climate geomorphology are distributed across the weathered and eroded Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain uplands from the Wisconsinan terminal moraine south to Tidewater Virginia. Cold-climate deposits and landscape modifications are superimposed on antecedent landscapes of old, weathered Neogene upland gravels and Pleistocene marine terraces that had been built during warm periods and sea-level highstands. In New Jersey, sequences of surficial deposits define a long history of repeating climate change events. To the south across the Delmarva Peninsula and southern Maryland, most antecedent topography has been obscured by Late Pleistocene surficial deposits. These are spatially variable and are collectively described as a cold-climate alloformation. The cold-climate alloformation includes time-transgressive details of climate deterioration from at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 through the end of MIS 2. Some deposits and landforms within the alloformation may be as young as the Younger Dryas. Southwards along the trend of the Potomac River, these deposits and their climatic affinities become diffused. In Virginia, a continuum of erosion and surficial deposits appears to be the product of ‘normal’ temperate, climate-forced processes. The cold-climate alloformation and more temperate deposits in Virginia are being partly covered by Holocene alluvium and bay mud.
de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.
We propose a compartmental model to describe P cycling in the root-litter mat and surface mineral soil of an Atlantic coastal forest. Considerable amounts of P accumulate in this root-litter mat, relative to available P in the underlying mineral soil. We studied the mechanisms responsible for P retention five days after addition of sup(32)P on the surface of the 02 horizon. Total sup(31)P and sup(32)P were determined in leaves, humus, mineral soil and roots. In addition, we determined sup(31)P and sup(32)P in the solution and microbial biomass of the humus material. Fluxes of sup(31)P were obtained from published data and from experimental results of sup(32)P distribution among compartments. The main fluxes taking P out from the soils solution were uptake by the microbial biomass and sorption by the humus (12.9 e 5.2 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1), respectively), while the mean flux into the roots was 3.1 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1). The main compartment responsible for P accumulation was the humus+fragments, which had the highest P content (61% of total P in the forest floor) and the longest turnover time (15.5 months). (author)
Ogrzewalska, Maria; Pacheco, Richard C; Uezu, Alexandre; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B
Brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parazitizing birds. The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil. During 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. A total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. In total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks: 1,800 larvae and 539 nymphs. The prevalence of ticks was higher among birds from the families Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, and Momotidae. The most common tick parasitizing birds was Amblyomma nodosum Koch. Other tick species, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma ovale Koch, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, and Amblyomma naponense (Packard), were found sporadically. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense was the most common, followed by A. coelebs, A. naponense, Amblyomma brasilense Aragão, and Hemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley. PMID:19769058
Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F
Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600
Marcelo Trindade Nascimento
Full Text Available This paper assesses the population structure of Symphonia globulifera in forest fragments of lowland Atlantic Forest in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve (RBPA and the União Biological Reserve (RBU, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A comparative analysis of the role of seed and vegetative reproduction in the plant population structure was also carried out. Three sampling areas were selected in the RBPA (PORT, CM and ARI and one area in the RBU. Two types of population structure were found: 1 populations with low recruitment and with several individuals originated from seeds that appeared to be senescent (PORT and ARI, and 2 populations with high number of recruits from vegetative reproduction (CM and RBU. Seedlings and saplings showed, in general, a higher number of individuals from vegetative reproduction. On the other hand, adults had a predominance of individuals from seed reproduction. These structured patterns appear to be related to the water regimes in each area. Therefore, these data suggest the occurrence of a strong differentiated mortality of seedlings and saplings from vegetative reproduction.
Full Text Available Insect infestation behaves as a complex system, characterized by non-linear spatial dynamics and emergent patterns that evolve from smaller to larger spatial scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB is an invasive species that has infested and killed millions of ash trees across North America. Existing EAB models use traditional statistical approaches that often cannot address the spatiotemporal complexity emerging from EAB infestation processes. Moreover, these studies of insect infestation are limited by a lack of sufficient time series data. The objective of this study is to develop a geosimulation approach to overcome the challenge of data scarcity and represent EAB infestation at a regional scale. Geographic information systems (GIS, multi-criteria evaluation (MCE, and cellular automata (CA are used to model EAB spread across different hypothetical landscape types. Simulation results represent EAB propagation and indicate different dynamics of spread for each landscape. Urban environments are identified as being at the greatest risk to the infestation. The proposed approach offers a theoretical framework and a modeling tool to represent the propagation of EAB infestation that can be applied with real geospatial datasets and potentially used in forest management strategies.
Feng, Zhilan; Alfaro-Murillo, Jorge A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Schmidt, Jennifer; Barga, Matthew; Zheng, Yiqiang; Ahmad Tamrin, Muhammad Hanis B.; Olson, Mark; Glaser, Tim; Kielland, Knut; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Bryant, John
Two models were integrated in order to study the effect of plant toxicity and a trophic cascade on forest succession and fire patterns across a boreal landscape in central Alaska. One of the models, ALFRESCO, is a cellular automata model that stochastically simulates transitions from spruce dominated 1 km2 spatial cells to deciduous woody vegetation based on stochastic fires, and from deciduous woody vegetation to spruce based on age of the cell with some stochastic variation. The other model, the ‘toxin-dependent functional response’ model (TDFRM) simulates woody vegetation types with different levels of toxicity, an herbivore browser (moose) that can forage selectively on these types, and a carnivore (wolf) that preys on the herbivore. Here we replace the simple succession rules in each ALFRESCO cell by plant–herbivore–carnivore dynamics from TDFRM. The central hypothesis tested in the integrated model is that the herbivore, by feeding selectively on low-toxicity deciduous woody vegetation, speeds succession towards high-toxicity evergreens, like spruce. Wolves, by keeping moose populations down, can help slow the succession. Our results confirmed this hypothesis for the model calibrated to the Tanana floodplain of Alaska. We used the model to estimate the effects of different levels of wolf control. Simulations indicated that management reductions in wolf densities could reduce the mean time to transition from deciduous to spruce by more than 15 years, thereby increasing landscape flammability. The integrated model can be useful in estimating ecosystem impacts of wolf control and moose harvesting in central Alaska.
Verônica Saraiva Fialho
Full Text Available Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition.
González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Defagó, María Teresa; Valladares, Graciela
Edges have become prevailing habitats, mainly as a result of habitat fragmentation and agricultural expansion. The interchange of functionally relevant organisms like insects occurs through these edges and can influence ecosystem functioning in both crop and non-crop habitats. However, very few studies have focused on the directionality of insect movement through edges, and the role of crop and non-crop amount has been ignored. Using bi-directional flight interception traps we investigated interchange of herbivore, natural enemy, pollinator and detritivore insects between native forest fragments and soybean crops, simultaneously considering movement direction, forest cover in the landscape and crop phenology. In total, 52,173 specimens and 877 morphospecies were collected. We found that, within most functional and taxonomic groups, movement intensity was similar (richness and/or abundance) between directions, whereas a predominantly forest-to-crop movement characterized natural enemies. Insect movement was extensively affected by crop phenology, decreasing during crop senescence, and was enhanced by forest cover particularly at senescence. Mainly the same herbivore species moved to and from the forest, but different natural enemy species predominated in each direction. Finally, our analyses revealed greater forest contribution to natural enemy than to herbivore communities in the crop, fading with distance to the forest in both groups. By showing that larger amounts of forest lead to richer insect interchange, in both directions and in four functional groups, our study suggests that allocation to natural and cultivated habitats at landscape level could influence functioning of both systems. Moreover, natural enemies seemed to benefit more than pests from natural vegetation, with natural enemy spillover from forests likely contributing to pest control in soybean fields. Thus consequences of insect interchange seem to be mostly positive for the agroecosystem
Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa
Full Text Available We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49 were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also collected samples of leaf litter in each habitat to determine prey availability. Females were significantly larger than males, but head size did not differ between the sexes. The most important prey categories in the diet of C. natalensis based on number, volume and frequency were Isopoda and Araneae. Prey categories with highest importance indices in the diet were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Gryllidae. The diets of adult males and females were similar with respect to prey size, but differed qualitatively, mainly due to the larger trophic spectrum of females. We found some variations on trophic niche breadths and food preferences of lizards between habitats, but in general niche breadths were intermediate, and the most elected prey categories were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. High electivities for Isoptera and Gryllidae occurred only in the open habitats (restinga and dunes, and for Mantodea in the forested habitats (high and low forest. Collembola was consumed in the same proportion of the environment, and Acarina and Formicidae had negative values of electivity, indicating rejection. We conclude that the population studied seems to have a selective diet, preferring relatively large prey items that are less abundant in the leaf litter, and possibly avoiding potentially toxic prey.
