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Sample records for atlantic forest fragment

  1. Plant diversity in hedgerows amidst Atlantic Forest fragments

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    Carolina C. C. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgerows are linear structures found in agricultural landscapes that may facilitate dispersal of plants and animals and also serve as habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among diversity and ecological traits of woody plants, hedgerow characteristics (size, age, and origin, and the structure of the surrounding Atlantic Forest landscape. Field data were collected from 14 hedgerows, and landscape metrics from 1000-m buffers surrounding hedgerows were recorded from a thematic map. In all sampled hedgerows, arboreal species were predominantly zoochoric and early-succession species, and hedgerow width was an important factor explaining the richness and abundance of this group of species. Connection with forest vegetation did not explain richness and abundance of animal-dispersed species, but richness of non-zoochoric species increased in more connected hedgerows. These results suggest that hedgerows are probably colonized by species arriving from nearby early-succession sites, forest fragment edges, and isolated trees in the matrix. Nonetheless, hedgerows provide resources for frugivorous animals and influence landscape connectivity, highlighting the importance of these elements in the conservation of biodiversity in fragmented and rural landscapes.

  2. Ticks infesting birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Ileyne Tenório; Costa, Luís Flávio da Silva; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum.

  3. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

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    Santos, Bráulio A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Moreno, Claudia E; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2010-09-08

    Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  4. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

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    Renata Calixto Campos

    Full Text Available Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h, a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  5. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

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    Yuri C. C. Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typhlopidae, Chelidae, Testudinidae and Alligatoridae. Most of the recorded species presented wide geographic distribution, although some of them had distributions that were restricted to the Atlantic Forest. The species richness of Mata do Buraquinho is relatively high for an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest, and the observed anthropogenic impacts show the urgent necessity of conservation in order to guarantee the viability of populations of amphibians and reptiles.

  6. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

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    Bráulio A Santos

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  7. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

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    Renata C. Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung or carcasses (carrion and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the diversity of dung beetle communities inhabiting fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with the purpose of describing the ecology of the species in southern Brazil. This study was conducted in the region of Campos Novos, in Santa Catarina, where twenty sites of Atlantic forest fragments were sampled. Samplings of dung beetles were conducted using 200 pitfall traps, of which 100 were baited with human feces and another 100 with carrion. Size and environmental complexity were also measured for each forest fragment. A total of 1,502 dung beetles, belonging to six tribes, 12 genera and 33 species, were collected. Results of the Levin's index of niche breadth indicated that 11 species were categorized as being coprophagous, ten as generalists, and two as necrophagous. Most species are tunnelers (19, nine of rollers and four of dwellers. The great diversity of Scarabaeinae in the region of Campos Novos, including several rare species, adds important data to the Scarabaeinae fauna in the central-western region of Santa Catarina. It may also help choosing priority areas for conservation in the region, where human impact, with large areas of monoculture, increasingly threatens the fragments of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.

  8. Tree structure and diversity of lowland Atlantic forest fragments:comparison of disturbed and undisturbed remnants

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    Fabrcio Alvim Carvalho; Joao Marcelo Alvarenga Braga; Marcelo Trindade Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the tree community structure of three moist lowland Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Two fragments were disturbed and an undisturbed one was used as refer-ence. Our hypothesis was that disturbed fragments show distinct structural patterns in comparison with undisturbed stands due to past disturbance practices and forest frag-mentation. Four 100 9 5 m sampling plots were demar-cated in each fragment and all live and dead trees with DBH C 5 cm were located, measured and identified. The results supported our hypothesis, due to the high values found for standing dead trees, an increase of dominance of a few pioneer species, lower values of large trees and species richness in disturbed fragments in comparison with the undisturbed one. The advanced fragmentation process in the Southern Brazilian lowland areas and the high spe-cies richness in undisturbed areas highlight these forest fragments as priority areas for conservation and management.

  9. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

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    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  10. Quantitative analysis of forest fragmentation in the atlantic forest reveals more threatened bird species than the current red list.

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    Jessica K Schnell

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric - cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range - was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds' abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km(2. In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species' ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction or high capacity (very small risk of extinction. This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat.

  11. Dynamics and Edge Effect of an Atlantic Forest Fragment in Brazil

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    Poliana Gabriella Araújo Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The woody plants in an edge area formed approximately 35 years ago in an Atlantic Forest fragment in northeastern Brazil were examined, and three environments defined: edge, intermediate, and interior. Canopy tree densities and basal areas were found to be similar in all three environments, and also similar to previous published studies in the same region; species richness was greatest at the forest edge. The understory showed greater species richness in the forest interior, but greater diversity and equitability in the intermediate environment. Understory environments close to the forest edge demonstrated larger stem diameters than in the forest interior, although at lesser densities and with smaller total basal areas. Our results indicated the existence of distinct patterns in canopy and understory that most likely reflect differences in the response times of these two vegetation layers, with the understory being more sensitive to alterations in environmental structure.

  12. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

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    Luciana Coe Girão

    Full Text Available Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots. As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated. The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores for pollination systems (-30.3%, floral types (-23.6%, and floral sizes (-20.8% in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and

  13. A small mammal community in a forest fragment, vegetation corridor and coffee matrix system in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

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    Mariana Ferreira Rocha

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.

  14. Vertical distribution of epiphytic bryophytes in Atlantic Forest fragments in northeastern Brazil

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    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The microclimatic gradient established from the forest understory to the canopy provides a range of different conditions for the establishment of bryophytes along the height of a tree. We investigated epiphytic bryophyte communities of four fragments of Atlantic Forest with the aim of describing their vertical zonation and assessing differentiation among the communities of the different fragments. In each fragment, five host trees were selected from which bryophyte samples were collected in four height zones from the base to the canopy. Furthermore, 10 plots were demarcated in each fragment where bryophytes were collected from the understory. In total, 114 bryophyte species were found on the 20 sampled phorophytes, plus an additional 51 species in the understory, for a total of 165 species. Species composition of height zones differed significantly between communities of the trunk base and the canopy. The samples from the understory included 77% of all species. Among all species found, 10 showed a significant preference for a specific height. Around 70% of the bryophyte species grew as mats; this life form occurred in all trees and height zones. The results showed a weak, yet significant, vertical gradient, which differs from what is usually found in the Atlantic Forest.

  15. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  16. Species richness of anthophilous butterflies of an Atlantic Forest fragment in Southeastern Brazil

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    Kelen Coelho Cruz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify anthophilous butterflies on psychophilous flowers of four Asteraceae species in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil, and to determine whether there are species in common with other lepidopteran inventories of the Southeastern and Midwestern regions of Brazil. It is the first inventory of anthophilous butterflies of a semideciduous forest fragment in Zona da Mata, State of Minas Gerais. A total of 108 species were recorded, representing the fourth largest lepidopteran survey in this State. The results demonstrated that Asteraceae species may be important tools for monitoring anthophilous butterflies. The similarity with other inventories ranged from 1 to 92.55%. Fifteen species were reported for the first time in the State of Minas Gerais, and among them, Melanis alena and Thisbe irenea were observed in this study only.

  17. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments.

  18. Effects of soil, altitude, rainfall, and distance on the floristic similarity of Atlantic Forest fragments in the east-Northeast

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    Flávia de Barros Prado Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a floristic survey conducted on an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Besides, the results of a similarity analysis between ten rainforest fragments from the Brazilian east-Northeast are presented. The floristic comparison was based on binary data with regard to the presence/ absence criterion for tree species identified in the ten fragments by means of Sørensen’s similarity index. A dendrogram was prepared using cluster analysis (Jaccard’s index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to test the abiotic factors, which can differently influence the similarity of fragments. The fragments showed low similarity indices. The variations were due to the fact that each fragment is a patch of what once was a continuous and heterogeneous region. However, the diversity loss, including the disappearance of more demanding species, can lead, in large-scale, to homogeneity and simplification of the northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  19. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

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    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  20. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

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    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-12-06

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species.

  1. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

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    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  2. Dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae assemblage of a highly fragmented landscape of Atlantic forest: from small to the largest fragments of northeastern Brazilian region

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    Renato P. Salomão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities in tropical forests are the main causes of forest fragmentation. According to historical factor in deforestation processes, forest remnants exhibit different sizes and shapes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dung beetle assemblage on fragments of different degree of sizes. Sampling was performed during rainy and dry season of 2010 in six fragments of Atlantic forest, using pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion. Also, we used two larger fragments as control. We used General Linear Models to determine whether the fragments presented distinguished dung beetle abundance and richness. Analysis of Similarities and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling were used to determine whether the dung beetle assemblage was grouped according to species composition. A total of 3352 individuals were collected and 19 species were identified in the six fragments sampled. Dung beetle abundance exhibited a shift according to fragment size; however, richness did not change among fragments evaluated. Also, fragments sampled and the two controls exhibited distinct species composition. The distinction on abundance of dung beetles among fragments may be related to different amount of resource available in each one. It is likely that the dung beetle richness did not distinguish among the different fragments due to the even distribution of the mammal communities in these patches, and consequent equal dung diversity. We conclude that larger fragments encompass higher abundance of dung beetle and distinct species. However, for a clearer understanding of effects of fragmentation on dung beetles in Atlantic forest, studies evaluating narrower variations of larger fragments should be conducted.

  3. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Luiz dos Anjos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset

  4. Genetics of Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera in fragments of the Atlantic Forest in the region of Viçosa, MG

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    A. M. Waldschmidt

    Full Text Available With uncontrolled deforestation, forest fragments remain, which in most cases are in different stages of regeneration and present isolated populations. In the present study we analyzed the genetic patterns of Eulaema nigrita populations in seven Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes and successional stages in the region of Viçosa, MG. This was done by RAPD molecular markers. We observed that the area of the fragments had no effect on the genetic variability of E. nigrita in the direction predicted by meta-population models. Medium-sized well-preserved woods presented the lowest variability, whereas large and small woods were statistically identical. The evidence supports the notion that rural areas present greater dispersal among fragments, implying greater similarity between the populations of fragments located in rural areas when compared to fragments in urban areas.

  5. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  6. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

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    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  7. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

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    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  8. Association of pteridophyte species in two fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in the Brazilian Northeast

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    Iva Carneiro Leão Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate fern flora similarity and fern species relationships in the study areas, in terms of their substrates, habitat types, and life forms. The study was conducted in the Água Azul forest fragment, municipality of Timbaúba, Pernambuco, and the Maria Maior forest fragment, municipality of São José da Laje, Alagoas. The Jaccard similarity index was used for cluster analysis. The 112 species that occur in the two areas were used for numerical analysis. The floristic similarity was great (J=43.75%, principally due to similarities in the two areas vegetational types, as was expected due to their geographic proximity to one another and their similar climatic conditions. Five groups of associated species were determined for the Água Azul fragment and six groups for the Maria Maior fragment. In general, the ecological factors that determined fern species associations were habitat and type of substrate.

  9. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Cullen, Laury; Stanton, Jessica C.; Lima, Fernando; Uezu, Alexandre; Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Akçakaya, H. Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes. PMID:27973584

  10. Edge effect on vascular epiphytic composition in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Randolpho Gonçalves Dias-Terceiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are common in the canopy of temperate and tropical forests, where they substantially contribute to species diversity and to key ecosystem processes. However, little is known about the effects caused by deforestation on this group of species, especially in northeastern Brazil, an area experiencing intense anthropogenic pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of environmental variables on the structure of assemblies of vascular epiphytes in a fragment of open ombrophilous forest, Areia, northeastern Brazil. Sixty 10 × 10 m sampling plots were installed to cover different environments within the fragment. The relationship between environmental variables and species composition was evaluated by means of a generalized linear mixed model. The composition of assemblies of epiphytes differed with respect to distance from the edge and luminosity. In the study area, deforestation led to a change in the composition of epiphytic species both at the edge and the interior of the fragment.

  11. Domestic dogs in a fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: abundance, habitat use and caring by owners

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    PC. Torres

    Full Text Available This study aimed at estimating the population size and attitudes of residents towards caring for domestic dogs, through questionnaire surveys, as well as the frequency of these animals in different habitats (anthropic and forest patch, using scent stations. The study was conducted in a severely fragmented area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A large number of unrestricted dogs was recorded, averaging 6.2 ind/km². These dogs have owners and are regularly fed. Dog records decreased from the anthropogenic matrix to the forest patch edge, which suggests that dogs act as an edge effect on forest patches. Encounters between domestic dog and wild animals can still be frequent in severely fragmented landscapes, mainly at the forest edges. However the fact that most dogs have an owner and are more frequent in the anthropic habitat suggests that their putative effects are less severe than expected for a carnivore of such abundance, but the reinforcement of responsible ownership is needed to further ameliorate such effects.

  12. Testing Dragonflies as Species Richness Indicators in a Fragmented Subtropical Atlantic Forest Environment.

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    Renner, S; Sahlén, G; Périco, E

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed 15 bodies of water among remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil for adult dragonflies and damselflies to test whether an empirical selection method for diversity indicators could be applied in a subtropical ecosystem, where limited ecological knowledge on species level is available. We found a regional species pool of 34 species distributed in a nested subset pattern with a mean of 11.2 species per locality. There was a pronounced difference in species composition between spring, summer, and autumn, but no differences in species numbers between seasons. Two species, Homeoura chelifera (Selys) and Ischnura capreolus (Hagen), were the strongest candidates for regional diversity indicators, being found only at species-rich localities in our surveyed area and likewise in an undisturbed national forest reserve, serving as a reference site for the Atlantic Forest. Using our selection method, we found it possible to obtain a tentative list of diversity indicators without having detailed ecological information of each species, providing a reference site is available for comparison. The method thus allows for indicator species to be selected in blanco from taxonomic groups that are little known. We hence argue that Odonata can already be incorporated in ongoing assessment programs in the Neotropics, which would also increase the ecological knowledge of the group and allow extrapolation to other taxa.

  13. Seed predation by rodents and safe sites for large-seeded trees in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    SRR. Pinto

    Full Text Available Seed predation by small rodents is an emerging theme in the ecology of modified landscapes. Here we investigate the role played by the small rodent Oryzomys oniscus as a seed predator of large-seeded trees in a large remnant of the Atlantic forest - the Coimbra forest (3,500 ha, Alagoas state, northeastern Brazil. O. oniscus was captured and identified by setting twenty 500 m long transects, each one composed of 25 traps 20 m apart. This procedure resulted in 483 trap-nights set during a 20-mo period. We used 692 seeds (>15 mm length from ten local large-seeded tree species for the seed predation trials that basically consisted of three treatments: one seed on the ground freely accessed by vertebrates (unprotected seed, one seed totally protected by an exclosure, and one partially-protected seed (exclosure just for medium-sized and large vertebrates. O. oniscus was captured throughout the Coimbra forest including forest edges (76 captures and interior areas (67, and this small rodent was responsible for all seed predation visually documented inside exclosures. A 24 hours period of seed exposition permitted elevated rates of seed removal and predation. Seeds were much more removed/predated beneath fruiting trees, but rates varied according to the level of seed protection - 26.3% of predation among partially-protected versus 19.2% among unprotected seeds. Seeds suffered higher levels of seed predation/removal at the forest edge as well (up to 90%. In both habitats, most seeds (>84% remained intact beneath trees without fruits, regardless of the level of seed protection. Our results suggest that O. oniscus may operate as an effective large-seed predator in forest fragments, in which adult trees without fruits constitute low resource spots and thereby provide, at least temporarily, safe sites for large seeds.

  14. Litter fall production and decomposition in a fragment of secondary Atlantic Forest of São Paulo, sp, southeastern Brazil

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    Maurício Lamano Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Litter fall consists of all organic material deposited on the forest floor, being of extremely important for the structure and maintenance of the ecosystem through nutrient cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the production and decomposition of litter fall in a secondary Atlantic forest fragment of secondary Atlantic Forest, at the Guarapiranga Ecological Park, in São Paulo, SP. The litter samples were taken monthly from May 2012 to May 2013. To assess the contribution of litter fall forty collectors were installed randomly within an area of 0.5 ha. The collected material was sent to the laboratory to be dried at 65 °C for 72 hours, being subsequently separated into fractions of leaves, twigs, reproductive parts and miscellaneous, and weighed to obtain the dry biomass. Litterbags were placed and tied close to the collectors to estimate the decomposition rate in order to evaluate the loss of dry biomass at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After collection, the material was sent to the laboratory to be dried and weighed again. Total litter fall throughout the year reached 5.7 Mg.ha-1.yr-1 and the major amount of the material was collected from September till March. Leaves had the major contribution for total litter fall (72%, followed by twigs (14%, reproductive parts (11% and miscellaneous (3%. Reproductive parts had a peak during the wet season. Positive correlation was observed between total litter and precipitation, temperature and radiation (r = 0.66, p<0.05; r = 0.76, p<0.05; r = 0.58, p<0.05, respectively. The multiple regression showed that precipitation and radiation contributed significantly to litter fall production. Decomposition rate was in the interval expected for secondary tropical forest and was correlated to rainfall. It was concluded that this fragment of secondary forest showed a seasonality effect driven mainly by precipitation and radiation, both important components of foliage renewal for the plant community and that

  15. Autoecology of Dryadosaura nordestina (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae from Atlantic forest fragments in Northeastern Brazil

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    Adrian A. Garda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Life history parameters such as diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism are crucial to understand ecological and evolutionary forces shaping species traits. Nevertheless, such information is scant in the literature for most Neotropical squamates. Gymnophthalmidae contains over 242 species in 46 genera and includes small-size, mostly terrestrial species, although psamophilic, semi-aquatic, and low vegetation dwellers also occur. Dryadosaura is a monospecific genus - Dryadosaura nordestina Rodrigues et al., 2005 - , occurring in Atlantic Forest areas from Rio Grande do Norte to Northern Bahia, and little is known about its ecology and natural history. We analyzed the species' diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism based on 170 specimens deposited in museum collections. Dryadosaura nordestina is considered generalist and active forager, based on dietary items. Arthropods, especially ants and insect larvae, dominate the diet. The reproductive period shows a peak during the rainy season (May through June, while recruitment occurs from July through November. Males are significantly larger than females, and sexes can also be distinguished based on shape variables: males have higher heads and longer bodies, while body height and width are larger in females.

  16. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

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    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  17. Orchid bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) of Atlantic Forest fragments inside an urban area in southeastern Brazil.

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    Nemésio, André; Silveira, Fernando A

    2007-01-01

    Male orchid bees were collected by chemical baiting in four forest fragments in parks of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. One thousand three hundred and twenty-five males belonging to 14 species were captured within one year. The capture data were compared through correlation tests. The data suggest that abundance of orchid bees tend to increase with fragment size, although no correlation between species richness and fragment size was obtained. The results presented herein suggest that forest fragments in a large city may be of importance concerning conservation of orchid-bee faunas.

  18. Reproductive phenology, seed removal and early regeneration in relation to distance from parental plants of a native palm in small Atlantic forest fragments

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    Vanessa Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a global biodiversity hotspot, but most of what remains are small fragments. Small fragments are often harsh environments for forest plant recruitment due to edge effects and the loss of frugivorous animals that provide seed dispersal. We recorded the one-year reproductive phenology of the keystone palm Syagrus romanzoffiana in small (<2.5ha Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We tested the Janzen-Connell hypothesis with seed-removal experiments and followed the five-year survival of recruits in relation to the distance from parental plants. Palms produced many fruits throughout the year (mean 2,600/plant. More seedlings were found away from parental plants than near them, thereby supporting the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Almost 45% of seedlings alive in 2010 were dead five years later, but recruitment of new seedlings compensated for this mortality. Distance-dependent factors influenced the density of early ontogenetic stages, but had limited effects on juveniles or on seed removal. High seed production, seed dispersal provided by disturbance-tolerant frugivores and the relatively long-term survival of adults, seedlings and juveniles seem to allow the persistence of S. romanzoffiana in the forest fragments, but possibly at the cost of an increased clumped distribution and reduced gene flow at the landscape scale.

  19. Effects of invasion by Tradescantia zebrina Heynh. on tree species regeneration in a secondary Atlantic Forest fragment, in Londrina (PR

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    Maurício Cruz Mantoani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently considered as one of the major causes of the loss of biodiversity on the planet, invasive alien species cause serious problems to natural ecosystems, leading many native species to become locally extinct. Surprisingly, invasions can come from ordinary sources, such as home gardens. This study aimed to verify the invasive impact of Tradescantia zebrina Heynh., a exotic ornamental herb, on tree regeneration of a secondary Atlantic Forest fragment where the understory is partly dominated by T. zebrina. To test the hypothesis that T. zebrina is limiting the recruitment of native tree species, plots were placed in non-invaded and invaded sites. All tree seedlings between 10 cm and 1 m tall were recorded, and the composition and structure of regeneration were compared between treatments. Tradescantia zebrina proved to be a strong competitor because it influenced abundance and species richness. Although there are reports in the literature of using non-selective herbicides, it is urgent to carry out further studies on how to control T. zebrina with the goal of restoring native vegetation.

  20. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

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    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  1. Partitioning of seed dispersal services between birds and bats in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Raissa Sarmento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-level network studies suggest that seed dispersal networks may share some universal properties with other complex systems. However, most of the datasets used so far in those studies have been strongly biased towards temperate birds, including not only dispersers, but also seed predators. Recent evidence from multi-taxon networks suggests that seed dispersal networks are not all alike and may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we used network theory to evaluate seed dispersal in a strongly impacted Atlantic Forest fragment in northeastern Brazil, where bats and birds are the only extant dispersers. We hypothesized that the seed dispersal network should be more modular then nested, and that the dispersers should segregate their services according to dispersal syndromes. Furthermore, we predicted that bat and bird species that are more specialized in frugivory would be more important for maintaining the network structure. The mixed network contained 56 plant species, 12 bat species, and eight bird species, and its structure was more modular (M = 0.58 then nested (NODF = 0.21 compared with another multi-taxon network and 21 single-taxon networks (with either bats or birds. All dispersed fruits had seeds smaller than 9 mm. Bats dispersed mainly green fruits, whereas birds dispersed fruits of various colors. The network contained eight modules: five with birds only, two with bats only, and one mixed. Most dispersers were peripheral, and only specialized frugivores acted as hubs or connectors. Our results strongly support recent studies, suggesting that seed dispersal networks are complex mosaics, where different taxa form separate modules with different properties, which in turn play complementary roles in the maintenance of the associated ecosystem functions and services.

  2. Impact of forest fragment size on the population structure of three palm species (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

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    Portela, Rita de Cássia Quitete; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maes

    2014-06-01

    The main threats to natural populations in terrestrial ecosystems have been widly recognized to be the habitat fragmentation and the exploitation of forest products. In this study, we compared the density of the populations and the structure of three tropical palm species, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum, Euterpe edulis and Geonoma schottiana. For this, we selected five forest fragments of different sizes (3 500ha, 2 400ha, 57ha, 21ha and 19ha) where palms were censused in nine 30 x 30m plots. We tracked the palms survival from 2005 to 2007, and recorded all new individuals encountered. Each individual was assigned in one of the five ontogenetic stages: seedling, infant, juvenile, immature and reproductive. The demographic structure of each palm species was analyzed and compared by a generalized linear model (GLM). The analysis was performed per palm species. The forest fragment area and the year of observation were explanatory variables, and the proportion of individuals in each ontogenetic class and palm density were response variables. The total number of individuals (from seedlings to reproductives, of all species) monitored was 6 450 in 2005, 7 268 in 2006, and 8 664 in 2007. The densities of two palm species were not influenced by the size of the fragment, but the population density of A. aculeatissimum was dependent on the size of the fragment: there were more individuals in the bigger than in the smaller forest fragments. The population structure of A. aculeatissimum, E. edulis, and G. schottiana was not altered in the smaller fragments, except the infants of G. schottiana. The main point to be drawn from the results found in this study is that the responses of density and population structure seem not to be dependent on fragment size, except for one species that resulted more abundant in bigger fragments.

  3. The influence of habitat fragmentation on helminth communities in rodent populations from a Brazilian Mountain Atlantic Forest.

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    Cardoso, T S; Simões, R O; Luque, J L F; Maldonado, A; Gentile, R

    2016-07-01

    The influence of habitat structure on helminth communities of three sigomdontinae rodent species (Akodon cursor, A. montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes) was investigated in forest fragments within an agricultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil. This is a pionner study correlating the occurrence of helminth species of rodent hosts with microhabitat characteristics. Rodents were collected from 12 fragments and in a continuous conserved area. Up to 13 nematode, three cestode and two trematode species were identified, and habitat fragmentation was found to have more influence on the helminth composition of O. nigripes compared to the other two rodent species. Fragmentation appeared to limit the development of some helminths' life cycles, e.g. with some species such as Trichofreitasia lenti, Protospirura numidica, Cysticercus fasciolaris and Avellaria sp., occurring mostly in areas with less anthropic impact. However, fragmentation did not seem to affect the life cycles of other dominant helminths, such as the trematode Canaania obesa, the nematodes Stilestrongylus lanfrediae, S. eta and S. aculeata, and the cestode Rodentolepis akodontis. The helminth community structure followed a nested pattern of distribution in A. montensis and O. nigripes. Stilestrongylus lanfrediae seemed to be more associated with dense understorey, C. obesa with open canopy and dense understorey, and Guerrerostrongylus zetta with organic matter on the ground. Their presence in each area may be explained by aspects of their life cycles that take place in the external environment outside the host.

  4. Vertical structure of an assemblage of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil

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    Fernando Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused the vertical structure of bat assemblages, and how it influences community composition. The goal of this study was to analyze the vertical structure of an assemblage of bats in a forest fragment in southern Brazil. Bats were sampled using mist-nets placed at three heights (understory, below-canopy, and canopy. Forest strata were compared with respect to their species richness and diversity. The latter was estimated using the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the statistical significance of differences among strata was assessed using t tests. We used an index of Constancy (C to determine the frequency of a given species in each vegetation stratum, such that a species was considered as "frequent" (C > 50, "less frequent" (25 < C < 50 and "occasional" (C < 25. We captured 485 bats belonging to two families and 24 species. In the understory layer, we captured 173 individuals in 13 species, which resulted in a diversity index of H' = 1.981. In the under-canopy, 153 individuals were caught in 18 species and the resulting diversity index was H' = 2.509. Finally, in the canopy, 159 bats were caught, in 22 species, with the resulting diversity index of H' = 2.442. In the understory and in the canopy, only one species Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was classified as "frequent." Four species A. lituratus, Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1810, Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, and Eptesicus diminutus Osgood, 1915 were classified as "less frequent" in the under-canopy stratum. All other species recorded in each stratum were classified as "occasional." The studied bat assemblage showed vertical stratification, with the higher strata harboring increased diversity. Our study shows how important it is to sample the upper levels of a forest fragment to obtain a more representative understanding of the use of space by a bat assemblage.

  5. The effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of a top predator: loss of diversity and high differentiation among remnant populations of Atlantic Forest jaguars (Panthera onca).

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    Haag, T; Santos, A S; Sana, D A; Morato, R G; Cullen, L; Crawshaw, P G; De Angelo, C; Di Bitetti, M S; Salzano, F M; Eizirik, E

    2010-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation may disrupt original patterns of gene flow and lead to drift-induced differentiation among local population units. Top predators such as the jaguar may be particularly susceptible to this effect, given their low population densities, leading to small effective sizes in local fragments. On the other hand, the jaguar's high dispersal capabilities and relatively long generation time might counteract this process, slowing the effect of drift on local populations over the time frame of decades or centuries. In this study, we have addressed this issue by investigating the genetic structure of jaguars in a recently fragmented Atlantic Forest region, aiming to test whether loss of diversity and differentiation among local populations are detectable, and whether they can be attributed to the recent effect of drift. We used 13 microsatellite loci to characterize the genetic diversity present in four remnant populations, and observed marked differentiation among them, with evidence of recent allelic loss in local areas. Although some migrant and admixed individuals were identified, our results indicate that recent large-scale habitat removal and fragmentation among these areas has been sufficiently strong to promote differentiation induced by drift and loss of alleles at each site. Low estimated effective sizes supported the inference that genetic drift could have caused this effect within a short time frame. These results indicate that jaguars' ability to effectively disperse across the human-dominated landscapes that separate the fragments is currently very limited, and that each fragment contains a small, isolated population that is already suffering from the effects of genetic drift.

  6. Patterns and predictors of β-diversity in the fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest: a multiscale analysis of forest specialist and generalist birds.

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    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Faria, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity maintenance in human-altered landscapes (HALs) depends on the species turnover among localities, but the patterns and determinants of β-diversity in HALs are poorly known. In fact, declines, increases and neutral shifts in β-diversity have all been documented, depending on the landscape, ecological group and spatial scale of analysis. We shed some light on this controversy by assessing the patterns and predictors of bird β-diversity across multiple spatial scales considering forest specialist and habitat generalist bird assemblages. We surveyed birds from 144 point counts in 36 different forest sites across two landscapes with different amount of forest cover in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We analysed β-diversity among points, among sites and between landscapes with multiplicative diversity partitioning of Hill numbers. We tested whether β-diversity among points was related to within-site variations in vegetation structure, and whether β-diversity among sites was related to site location and/or to differences among sites in vegetation structure and landscape composition (i.e. per cent forest and pasture cover surrounding each site). β-diversity between landscapes was lower than among sites and among points in both bird assemblages. In forest specialist birds, the landscape with less forest cover showed the highest β-diversity among sites (bird differentiation among sites), but generalist birds showed the opposite pattern. At the local scale, however, the less forested landscape showed the lowest β-diversity among points (bird homogenization within sites), independently of the bird assemblage. β-diversity among points was weakly related to vegetation structure, but higher β-diversity values were recorded among sites that were more isolated from each other, and among sites with higher differences in landscape composition, particularly in the less forested landscape. Our findings indicate that patterns of bird β-diversity vary across scales

  7. Reproductive phenology, pollination, and fructification of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City

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    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of phenology and reproductive biology of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. in border and interior areas of an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, are apresented. Four plots of 10x10m were delineated, two on the edge and two inside the forest, and individuals of H. spathocircinata were monitored from June 2009 to June 2010. The observations were carried out from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. once a week on December and January, and fortnightly the rest of flowering. Heliconia spathocircinata bloomeds between November and March and the fruits were ripe two months after pollination, and there was no significant difference between edge and interior with regard to the period of flowering and fruiting. The fruit-flower ratio averaged 66.6% in the interior and 27% within the forestedge, a considerable difference. The male hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, and to a lesser extent, female birds of this species, were the most frequent pollinators in the area evaluated, both edge and interior. Other species were identified as pollinators: Phaethornis ruber L., Ramphodon naevius Dumont, Eupetomena macroura Gmelin, and Amazilia fimbriata Gmelin. Of these, only P. ruber was found in both environments.