Heitor Scarpati Liuth
Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.
Christine Bourotte; Maria Cristina Forti; Yves Lucas; Adolpho J. Melfi
Studies about pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tropical soils and Brazil are scarce. A study was performed to examine the PAHs composition, concentrations and sources in red-yellow Oxisols of remnant Atlantic Forest of the São Paulo State. Sampling areas were located in an urban site (PEFI) and in a natural one (CUNHA).The granulometric composition, pH, organic matter content and mineralogical composition were determined in samples of superficial soils. The sum of PAHs ...
Full Text Available Continuing depletion of forest resources, particularly in tropical developing countries, has turned vast areas of intact ecosystems into urbanized and agricultural lands. The degree of degradation varies, but in most cases, the ecosystem functions and the ability to provide a variety of ecosystem services are severely impaired. In addition to many other challenges, successful forest restoration of these lands requires considerable resources and funding, but the ecological, economic and social benefits have the potential to outweigh the investment. As a consequence, at the international policy level, restoration is seen as a field of land use activities that provides significant contributions to simultaneously achieving different environmental and social policy objectives. Accordingly, different policy processes at the international policy level have made ecological landscape restoration a global priority, in particular the Convention on Biological Diversity with the Aichi Target 15 agreed upon in 2010, which aims at restoring 15% of all degraded land areas by 2020. While such ambitious policy targets are important for recognizing and agreeing upon solutions for environmental problems, they are unlikely to be further substantiated or governed. The objective of this paper is thus to develop a complementary governance approach to the top-down implementation of the Aichi target. Drawing on collaborative and network governance theories, we discuss the potential of a collaborative networked governance approach and perspectives for overcoming the inherent challenges facing a rapid large-scale restoration of degraded lands.
Penha, Rafael E. S.; Gaglianone, Maria C.; Fernanda S. de Almeida; Boff, Samuel V.; Silvia H. Sofia
AbstractThis study analysed the population genetic structure of Euglossa iopoecila, an orchid bee species endemic to the Atlantic Forest which shows a variation in the colour of its metallic integument across its distribution. Our analyses were based on microsatellite and mitochondrial markers. From ten microsatellite loci surveyed, six are described herein for the first time. Mitochondrial markers were obtained by sequencing 651 bp of Cytb gene. Bees were collected from six Atlantic Forest r...
Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Arielson Santos Protázio; Daniel Orsi Laranjeiras; Diego José Santana; Ralph Lacerda de Albuquerque; Ricardo Rodrigues; Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França
In this study, one describes a new record of the bushmaster snake, Lachesis muta, in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. This species is regarded as the largest venomous snake from the New World. The specimen was found at night, crossing a narrow shortcut, close to a slope, about 20m away from a waterfall. The occurrence of L. muta in this fragment demonstrates the importance of conservating Atlantic Forest fragments for preservating this species.
Catão, Elisa C. P.; Lopes, Fabyano A. C.; Janaína F. Araújo; Alinne P. de Castro; Barreto, Cristine C.; Mercedes M.C. Bustamante; Betania F. Quirino; Krüger, Ricardo H.
16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial ...
Aleixo, Alexandre; Wilkinson, M. Justin
Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction. (The easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). For the suboscine passerines, maximum-likelihood estimates of rates of diversification point to an overall constant rate over the past 5 my (up to a significant downturn at 300,000 y ago). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting approximately 10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, that may have extended progressively and in series eastward from Andean sources. This process plausibly explains the progressive extinction of original Pebas wetland of western-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces of a more terra-firme type
Haas, Sarah E; Cushman, J Hall; Dillon, Whalen W; Rank, Nathan E; Rizzo, David M; Meentemeyer, Ross K
The challenges posed by observing host-pathogen-environment interactions across large geographic extents and over meaningful time scales limit our ability to understand and manage wildland epidemics. We conducted a landscape-scale, longitudinal study designed to analyze the dynamics of sudden oak death (an emerging forest disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum) across hierarchical levels of ecological interactions, from individual hosts up to the community and across the broader landscape. From 2004 to 2011, we annually assessed disease status of 732 coast live oak, 271 black oak, and 122 canyon live oak trees in 202 plots across a 275-km2 landscape in central California. The number of infected oak stems steadily increased during the eight-year study period. A survival analysis modeling framework was used to examine which level of ecological heterogeneity best predicted infection risk of susceptible oak species, considering variability at the level of individuals (species identity, stem size), the community (host density, inoculum load, and species richness), and the landscape (seasonal climate variability, habitat connectivity, and topographic gradients). After accounting for unobserved risk shared among oaks in the same plot, survival models incorporating heterogeneity across all three levels better predicted oak infection than did models focusing on only one level. We show that larger oak trees (especially coast live oak) were more susceptible, and that interannual variability in inoculum production by the highly infectious reservoir host, California bay laurel, more strongly influenced disease risk than simply the density of this important host. Concurrently, warmer and wetter rainy-season conditions in consecutive years intensified infection risk, presumably by creating a longer period of inoculum build-up and increased probability of pathogen spillover from bay laurel to oaks. Despite the presence of many alternate host species, we found evidence of pathogen
Gonzalez-Redin, Julen; Luque, Sandra; Poggio, Laura; Smith, Ron; Gimona, Alessandro
An integrated methodology, based on linking Bayesian belief networks (BBN) with GIS, is proposed for combining available evidence to help forest managers evaluate implications and trade-offs between forest production and conservation measures to preserve biodiversity in forested habitats. A Bayesian belief network is a probabilistic graphical model that represents variables and their dependencies through specifying probabilistic relationships. In spatially explicit decision problems where it is difficult to choose appropriate combinations of interventions, the proposed integration of a BBN with GIS helped to facilitate shared understanding of the human-landscape relationships, while fostering collective management that can be incorporated into landscape planning processes. Trades-offs become more and more relevant in these landscape contexts where the participation of many and varied stakeholder groups is indispensable. With these challenges in mind, our integrated approach incorporates GIS-based data with expert knowledge to consider two different land use interests - biodiversity value for conservation and timber production potential - with the focus on a complex mountain landscape in the French Alps. The spatial models produced provided different alternatives of suitable sites that can be used by policy makers in order to support conservation priorities while addressing management options. The approach provided provide a common reasoning language among different experts from different backgrounds while helped to identify spatially explicit conflictive areas. PMID:26597639
de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest. PMID:26743910
Flávia de Barros Prado Moura
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a floristic survey conducted on an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Besides, the results of a similarity analysis between ten rainforest fragments from the Brazilian east-Northeast are presented. The floristic comparison was based on binary data with regard to the presence/ absence criterion for tree species identified in the ten fragments by means of Sørensen’s similarity index. A dendrogram was prepared using cluster analysis (Jaccard’s index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to test the abiotic factors, which can differently influence the similarity of fragments. The fragments showed low similarity indices. The variations were due to the fact that each fragment is a patch of what once was a continuous and heterogeneous region. However, the diversity loss, including the disappearance of more demanding species, can lead, in large-scale, to homogeneity and simplification of the northeastern Atlantic Forest.
de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.
Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.
Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical evergreen to semi-evergreen forest (TRFO biome is well identified from semi-deciduous forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map must be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.
Fabio Rossano Dario
This study was carried out in forest fragments located in the Atlantic Rainforest, in the town of Anchieta, south of Espírito Santo State, Brazil (located at latitude 20o40’S to 20o48’S, longitude 40o34’W to 40o42’W), along the seasons of 2008. The main objective of the study was to analyze the groups of birds that were affected by the forest fragmentation and the degree of isolation of these areas. The method used to register the avifauna specimens was the technique of observation per fixed ...
Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.
This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.