  8. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure.

  9. Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Márcio Z; Quek Swee-Peck; Albuquerque de Moura Priscila; Kronforst Marcus R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on po...

  10. Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

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    Kurt Riitters

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe-Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types and Europe-Asia (four types, in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland. The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf.

  11. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  12. Interceptação das chuvas em um fragmento de floresta da Mata Atlântica na Bacia do Prata, Recife, PE Rainfall interception in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the Prata Basin, Recife, PE

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    Albert Einstein Spindola Saraiva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mata de Dois Irmãos é uma das poucas áreas remanescentes da Floresta Atlântica no Estado de Pernambuco. Nela estão inseridos os açudes do Meio, do Prata e Dois Irmãos que compõem a bacia hidrográfica do Prata. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a partição das chuvas em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica na Bacia do Prata em Recife, PE. Para obtenção dos dados de precipitação sob florestas, foram instalados 24 interceptômetros e selecionadas 20 árvores do estrato superior, e 10 árvores do sub-bosque foram escolhidas para obter os dados de escoamento pelo tronco. Encontraram-se perdas por interceptação de 208,3 mm, precipitação efetiva de 1.431,7 mm, precipitação interna de 1.392,4 mm, escoamento pelo tronco das árvores do estrato superior de 6,6 mm e escoamento pelo sub-bosque de 32,8 mm, correspondendo a 12,7%, 87,3%, 84,9%, 0,4% e 2%, respectivamente, do total precipitado de 1.464 mm.The Dois Irmãos forest is one of the few remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest in the State of Pernambuco. The dams of Meio, Prata and Dois Irmãos, which belong to the Prata Basin, are in it. The objective of this work was to study the rainfall partitioning in a fragment of the Atlantic forest in the Prata basin, in Recife, PE. 24 raingouges were installed in the interior of the forest to measure the throughfall and 20 trees of superior extract and 10 of the sub-forest were selected to determine the stemflow. The results showed values of loss interception of 208,3 mm, net precipitation of 1431,7 mm, throughfall of 1392,4 mm, stemflow by superior stratum of 6,6 mm and stemflow by sub-forest of 32,8 mm, corresponding to 12,7%, 87,3%, 84,9%, 0,4% and 2%, respectively.

  13. Distribution and Causes of Global Forest Fragmentation

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    K. Bruce Jones

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Because human land uses tend to expand over time, forests that share a high proportion of their borders with anthropogenic uses are at higher risk of further degradation than forests that share a high proportion of their borders with non-forest, natural land cover (e.g., wetland. Using 1-km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR satellite-based land cover, we present a method to separate forest fragmentation into natural and anthropogenic components, and report results for all inhabited continents summarized by World Wildlife Fund biomes. Globally, over half of the temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biome and nearly one quarter of the tropical rainforest biome have been fragmented or removed by humans, as opposed to only 4% of the boreal forest. Overall, Europe had the most human-caused fragmentation and South America the least. This method may allow for improved risk assessments and better targeting for protection and remediation by identifying areas with high amounts of human-caused fragmentation.

  14. Effects of pioneer tree species hyperabundance on forest fragments in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarelli, Marcelo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Girão, Luciana C; Peres, Carlos A; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2010-12-01

    Despite many studies on fragmentation of tropical forests, the extent to which plant and animal communities are altered in small, isolated forest fragments remains obscure if not controversial. We examined the hypothesis that fragmentation alters the relative abundance of tree species with different vegetative and reproductive traits. In a fragmented landscape (670 km(2) ) of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, we categorized 4056 trees of 182 species by leafing pattern, reproductive phenology, and morphology of seeds and fruit. We calculated relative abundance of traits in 50 1-ha plots in three types of forest configurations: forest edges, small forest fragments (3.4-83.6 ha), and interior of the largest forest fragment (3500 ha, old growth). Although evergreen species were the most abundant across all configurations, forest edges and small fragments had more deciduous and semideciduous species than interior forest. Edges lacked supra-annual flowering and fruiting species and had more species and stems with drupes and small seeds than small forest fragments and forest interior areas. In an ordination of species similarity and life-history traits, the three types of configurations formed clearly segregated clusters. Furthermore, the differences in the taxonomic and functional (i.e., trait-based) composition of tree assemblages we documented were driven primarily by the higher abundance of pioneer species in the forest edge and small forest fragments. Our work provides strong evidence that long-term transitions in phenology and seed and fruit morphology of tree functional groups are occurring in fragmented tropical forests. Our results also suggest that edge-induced shifts in tree assemblages of tropical forests can be larger than previously documented.

  15. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction and turnover rates, which could explain higher temporal variability in species richness. To investigate such potential landscape effects at a regional scale, we merged two independent, large-scale monitoring efforts: the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Land Use and Land Cover Classification data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We used methods that accounted for heterogeneity in the probability of detecting species to estimate species richness and temporal changes in the bird communities for BBS routes in three mid-Atlantic U.S. states. Forest breeding bird species were grouped prior to the analyses into area-sensitive and non-area-sensitive species according to previous studies. We tested predictions relating measures of forest structure at one point in time (1974) to species richness at that time and to parameters of forest bird community change over the following 22-yr-period (1975-1996). We used the mean size of forest patches to characterize landscape structure, as high correlations among landscape variables did not allow us to disentangle the relative roles of habitat fragmentation per se and habitat loss. As predicted, together with lower species richness for area-sensitive species on routes surrounded by landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size, we found higher mean year-to-year rates of local extinction. Moreover, the mean year-to-year rates of local turnover (proportion of locally new species) for area-sensitive species were also higher in landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size. These associations were not observed for the non-area-sensitive species group. These

  16. Towards a standard framework to describe behaviours in the common-sloth (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825): novel interactions data observed in distinct fragments of the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M; Clozato, C L; Moraes-Barros, N; Morgante, J S

    2013-08-01

    The common three-toed sloth is a widespread species, but the location and the observation of its individuals are greatly hindered by its biological features. Their camouflaged pelage, its slow and quiet movements, and the strictly arboreal habits resulted in the publication of sparse, fragmented and not patterned information on the common sloth behaviour. Thus, herein we propose an updated standardized behavioural categories' framework to the study of the species. Furthermore we describe two never reported interaction behaviours: a probable mating / courtship ritual between male and female; and apparent recognition behaviour between two males. Finally we highlight the contribution of small-duration field works in this elusive species ethological study.

  17. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  18. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  19. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Rodrigo Lima Massara

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  20. Towards a standard framework to describe behaviours in the common-sloth (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825: novel interactions data observed in distinct fragments of the Atlantic forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Silva

    Full Text Available The common three-toed sloth is a widespread species, but the location and the observation of its individuals are greatly hindered by its biological features. Their camouflaged pelage, its slow and quiet movements, and the strictly arboreal habits resulted in the publication of sparse, fragmented and not patterned information on the common sloth behaviour. Thus, herein we propose an updated standardized behavioural categories' framework to the study of the species. Furthermore we describe two never reported interaction behaviours: a probable mating / courtship ritual between male and female; and apparent recognition behaviour between two males. Finally we highlight the contribution of small-duration field works in this elusive species ethological study.

  1. Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State; Ninhos de Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) em fragmentos de Mata Atlantica secundaria, Salvador, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummmont, Patricia; Viana, Blandina F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA); Silva, Fabiana O. da [Faculdade Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Faculdades Jorge Amado, Savador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 deg 01' W and 38 deg 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased ({chi}{sup 2} = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cell's partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. (author)

  2. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  3. National assessment of the evolution of forest fragmentation in Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Moreno-Sanchez; Francisco Moreno-Sanchez; Juan Manuel Torres-Rojo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents assessments of the fragmentation of the temperate and tropical forests in Mexico at the national level for two dates 1993 and 2002. The study was based on land use and vegetation cover data sets scale 1:250,000. Two broad forest types (Temperate Forests and Tropical Forests) and five more specific forest types (Broadleaf Forests, and Coniferous Forests; Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests, Tropic al Sub-evergreen Forests, and Tropical Evergreen Forests) were defined to conduct the analyses. FragStats 3.3 was used to estimate nine metrics of the spatial pattern of the forests for each forest type and date considered. The results indicate that the land cover transitions that have occurred between 1993 and 2002 have resulted in more isolated forest patches with simpler shapes in both the Temperate and Tropical Forests.The remaining Tropical Forest patches have become smaller and more numerous. In contrast, the remaining Temperate Forest patches are fewer and on average larger. Of the more specific forest types defined in this study, the Broadleaf Forests have the highest indicators of fragmentation.However these forests are usually embedded or adjacent to Coniferous Forests. Of more concern for conservation purposes are the high values of fragmentation metrics found for the Tropical Evergreen Forests and Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests, because these forest types are usually surrounded by non-forest land covers or anthropogenic land uses.

  4. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada

    2013-01-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  5. A comparison of dung beetle assemblage structure (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae between an Atlantic forest fragment and adjacent abandoned pasture in Paraná, Brazil

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    José Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Mata dos Godoy State Park in Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. Baited pitfall traps were installed in the forest, in adjacent abandoned pasture land, and on the borders between these two environments. Every two weeks, from June 1999 to May 2000, the traps were placed for 24 hours and the material was collected every 12 hours. The 4687 specimens of Scarabaeinae collected belong to 13 genera and 27 species. The most frequent species were Onthophagus catharinensis (Paulian, 1936 (22.1%, Onthophagus hirculus (Mannerhein, 1829 (20.1%, Dichotomius mormon (Ljungh, 1799 (13.1%, Sulcophanaeus menelas (Laporte, 1840 (12.8%, and Eurystemus parallelus (Dalman, 1824 (10.6%. The other species collected amounted to less than 4.7%. The difference in numbers of specimens collected in the three environments was not significant (K(2.72 = 0.63, p = 0.729. The distribution patterns of species composition for the different environments (ANOSIM R = 0.29, p < 0.01 and activity periods (ANOSIM R = 0.18, p < 0.01 were different. Sulcophanaeus menelas, Canthidium aff. trinodosum, O. hirculus, and E. parallelus were the most abundant species, being predominantly diurnal; the first three species were more active on abandoned pasture. Most of the Dichothomius assifer (Eschscholtz, 1822 and D. mormon specimens were captured at night. The latter species was the most abundant in edges, whereas D. assifer, Scybalochantum aff. zischkai, and O. catharinensis can be considered bioindicators because they were either exclusively or highly predominant in the best preserved areas. A larger number of individuals was observed from December 1999 through March 2000, which is the time of the year when adults of Scarabaeinae normally emerge and fly, in the studied region. The highest diversity (88.89% was observed in February.

  6. Biologia de aves capturadas em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Biology of birds captured in an Atlantic Forest fragment at Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Vivyanne S. Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna do Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, fragmento de 60 ha de Mata Atlântica, no município de Igarassu, Pernambuco. Objetivando obter informações acerca das espécies desse bioma, foram realizadas observações entre agosto de 1996 e julho de 1997 e capturas mensais utilizando redes de neblina, entre julho de 2003 e junho de 2004. Entre observações, capturas, recapturas e recuperações, foram registradas 151 espécies (31 famílias para a área, onde 456 aves (53 espécies/25 famílias foram capturadas com redes ornitológicas. Foram recuperadas 10 espécies (tempo de anilha de seis a oito anos. O número de capturas foi maior nos meses mais quentes. A maioria das espécies capturadas (52,8% teve freqüência de ocorrência menor que 25%, sendo Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766, Arremon taciturnus (Hermann, 1783, Neopelma pallescens (Lafresnaye, 1853 e Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 as mais freqüentes. Houve correlação significativa entre as análises dos valores médios entre massa corpórea e sexo, dados biométricos (medidas da asa, tarso e diâmetro do tarso e sexo e entre mudas e estação do ano. O maior período com muda associada à placa de incubação foi de março a maio (pico em maio. Os resultados fortaleceram a imprevisibilidade dos efeitos das alterações ambientais na estrutura da comunidade de aves em longo prazo. Reforçam ainda que os desequilíbrios populacionais possam vir a aumentar as chances de extinção, sendo necessárias novas alternativas para a proteção da biodiversidade, sobretudo em fragmentos florestais.We carried out a study about the biology of the avifauna of Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, a 60 ha fragment of Atlantic Forest in the town of Igarassu, Pernambuco. To obtain information about species of this bioma, observations were done between August, 1996 and July, 1997 and monthly captures using mist nets were conducted between July, 2003

  7. Understory species richness in an urban forest fragment, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina Ramos de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the floristic composition of the understory of Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, (08°01’15.1”S and 34°56’3.2”W, an area of about 370ha characterized as a lowland ombrophilous dense forest. The study included individuals with heights of up to 4.0m, such as treelets, shrubs, sub-bushes and terricolous herb plants, in fertile conditions. The collections were made every two weeks along a period of 24 months. A total of 108 species, belonging to 86 genera and 49 families, were recorded. The families with the highest number of species were Rubiaceae (14, Fabaceae (9 Melastomataceae (8, Asteraceae (8, Myrtaceae (6, and Poaceae (4. The Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae presented the highest number of understory species in this fragment. Generally, among the studies made in the Atlantic forest areas in Pernambuco, the presence of a set of tree species common to these forests is evidenced.

  8. Edge effect on vascular epiphytes in a subtropical Atlantic Forest

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    Juliana Santos Bianchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation affects biological communities by reducing habitat and increasing edges, thus reducing the effective size of the habitable zones. The subtropical atlantic Araucaria forest, typical on the southern Brazil, in some regions has been reduced to less than 1% of its original size lasting only in small isolated fragments. This study aimed to analyse the impact the edge has on vascular epiphyte ensemble in a remnant of Araucaria forest. We surveyed 40 host trees in four transects: one at the edge; and three at 15, 30 and 60 m from the edge. On each host tree we estimated the epiphyte biomass, using four size classes. We compared the transects using Jackknife estimator of absolute species number, diversity indices, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and multi-response permutation procedure analysis. We recorded 85 epiphytes species. Absolute species richness and diversity were lower at the edge and higher at 60 m in from the edge. Shannon's evenness did not differ significantly among transects and Simpson's evenness values were inconsistent. The vascular epiphyte community under study was significantly altered by the edge.

  9. Regional impacts of Atlantic Forest deforestation on climate and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest was a large and important forest due to its high biodiversity, endemism, range in climate, and complex geography. The original Atlantic Forest was estimated to cover 150 million hectares, spanning large latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevation gradients. This unique environment helped contribute to a diverse assemblage of plants, mammals, birds, and reptiles. Unfortunately, due to land conversion into agriculture, pasture, urban areas, and increased forest fragmentation, only ~8-10% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Tropical deforestation in the Americas can have considerable effects on local to global climates, and surrounding vegetation growth and survival. This study uses a fully coupled, global climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM v.1.0.1) to simulate the full removal of the historical Atlantic Forest, and evaluate the regional climatic and vegetation responses due to deforestation. We used the fully coupled atmosphere and land surface components in CESM, and a partially interacting ocean component. The vegetated grid cell portion of the land surface component, the Community Landscape Model (CLM), is divided into 4 of 16 plant functional types (PFTs) with vertical layers of canopy, leaf area index, soil physical properties, and interacting hydrological features all tracking energy, water, and carbon state and flux variables, making CLM highly capable in predicting the complex nature and outcomes of large-scale deforestation. The Atlantic Forest removal (i.e. deforestation) was conducted my converting all woody stem PFTs to grasses in CLM, creating a land-use change from forest to pasture. By comparing the simulated historical Atlantic Forest (pre human alteration) to a deforested Atlantic Forest (close to current conditions) in CLM and CESM we found that live stem carbon, NPP (gC m-2 yr-1), and other vegetation dynamics inside and outside the Atlantic Forest region were largely altered. In addition to vegetation

  10. Diversidade de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sul de Santa Catarina Diversity of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Luiz A. Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a variação sazonal da fauna de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera foi avaliada entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006 em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica na região sul de Santa Catarina (Brasil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W e Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Foram realizadas coletas mensais ao longo de trilhas nas três áreas, utilizando guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura para amostrar nas bordas de mata. Para um esforço amostral de 108 horas foram coletados 595 indivíduos, distribuídos em 4 famílias, 29 gêneros e 49 espécies. Pentatomidae foi a família mais abundante (82,69% seguida de Cydnidae (15,97%, Scutelleridae (0,84% e Tessaratomidae (0,50%. Pentatomidae também apresentou a maior riqueza com 37 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 e Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. O período de maior captura foi entre o final da primavera e início do outono, representando 71,76% do total coletado. O Parque do Maracajá apresentou abundância e riqueza sgnificativamente maiores do que as demais áreas. Este estudo representa o primeiro inventário da diversidade de Pentatomoidea em habitats naturais no estado de Santa Catarina.The composition and the seasonal variation of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera were evaluated between September 2005 and August 2006 in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in the southern region of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W and Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W

  11. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera) in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C S; Cristaldo, P F; Florencio, D F; Ribeiro, E J M; Cruz, N G; Silva, E A; Costa, D A; Araújo, A P A

    2016-09-26

    Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m) at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass) did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting).

  12. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

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    C. S. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m, while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting.

  13. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  14. Geospatial analysis of forest fragmentation in Uttara Kannada District, India

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    Ramachandra T V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Landscapes consist of heterogeneous interacting dynamic elements with complex ecological, economic and cultural attributes. These complex interactions help in the sustenance of natural resources through bio-geochemical and hydrological cycling. The ecosystem functions are altered with changes in the landscape structure. Fragmentation of large contiguous forests to small and isolated forest patches either by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities leads to drastic changes in forest patch sizes, shape, connectivity and internal heterogeneity, which restrict the movement leading to inbreeding among Meta populations with extirpation of species. Methods: Landscape dynamics are assessed through land use analysis by way of remote sensing data acquired at different time periods. Forest fragmentation is assessed at the pixel level through computation of two indicators, i.e., Pf (the ratio of pixels that are forested to the total non-water pixels in the window and Pff (the proportion of all adjacent (cardinal directions only pixel pairs that include at least one forest pixel, for which both pixels are forested. Results: Uttara Kannada District has the distinction of having the highest forest cover in Karnataka State, India. This region has been experiencing changes in its forest cover and consequent alterations in functional abilities of its ecosystem. Temporal land use analyses show the trend of deforestation, evident from the reduction of evergreen - semi evergreen forest cover from 57.31 % (1979 to 32.08 % (2013 Forest fragmentation at the landscape level shows a decline of interior forests 64.42 % (1979 to 25.62 % (2013 and transition of non-forest categories such as crop land, plantations and built-up areas, amounting now to 47.29 %. PCA prioritized geophysical and socio variables responsible for changes in the landscape structure at local levels. Conclusion: Terrestrial forest ecosystems in Uttara Kannada District of Central

  15. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  16. Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest

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    Cardoso Márcio Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on population connectivity in butterflies with home-range behavior. Results We generated microsatellite, AFLP and mtDNA sequence data for 136 Heliconius erato specimens from eight collecting locations and 146 H. melpomene specimens from seven locations. Population genetic analyses of the data revealed high levels of genetic diversity in H. erato relative to H. melpomene, widespread genetic differentiation among populations of both species, and no evidence for isolation-by-distance. Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the extensive habitat fragmentation along Brazil's Atlantic Forest has reduced dispersal of Heliconius butterflies among neighboring habitat patches. The results also lend support to the observation that fine-scale population genetic structure may be common in Heliconius. If such population structure also exists independent of human activity, and has been common over the evolutionary history of Heliconius butterflies, it may have contributed to the evolution of wing pattern diversity in the genus.

  17. Fragmented forest in tropical landscape--the case of the State of Selangor, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the pattern and changes of fragmented forest in relation with changes of total forest cover in the state of Selangor in three decades.In this study, inventoried forest cover maps of Selangor in 1971/1972, 1981/1982 and 1991/1992 produced by the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia were digitized to examine the changes in area and number of fragmented forest.Results showed that in 1971/ 1972, 16 fragmented forests were identified in Selangor.All fragmented forests were identified as dipterocarp forest.A decade later the number of fragmented forests increased by approximately 44% (23).Of the 23 fragmented forests, two were peat swamp forests whereas the remaining were dipterocarp forests.In 1991/1992 the number of fragmented forests (12) was reduced by 47.8%.Two of the fragmented forests were identified as peat swamp forest, seven dipterocarp forest and the other three was mixed of dipterocarp forests and plantation forests.Fragmentation of both dipterocarp and peat swamp forests occurred profoundly during the period between 1971/1972 and 1981/1982, which consequently increased the number of fragmented forests compared with before the period of 1971/1972 where fragmentation happened only at dipterocarp forests.However, many fragmented forests vanished between the 1981/1982 and 1991/1992 periods.

  18. Forest fragmentation in Vietnam : Effects on tree diversity, populations and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of square kilometers of the Earth’s surface is covered by forest fragments, and a quarter of remaining tropical forest has been fragmented. In Southeast Asia, about 650,000 ha of natural forests are fragmented per year. Fragmentation of old growth forests is considered to be the greatest th

  19. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences

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    L. H. Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available Abstract The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368. Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1. The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m. Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota.

  20. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota.

  1. FOREST FRAGMENTATION AS AN ECONOMIC INDICATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite concern over the ecological consequences of conversion of land from natural cover to anthropogenic uses, there are few studies that show a quantitative relationship between fragmentation and economic factors. For the southside economic region of Virginia, we generated a ...

  2. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  3. Comunidades de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica situados em áreas urbanizadas Ants' communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest situated in urban areas

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    Maria Santina de C. Morini

    Full Text Available As comunidades de formigas que vivem em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica rodeados por um ecossistema urbano bem desenvolvido, foram investigadas. Avaliou-se a riqueza, a freqüência de ocorrência das espécies bem como a similaridade entre três áreas da cidade de São Paulo: Parque da Previdência (PP, Reserva Florestal "Armando Salles de Oliveira" (CUASO e Horto Oswaldo Cruz (HOC. Foram colocadas armadilhas do tipo "pitfall" em locais onde não ocorre visitação pública, durante uma semana, nos meses de março, junho, setembro e dezembro de 2001. Em todos os fragmentos foram coletadas 79 espécies de formigas, pertencentes a nove subfamílias e 32 gêneros. A subfamília Myrmicinae e os gêneros Pheidole e Hypoponera foram os mais ricos. No PP foram registradas 62 espécies, na CUASO 46 e no HOC 43, sendo que PP e CUASO são mais similares entre si. Tal similaridade possivelmente esteja relacionada ao tamanho de ambas as áreas e, também, a uma semelhança nos sítios de nidificação e de alimentação. No geral, a fauna de formigas é generalista, com a presença de alguns gêneros especialistas, como Discothyrea, Acanthognathus, Gnamptogenys, Oxyepoecus e Pyramica; ou de gêneros cujos hábitos alimentares ainda são desconhecidos (Heteroponera e Myrmelachista. A presença de espécies caracteristicamente de áreas domiciliares também foi constatada: Pheidole megacephala Fabricius, 1793, Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868, Wasmannia auropunctata Roger, 1863, Paratrechina fulva Mayr, 1862, P. longicornis Latreille, 1802 e Tapinoma melanocephalum Fabricius, 1793.In this paper were investigated the ants' communities that inhabit the Atlantic Rainforest fragments surrounded by an urban ecosystem well developed. The richness, the species frequency of occurrence, as well the similarity between the three areas of the city of São Paulo were investigated: Parque da Previdência (PP, Reserva Florestal "Armando Salles de Oliveira" (CUASO and Horto

  4. Phylogeography of four frog species in forest fragments of northeastern Brazil--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina O Q

    2002-11-01

    I contrast mitochondrial DNA genealogies based on 612 bp of the cytochrome b gene across four co-distributed species of frogs in Northeastern Brazil. They are Hyla albomarginata, Hyla branneri, Proceratophrys boiei, and Scinax nebulosus. Samples were collected from the core or edge of six rainforest remnants in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas. Three fragments are located within the humid Atlantic Forest morphoclimatic domain (municipalities of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Ibateguara, and Jaqueira), two are located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest domain and the semi-arid Caatinga (Caruaru and Timbaúba), and one is found within the Caatinga (Brejo da Madre de Deus). Results show that local patterns and levels of genetic diversity are influenced by taxon-specific habitat requirements. Populations of the montane, closed-canopy species P. boiei show strong geographical structure, reflecting barriers to gene flow that predate human-driven habitat destruction. Species occurring along forest edges, such as H. albomarginata and S. nebulosus, show genetic patterns similar to those of P. boiei, but lower levels of genetic divergence. The more generalist Hyla branneri shows no geographic pattern. The data are in agreement with distribution and fossil data gathered for other groups of organisms, suggesting that mesic forests occupied the currently arid Caatinga in the recent past.

  5. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  6. Forests on thawing permafrost: fragmentation, edge effects, and net forest loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Jennifer L; Veness, Tyler; Chasmer, Laura E; Sniderhan, Anastasia E; Quinton, William L

    2014-03-01

    Much of the world's boreal forest occurs on permafrost (perennially cryotic ground). As such, changes in permafrost conditions have implications for forest function and, within the zone of discontinuous permafrost (30-80% permafrost in areal extent), distribution. Here, forested peat plateaus underlain by permafrost are elevated above the surrounding permafrost-free wetlands; as permafrost thaws, ground surface subsidence leads to waterlogging at forest margins. Within the North American subarctic, recent warming has produced rapid, widespread permafrost thaw and corresponding forest loss. Although permafrost thaw-induced forest loss provides a natural analogue to deforestation occurring in more southerly locations, we know little about how fragmentation relates to subsequent permafrost thaw and forest loss or the role of changing conditions at the edges of forested plateaus. We address these knowledge gaps by (i) examining the relationship of forest loss to the degree of fragmentation in a boreal peatland in the Northwest Territories, Canada; and (ii) quantifying associated biotic and abiotic changes occurring across forest-wetland transitions and extending into the forested plateaus (i.e., edge effects). We demonstrate that the rate of forest loss correlates positively with the degree of fragmentation as quantified by perimeter to area ratio of peat plateaus (edge : area). Changes in depth of seasonal thaw, soil moisture, and effective leaf area index (LAIe ) penetrated the plateau forests by 3-15 m. Water uptake by trees was sevenfold greater in the plateau interior than at the edges with direct implications for tree radial growth. A negative relationship existed between LAIe and soil moisture, suggesting that changes in vegetation physiological function may contribute to changing edge conditions while simultaneously being affected by these changes. Enhancing our understanding of mechanisms contributing to differential rates of permafrost thaw and associated

  7. Distribution and Conservation of Davilla (Dilleniaceae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Using Ecological Niche Modeling

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    Ismael Martins Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm with environmental and occurrence data, and produced geographic distribution maps. The results show that high species richness occurs in forest and coastal forest of Espírito Santo to Bahia states. The endemic species comprise D. flexuosa, D. macrocarpa, D. flexuosa, D. grandifolia, and D. sessilifolia. In the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, the following endemic species occur: D. tintinnabulata and D. glaziovii, with this latter species being included in the “red list” due habitat loss and predatory extractivism. The indicators of species richness in the coastal region of Bahia correspond with floristic inventories that point to this area having a high biodiversity. Although this region has several protected areas, there are gaps in reserves, which, combined with anthropogenic threats and fragmentation, have caused several problems for biodiversity.

  8. Chimpanzee seed dispersal in a montane forest fragment in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Rebecca L; Rundus, Aaron S; Nyandwi, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    Primate seed dispersal plays an important role in forest regeneration. It may be particularly important to anthropogenically disturbed habitats such as forest fragments. However, few studies have examined primate seed dispersal in these types of environments. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are frugivorous and large-bodied, and are therefore able to disperse both large and small seeds, making them an important seed dispersal species. We examined chimpanzee seed dispersal in Gishwati forest, a 14 km(2) montane rainforest fragment in Rwanda. We systematically collected ≤24-hr-old fecal samples and counted the number of seeds of each fruit species. We also recorded observations of seeds found in wadges. We found that chimpanzees dispersed at least 18 fruit species in 14 families in their feces. Ninety-five percent of feces had seeds, the most common of which were Ficus spp., Myrianthus holstii, and Maesa lanceolata. We estimated that the Gishwati chimpanzee community with a density of 1.7 individuals per km(2) dispersed an average of 592 (>2 mm) seeds km(-2)  day(-1) . We also found that chimpanzees dispersed the seeds of at least two fruit species, Ficus spp. and Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, in their wadges. In addition, 17% of the tree species recorded in our vegetation plots were chimpanzee-dispersed. This study emphasizes the importance of chimpanzees as large seed dispersers in regenerating forest fragments.

  9. Predação e remoção de sementes de cinco espécies de palmeiras por Guerlinguetus ingrami (Thomas, 1901 em um fragmento urbano de Floresta Atlântica Montana Predation and removal of seeds from five species of palms by Guerlinguetus ingrami (Thomas, 1901 in an urban fragment of the Montane Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Ferreira Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em um fragmento urbano de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana no Estado do Espírito Santo (Sudeste do Brasil, foram avaliados o padrão de frugivoria e as proporções de remoção, predação e armazenamento de frutos por Guerlinguetus ingrami, em relação a cinco espécies de palmeira (Syagrus pseudococos, S. ruschiana, Bactris setosa, Polyandrococos caudescens e Euterpe edulis. As espécies de Arecaceae enquadram-se na síndrome associada à dispersão por G. ingrami, na qual as espécies de plantas apresentam alta produção, grandes frutos com poucas sementes envolvidas por endocarpos resistentes e que não são usadas por outros predadores de sementes arborícolas. Os resultados apontaram que existem diferenças no padrão de frugivoria da espécie G. ingrami quando comparadas com as de espécies com a mesma síndrome; aquelas que possuem frutos maiores apresentaram maior taxa de remoção e de armazenamento de seus diásporos. E, devido à especificidade exibida por G. ingrami na atividade de dispersão de sementes, este roedor deverá atuar apenas em trocas compensatórias específicas em pequenos fragmentos defaunados. Portanto, a seletividade de G. ingrami poderia indicar que o seu papel como dispersor em pequenos fragmentos estaria restrito em função da maior probabilidade de mortalidade associada às plantas preferencialmente dispersas por essa espécie, e sua atuação como predador de sementes deve ser quantificada para que os seus efeitos, em pequenos fragmentos, sejam mais bem compreendidos.This study investigated the fruvigory pattern of Guerlinguetus ingrami, considering the removal, predation and caching of the fruits of palm species (Syagrus pseudococos, S. ruschiana, Bactris setosa, Polyandrococos caudescens and Euterpe edulis in an urban forest fragment of the montane Atlantic forest in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. These palm species show characteristics theoretically expected to be seen in plants

  10. Stability predicts genetic diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Hickerson, Michael J; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Moritz, Craig

    2009-02-06

    Biodiversity hotspots, representing regions with high species endemism and conservation threat, have been mapped globally. Yet, biodiversity distribution data from within hotspots are too sparse for effective conservation in the face of rapid environmental change. Using frogs as indicators, ecological niche models under paleoclimates, and simultaneous Bayesian analyses of multispecies molecular data, we compare alternative hypotheses of assemblage-scale response to late Quaternary climate change. This reveals a hotspot within the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot. We show that the southern Atlantic forest was climatically unstable relative to the central region, which served as a large climatic refugium for neotropical species in the late Pleistocene. This sets new priorities for conservation in Brazil and establishes a validated approach to biodiversity prediction in other understudied, species-rich regions.