S. V. Osipov
Full Text Available Many of classic questions of vegetation and forest sciences do not lose their relevance because they are basic knowledge for solving a large number of scientific and practical tasks. The aims of this paper are to describe the coenotic diversity, structure, catastrophic and successional changes of forests and open woodlands in alpine-taiga landscapes of the Bureya Mountains, and to consider some of the approaches that are promising for solving such problems. The analysis of some important characteristics of forest and open woodland vegetation is executed. It is shown that the peculiarities of woodland vegetation are not always reflected in the classification schemes. Contrasting approaches to the classification of woodland vegetation are considered. The main diversity of forest and woodland communities, micro-, meso - and macrocomplexes of alpine-taiga landscapes of the Bureya Mountains is revealed. The main forest forming species of trees are the Ajan spruce (Picea ajanensis and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi. The ecological-phytocoenological classification of forest and woodland vegetation is developed. A concept of the life form of vegetation is used as a common basis for the classification of vegetation of different structural types. The concept is considered as the multidimensional and multilevel characteristic of vegetation, which consists of at least three components: structural, dynamic and ecological-phytocoenotic types of vegetation. The scheme of vegetation cover zonality of alpine-taiga landscapes of the Bureya Mountains is revised on the basis of concepts of the zonal vegetation and the zonal habitats. Forest and open woodland vegetation form three subbelts: subalpine larch and spruce open woodlands, subalpine spruce and larch forests, taiga spruce and larch forests. The main disturbance factor in vegetation cover of the territory under consideration is fires. Main pyrogenic catastrophic changes and post-fire demutation successions
Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues
Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluate...
Vagner Cavarzere; Luís Fábio Silveira
The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE). We searched for bird inventories in the literature a...
Gomes Delir Corrêa; Cruz Rosane Pereira da; Vicente Joaquim Júlio; Pinto Roberto Magalhães
Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819), Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934) F...
Marcela Eugenia da Silva Cáceres; Robert Lücking
A new species of Acanthothecis is described in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Unlike any other species in the genus, it has distinctly pseudo-stromatic ascomata that resemble those of the genus Sarcographa. However, its apically spinulose paraphyses, I-negative ascospores with thin endospore closely resemble those of other Acanthothecis species. A previous molecular phylogenetic analysis places the new species close to the type species of Acanthothecis, A. hololeucoides. The disc...
The reproductive ecology, seedling performance, and population structure of Parkia pendula (Mimosaceae) were studied in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil. The developmental phases from buds to ripe pods, capitulum and flower morphology, breeding system, floral odour, nectar production and nectar sugar and amino acid composition, as well as the mammalian flower visitors were studied in detail during this 2-years lasting investigation. Furthermore, edge effects on the populatio...
Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes
The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...
Alexandre Zuntini; Lúcia Lohmann
Abstract Martinella has traditionally included two species, Martinella iquitoensis and Martinella obovata, that are characterized by the presence of interpetiolar ridges surrounding the stems and minute prophylls of the axillary buds. A third species, Martinella insignis, is here described as new, illustrated and compared to other species in the genus. Martinella insignis is the first record of the genus in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, and differs from other species of Martinella by the yel...
Lima, VS; Jansen, AM; Messenger, LA; Miles, MA; Llewellyn, MS
BACKGROUND Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) infection is an ancient and widespread zoonosis distributed throughout the Americas. Ecologically, Brazil comprises several distinct biomes: Amazonia, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Sylvatic T. cruzi transmission is known to occur throughout these biomes, with multiple hosts and vectors involved. Parasite species-level genetic diversity can be a useful marker for ecosystem health. Our aims were to: investiga...
Matthew L. Clark; Andrea E. Izquierdo
Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan) to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield) in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protecte...
Albuquerque, Ricardo D.D.G.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Caio P. Fernandes; Couteiro, Pedro P.; Eiriz, Débora N.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Silva Filho, Moacélio V.; Gutemberg G. Alves; Bachinski, Róber; Rocha, Leandro
Eugenia pruniformis Cambess. is an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Essential oils from leaves and fruits from this species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/CG-FID. In all, 25 compounds were identified, with predominance of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in both plant parts. The major compounds were β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D, δ- cadinene and α-copaene. Antioxidant activity was performed for essential oil from leaves using ORAC method, s...
Celice Alexandre Silva; Milene Faria Vieira
ABSTRACT This study investigates the flowering and pollinators of the floral morphs of three co-occurring distylous species, Psychotria conjugens Müll, P. hastisepala Müll. Arg. and P. sessilis Vell., in two consecutive flowering seasons in an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. The species have diurnal, cream-colored, tubular, nectariferous flowers and their flowering occurs in the rainy season, from September to April, with little or no overlapping between species, characterizi...
Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Marinho, Jorge R.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.
The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene f...
Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O
The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469
Gislene L. Gonçalves
Full Text Available The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high.
Rodrigues Eliana; Domingues Marcus; Garcia Daniel
Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoologi...
Ralf Christopher Buckley; Fernanda ede Vasconcellos Pegas
Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Ja...
Buckley, Ralf C.; de Vasconcellos Pegas, Fernanda
Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social, and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Jane...
Perry, I.; de Mello, W. Z.; McDowell, W. H.
Atlantic Forest is located along the Brazilian coast and inland to Paraguay and Argentina. It has been largely devastated years ago by anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture and urbanization. Only ten percent of its original area remains (100.000 km2), which is concentrated on high lands. Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot that receives high nitrogen (N) input through atmospheric deposition in forests of Rio de Janeiro; however, not much is known about the consequences of this N addition. This study has been conducted in the Serra dos Orgaos National Park (SONP - 22.782 km2) located a few kilometers Northeast of Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region, Sea Mountain. The forest, characterized as Tropical Moist Forest, is rigorously protected. Vegetation varies along the altitudinal gradient, where the highest peak is at 2,200m asl. Previous studies reported that N atmospheric deposition in SONP varies from 14 to 24 kg ha-1 year-1. The high N deposition on tropical forests increases emission to the atmosphere of N-N2O, a greenhouse gas. There is a lack of N-N2O measurements in tropical forests, mainly in upland tropical forests. We present fluxes of N-N2O from a Brazilian upland tropical forest, and assess the factors controlling N-N2O fluxes. Samples were collected from eight grids (48m2), between 330-451m asl (Subtropical vegetation) and eight grids between 1137-1251m (Montane vegetation), during the dry (July 2008) and wet (Jan-Feb 2009) seasons. Daily, N-N2O (N=372) and soil (N=185) were collected. Nitrous oxide emission was 0,7 (lower altitude) and 0,3 kgN ha-1 year-1 (higher altitude), which is lower than in other upland tropical forests, such as Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, where atmospheric N input (4 kg ha-1 year-1) is not as high as in SONP. Water filled pore space, soil temperature, phosphorus and C:N are the main factors controlling N-N2O fluxes. Manganese was not a good indicator for presence or absence of N-N2O. Higher N-N2O
Carlos D. De Angelo
Full Text Available For many years, tropical and subtropical forests have been deforested for agriculture, grazing, and timber extraction. Nevertheless in the last decade, several publications have suggested that some regions of Latin America are showing a process of forest transition. Forest transition theory predicts that industrialization and urbanization will lead to the abandonment of marginal agriculture lands and the recovery of natural systems such as forests. However, there are many ecological, economic, and social factors that could act as barriers to ecosystem recovery. To evaluate this hypothesis, we analyzed the socioeconomic and land-use changes during the last 30 years at the provincial and departmental level in the province of Misiones, Argentina. We described the changes in the distribution of urban and rural populations based on national population censuses from 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2001. Land-use change was based on a supervised analysis of four mosaics of Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper satellite images from 1973, 1979, 1987/1989, and 2006. Although the change in the rural population varied greatly among the departments, there has been a dramatic increase in the urban population at the provincial level. The major land-use changes between 1973 and 2006 were an increase in monospecific plantations of mainly Pinus and Eucalyptus of 2702 km² and a loss of 4689 km² of natural forest. Misiones possesses the largest remnant of continuous Atlantic Forest, which is famous for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, but much of this forest now comprises monospecific plantations. Although demographic changes in Misiones are similar to those that have occurred other regions (i.e., rural–urban migration, and the increase in forest plantations helps to maintain forest cover, this cover has much lower ecological value than that of natural forest. To ensure the conservation of the high-diversity Atlantic Forest in Misiones requires a
Harrington, Thomas J.