  11. Thermokarst Rates Intensify Due to Climate Change and Forest Fragmentation in an Alaskan Boreal Forest Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M. J.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, D. N.; Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Breen, A. L.; Bolton, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse scar-bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5o C of thawing. Increases in the collapse of lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998 and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30x30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, respectively. Gradient boosting and regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950-2009 landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² of birch forest area to wetlands on the Tanana Flats, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights the vulnerability of lowland

  12. Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species.

  13. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  14. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity of a forest-fragment mosaic in the Amazon rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Roger William

    2011-03-01

    To study the impact of Amazonian forest fragmentation on the mosquito fauna, an inventory of Culicidae was conducted in the upland forest research areas of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project located 60 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The culicid community was sampled monthly between February 2002 and May 2003. CDC light traps, flight interception traps, manual aspiration, and net sweeping were used to capture adult specimens along the edges and within forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha), in second-growth areas surrounding the fragments and around camps. We collected 5,204 specimens, distributed in 18 genera and 160 species level taxa. A list of mosquito taxa is presented with 145 species found in the survey, including seven new records for Brazil, 16 new records for the state of Amazonas, along with the 15 morphotypes that probably represent undescribed species. No exotic species [Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)] were found within the sampled areas. Several species collected are potential vectors of Plasmodium causing human malaria and of various arboviruses. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed, and the results are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region.

  15. Effects of forest fragmentation and habitat degradation on West African leaf-litter frogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Veith, M.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    Habitat degradation alters the dynamics and composition of anuran assemblages in tropical forests. The effects of forest fragmentation on the composition of anuran assemblages are so far poorly known. We studied the joint influence of forest fragmentation and degradation on leaf-litter frogs. We spe

  16. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  17. Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulafu, C; Baranga, D; Mucunguzi, P; Telford, R J; Vandvik, V

    2013-10-01

    Private forests harbor considerable biodiversity, however, they are under greater threat than reserved areas, particularly from urbanization, agriculture, and intense exploitation for timber and fuel wood. The extent to which they may act as habitats for biodiversity and how level of protection impacts trends in biodiversity and forest structure over time remain underresearched. We contribute to filling this research gap by resampling a unique data set, a detailed survey from 1990 of 22 forests fragments of different ownership status and level of protection near Kampala, Uganda. Eleven of the 22 fragments were lost over 20 years, and six of the remnants reduced in size. Forest structure and composition also showed dramatic changes, with six of the remnant fragments showing high temporal species turnover. Species richness increased in four of the remaining forests over the resample period. Forest ownership affected the fate of the forests, with higher loss in privately owned forests. Our study demonstrates that ownership affects the fate of forest fragments, with private forests having both higher rates of area loss, and of structural and compositional change within the remaining fragments. Still, the private forests contribute to the total forest area, and they harbor biodiversity including IUCN "vulnerable" and "endangered" species. This indicates the conservation value of the fragments and suggests that they should be taken into account in forest conservation and restoration.

  18. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, Anthony; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R. N.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Romanovsky, V.; Breen, Amy L.; Bolton, W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  19. Understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, S.M.

    1993-06-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are rich in biological diversity. These forests contain many species adapted to conditions ranging from mesic coves to xeric ridges. The major plant communities include wetlands and balds as well as hardwood and coniferous forests. To understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation, the sensitivity of ecosystems, communities, and species to fragmentation must be determined. Recognizing the natural patterns of heterogeneity in these forest and the importance of this heterogeneity to ecological processes will promote our understanding of fragmentation. The impact of a specific forest use (economic development, forest harvesting, recreation) depends on the type of habitat modification.and the spatial extent and pattern of this use. Information on ecological processes, maps of natural communities, and projections about activities that modify forests are needed in order to implement management strategies that will minimize forest fragmentation.

  20. Detecting fragmentation extinction thresholds for forest understory plant species in peninsular Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rueda

    Full Text Available Ecological theory predicts that fragmentation aggravates the effects of habitat loss, yet empirical results show mixed evidences, which fail to support the theory instead reinforcing the primary importance of habitat loss. Fragmentation hypotheses have received much attention due to their potential implications for biodiversity conservation, however, animal studies have traditionally been their main focus. Here we assess variation in species sensitivity to forest amount and fragmentation and evaluate if fragmentation is related to extinction thresholds in forest understory herbs and ferns. Our expectation was that forest herbs would be more sensitive to fragmentation than ferns due to their lower dispersal capabilities. Using forest cover percentage and the proportion of this percentage occurring in the largest patch within UTM cells of 10-km resolution covering Peninsular Spain, we partitioned the effects of forest amount versus fragmentation and applied logistic regression to model occurrences of 16 species. For nine models showing robustness according to a set of quality criteria we subsequently defined two empirical fragmentation scenarios, minimum and maximum, and quantified species' sensitivity to forest contraction with no fragmentation, and to fragmentation under constant forest cover. We finally assessed how the extinction threshold of each species (the habitat amount below which it cannot persist varies under no and maximum fragmentation. Consistent with their preference for forest habitats probability occurrences of all species decreased as forest cover contracted. On average, herbs did not show significant sensitivity to fragmentation whereas ferns were favored. In line with theory, fragmentation yielded higher extinction thresholds for two species. For the remaining species, fragmentation had either positive or non-significant effects. We interpret these differences as reflecting species-specific traits and conclude that although

  1. Genetic consequences of forest fragmentation for a highly specialized arboreal mammal--the edible dormouse.

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    Joanna Fietz

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation represent the most serious extinction threats for many species and have been demonstrated to be especially detrimental for mammals. Particularly, highly specialized species with low dispersal abilities will encounter a high risk of extinction in fragmented landscapes. Here we studied the edible dormouse (Glis glis, a small arboreal mammal that is distributed throughout Central Europe, where forests are mostly fragmented at different spatial scales. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic population structures using the example of edible dormouse populations inhabiting forest fragments in south western Germany. We genotyped 380 adult individuals captured between 2001 and 2009 in four different forest fragments and one large continuous forest using 14 species-specific microsatellites. We hypothesised, that populations in small forest patches have a lower genetic diversity and are more isolated compared to populations living in continuous forests. In accordance with our expectations we found that dormice inhabiting forest fragments were isolated from each other. Furthermore, their genetic population structure was more unstable over the study period than in the large continuous forest. Even though we could not detect lower genetic variability within individuals inhabiting forest fragments, strong genetic isolation and an overall high risk to mate with close relatives might be precursors to a reduced genetic variability and the onset of inbreeding depression. Results of this study highlight that connectivity among habitat fragments can already be strongly hampered before genetic erosion within small and isolated populations becomes evident.

  2. Effects of microhabitat on palm seed predation in two forest fragments in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marina; Galetti, Mauro

    2004-12-01

    The establishment of plants depends crucially on where seeds are deposited in the environment. Some authors suggest that in forest understory seed predation is lower than in gaps, and higher than at the forest edge. However, most studies have been carried out in large forest patches and very little is known about the effects of microhabitat conditions on seed predation in forest fragments. We evaluated the effects of three microhabitats (gaps, forest edge, and understory) on seed predation of two palm species ( Euterpe edulis and Syagrus romanzoffiana) in two semi-deciduous forest fragments (230 and 2100 ha) in southeast Brazil. Our objective was to test two hypotheses: (1) Low rodent abundance in small fragments as a result of meso-predator action levels leads to lower seed predation in small fragments. (2) Most mammal species in small fragments are generalists with respect to diet and habitat, so that seed predation is similar in different microhabitats (gaps, forest edge and understory) in the small fragment, but not in the larger one. The study community of small fragments is usually composed of generalist species (in diet and habitat aspects), so we expected the same rate of seed predation among microhabitats (gaps, forest edge and understory) in the tested smaller fragment. The experiment was carried out in the dry season (for E. edulis) and in the wet season (for S. romanzoffiana) in 1999. We conclude that post-dispersal seed predation in forest fragments can be directly connected with mammal communities, reflecting their historical and ecological aspects.

  3. National assessment of the fragmentation, accessibility and anthropogenic pressure on the forests in Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael Moreno-Sanchez; Juan Manuel Torres-Rojo; Francisco Moreno-Sanchez; Sue Hawkins; Justin Little; Susan McPartland

    2012-01-01

    Forest managers and policy makers increasingly demand to have access to estimates of forest fragmentation,human accessibility to forest areas and levels of anthropogenic pressure on the remaining forests to integrate them into monitoring systems,management and conservation plans.Forest fragmentation is defined as the breaking up of a forest unit,where the number of patches and the amount of expose edge increase while the amount of core area decreases.Forest fragmentation studies in Mexico have been limited to local or regional levels and have concentrated only on specific forest types.This paper presents an assessment of the fragmentation of all forest types at the national level,their effective proximity to anthropogenic influences,and the development of an indicator of anthropogenic pressure on the forests areas.Broadleaf forests,tropical evergreen forests and tropical dry deciduous forests show the greatest fragmentation.Almost half (47%) of the tropical forests are in close effective proximity to anthropogenic influences and only 12% of their area can be considered isolated from anthropogenic influences.The values for the temperate forests are 23% and 29% respectively.Anthropogenic pressure in the immediate vicinity of anthropogenic activities is much higher in the tropical forests (75 in a scale 0-100) than in the temperate forests (30).When considering these results jointly,the tropical forests,and more specifically,the tropical evergreen forests and tropical dry deciduous forests are under the greatest pressure and risks of degradation.

  4. Discerning fragmentation dynamics of tropical forest and wetland during reforestation, urban sprawl, and policy shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land

  5. Discerning fragmentation dynamics of tropical forest and wetland during reforestation, urban sprawl, and policy shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Gao

    Full Text Available Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000 and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws

  6. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

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    Matthias Schleuning

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes

  7. Fine-scale movement decisions of tropical forest birds in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Beyer, Hawthorne L; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-04-01

    The persistence of forest-dependent species in fragmented landscapes is fundamentally linked to the movement of individuals among subpopulations. The paths taken by dispersing individuals can be considered a series of steps built from individual route choices. Despite the importance of these fine-scale movement decisions, it has proved difficult to collect such data that reveal how forest birds move in novel landscapes. We collected unprecedented route information about the movement of translocated forest birds from two species in the highly fragmented tropical dry forest of Costa Rica. In this pasture-dominated landscape, forest remains in patches or riparian corridors, with lesser amounts of living fencerows and individual trees or "stepping stones." We used step selection functions to quantify how route choice was influenced by these habitat elements. We found that the amount of risk these birds were willing to take by crossing open habitat was context dependent. The forest-specialist Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus) exhibited stronger selection for forested routes when moving in novel landscapes distant from its territory relative to locations closer to its territory. It also selected forested routes when its step originated in forest habitat. It preferred steps ending in stepping stones when the available routes had little forest cover, but avoided them when routes had greater forest cover. The forest-generalist Rufous-naped Wren (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) preferred steps that contained more pasture, but only when starting from non-forest habitats. Our results showed that forested corridors (i.e., riparian corridors) best facilitated the movement of a sensitive forest specialist through this fragmented landscape. They also suggested that stepping stones can be important in highly fragmented forests with little remaining forest cover. We expect that naturally dispersing birds and species with greater forest dependence would exhibit even stronger

  8. EDGE EFFECT IN ATLANTIC FOREST REMNANTS IN THE WATERSHED OF THE RIVER TAPACURÁ, PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartine Soares Cardoso de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the edge effect on arboreal component of two Atlantic Forest fragments, in the Watershed of Tapacurá River, Pernambuco. For the sampling of the adult component 15 plots of 10 x 25 m were plotted and subplots of 1 x 25 m for the regeneration. The plots were arranged in three environments, with five sampling units each, according to distance from the edge. Comparisons between the environments were performed by specie composition, Venn diagram and cluster analysis. The greatest richness was observed in the area farther from the edge and the greatest number of individuals near the edge. In the Mata da Onça, the farthest edge environments were similar, but different in composition and structure as compared to the nearest environment. However, in the Mata da Buchada the first two environments near to the edge were similar. The interaction between the human environment and the fragment affects the arboreal community in the fragment edges.

  9. National Assessment of the Fragmentation Levels and Fragmentation-Class Transitions of the Forests in Mexico for 2002, 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Clay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation are key drivers of global species and biodiversity loss, as well as a major threat to the conservation of forest ecosystems. Mexico is one of the five biologically richest countries in the world. This study first generated a national level assessment of the fragmentation of temperate and tropical forests in Mexico for 2002, 2008, and 2013. Then, using these results, it explores how transitions to non-forest or to other fragmentation classes have evolved within the previous date fragmentation classes for the 2002–2008 and 2008–2013 periods. The Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA method was used to assess the forest fragmentation. The results show that high fragmentation classes are more likely to transition to no-forest land covers in tropical than in temperate forests and that these conversions were larger during 2002–2008 than during the 2008–2013 period in both forest types. When analyzing the transitions between fragmentation classes, a higher percent of the forest area remained the same fragmentation class between 2008 and 2013 than from 2002 to 2008. Transitions between forest fragmentation classes were relatively small compared to transitions to no-forest land covers, and transitions to higher fragmentation classes were slightly larger in tropical than in temperate forests.

  10. The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, I M; T Corlett, R

    1996-08-01

    Deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate in the lowland tropics. In many tropical regions, rain forest is restricted to small (rainforest species that are on the brink of extinction. In areas with little rain forest remaining, fragments can be the 'seeds' from which to re-establish extensive forest.

  11. Species and structural diversity of church forests in a fragmented Ethiopian Highland landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, Alemayehu; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Thousands of small isolated forest fragments remain around churches (“church forests”) in the almost completely deforested Ethiopian Highlands. We questioned how the forest structure and composition varied with altitude, forest area and human influence. Location: South Gondar, Amhara Natio

  12. Edge effect on palm diversity in rain forest fragments in western Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baez, S.; Balslev, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    to be idiosyncratic and to depend on the level of disturbance at edges. This paper explores how variation in forest structure at the edges of two old-growth forest fragments in a tropical rain forest in western Ecuador affects palms of different species, life-forms, and size classes. We investigate (1) how edge...

  13. Epiphyte biodiversity in the coffee agricultural matrix: canopy stratification and distance from forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Leigh C; Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Quality of the agricultural matrix profoundly affects biodiversity and dispersal in agricultural areas. Vegetatively complex coffee agroecosystems maintain species richness at larger distances from the forest. Epiphytes colonize canopy trees and provide resources for birds and insects and thus effects of agricultural production on epiphytes may affect other species. We compared diversity, composition, and vertical stratification of epiphytes in a forest fragment and in two coffee farms differing in management intensity in southern Mexico. We also examined spatial distribution of epiphytes with respect to the forest fragment to examine quality of the two agricultural matrix types for epiphyte conservation. We sampled vascular epiphytes in a forest fragment, a shade polyculture farm, and a shade monoculture farm at 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m from the forest. Epiphyte and orchid richness was greater in the forest than in the monoculture but richness was similar in the forest and polyculture farm. Epiphyte species composition differed with habitat type, but not with distance from the forest. In the forest, epiphytes were distributed throughout tree canopies, but in the farms, epiphytes were primarily found on trunks and larger branches. Epiphyte richness and species similarity to forest species declined with distance from the forest fragment in the monoculture, but richness and similarity to forest species did not decline with distance from forest in the polyculture. This suggests polyculture coffee has greater conservation value. In contrast, monoculture coffee is likely a sink habitat for epiphytes dispersing from forests into coffee. Coffee farms differ from forests in terms of the habitat they provide and species composition, thus protecting forest fragments is essential for epiphyte conservation. Nonetheless, in agricultural landscapes, vegetatively complex coffee farms may contribute to conservation of epiphytes more than other agricultural land uses.

  14. Complementary seed dispersal by three avian frugivores in a fragmented Afromontane forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehouck, V.; Spanhove, T.; Demeter, S.; Groot, N.E.; Lens, L.

    2009-01-01

    Questions To what extent does species-specific variation in gut passage time (GPT), habitat use and mobility of three key avian frugivores synergistically affect the distribution of Xymalos monospora seeds within and among isolated forest fragments? Location Three fragments of a severely fragmented

  15. Birds communities of fragmented forest within highly urbanized landscape in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Taib, F. S.; Rabiatul-Adawiyah, S.; Md-Nor, S.

    2014-09-01

    Urbanization is one form of forest modification for development purposes. It produces forest fragments scattered in the landscape with different intensity of disturbance. We want to determine the effect of forest fragmentation towards bird community in urbanized landscapes in Kuala Lumpur, namely Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (FR), Bukit Nenas FR and Bukit Sungei Puteh FR. We used mist-netting and direct observation method along established trails. These forests differ in size, vegetation composition and land use history. Results show that these forests show relatively low number of species compared to other secondary forest with only 39 bird species recorded. The largest fragment, Sg. Besi encompassed the highest species richness and abundance with 69% species but lower in diversity. Bukit Nenas, the next smallest fragment besides being the only remaining primary forest has the highest diversity index with 1.866. Bkt. Sg. Puteh the smallest fragment has the lowest species richness and diversity with Shanon diversity index of 1.332. The presence of introduced species such as Corvus splendens (House crow) in all study areas suggest high disturbance encountered by these forests. Nonetheless, these patches comprised of considerably high proportion of native species. In conclusion, different intensity of disturbance due to logging activities and urbanization surrounding the forest directly influenced bird species richness and diversity. These effects however can be compensated by maintaining habitat complexity including high vegetation composition and habitat structure at the landscape level.

  16. Habitat fragmentation, tree diversity, and plant invasion interact to structure forest caterpillar communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stireman, John O; Devlin, Hilary; Doyle, Annie L

    2014-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasive species are two of the most prominent threats to terrestrial ecosystems. Few studies have examined how these factors interact to influence the diversity of natural communities, particularly primary consumers. Here, we examined the effects of forest fragmentation and invasion of exotic honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii, Caprifoliaceae) on the abundance and diversity of the dominant forest herbivores: woody plant-feeding Lepidoptera. We systematically surveyed understory caterpillars along transects in 19 forest fragments over multiple years in southwestern Ohio and evaluated how fragment area, isolation, tree diversity, invasion by honeysuckle and interactions among these factors influence species richness, diversity and abundance. We found strong seasonal variation in caterpillar communities, which responded differently to fragmentation and invasion. Abundance and richness increased with fragment area, but these effects were mitigated by high levels of honeysuckle, tree diversity, landscape forest cover, and large recent changes in area. Honeysuckle infestation was generally associated with decreased caterpillar abundance and diversity, but these effects were strongly dependent on other fragment traits. Effects of honeysuckle on abundance were moderated when fragment area, landscape forest cover and tree diversity were high. In contrast, negative effects of honeysuckle invasion on caterpillar diversity were most pronounced in fragments with high tree diversity and large recent increases in area. Our results illustrate the complex interdependencies of habitat fragmentation, plant diversity and plant invasion in their effects on primary consumers and emphasize the need to consider these processes in concert to understand the consequences of anthropogenic habitat change for biodiversity.

  17. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.

  18. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G A; Araújo, H F P; Azevedo-Júnior, S M

    2016-01-01

    The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.

  19. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Dong

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6 km(2 (GlobCover to 2.69×10(6 km(2 (MCD12Q1 in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%. The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ implementation, and

  20. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6) km(2) (GlobCover) to 2.69×10(6) km(2) (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity.

  1. Near-complete extinction of native small mammal fauna 25 years after forest fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Lynam, Antony J; Bradshaw, Corey J A; He, Fangliang; Bickford, David P; Woodruff, David S; Bumrungsri, Sara; Laurance, William F

    2013-09-27

    Tropical forests continue to be felled and fragmented around the world. A key question is how rapidly species disappear from forest fragments and how quickly humans must restore forest connectivity to minimize extinctions. We surveyed small mammals on forest islands in Chiew Larn Reservoir in Thailand 5 to 7 and 25 to 26 years after isolation and observed the near-total loss of native small mammals within 5 years from disappearing) to be 13.9 years. These catastrophic extinctions were probably partly driven by an invasive rat species; such biotic invasions are becoming increasingly common in human-modified landscapes. Our results are thus particularly relevant to other fragmented forest landscapes and suggest that small fragments are potentially even more vulnerable to biodiversity loss than previously thought.

  2. Characterization of environmental quality of forest fragments changes in Jundiaí-Mirim river basin-Brazil using the Markov Chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimoto Fengler, Felipe; Leite de Moraes, Jener Fernando; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Peche Filho, Afonso; Araujo de Medeiros, Gerson; Baldin Damame, Desirée; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil is common practice the concurrency of large urban centers water catchment in distant sites. There's no policy to preserve strategic springs in the urban territory. Thus, rural areas, located in the surrounds of municipals, usually provide water and others environment services to the population that reside on cities. The Jundiaí-Mirim river basin, located in the most urbanized state in Brazil, São Paulo, composes an interesting example of this situation. It is located in a rural area near large urban centers, with large industrial parks, near the capital of state. As result of expansion of the cities on its surrounds their lands have had a historic of monetary valorization, making its territories attractive to the housing market. Consequently, the region has an intense process of urbanization that resulted in an increasing environmental disturbance in the areas of natural vegetation. In the other hand, the watershed is the principal water supplier of Jundiaí city, and houses forest remaining of an important Biome in Brazil, the Atlantic Rain Forest. Given the need to preserve its water production capacity and the forest remnants there, this study modeled the environmental quality of forest fragments through indicators of disturbance and evaluated the changes that occur between 1972 and 2013 using the Markov Chain model. The environment quality was determined by nine indicators of environmental disturbance (distance of urban areas, roads, edge land use, size, distance of others forest fragments, land capacity of use, watershed forest cover, number of forest fragments in the watersheds, shape of the forest fragment), obtained by techniques of Geoprocessing, and integrated by Multicriteria Analysis. The Markov Chain model showed a constant tendency of deteriorating in natural vegetation environmental quality, attributed to the intense process of occupation of the river basin. The results showed a historical trend of transformation in forest fragments with

  3. Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Federico A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae), Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae) and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae) in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha). However the smaller fragment (20 ha), had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia) was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia) and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla) recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators.

  4. Effects of forest fragmentation on male and female reproductive success in Cestrum parqui (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Ramiro; Galetto, Leonardo

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we evaluate the effects of forest fragmentation on male (pollen removal, pollen load, and pollen tubes) and female reproductive success (fruit- and seed-set) of Cestrum parqui, a self-incompatible, pollination-specialist plant species. We also measure focal individual conspecific density to account for possible density-related effects that could influence the response variables. We calculate an index which incorporates male and female fitness and gives an integrated assessment of overall reproductive success. Forest fragmentation strongly affected the amount of pollen grains on stigmas and number of pollen tubes as well as seed-set, decreasing from continuous forest to small forest fragments, whereas focal individual conspecific density failed to explain any of the variability for the studied variables. Declines in overall reproductive success (i.e. male and female) in small forest fragments are ascribed to decreases in both the quality and quantity of pollination. Self-incompatibility coupled with a specialist pollination system may be particularly important traits determining the negative fragmentation effects observed in C. parqui. Logarithmic regression models described the behaviour of the variables along the fragmentation size gradient, allowing us to detect a threshold below which the effects of fragmentation begin to negatively affect reproductive success in C. parqui. Our results emphasize the importance of evaluating both components of the total plant fitness, as well as including simultaneously several aspects of pollination and reproduction processes when assessing the effects of forest fragmentation on plant reproductive success.

  5. Semi-forest coffee cultivation and the conservation of Ethiopian Afromontane rainforest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Raf; Hundera, K; Berecha, G; Gijbels, Pieter; Baeten, Marieke; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Hermy, Martin; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Coffea arabica shrubs are indigenous to the understorey of the moist evergreen montane rainforest of Ethiopia. Semi-forest coffee is harvested from semi-wild plants in forest fragments where farmers thin the upper canopy and annually slash the undergrowth. This traditional method of coffee cultivation is a driver for preservation of indigenous forest cover, differing from other forms of agriculture and land use which tend to reduce forest cover. Because coffee farmers are primarily interes...

  6. Behavioral modifications in northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) in forest fragments of central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah Ann; Smith, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    We investigated behavioral differences among seven groups of northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) living in five forest fragments and two areas of continuous forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project study area, located approximately 80 km north of Manaus, Brazil. We collected data in six research cycles from July-August 2003 to January 2005-April 2006. When bearded saki monkeys were present in a study area, we followed the group from dawn until dusk for three consecutive days. Every 5 min, we conducted behavioral scans of all visible individuals. There was a positive relationship between forest size and group size, but animals in the small forest fragments lived at greater densities. Bearded saki monkeys in the smaller fragments spent more time resting, less time traveling, and less time vocalizing, but there was no relationship between forest size and the amount of time spent feeding. Our results indicate that the main behavioral differences among the groups are related to the amount of forest resources (e.g., fruit trees, space) available to the monkeys in the smaller fragments, as well as the resulting smaller group sizes. We stress the need to preserve large tracts of forest and provide connectivity between forest patches.

  7. Forest cover change and fragmentation using Landsat data in Maçka State Forest Enterprise in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Günay; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Keleş, Sedat

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring forest cover change and understanding the dynamic of forest cover is increasingly important in sustainable development and management of forest ecosystems. This paper uses remote sensing (RS) techniques to monitor forest cover change in Maçka State Forest Enterprise (MSFE) located in NE of Turkey through 1975 to 2000 and then analyses spatial and temporal changes in forest cover by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and FRAGSTATStrade mark. Forest cover changes were detected from a time series of satellite images of Landsat MSS in 1975, Landsat TM in 1987, and Landsat ETM+ in 2000 using RS and GIS. The results showed that total forest area, productive forest area and degraded forest area increased while broadleaf forest area and non forest area decreased. Mixed forest and degraded forest increased during the first (1975-1987) period, but decreased during the second (1987-2000) period. During the whole study period, the annual forestation rate was 152 ha year(-1), equivalent to 0.27% year(-1) using the compound-interest-rate formula. The total number of patches increased from 36,204 to 48,092 (33%), and mean size of forest patch (MPS) decreased from 2.8 ha to 2.1 ha during a 25 year period. Number of smaller patches (patches in 0-100 ha size class) increased, indicating more fragmented landscape over time that might create a risk for the maintenance of biodiversity of the area. While total population increased from 1975 to 2000 (3.7%), rural population constantly decreased. The increase of forest areas may well be explained by the fact that demographic movement of rural areas concentrated into Maçka City Center. These figures also indicated that decrease in the rural population might likely lead to the release of human pressure to forest areas, probably resulting in a positive development of forest areas.

  8. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. A. Curi; Paschoal,A. M. O.; Massara,R. L.; SANTOS, H. A.; Guimarães,M.P.; M. Passamani; Chiarello,A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitologi...

  9. Population genetics provides an efficient tool to quantify fragmentation impact in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A method in population genetics (Dutech et al., Am. J. Bot. 92 (2, 252-261, February 2005 is described and discussed as an interesting tool for investigating the effects of fragmentation in forest ecosystems.

  10. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A [GIScCE, South Dakota State University (United States); Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H [Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia-IMAZON (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  11. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDO NEHREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica. In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  12. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, Udo; Kirchner, André; Sattler, Dietmar; Turetta, Ana Paula; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica). In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a) effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b) spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest in the Sinos River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: richness, floristic composition and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M D; Becker, D F P; Cunha, S; Droste, A; Schmitt, J L

    2015-05-01

    The Atlantic Forest, which has a vast epiphytic richness, is a priority area for preservation, listed as one of the five most important world hotspots. Vascular epiphyte richness, composition and community structure were studied in two fragments, one of the ombrophilous (29º43'42"S and 50º22'00"W) and the other of the seasonal (29º40'54"S and 51º06'56"W) forest, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest biome in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each fragment, 40 trees, divided into four ecological zones, were analyzed. In each zone, the occurrence of the species was recorded, and the importance value of each species was calculated according to the frequency of phorophytes and intervals, and cover scores. The Shannon index was calculated for the two communities. In the fragment of the ombrophilous forest (F1), 30 epiphytic species were recorded, and in the seasonal forest (F2), 25. The highest importance value was found for Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota in both fragments. The diversity indexes for F1 (H'=2.72) and F2 (H'=2.55) were similar and reflected the subtropical location of the areas. The decrease in mean richness in both fragments in zone 3 (internal crown) to zone 4 (external crown) may be associated with time and space availability for epiphyte occupation and microclimate variations. Exclusive species were found in the areas, which suggest that a greater number of preserved fragments may result in a greater number of preserved epiphytic species in the Sinos River basin.

  14. Screening of antibacterial extracts from plants native to the Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini I.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 20% of the world's biodiversity is located in Brazilian forests and only a few plant extracts have been evaluated for potential antibacterial activity. In the present study, 705 organic and aqueous extracts of plants obtained from different Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 100 µg/ml, using a microdilution broth assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. One extract, VO581, was active against S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 140 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 160 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems and two extracts were active against E. faecalis, SM053 (MIC = 80 µg/ml and MBC = 90 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from aerial parts, and MY841 (MIC = 30 µg/ml and MBC = 50 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems. The most active fractions are being fractionated to identify their active substances. Higher concentrations of other extracts are currently being evaluated against the same microorganisms.