Full Text Available The oak species Quercus petraea and Q. Robur are dominant canopy tree species of native deciduous forests in Ireland and coastal regions of Western Europe. These forests are typically plant species-rich, and can also have a rich fungal flora. This survey examined macrofungi found in five native oak sites across Ireland over three years. Overall, 94 macrofungal species belonging to 39 genera were discovered with Mycena, Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius the most species-rich genera. The species accumulation curve did not show signs of levelling off, indicating that more sampling would reveal more new species. Species richness estimation using the Chao2 estimator indicated that up to 135 species may be present across all of our plots, with individual plots receiving estimates from 19 to 61 species per plot. Sampled-based rarefaction analysis showed no significant differences in macrofungal species richness between our plots. The five most common species were Laccaria amethystina, L. laccata, Stereum hirsutum, Armillaria mellea and Cortinarius flexipes. Comparisons of the results with results from oak forests in similar regions found that the communities in Great Britain were most similar to those found in Ireland. There were some key oak forest distinguishing fungal species from the family Boletaceae lacking from Irish oak forests. It is hypothesised that the historic deforestation of Ireland, caused a reduction of suitable habitats for Irish oak associated macrofungi, leading to the unspecific mycota found in the oak forests of this study. The threats to Atlantic oak forests in Ireland are briefly discussed.Las especies de Quercus petraea y Q. Robur se encuentran en bosques de Irlanda y regiones de influencia atlántica de Europa Occidental. Estos bosques, típicamente ricos en especies de plantas, presentan una abundante micobiota. Este estudio examina la diversidad de macromicetes en cinco bosques naturales de roble en Irlanda durante un
Rievers, Camila Rabelo; Pires, Maria Rita Silvério; Eterovick, Paula Cabral
Leaf litter anuran assemblages include both species that have terrestrial development and species that, during the breeding season, aggregate around bodies of water where their tadpoles develop. The resources used by these two groups in the leaf litter are likely to differ, as well as their sampled species richness, abundance and biomass as resource availability changes. We conducted a 12-month survey of leaf litter anuran assemblages at three forest areas in the largest Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Each month we estimated, based on capture rates, anuran species richness, abundance, and biomass as assemblage descriptors. We also measured variables that could potentially affect these descriptors in space and time: invertebrate litter fauna (abundance and richness of taxa), leaf litter biomass, and microclimatic conditions (air humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, and rainfall). We tested for differences in these variables among areas. We used general linear models to search for the variables that best explained variation in anuran abundance (based on capture rates) throughout the year. We analyzed species with terrestrial development (TD) and with aquatic larvae (AL) separately. We recorded 326 anurans of 15 species. Sampled anuran abundance (correlated to species richness and biomass) was explained by air humidity and/or invertebrate abundance for species with TD, and by soil water content or air humidity and leaf litter biomass for species with AL. The variability in the results of studies on leaf litter frogs that try to find variables to explain changes in community descriptors may be due to spatial variation of resources among areas and also to the fact that TD and AL species are frequently analyzed together, when in fact they are likely to show different responses to resources present in the leaf litter habitat, reflected on capture rates.
Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra
Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year-1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximumnumber of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha-1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year-1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.
Barros, F de V; Goulart, M F; Telles, S B Sá; Lovato, M B; Valladares, F; de Lemos-Filho, J P
The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity. Functional traits of Dalbergia nigra and D. miscolobium from the Atlantic Forest and cerrado, respectively, were evaluated under shade (25% of full sunlight) and full sunlight in a nursery experiment. We hypothesised that both species should benefit from high phenotypic plasticity in relation to light. Plasticity was estimated using the relative distance phenotypic index (RDPI). D. miscolobium had lower shoot growth under both light conditions, suggesting it has low competitive capacity in the forest environment, which could explain its limited ability to expand over areas of Atlantic Forest. The studied species exhibited photoprotection strategies under high light and improved light capture under low light. Stomatal conductance, ETR(max) (maximum electron transport rate), PPFD(sat) (saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density), chlorophyll and carotenoid content had higher RDPI than stem morphological traits. Although both species showed considerable phenotypic plasticity, D. miscolobium had higher RDPI for eight of 11 evaluated traits. This high plasticity could be one of the factors that explain the occurrence of this species in a wide range of environmental conditions, from open grassland to dense woodlands, and it could also reflect its adaptation to high light. D. nigra also had considerable plasticity and good growth performance in both shade and full sunlight, but its absence in areas of cerrado suggests that factors other than light limit its occurrence in these habitats. PMID:21972934
Yeboah, Daniel; Chen, Han Y H; Kingston, Steve
Understanding species diversity and disturbance relationships is important for biodiversity conservation in disturbance-driven boreal forests. Species richness and evenness may respond differently with stand development following fire. Furthermore, few studies have simultaneously accounted for the influences of climate and local site conditions on species diversity. Using forest inventory data, we examined the relationships between species richness, Shannon's index, evenness, and time since last stand-replacing fire (TSF) in a large landscape of disturbance-driven boreal forest. TSF has negative effect on species richness and Shannon's index, and a positive effect on species evenness. Path analysis revealed that the environmental variables affect richness and Shannon's index only through their effects on TSF while affecting evenness directly as well as through their effects on TSF. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that species richness and Shannon's index decrease while species evenness increases with TSF in a boreal forest landscape. Furthermore, we show that disturbance frequency, local site conditions, and climate simultaneously influence tree species diversity through complex direct and indirect effects in the studied boreal forest. PMID:26865971
Santiago Bonilla-Bedoya; Juan R. Molina; José E. Macedo-Pezzopane; Miguel A. Herrera-Machuca
The analysis of the systeTatic transitions in the forested landscape and the study of the forest fragTentation patterns allow us to deepen our understanding of the changes in the vegetation ground cover. The iTportance of knowing the intricate patterns of the land usage of the upper basin of the ATazon region is widely recognized. This zone is one of the Tost diverse biological areas in the world, is hoTe to large areas of Tature tropical cloud forest and deTonstrates high probabilities of stable cliTatic conditions in light of global warTing. The research quan-tified systeTatic transitions through the"loss"and"gain"of the different categories of landscape during the eighteen-year study period of the Ecuadorian ATazon Region (EAR), the forest fragTentation patterns were also analyzed based on a set of indicators. Therefore, with respect to the entirety of the landscape, the results registered for the ground coverage in forested areas during the first period (1990-2000), show a decrease of 6.99% and an increase of 0.68%; and during the second period (2000-2008), show a decrease of 3.99%and an increase of 2.14%. It deTonstrated that forest and agricultural areas tended to replace or be replaced by herbaceous vegetation faster than expected fortuitously. Finally, the indices of fragTentation signaled intense changes during the 1990-2000 period with a reduction during the period 2000-2008. Per-centages registered in the Largest Patch Index (LPI) were between 79.58%;52.39%and 49.99%respectively;while the Patch Density (PD) varied between 0.04;0.06 and 0.07. This suggests the propensity of for-est cover to reTain intact. The results of this investigation suggest a tendency towards stability in Ecuador’s ATazon landscape. Within the fraTework for developTent and TanageTent of this area, the tendency is natural regeneration. This perTits a consolidation of the conservation, reforestation, forestation and agricultural forestry plans, prograTs and systeTs for the protected
Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista
We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218
Grippa, Carlos Roberto; Hoeltgebaum, Marcia Patricia; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz
The mycorrhizal status of epiphytic, rupicolous, and terrestrial bromeliad species from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest has been examined. Roots of 13 species of bromeliads were analyzed for the presence of mycorrhizal structures such as arbuscules, hyphae, and vesicles as well as other fungal structures. Rhizosphere soil was sampled to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species associated only with terrestrial bromeliad species. Most specimens collected were epiphytic bromeliads in the genera Aechmea, Bilbergia, Nidularium, Tillandsia, and Vriesea. Differentiating structures of AMF were found in only three species of bromeliads. The pattern of mycorrhizal colonization was mainly internal, and external mycelium and arbuscules were observed only in the terrestrial Nidularium procerum. Root endophytes with dark brown septate mycelium, thin external hyphae, and Rhizoctonia-like sclerotia were also detected in some root segments. A total of ten spore morphotypes were recovered from the rhizosphere of N. procerum, with Acaulospora mellea, A. foveata, and Glomus sp. being the most common species recovered. Our study demonstrated that most of the epiphytic species are not associated with AMF. We attribute this mainly to the exposed bare root conditions found in epiphytic bromeliads. PMID:17151876
The availability of chemical elements for plants is mainly dependent on the nature of the soil and characteristics of each species. The transfer factors of lanthanides from the soil to the tree leaves of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, were calculated for one fern species (Alsophila sternbergii-Pteridophyta division) and four magnoliophytes species (Bathysa australis, Euterpe edulis, Garcinia gardneriana and Guapira opposita-Magnoliophyta division) obtained in two areas of Serra do Mar State Park and collected in two different seasons. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF = Cplant:Csoil) in magnoliophytes species was correlated to the mass fraction of lanthanides in the soil, described by a exponential model (TF = a.Csoil-b). Despite the tree fern Alsophila sternbergii presented a hyperaccumulation of lanthanides, this species did not have a significant relationship between TF and mass fraction in soil. Results indicated that plants of Magnoliophyta division selected the input of lanthanides from the soil, while the same was not observed in Alsophila sternbergii. (author)
Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G
Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644
Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.