  15. Comparing forest fragmentation and its drivers in China and the USA with Globcover v2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Mao, L.; Zhou, C.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Zhu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and fragmentation are of major concern to the international community, in large part because they impact so many important environmental processes. The main objective of this study was to assess the differences in forest fragmentation patterns and drivers between China and the conterminous United States (USA). Using the latest 300-m resolution global land cover product, Globcover v2.2, a comparative analysis of forest fragmentation patterns and drivers was made. The fragmentation patterns were characterized by using a forest fragmentation model built on the sliding window analysis technique in association with landscape indices. Results showed that China's forests were substantially more fragmented than those of the USA. This was evidenced by a large difference in the amount of interior forest area share, with China having 48% interior forest versus the 66% for the USA. China's forest fragmentation was primarily attributed to anthropogenic disturbances, driven particularly by agricultural expansion from an increasing and large population, as well as poor forest management practices. In contrast, USA forests were principally fragmented by natural land cover types. However, USA urban sprawl contributed more to forest fragmentation than in China. This is closely tied to the USA's economy, lifestyle and institutional processes. Fragmentation maps were generated from this study, which provide valuable insights and implications regarding habitat planning for rare and endangered species. Such maps enable development of strategic plans for sustainable forest management by identifying areas with high amounts of human-induced fragmentation, which improve risk assessments and enable better targeting for protection and remediation efforts. Because forest fragmentation is a long-term, complex process that is highly related to political, institutional, economic and philosophical arenas, both nations need to take effective and comprehensive measures to mitigate the

  16. Vertebrate dispersal syndromes along the Atlantic forest: broad-scale patterns and macroecological correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Neto, Mário; Campassi, Flávia; Galetti,Mauro; JORDANO, Pedro; Oliveira-Filho, Ary

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the geographical variation in the relative importance of vertebrates, and more specifically of birds and mammals, as seed dispersal agents in forest communities, and to evaluate the influence of geographical and climatic factors on the observed trends. Location One hundred and thirty-five forest communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Methods We collected data on dispersal modes for 2292 woody species. By combining species × site with species × trait matrices, w...

  17. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Wachlevski; Luciana Kreutz Erdtmann; Paulo Christiano de Anchietta Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species,...

  18. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  19. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  20. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  1. Forest fragmentation effects on patch occupancy and population viability of herbaceous plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans; Bossuyt, B; Hermy, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats to species diversity. In this review, we discuss how the genetic and demographic structure of fragmented populations of herbaceous forest plant species is affected by increased genetic drift and inbreeding, reduced mate availability, altered interactions with pollinators, and changed environmental conditions through edge effects. Reported changes in population genetic and demographic structure of fragmented plant populations have, however, not...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and population structure of a forest-dependent rodent, Praomys taitae (Rodentia: Muridae) Heller 1911, in the fragmented forest patches of Taita Hills, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, S.; Tumusiime, C.; Oguge, N.;

    2008-01-01

    The population genetic structure of the forest-dependent rodent, Praomys taitae, sampled from nine indigenous forest fragments sampled from nine indigenous forest fragments distributed over three ranges of the Taita Hills in Kenya, was determined using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region...

  3. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Human Risk of Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percent forest-herbaceous edge repeatedly explained most of the variability in reported Lyme disease rates within a rural-to-urban study gradient across central Maryland and southeastern Pennsylvania. A one-percent increase in forest-herbaceous edge was associated with an increas...

  4. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  5. Influence of agricultural environment on the plant mite community in forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available The mite community has been surveyed in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest with three types of surrounding agricultural environments to test the hypothesis that abundance and richness of mites in forest fragments are influenced by the type of agricultural environment. The survey has been carried out in six fragments, divided into sets of two fragments, each one neighboring one sort of agricultural environment: sugarcane crop (FS, orange crop (FO and pasture (FP. In each fragment, ten individuals of Actinostemon communis (Euphorbiaceae were selected, five at the edge and five within each fragment. Iphiseiodes zuluagai, often registered in orange crops, was more abundant in the fragments neighboring such crop, as well as some species of Tarsonemidae. In this study, the Phytoseiidae were more abundant in the fragments neighboring pasture, while sugarcane crops probably favored occurrence of phytophagous mites in the neighboring fragments. Tetranychidae were less abundant in FO, which can be explained by periodical use of pesticides in the orange crops. Forest fragments are important for colonies of predators in the neighboring crops, mainly for annual crops such as sugarcane, where the close perennial environment is very important for colonization of the crop. Maintenance of those areas, besides favoring preservation of wild species of mite, is very important to increase diversity of the neighboring agricultural ecosystems.

  6. DNA barcoding in Atlantic Forest plants: what is the best marker for Sapotaceae species identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vinicius Vivas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a phytogeographic domain with a high rate of endemism and large species diversity. The Sapotaceae is a botanical family for which species identification in the Atlantic Forest is difficult. An approach that facilitates species identification in the Sapotaceae is urgently needed because this family includes threatened species and valuable timber species. In this context, DNA barcoding could provide an important tool for identifying species in the Atlantic Forest. In this work, we evaluated four plant barcode markers (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region -ITS in 80 samples from 26 species of Sapotaceae that occur in the Atlantic Forest. ITS yielded the highest average interspecific distance (0.122, followed by trnH-psbA (0.019, matK (0.008 and rbcL (0.002. For species discrimination, ITS provided the best results, followed by matK, trnH-psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, the combined analysis of two, three or four markers did not result in higher rates of discrimination than obtained with ITS alone. These results indicate that the ITS region is the best option for molecular identification of Sapotaceae species from the Atlantic Forest.

  7. Forest fragmentation effects on patch occupancy and population viability of herbaceous plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans; Bossuyt, Beatrijs; Hermy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats to species diversity. In this review, we discuss how the genetic and demographic structure of fragmented populations of herbaceous forest plant species is affected by increased genetic drift and inbreeding, reduced mate availability, altered interactions with pollinators, and changed environmental conditions through edge effects. Reported changes in population genetic and demographic structure of fragmented plant populations have, however, not resulted in large-scale extinction of forest plants. The main reason for this is very likely the long-term persistence of small and isolated forest plant populations due to prolonged clonal growth and long generation times. Consequently, the persistence of small forest plant populations in a changing landscape may have resulted in an extinction debt, that is, in a distribution of forest plant species reflecting the historical landscape configuration rather than the present one. In some cases, fragmentation appears to affect ecosystem integrity rather than short-term population viability due to the opposition of different fragmentation-induced ecological effects. We finally discuss extinction and colonization dynamics of forest plant species at the regional scale and suggest that the use of the metapopulation concept, both because of its heuristic power and conservation applications, may be fruitful.

  8. Avian diversity in five fragments of Atlantic Rainforest at Usina São José, Igarassu, Northern Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borges Lins e Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In northeastern Brazil, most well-preserved Atlantic Rainforest fragments are situated within privately-owned lands or sugarcane properties, mainly in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. On the lands of São José Sugar Mill (USJ, in Igarassu (Pernambuco, there are 106 forest patches totaling 6,660ha, surrounded by sugarcane fields. The main goal of this study was to determine the species richness in five forest remnants within the USJ property. We completed 77 hours of observation and recording of bird voices, using binoculars and a tape recorder with a unidirectional microphone. A total of 184 bird species were registered, among which 15 were under risk of extinction, (e.g. Cercomacra laeta sabinoi, Pyriglena leuconota pernambucensis and Myrmeciza rufi cauda soror. Some species that were observed and collected in the same region in the 1940s, such as Ramphastos vitellinus, Pteroglossus aracari and Lipaugus vociferans, were not registered during the study period.

  9. Landscape fragmentation, severe drought, and the new Amazon forest fire regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ane A; Brando, Paulo M; Asner, Gregory P; Putz, Francis E

    2015-09-01

    Changes in weather and land use are transforming the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes in Amazonia, with important effects on the functioning of dense (i.e., closed-canopy), open-canopy, and transitional forests across the Basin. To quantify, document, and describe the characteristics and recent changes in forest fire regimes, we sampled 6 million ha of these three representative forests of the eastern and southern edges of the Amazon using 24 years (1983-2007) of satellite-derived annual forest fire scar maps and 16 years of monthly hot pixel information (1992-2007). Our results reveal that changes in forest fire regime properties differentially affected these three forest types in terms of area burned and fire scar size, frequency, and seasonality. During the study period, forest fires burned 15% (0.3 million ha), 44% (1 million ha), and 46% (0.6 million ha) of dense, open, and transitional forests, respectively. Total forest area burned and fire scar size tended to increase over time (even in years of average rainfall in open canopy and transitional forests). In dense forests, most of the temporal variability in fire regime properties was linked to El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related droughts. Compared with dense forests, transitional and open forests experienced fires twice as frequently, with at least 20% of these forests' areas burning two or more times during the 24-year study period. Open and transitional forests also experienced higher deforestation rates than dense forests. During drier years, the end of the dry season was delayed by about a month, which resulted in larger burn scars and increases in overall area burned later in the season. These observations suggest that climate-mediated forest flammability is enhanced by landscape fragmentation caused by deforestation, as observed for open and transitional forests in the Eastern portion of the Amazon Basin.

  10. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  11. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  12. Classification of Forest Fragmentation in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of North America including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The map layer is an excerpt from a global assessment of forest...

  13. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P L; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L; Meave, Jorge A; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A; Leal, Inara R; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions. Understanding the main drivers of successional pathways of disturbed tropical forests is critically needed for improving management, conservation, and restoration strategies. Here, we combine emerging knowledge from tropical forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to identify the main driving forces shaping successional pathways at different spatial scales. We also explore causal connections between land-use dynamics and the level of predictability of successional pathways, and examine potential implications of such connections to determine the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in HMTLs. We show that secondary succession (SS) in tropical landscapes is a multifactorial phenomenon affected by a myriad of forces operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales. SS is relatively fast and more predictable in recently modified landscapes and where well-preserved biodiversity-rich native forests are still present in the landscape. Yet the increasing variation in landscape spatial configuration and matrix heterogeneity in landscapes with intermediate levels of disturbance increases the uncertainty of successional pathways. In landscapes that have suffered extensive and intensive human disturbances, however, succession can be slow or arrested, with impoverished assemblages and reduced potential to deliver ecosystem functions and services. We conclude that: (i

  14. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.; Bird, David M.; Varland, Daniel E.; Negro, Juan Jose

    1996-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

  15. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages. PMID:26731271

  16. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages.

  17. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Benítez-Malvido

    Full Text Available Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages.

  18. Additional information about tick parasitism in Passeriformes birds in an Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturano, Ralph; Faccini, João L H; Daemon, Erik; Fazza, Patrícia O C; Bastos, Ronaldo R

    2015-11-01

    The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations.

  19. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  20. Enhanced seed dispersal of Prunus africana in fragmented and disturbed forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwig, Nina; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bleher, Bärbel

    2006-03-01

    Forest destruction and disturbance can have long-term consequences for species diversity and ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. Understanding these consequences is a crucial component of conserving vulnerable ecosystems. In the heavily fragmented and disturbed Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, we studied seed dispersal of Prunus africana (Rosaceae). In the main forest, five forest fragments, and differently disturbed sites, we quantified the overall frugivore community as an indicator for species diversity. Furthermore, we determined the frugivores on 28 fruiting P. africana trees, estimated seed dispersal, crop size and the general fruit availability of surrounding trees. During the overall frugivore census we recorded 49 frugivorous species; 36 of them were observed visiting P. africana trees and feeding on their fruits. Although overall frugivore species richness was 1.1 times lower in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.02 times higher in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites, P. africana experienced 1.1 times higher numbers of frugivores in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher numbers of frugivores in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites. Correspondingly, seed dispersal was 1.5 times higher in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher in more disturbed than less disturbed sites. Fruit availability of surrounding trees and crop size influenced the number of visitors to some degree. Thus, the number of dispersed seeds seemed to be slightly higher in fragmented and highly disturbed sites. This indicates that loss of single species does not necessarily lead to a decrease of ecosystem services. However, loss of diversity could be a problem in the long term, as a multitude of species might act as buffer against future environmental change.

  1. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Tapia-Armijos

    Full Text Available Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989 and 2.86% (1989-2008 for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.

  2. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989) and 2.86% (1989-2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.

  3. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  4. Factors affecting bird richness in a fragmented cork oak forest in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Imad; Selmi, Slaheddine; Boukhriss, Jihen; Hamid, Rguibi-Idrissi; Mohammed, Dakki

    2009-03-01

    The cork oak forest of Ma'amora in north-western Morocco was the largest cork oak forest in the world until the beginning of the 20th century. Due to growing land use for agriculture and urbanization, however, this forest has become fragmented into relatively small and isolated patches. The effects of this fragmentation on the diversity of wild animal communities have never been investigated despite the importance of such investigations in elaborating long-term conservation plans of the biodiversity of this forest system. In this study of a sample of 44 forest patches we assessed the relationships between species numbers of wintering, breeding and spring migrant birds and patch size, shape, isolation and vegetation structure. We found that species richnesses of the three studied bird assemblages were strongly related to local vegetation structure, namely to the diversity and abundance of trees and bushes. Patches with higher diversity and cover of trees and bushes support higher numbers of bird species. However, patch size, shape and isolation were not significant predictors of bird richness. These results suggest that bird communities in the studied forest patches were more likely shaped by local habitat suitability rather than the amount of habitat or patch isolation. The results also demonstrate negative effects of current human pressures, namely logging, grazing and disturbance, on the diversity of bird communities in this forest system. This emphasizes the need for urgent management efforts aiming at reducing the negative impacts of forest use by humans on bird diversity in this forest system.

  5. Dispersão de diásporos e ecologia morfofuncional de plântulas de espécies de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em Dois Irmãos, Recife–PE. Propagule dispersion and morphofunctional seedling ecology of species in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Dois Irmãos, Recife–PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes José Gusmão COUTINHO

    2012-06-01

    related to ecological succession, besides contributing in the work of inventory, conservation and regeneration of natural ecosystems, since they contribute to understanding the functions of the structures morphological development processes and plant establishment. The present investigation aimed to raise the dispersal syndromes and morphofunctional seedling species phanerogams a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Dois Irmãos, Recife–PE. The survey of species and fertile material collection was done by the method of traversal, between January 2008 and August 2011. The species were marked with ribbons and monitored for the production of fruits and seeds to determine the dispersion syndrome and subsequent germination, aiming to obtain seedlings. Field observations were also made to identify the seeds germinated and seedlings found in the litter. The characterization of dispersal and seedling morphofunctional were made through field observations and literature. Eighty-five species in 60 genera and 19 families were surveyed. Corcerning to the habit, 63.85% of the species are trees, 16.86% are shrubs, 14.45% are climbers and 7.22% are herbs. The the most frequent syndrome of dispersal was zoochory (66.66% followed by autocory (18.84% and anemochory (13.05%. The standard morphofunctional seedling was the predominant phanerocotylar-epigeal with foliaceous cotyledons type, similar to the pattern described in the literature for tropical rainforests not flooded.

  6. The Effects of Selective Logging Behaviors on Forest Fragmentation and Recovery

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    Xanic J. Rondon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the impacts of selective logging behaviors on a forest landscape, we developed an intermediate-scale spatial model to link cross-scale interactions of timber harvesting, a fine-scale human activity, with coarse-scale landscape impacts. We used the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model with Holling’s functional response II to simulate selective logging, coupled with a cellular automaton model to simulate logger mobility and forest fragmentation. Three logging scenarios were simulated, each varying in timber harvesting preference and logger mobility. We quantified forest resilience by evaluating (1 the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation, (2 the time until the system crossed a threshold into a deforested state, and (3 recovery time. Our simulations showed that logging behaviors involving decisions made about harvesting timber and mobility can lead to different spatial patterns of forest fragmentation. They can, together with forest management practices, significantly delay or accelerate the transition of a forest landscape to a deforested state and its return to a recovered state. Intermediate-scale models emerge as useful tools for understanding cross-scale interactions between human activities and the spatial patterns that are created by anthropogenic land use.