Faoro, Helisson; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Souza, Emanuel M; Rigo, Liu U; Cruz, Leonardo M; Monteiro, Rose A; Pedrosa, Fábio O
Lipases are the most investigated class of enzymes in metagenomics. Phylogenetic classification of bacterial lipases comprises eight families. Here we describe the construction and screening of three metagenomic libraries from Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil and identification of a new lipase family. The metagenomic libraries, MAF1, MAF2 and MAF3, contained 34 560, 29 280 and 36 288 clones respectively. Lipase screening on triolein-rhodamine B plates resulted in one positive clone, Lip018. The DNA insert of Lip018 was fully sequenced and 20 ORFs were identified by comparison against the GenBank. Transposon mutagenesis revealed that ORF15, similar to serine peptidases, and ORF16, a hypothetical protein, were both required for lipase activity. ORF16 has a typical lipase conserved pentapeptide G-X-S-X-G and the comparison against the Pfam database showed that ORF16 belongs to family 5 of αβ-hydrolase. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that ORF16, together with other related proteins, may be a member of a new lipase family, named LipAP, activated by a putative serine protease. Partial characterization of ORF16 lipase showed that the enzyme has activity against a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters, but only after activation by the predicted peptidase ORF15. PMID:23761366
Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.
We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515
Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves of four Cryptocarya spp endemic in the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest were obtained by hydrodistillation and shown by GC-MS analysis to contain mono and sesquiterpenes. The major components of the oil of Cryptocarya moschata were linalool (34.3%, a-terpinene (17.0%, g-terpinene (10.4%, 1,8-cineole (5.8% and trans-ocimene (4.8%, whilst those of C. botelhensis were a-pinene (22.7%, b-pinene (9.2%, trans-verbenol (8.4%, trans-pinocarveol (5.5% and myrtenal (5.4%. The principal compounds of C. mandioccana oil were b-caryophyllene (13.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, caryophyllene oxide (7.8%, d-cadinene (6.9% and bicyclogermacrene (6.4%, whilst those of C. saligna were germacrene D (15.5%, bicyclogermacrene (13.8%, spathulenol (11.8% and germacrene B (5.7%.
Castilho, Camila S; Marins-Sá, Luiz G; Benedet, Rodrigo C; Freitas, Thales R O
The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F(IS), effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software), we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software) that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk. PMID:22481876
Camila S. Castilho
Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.
André Filipe Testoni
Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.
Angélica H Klippel
Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.
Maturano, Ralph; Faccini, João L H; Daemon, Erik; Fazza, Patrícia O C; Bastos, Ronaldo R
The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations. PMID:26253798
Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa
Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.
This paper presents the pattern and changes of fragmented forest in relation with changes of total forest cover in the state of Selangor in three decades.In this study, inventoried forest cover maps of Selangor in 1971/1972, 1981/1982 and 1991/1992 produced by the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia were digitized to examine the changes in area and number of fragmented forest.Results showed that in 1971/ 1972, 16 fragmented forests were identified in Selangor.All fragmented forests were identified as dipterocarp forest.A decade later the number of fragmented forests increased by approximately 44% (23).Of the 23 fragmented forests, two were peat swamp forests whereas the remaining were dipterocarp forests.In 1991/1992 the number of fragmented forests (12) was reduced by 47.8%.Two of the fragmented forests were identified as peat swamp forest, seven dipterocarp forest and the other three was mixed of dipterocarp forests and plantation forests.Fragmentation of both dipterocarp and peat swamp forests occurred profoundly during the period between 1971/1972 and 1981/1982, which consequently increased the number of fragmented forests compared with before the period of 1971/1972 where fragmentation happened only at dipterocarp forests.However, many fragmented forests vanished between the 1981/1982 and 1991/1992 periods.
Zinko, Ursula; Dynesius, Mats; Nilsson, Christer; Seibert, Jan
In hilly boreal landscapes topography governs groundwater flow which strongly influences soil development, and thus vegetation composition. Soil pH is known to correlate well with plant species density and composition, but in boreal forests this relationship has been little studied. Previously, we successfully used a topography-based hydrological index, the topographical wetness index (TWI), as an approximation of the variation in groundwater flow to predict local plant species density in a b...
This project initiates an integrated-landscape conservation approach within the Northern Cumberlands Project Area in Tennessee and Kentucky. The mixed mesophytic forests within the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains are among the most diverse in North America; however, these forests have been impacted by and remain threatened from changes in land use across this landscape. The integrated-landscape conservation approach presented in this report outlines a sequence of six conservation steps. This report considers the first three of these steps in two, successive stages. Stage 1 compares desired future conditions (DFCs) and current prevailing conditions (CPCs) at the landscape-scale utilizing remote sensing imagery, remnant forests, and descriptions of historical forest types within the Cumberland Plateau. Subsequently, Stage 2 compares DFCs and CPCs for at-risk forest types identified in Stage 1 utilizing structural, compositional, or functional attributes from USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis data. Ecological indicators will be developed from each stage that express the gaps between these two realizations of the landscape. The results from these first three steps will directly contribute to the final three steps of the integrated-landscape conservation approach by providing guidance for the generation of new conservation strategies in the Northern Cumberland Plateau and Mountains.
Full Text Available The promotion of sustainable tourism models has been widely debated; many pages have been devoted to the attempt to provide the subject with a strong theoretical base and coherent structure. This said, it is still the case that, although such frameworks are crucial for the development of appropriate planning and policy instruments, their actual implementation continue to be fraught with difficulties. These problems are exacerbated when sustainable tourism entails development opportunities which require the support of the local community and the management of natural resources which are typically common goods. Under these circumstances, new management structures, which can both satisfy the needs of the local community and ensure the appropriate stewardship of the natural resources, must be created. Management solutions are not always easy to define and often need to be considered within a general framework, based on which individual cases are then formulated. This study analyses the connections between models of sustainable tourism and natural resource management considering the forest landscape case. This relationship is first examined from a theoretical perspective and then within a case study, in order to highlight the dual approach—both general and within a specific context.
Full Text Available A pressing question that arises during the planning of an ecological restoration process is: where to restore first? Answering this question is a complex task; it requires a multidimensional approach to consider economic constrains and the preferences of stakeholders. Being the problem of spatial nature, it may be explored effectively through Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA performed in a Geographical Information System (GIS environment. The proposed approach is based on the definition and weighting of multiple criteria for evaluating land suitability. An MCDA-based methodology was used to identify priority areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Upper Mixtec region, Oaxaca (Mexico, one of the most degraded areas of Latin America. Socioeconomic and environmental criteria were selected and evaluated. The opinions of four different stakeholder groups were considered: general public, academic, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs and governmental officers. The preferences of these groups were spatially modeled to identify their priorities. The final result was a map that identifies the most preferable sites for restoration, where resources and efforts should be concentrated. MCDA proved to be a very useful tool in collective planning, when alternative sites have to be identified and prioritized to guide the restoration work.
Michiel van Breugel
Full Text Available Both local- and landscape-scale processes drive succession of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes. Nonetheless, until recently successional changes in composition and diversity have been predominantly studied at the patch level. Here, we used a unique dataset with 45 randomly selected sites across a mixed-use tropical landscape in central Panama to study forest succession simultaneously on local and landscape scales and across both life stages (seedling, sapling, juvenile and adult trees and life forms (shrubs, trees, lianas, and palms. To understand the potential of these secondary forests to conserve tree species diversity, we also evaluated the diversity of species that can persist as viable metapopulations in a dynamic patchwork of short-lived successional forests, using different assumptions about the average relative size at reproductive maturity. We found a deterministic shift in the diversity and composition of the local plant communities as well as the metacommunity, driven by variation in the rate at which species recruited into and disappeared from the secondary forests across the landscape. Our results indicate that dispersal limitation and the successional niche operate simultaneously and shape successional dynamics of the metacommunity of these early secondary forests. A high diversity of plant species across the metacommunity of early secondary forests shows a potential for restoration of diverse forests through natural succession, when trees and fragments of older forests are maintained in the agricultural matrix and land is abandoned or set aside for a long period of time. On the other hand, during the first 32 years the number of species with mature-sized individuals was a relatively small and strongly biased sub-sample of the total species pool. This implies that ephemeral secondary forests have a limited role in the long-term conservation of tree species diversity in human-modified tropical landscapes.
Herbert Leonardo Nascimento Pinheiro; Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes
We evaluate the impact of very small and isolated forest fragments on the common marmosets home range, diet, and activity patterns, in the northeastern Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Three groups were studied in three forest fragments, from January to October 2010, totaling 360 hours of observations and 1,080 field-hours. Systematic observations were recorded using Instantaneous Scan Sampling, and a checklist of the items exploited was built through ad libitum observations. We recorded location o...
Tola Gemechu Ango
Full Text Available Farmers' practices in the management of agricultural landscapes influence biodiversity with implications for livelihoods, ecosystem service provision, and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we examined how smallholding farmers in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape in southwestern Ethiopia manage trees and forests with regard to a few selected ecosystem services and disservices that they highlighted as "beneficial" or "problematic." Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from six villages, located both near and far from forest, using participatory field mapping and semistructured interviews, tree species inventory, focus group discussions, and observation. The study showed that farmers' management practices, i.e., the planting of trees on field boundaries amid their removal from inside arable fields, preservation of trees in semimanaged forest coffee, maintenance of patches of shade coffee fields in the agricultural landscape, and establishment of woodlots with exotic trees result in a restructuring of the forest-agriculture mosaic. In addition, the strategies farmers employed to mitigate crop damage by wild mammals such as baboons and bush pigs, e.g., migration and allocation of migrants on lands along forests, have contributed to a reduction in forest and tree cover in the agricultural landscape. Because farmers' management practices were overall geared toward mitigating the negative impact of disservices and to augment positive services, we conclude that it is important to operationalize ecosystem processes as both services and disservices in studies related to agricultural landscapes.
Grundel, Ralph; Beamer, David; Glowacki, Gary A.; Frohnapple, Krystal; Pavlovic, Noel B.
Temperate savannas are threatened across the globe. If we prioritize savanna restoration, we should ask how savanna animal communities differ from communities in related open habitats and forests. We documented distribution of amphibian and reptile species across an open-savanna–forest gradient in the Midwest U.S. to determine how fire history and habitat structure affected herpetofaunal community composition. The transition from open habitats to forests was a transition from higher reptile abundance to higher amphibian abundance and the intermediate savanna landscape supported the most species overall. These differences warn against assuming that amphibian and reptile communities will have similar ecological responses to habitat structure. Richness and abundance also often responded in opposite directions to some habitat characteristics, such as cover of bare ground or litter. Herpetofaunal community species composition changed along a fire gradient from infrequent and recent fires to frequent but less recent fires. Nearby (200-m) wetland cover was relatively unimportant in predicting overall herpetofaunal community composition while fire history and fire-related canopy and ground cover were more important predictors of composition, diversity, and abundance. Increased developed cover was negatively related to richness and abundance. This indicates the importance of fire history and fire related landscape characteristics, and the negative effects of development, in shaping the upland herpetofaunal community along the native grassland–forest continuum.
Birdsey, R.; Pan, Y.
Managing forests to increase carbon stocks and reduce emissions requires knowledge of how management practices and natural disturbances affect carbon pools over time, and cost-effective techniques for monitoring and reporting. This study improves upon the methodology to collect and integrate the multi-tier monitoring data from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) with management decisions by systematically scaling up intensive forest carbon measurements to land management areas (or landscapes), and reconciling these estimates with ecosystem models and decision-support systems that are driven by remote sensing and national inventories. We propose to use spatial analysis techniques and an ecosystem process model (PnET- CN) to scale up and map observations from flux towers, landscape biometrics, and inventories to areas of approximately 2500 km2 around flux tower sites. The NASA-CASA model is used to derive estimates for the same areas from remote sensing observations by the MODIS sensor, and biophysical maps. We compare and reconcile the top-down and bottom-up approaches, then use the mapped estimates of productivity and biomass that embed consequences of land disturbances and forest age structure as input to decision-support tools. Key information for the decision-support tools includes (1) estimates of carbon stocks and quantified impacts of management activity; (2) estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) and changes in carbon pools; and (3) estimates of forest/atmosphere carbon fluxes and relevant effects from various environmental controls. This work is relevant to land managers and climate change policy because it supports a need to estimate and report carbon stocks and changes in carbon stocks to state, regional, national, and private greenhouse gas registries. This work builds upon a foundation of work begun in 2001 by the U.S. Forest Service to implement a forest carbon monitoring and observation system at intermediate or "Tier 3" sites as described
van Breugel, Michiel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Craven, Dylan;
Both local- and landscape-scale processes drive succession of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes. Nonetheless, until recently successional changes in composition and diversity have been predominantly studied at the patch level. Here, we used a unique dataset with 45 randomly...... selected sites across a mixed-use tropical landscape in central Panama to study forest succession simultaneously on local and landscape scales and across both life stages (seedling, sapling, juvenile and adult trees) and life forms (shrubs, trees, lianas, and palms). To understand the potential...... and fragments of older forests are maintained in the agricultural matrix and land is abandoned or set aside for a long period of time. On the other hand, during the first 32 years the number of species with mature-sized individuals was a relatively small and strongly biased sub-sample of the total species pool...
Cazé, Ana Luiza R; Mäder, Geraldo; Nunes, Teonildes S; Queiroz, Luciano P; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B
The Atlantic Forest is one of the most species-rich ecoregions in the world. The historical origins of this richness and the evolutionary processes that produced diversification and promoted speciation in this ecosystem remain poorly understood. In this context, focusing on Passiflora contracta, an endemic species from the Atlantic Forest distributed exclusively at sea level along forest edges, this study aimed to characterize the patterns of genetic variability and explore two hypotheses that attempt to explain the possible causes of the genetic diversity in this region: the refuge and riverine barrier theories. We employed Bayesian methods combined with niche modeling to identify genetically homogeneous groups, to determine the diversification age, and identify long-term climate stability areas to species survival. The analyses were performed using molecular markers from nuclear and plastid genomes, with samples collected throughout the entire geographic distribution of the species, and comparisons with congeners species. The results indicated that populations were genetically structured and provided evidence of demographic stability. The molecular markers indicated the existence of a clear structure and the presence of five homogeneous groups. Interestingly, the separation of the groups coincides with the geographical locations of local rivers, corroborating the hypothesis of rivers acting as barriers to gene flow in this species. The highest levels of genetic diversity and the areas identified as having long-term climate stability were found in the same region reported for other species as a possible refuge area during the climatic changes of the Quaternary. PMID:27188539
Ralf Christopher Buckley
Full Text Available Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This forest is largely cleared. There are many small remnant patches on private lands, able to support tamarins. Local NGO’s have successfully used limited funds to contribute to tamarin conservation in a highly cost effective way. We examined the mechanisms by analysing documents and interviewing landholders and other stakeholders. We found that the local NGOs successfully identified landholdings where ecological, legal, social and some financial hurdles had already been crossed, and helped landholders over the final financial hurdle by funding critical cost components. This cost <5% of the price of outright land purchase. This approach is scaleable for golden lion tamarin elsewhere within the Atlantic Forest biome, and applicable for other species and ecosystems worldwide.
Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti
Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.
Oliveira, V C; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G
Riparian vegetation along streams in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil contributes to the formation of a highly heterogeneous leaf litter in streambeds. To investigate the structure and composition of the aquatic invertebrate community during the process of leaf decomposition of two plant species present along the banks of the stream studied, 21 plastic mesh bags containing 2.5g (dry weight) of leaf matter from each species (Alchornea glandulosa (Vell) and Cabralea canjerana End. and Poeppig), for a total of 5.0g, were placed in the streambed. Three bags were removed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days. The taxonomic density was negatively correlated with the remaining weight. The high density of collector organisms, such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Amphipoda, on the last day of incubation, probably occurred due to the increased amount of fine organic matter in the more advanced decomposition stages. The highest α diversity (Shannon-Wiener) values were observed for the 3rd and 96th days of the experiment, while the β diversity values showed that these days presented the highest variation in the taxonomic composition, thus presenting a different faunistic composition. This study showed that the trophic structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates changes during the decomposition of leaf litter. The faunistic abundance and diversity observed in this study indicate that the entrance of material from plants growing along streams provides favorable conditions for the colonisation and establishment of invertebrates in lower-order streams, and thus points to the need to preserve riparian vegetation. PMID:25166310
Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S
This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography. PMID:19675929
Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann
Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.
Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.
Priscila L. MacCord
Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992–1993 to 2002–2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992–1993 and during the same months in 2002–2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.
Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T
Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with
The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the v...
Gibling, Martin; Ielpi, Alessandro; Bashforth, Arden; Davies, Neil
Vegetation profoundly influences modern fluvial systems, depending on plant life-history strategies, tolerance to disturbance, and habitat drainage. However, direct evidence for these dynamic relationships is cryptic and has commonly been overlooked in ancient deposits. We report evidence for profound interactions between channels, in situ and transported vegetation in Lower Pennsylvanian formations of Atlantic Canada (~310 Ma), attributed to braided, meandering and fixed-channel (anastomosing) systems. Plant groups include lycopsids that preferred stable wetland settings, disturbance-tolerant calamitaleans, and deeply rooted cordaitaleans (early gymnosperms) that originated in the late Mississippian and colonised both wetland and dryland settings. For the meandering and anastomosing channel deposits, upright vegetation was observed within channel-based bedforms and bars and on channel margins. Lycopsids and calamitalean groves colonized the channel bed and bank-attached bars during periods of reduced flow, nucleating bar growth after flow resumed. Upright lycopsids and cordaitaleans are common along channel cutbanks and are locally tilted towards the channel, implying involvement in bank stabilization. Rhizoconcretions that formed around deep cordaitalean roots may have aided bank reinforcement. Tetrapod and arthropod trackways in the channel deposits indicate a close linkage between riparian and aquatic ecosystems. In the braided systems, sediments that contain abundant cordaitalean logs constitute nearly 20% of channel deposits, and the logs form channel-base lags, fill channels up to 6 m deep, and form nuclei for shallow sandbars. Log accumulations overlain by shale lenses imply a contribution to channel avulsion. Rooted channel-sandstones containing upright trees are interpreted as vegetated islands in an island-braided system. Anastomosing systems are abundant in these Lower Pennsylvanian formations but rare in older strata, and the multi-channel island
Pereira, G A; Araújo, H F P; Azevedo-Júnior, S M
The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas. PMID:27355983
Kane, Van R.; Lutz, James A.; Roberts, Susan L.; Smith, Douglas F.; McGaughey, Robert J.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Brooks, Matthew L.
While fire shapes the structure of forests and acts as a keystone process, the details of how fire modifies forest structure have been difficult to evaluate because of the complexity of interactions between fires and forests. We studied this relationship across 69.2 km2 of Yosemite National Park, USA, that was subject to 32 fires ⩾40 ha between 1984 and 2010. Forests types included ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), white fir-sugar pine (Abies concolor/Pinus lambertiana), and red fir (Abies magnifica). We estimated and stratified burned area by fire severity using the Landsat-derived Relativized differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). Airborne LiDAR data, acquired in July 2010, measured the vertical and horizontal structure of canopy material and landscape patterning of canopy patches and gaps. Increasing fire severity changed structure at the scale of fire severity patches, the arrangement of canopy patches and gaps within fire severity patches, and vertically within tree clumps. Each forest type showed an individual trajectory of structural change with increasing fire severity. As a result, the relationship between estimates of fire severity such as RdNBR and actual changes appears to vary among forest types. We found three arrangements of canopy patches and gaps associated with different fire severities: canopy-gap arrangements in which gaps were enclosed in otherwise continuous canopy (typically unburned and low fire severities); patch-gap arrangements in which tree clumps and gaps alternated and neither dominated (typically moderate fire severity); and open-patch arrangements in which trees were scattered across open areas (typically high fire severity). Compared to stands outside fire perimeters, increasing fire severity generally resulted first in loss of canopy cover in lower height strata and increased number and size of gaps, then in loss of canopy cover in higher height strata, and eventually the transition to open areas with few or no trees. However
Full Text Available Daishowa-Marubeni International (DMI is an integrated forest products company with operations in northern Alberta, Canada. As part of its sustainable forestry practices, it has embarked on a comprehensive plan to maintain biodiversity and landscape connectivity values within its area of operation. In addition to identification of High Conservation Value Forests (HCVF as part of an internal forest planning system and to assist forest certification interests, DMI has developed a plan for a Continuous Reserve Network (CRN. This paper describes the rationale behind DMI′s decision to identify a framework for both HCVF and the CRN. The company believes this CRN is a novel approach to ensuring visibility of connected landscape processes. DMI has introduced the concept to government, local sawmill stakeholders, and its public advisory committee, with a goal towards implementing the CRN within the area of its forest tenure as part of its forest management plan. The CRN represents nearly 44% of DMI′s tenure area, and thus makes a significant contribution to landscape connectivity and forest biodiversity. The case study represents an example where values and goals of legislated protected areas are also captured by management prescriptions within non-harvestable areas and timber-producing forests associated with an ecosystem-based approach to sustainable forest management.
Moraes Leandro Bianco de; Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti; Linhares Arício Xavier
A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Souhtheastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species) and 50 marsupials (7 species) were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5%) captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 differen...
The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 ...
Ranzini, M.; Forti, M. C.; Whitehead, P. G.; Arcova, F. C. S.; De Cicco, V.; Wade, A. J.
Stream-water flows and in-stream nitrate and ammonium concentrations in a small (36.7 ha) Atlantic Forest catchment were simulated using the Integrated Nitrogen in CAtchments (INCA) model version 1.9.4. The catchment, at Cunha, is in the Serra do Mar State Park, SE Brazil and is nearly pristine because the nearest major conurbations, São Paulo and Rio, are some 450 km distant. However, intensive farming may increase nitrogen (N) deposition and there are growing pressures for urbanisation. The...
Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S
Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688
Leandro Bianco de Moraes
Full Text Available A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Souhtheastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species and 50 marsupials (7 species were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5% captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 different species. New host records were determined for several flea species, and 5 significant associations between fleas and hosts were also found.
Ulisses Caramaschi; José P. Pombal Jr
A new species of the genus Rhinella is described from Canavieiras, southern State of Bahia, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil. Rhinella hoogmoedi sp. nov. is characterized by the medium size for the genus (SVL 39.4-52.1 mm in males), snout rounded in dorsal view, with a vertical apical ridge which gives a nearly mucronate aspect, and nearly acute in profile, antorbital and supra-orbital crests developed, parietal crest poorly developed, post-orbital crest large, forming a small la...
Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes; Nivaldo Schultz
Litter production and decomposition of an Atlantic Forest fragment in Marambaia Island, Mangaratiba, RJ, were monitored from December 2003 to November 2004. For the litter deposition evaluation, 30 litter traps were installed and 36 litter bags were allocated in the area to quantify litter decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth to evaluate soil fertility. The litter production was 7.9 Mg ha-1 and the highest deposition was verified in November and th...
Li, Yue-Hui; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Hong-Wei; Li, Na-Na; Hu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Yu
By characterizing the composition of road network in the Huzhong Forestry Bureau in Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China, we investigated the effects of road networks on landscape pattern by quantifying 1989 landscape pattern for each of the 17 forestry farms on maps with and without roads by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that road networks, including the main and secondary timber-transport roads, were distributed evenly among the observed 17 forestry farms with a density of 2.3 m x hm(-2) and spread along the river networks throughout each farm. The emergence of roads significantly altered the landscape pattern at the landscape level in each farm, which was characterized by landscape fragmentation involving a decline in patch area and an increase in patch number and distance among patches. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between fragmentation and road density. The road network had more impact on fragmentation than on aggregation at the landscape level. PMID:23189683
Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna
Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions. PMID:26754169
Rey Benayas, José María; Schulz, Jennifer J.; Cayuela Delgado, Luis; Echeverría, Cristian; Salas Rey, Francisco Javier
Las figuras que contiene el documento se localizan al final del mismo. Land cover and its configuration in the landscape are crucial components in the provision of biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Mediterranean regions, natural landscapes mostly covered by evergreen vegetation have been to a large extent transformed into cultural landscapes since long time ago. We investigated land cover changes in Central Chile using multi-temporal satellite imagery taken in 1975, 1985, 1999 and 20...
Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz
Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.
Miller, A. D.
Many aspects of disturbance processes can have large impacts on the composition of plant communities, and associated changes in land cover type in turn have biogeochemical feedbacks to climate. In particular, changes to disturbance regimes can potentially change the number and stability of equilibrial states, and plant community states can differ dramatically in their carbon (C) dynamics, energy balance, and hydrology. Using the Klamath region of northern California as a model system, we present a theoretical analysis of how changes to climate and associated fire dynamics can disrupt high-carbon, long-lived conifer forests and replace them with shrub-chaparral communities that have much lower biomass and are more pyrogenic. Specifically, we develop a tractable model of plant community dynamics, structured by size class, life-history traits, lottery-type competition, and species-specific responses to disturbance. We assess the stability of different states in terms of disturbance frequency and intensity, and quantitatively partition long-term low-density population growth rates into mechanisms that influence critical transitions from stable to bistable behavior. Our findings show how different aspects of disturbance act and interact to control competitive outcomes and stable states, hence ecosystem-atmosphere C exchange. Forests tend to dominate in low frequency and intensity regimes, while shrubs dominate at high fire frequency and intensity. In other regimes, the system is bistable, and the fate of the system depends both on initial conditions and random chance. Importantly, the system can cross a critical threshold where hysteresis prevents easy return to the prior forested state. We conclude that changes in disturbance-recovery dynamics driven by projected climate change can shift this system away from forest dominated in the direction of shrub-dominated landscape. This will result in a large net C release from the landscape, and alter biophysical ecosystem
Lawler, J.J.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.
We compared cavity-nesting bird communities in aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodland fragments classified on the basis of vegetation structure (tree density) and landscape context (surrounding vegetation). We found very few cavity nesters in fragments predominantly surrounded by forests. Fragments adjacent to meadows contained more species and a greater abundance of cavity nesters. Species richness and abundance were higher in sparsely than in densely treed meadow fragments. Because secondary cavity nesters are often limited by cavity availability, we augmented natural cavities with nest boxes. Although only five boxes contained bird nests, these were all in sparse aspen fragments predominantly surrounded by meadows. However, we found 25 northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) nests in boxes, none of which were in sparse meadow fragments. In addition to high-lighting the importance of landscape context in avian and mammalian habitat relationships, our results suggest that predator or competitor interactions may help structure this cavity-nester community. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.
Andre Soliva Ribeiro; Rodrigo dos Santos Machado Feitosa
The present work surveys the leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in Cantareira State Park – SP, Brazil as a complement to the project “Richness and diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Forest – the eastern Brazilian rain forest” that forms part of the BIOTA-FAPESP program. The general protocol of the project was to collect 50 leaf litter samples of 1 m2 which were then sifted and submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Sixty-two...
Forest management involves dealing with conflicts between the protection of nature and the use of natural resources. Bad management practices have led to significant forest degradation worldwide. It is estimated that globally about 13 million hectares of forest are lost every year, leading to a massive loss of biodiversity and other forest-related ecosystem services, such as soil stabilisation and watershed protection. This is particularly dangerous in poor regions, where livelihoods are stro...
Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.
Large intact forested regions of the world are known to be critical to maintaining Earth's climate, ecosystem health, and human livelihoods. Remote sensing has been successfully implemented as a tool to monitor forest cover and landscape dynamics over broad regions. Much of this work has been done using coarse resolution sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS in combination with moderate resolution sensors, particularly Landsat. Finer scale analysis of heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes is commonly performed with medium resolution data and has had varying success depending on many factors including the level of fragmentation, variability of land cover types, patch size, and image availability. Fine scale tree cover in mixed agricultural areas can have a major impact on biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability but may often be inadequately captured with the global to regional (coarse resolution and moderate resolution) satellite sensors and processing techniques widely used to detect land use and land cover changes. This study investigates whether advanced remote sensing methods are able to assess and monitor percent tree canopy cover in spatially complex human-dominated agricultural landscapes that prove challenging for traditional mapping techniques. Our study areas are in high altitude, mixed agricultural coffee-growing regions in Costa Rica and the Colombian Andes. We applied Random Forests regression tree analysis to Landsat data along with additional spectral, environmental, and spatial variables to predict percent tree canopy cover at 30m resolution. Image object-based texture, shape, and neighborhood metrics were generated at the Landsat scale using eCognition and included in the variable suite. Training and validation data was generated using high resolution imagery from digital aerial photography at 1m to 2.5 m resolution. Our results are promising with Pearson's correlation coefficients between observed and predicted percent tree canopy cover of .86 (Costa
Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz
Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long
Singh, S.; Inamdar, S. P.; Finger, N.; Mitchell, M. J.; Levia, D. F.; Scott, D.; Bais, H.
Catchment exports of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streamflow can be influenced by multiple sources, which, may vary with hydrologic conditions or seasons. Thus, understanding the concentrations and quality of DOM for potential watershed sources is critical to assessing the dynamics of DOM. We investigated the quality of DOM across various watershed sources in a 12 ha forested watershed located in the Piedmont region of the mid-Atlantic USA. Sampling was performed over a two-year time period (2008-2009) and included: rainfall, throughfall, litter-leachate, soil water, riparian and wetland waters, seeps, stream runoff, and shallow and deep groundwaters. DOM constituents were characterized using ultraviolet (UV) absorption and PARAFAC modeling of fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs). Specific indices that were used include: UV absorption coefficient at 254nm (a254), specific UV absorbance at 254nm (SUVA254), spectral slope ratio (SR), humification index (HIX), fluorescence index (FI), biological index (BIX), and percent humic-like and protein-like components. Our results indicated that of all the watershed DOM sources litter-leachate had the highest aromatic (high values of a254, SUVA, % C5) and humic (high HIX) content. Aromatic and humic content of DOM then decreased with soil depth with lowest values for deep groundwaters and seeps. In addition, the SR index indicated a decrease in molecular weight of DOM with soil depth. Taken together, these indices suggest that the aromatic and high molecular weight fractions of DOM were preferentially removed by sorption as runoff water percolated through the soil profile. While throughfall was less aromatic than litter-leachate, it was more aromatic than the other watershed compartments. The aromatic and humic content of soil and stream water was intermediate between litter-leachate and deep groundwaters. In contrast to the trend in aromatic DOM, the % of protein-like DOM component increased with soil depth
Pontes, R C; Santori, R T; Gonçalves e Cunha, F C; Pontes, J A L
height of the plant and the diameter on top view were correlated with the occurrence of amphibians, while during the driest period there was no correlation among variables and the bromeliad usage by amphibians. Recorded species were strongly associated to the Atlantic Forest domain. Nevertheless, the occupation of rocky seashores by anurans may be more associated with the specialized reproductive modes presented by species, since there is no permanent water available in ponds or streams. PMID:24212694
Tepley, A. J.; Veblen, T. T.; Perry, G.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.
In the face of on-going climatic warming and land-use change, there is growing concern that temperate forest landscapes could be near a tipping point where relatively small changes to the fire regime or altered post-fire vegetation dynamics could lead to extensive conversion to shrublands or savannas. To evaluate vulnerability and resilience to such conversion, we develop a simple model based on three factors we hypothesize to be key in predicting temperate forest responses to changing fire regimes: (1) the hazard rate (i.e., the probability of burning in the next year given the time since the last fire) in closed-canopy forests, (2) the hazard rate for recently-burned, open-canopy vegetation, and (3) the time to redevelop canopy closure following fire. We generate a response surface representing the proportions of the landscape potentially supporting closed-canopy forest and non-forest vegetation under nearly all combinations of these three factors. We then place real landscapes on this response surface to assess the type and magnitude of changes to the fire regime that would drive extensive forest loss. We show that the deforestation of much of New Zealand that followed initial human colonization and the introduction of a new ignition source ca. 750 years ago was essentially inevitable due to the slow rate of forest recovery after fire and the high flammability of post-fire vegetation. In North America's Pacific Northwest, by contrast, a predominantly forested landscape persisted despite two periods of widespread burning in the recent past due in large part to faster post-fire forest recovery and less pronounced differences in flammability between forests and the post-fire vegetation. We also assess the factors that could drive extensive deforestation in other regions to identify where management could reduce this potential and to guide field and modeling work to better understand the responses and ecological feedbacks to changing fire regimes.
Steinbauer, Manuel; Uddin, Mohammad Bela; Jent