  7. Effects of forest fragmentation on dipterofauna (Calliphoridae at the Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Nova Iguaçu, RJ

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    ACP. Ferraz

    Full Text Available Samples were collected every month in three different sites of the Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Brazil: site A was located on the border of the forest and sites B and C were located 1,000 and 500 m, respectively, towards the forest interior. The objective was to determine edge effects on a fragment of the Atlantic Forest. The greatest species richness was observed in sites A and B (23 species, compared with site C (16 species. Site A showed the greatest abundance and constancy, independent of the degree of synanthropy. Asynanthropic species were more abundant and constant in sites B and C. Site B showed the greatest diversity; and sites A and B showed the greatest similarity of populations. There was no significant correlation between Calliphoridae richness and canopy openness except in site C. Richness and abundance were positively correlated with subwood density, except for richness in site B.

  8. Barrier effects on vertebrate distribution caused by a motorway crossing through fragmented forest landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellería, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the effects of a 25–year–old motorway on the distribution of five vertebrates inhabiting a fragmented forest landscape and differing in their ability to move across linear infrastructures. We found clear evidence of barrier effects on the distribution of the forest lizard Psammodromus algirus. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was also unequally distributed on both sides of the motorway, but this could also be due, at least in part, to fragmentation. The eyed lizard (Timon lepidus, that can move through open fields, showed no evidence of barrier effects. The distribution of two small birds (Erithacus rubecula and Phylloscopus bonelli was unaffected by the motorway. Our results show that a motorway may severely restrict the distribution of species which can withstand high levels of forest fragmentation but show limited dispersal ability, highlighting the role of linear infrastructures in shaping species’ ranges at regional scales.

  9. Height-diameter relationships of tropical Atlantic moist forest trees in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Augusto da Silva Scaranello; Luciana Ferreira Alves; Simone Aparecida Vieira; Plinio Barbosa Camargo; Carlos Alfredo Joly; Luiz Antônio Martinelli

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific height-diameter models may be used to improve biomass estimates for forest inventories where only diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements are available. In this study, we fit height-diameter models for vegetation types of a tropical Atlantic forest using field measurements of height across plots along an altitudinal gradient. To fit height-diameter models, we sampled trees by DBH class and measured tree height within 13 one-hectare permanent plots established at four altitu...

  10. Habitat fragmentation impacts on biodiversity of evergreen broadleaved forests in Jinyun Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ming; ZHONG Zhangcheng; LIU Jinchun

    2007-01-01

    The plant communities and their microclimates were surveyed and observed,and the soil fertilities were determined in six plots of evergreen broadleaved forests of different sizes and similar slope aspects on Jinyun Mountains of Chongqing in China from April to October,2003.The relationships of biotic and abiotic factors were analyzed using the Simpson,Shannon-Wiener,and Hill diversity indices,and stepwise multilinear regression analyses techniques.The results showed that compared with continuous evergreen broadleaved forests,five fragmentations had a lower species diversity index,and different life forms showed differences in diversity index.With the decrease in patch areas,the daily differences in air temperature (△Ta),ground surface temperature (△Ts),daily differences in relative humidity (△RH),maximum wind velocity (Vmax),differences in photosynthetic available radiation (△PAR)(at noon)of both edges and interiors,all tended to increase.Maximum wind velocity (Vmax)and photo effective radiation in forest edges were higher than those in interior forest,which presented a stronger temperature-gained edge effect.In all the fragmentations of evergreen broadleaved forests,the depth of the edge effect was the nearest from interior forest in the biggest patch (about 15 meters away from interior forest),while the depth of the edge effect was the farthest from interior forest in the smallest patch (about 25 meters away from interior forest).With regard to the water conservation function,soil water content improved along with increasing species diversity.Some of the nutritional function substances of soil increased with increasing species diversity.The elements of microclimate,such as Ta,△Ta,△Ts,ARH,Vmax,and PAR,changed along with the extent of fragmented forest.

  11. PRESERVATION OF PRIMARY FOREST CHARACTERISTICS DESPITE FRAGMENTATION AND ISOLATION IN A FOREST REMNANT FROM VIÇOSA, MG, BRAZIL1

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    Markus Gastauer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to its owners, the Forest of Seu Nico (FSN from the Viçosa municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil, never has been logged and is therefore considered a primary forest. Nevertheless, the forest patch suffered impacts due to selective wood and non-timber extraction, fragmentation and isolation. Aim of this study was to test if the FSN, despite impacts, preserved characteristics of primary forests, which are elevated percentages of non-pioneer (>90%, animal-dispersed (>80 %, understory (>50% and endemic species (~40%. For that, all trees with diameter at breast height equal or major than 3.2 cm within a plot of 100 x 100 m were identified. With 218 tree species found within this hectare, the FSN's species richness is outstanding for the region. The percentages of non-pioneer (92 %, animal-dispersed (85 %, understory (55 % and endemic species (39.2 % from the FSN fulfill the criteria proposed for primary forest. Therefore, we conclude that the FSN maintained its characteristics as a primary forest which highlights its importance for the conservation of biotic resources in the region, where similar fragments are lacking or not described yet.

  12. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Dayananda, Salindra; Goodale, Eben; Lee, Myung-Bok; Liu, Jia-Jia; Mammides, Christos; O Pasion, Bonifacio; Quan, Rui-Chang; W Ferry Slik, J; Sreekar, Rachakonda; W Tomlinson, Kyle; Yasuda, Mika

    2016-05-18

    Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how 'location factors' such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m) within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments.

  13. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants.

  14. Does the afrotropical army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus go extinct in fragmented forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöning, Caspar; Kinuthia, Wanja; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    or facultatively associated with them. Field observations and mathematical modelling suggest that deforestation and accompanying forest fragmentation cause local extinctions of the neotropical swarm-raiding army ant Eciton burchellii which in turn have negative effects on its associated fauna. The aim...... as far as 2 km away. We conclude that populations of this army ant species are less vulnerable to fragmentation than those of the neotropical E. burchellii, and that D. molestus can survive better in matrix habitat between forests because of several key differences in the foraging and nesting behaviour...

  15. Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormann, Urs; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja; Klein, Nadja; Larbig, Manuel; Valente, Jonathon J; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2016-01-27

    Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in more than 94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world's leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated pollinator availability in fragments by 14.3 times compared with unconnected equivalents, increasing overall pollination success. Plants in patches without corridors showed pollination rates equal to bagged control flowers, indicating pollination failure in isolated fragments. This indicates, for the first time, that corridors benefit tropical forest ecosystems beyond boosting local species richness, by functionally connecting mutualistic network partners. We conclude that small-scale adjustments to landscape configuration safeguard native pollinators and associated pollination services in tropical forest landscapes.

  16. The Effects of Selective Logging Behaviors on Forest Fragmentation and Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rondon, Xanic J.; Cumming, Graeme S; Cossío, Rosa E.; Jane Southworth

    2012-01-01

    To study the impacts of selective logging behaviors on a forest landscape, we developed an intermediate-scale spatial model to link cross-scale interactions of timber harvesting, a fine-scale human activity, with coarse-scale landscape impacts. We used the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model with Holling’s functional response II to simulate selective logging, coupled with a cellular automaton model to simulate logger mobility and forest fragmentation. Three logging scenarios were simulated, ea...

  17. Diversity and similarity of native forest fragments located in the northeast region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Riquetti Corsini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study 26 distributed fragments of native forest in four located hydrographical Basins in the northeast region of Minas Gerais had been showed, with the purpose of analyzing the floristic similarity exists between 26 forest fragments native inserted in four basins in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais and the diversity and evenness of physiognomies studied and groups of fragments formed. Systematic sampling with units was used shows of 1000 m² each, where the sample area varied of 1 the 6 has, as the area I break up of it. We measured the circumference at 1.30m (CAP and the total height and collected botanical material of all individuals with CAP greater or equal to 15.7 cm. Six groups were formed according to the floristic similarity coefficient Sorensen, with four groups there was an association of more than a physiognomy, showing regions of transition within the area. The Shannon diversity index, ranged from 2.236 in deciduous forest to 4.523 in Semideciduous Forest. The maximum and minimum values of evenness index Pielou were 0.850 and 0.616 , respectively. The floristic group 2 (Semideciduous Forest and Cerrado sensu stricto had the highest average value of diversity (3.585 and evenness (0.750 , and group 1 (Deciduous Forest had the lowest values (H': 2.426 and J': 0.687 .

  18. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  19. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  20. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina.

  1. Spatial conservation planning framework for assessing conservation opportunities in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Ana Paula; Rovzar, Corey; Davis, Kelsey S; Fuller, Trevon; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Smith, Thomas B; Silveira, Luis Fabio; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2014-09-01

    Historic rates of habitat change and growing exploitation of natural resources threaten avian biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a global biodiversity hotspot. We implemented a twostage framework for conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest. First, we used ecological niche modeling to predict the distributions of 23 endemic bird species using 19 climatic metrics and 12 spectral and radar remote sensing metrics. Second, we utilized the principle of complementarity to prioritize new sites to augment the Atlantic Forest's existing reserves. The best predictors of bird distributions were precipitation metrics (the seasonality of rainfall) and radar remote sensing metrics (QSCAT). The existing protected areas do not include 10% of the habitat of each of the 23 endemic species. We propose a more economical set of protected areas by reducing the extent to which new sites duplicate the biodiversity content of existing protected areas. There is a high concordance between the proposed conservation areas that we designed using computerized algorithms and Important Bird Areas prioritized by BirdLife International. Insofar as deforestation in the Atlantic Forest is similar to land conversion in other biodiversity hotspots, our methodology is applicable to conservation efforts elsewhere in the world.

  2. Carbon storage in old-growth forests of the Mid-Atlantic: toward better understanding the eastern forest carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C; Thompson, Jonathan R; Epstein, Howard E; Shugart, Herman H

    2015-02-01

    Few old-growth stands remain in the matrix of secondary forests that dominates the eastern North American landscape. These remnant stands offer insight on the potential carbon (C) storage capacity of now-recovering secondary forests. We surveyed the remaining old-growth forests on sites characteristic of the general Mid-Atlantic United States and estimated the size of multiple components of forest C storage. Within and between old-growth stands, variability in C density is high and related to overstory tree species composition. The sites contain 219 ± 46 Mg C/ha (mean ± SD), including live and dead aboveground biomass, leaf litter, and the soil O horizon, with over 20% stored in downed wood and snags. Stands dominated by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) store the most live biomass, while the mixed oak (Quercus spp.) stands overall store more dead wood. Total C density is 30% higher (154 Mg C/ha), and dead wood C density is 1800% higher (46 Mg C/ha) in the old-growth forests than in the surrounding younger forests (120 and 5 Mg C/ha, respectively). The high density of dead wood in old growth relative to secondary forests reflects a stark difference in historical land use and, possibly, the legacy of the local disturbance (e.g., disease) history. Our results demonstrate the potential for dead wood to maintain the sink capacity of secondary forests for many decades to come.

  3. New Meliolaceae from the Brazilian Atlantic forest 2: species on host families Annonaceae, Cecropiaceae, Meliaceae, Piperaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Tiliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Danilo Batista; Firmino, André Luiz; Ferreira-Junior, Walnir Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini

    2013-01-01

    Continuing the study of black mildews in fragments of the Atlantic forest, three new species and five new records are described herein. Irenopsis luheae-grandiflorae, Meliola vicosensis and Meliola xylopia-sericiae are new species. Cecropia hololeuca, Piper gaudichaudianum and Trichilia lepidota are new hosts for Asteridiella leucosykeae, Asteridiella glabroides and Meliola trichiliae respectively. Asteridiella obesa and Meliola psychotriae var. chiococcae are reported for the first time from Brazil. The new species are described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy and tables with main characteristics of morphologically similar specimens with species collected in Viçosa are provided. Other species belonging to Meliolaceae collected on hosts belonging to the Annonaceae, Meliaceae and Tiliaceae in Brazil also were studied.

  4. [The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediack, Sandra E

    2008-06-01

    The effect of forest exploitation--timber and palmito (Euterpe edulis, Palmae) extraction--on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of forests known as palmitals of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina was analyzed. These palmitals are located in Misiones (54 degrees 13' W and 25 degrees 41' S). Three 1 ha permanent plots were established: two in the "intangible" zone of the Iguazu National Park (PNI), and another in an exploited forest site bordering the PNI. Three 0.2 ha non-permanent plots were also measured. One was located in the PNI reserve zone where illegal palmito extraction occurs. The other two were in logged forest. All trees and palmitos with DBH >10 cm were identified and DBH and height were measured. For each of the six sites, richness and diversity of tree species, floristic composition, number of endemic species, and density of harvestable tree species were estimated. The harvest of E. edulis increases density of other tree species, diminishing palmito density. Forest explotation (logging and palmito harvest) is accompanied by an increase in diversity and density of heliophilic species, which have greater timber value in the region. However, this explotation also diminishes the density of palmito, of endemic species which normally grow in low densities, and of species found on the IUCN Red List. Results suggest that forest structure may be managed for timber and palmito production. The "intangible" zone of the PNI has the greatest conservation value in the Atlantic Forest, since a greater number of endemisms and endangered species are found here.

  5. Caracterização da matéria orgânica do solo em fragmentos de mata atlântica e em plantios abandonados de eucalipto Quality of soil organic matter in fragments of atlantic forest and abandoned eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana do Couto Miranda

    2007-10-01

    capacidade de ceder elétrons para reações químicas do solo.The organic matter dynamics in Atlantic forest ecosystems must be understood to ensure the efficiency of conservation programs. Chemical characteristics of humic substances are important because they reflect the soil genesis processes and soil management, and can be used as indicator of the organic matter quality. The purpose of this study was to test the organic matter quality as a marker of the soil environment in areas of native Atlantic forest developed on a distrophyc Gleysol and a distrophyc Cambisol and in abandoned plantations of eucalyptus of different ages, at the União Biological Reserve, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the humified fractions of the soil organic matter and humic acids were evaluated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, in two soil layers (0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. Soil fertility of the Biological Reserve was very low, representing a limiting factor for the humification process. Humic substances represented less than 50 % of the oxidized carbon, indicating that most of the organic matter consists of non-humic substances. Consequently, forest litterfall plays a central role in the plant/microorganism nutrition. The relative distribution of the humic fraction was not altered by the plant cover or soil class. The chemical nature of the humic acids was similar to fulvic acids. These characteristics were expressed by a low carbon content, high H/C and O/C ratios and high acidity values which resulted in humified material with low chemical evolution. Infrared spectroscopy indicated the effect of the soil class and plant cover on the chemical quality of the humic acids. The fluorescence intensity of humified material isolated from the Atlantic forest area was high, suggesting higher lability and capacity to release electrons for chemical reactions in the soil.

  6. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  7. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  8. ASSESSING PASSIVE RESTORATION OF AN ATLANTIC FOREST SITE FOLLOWING A Cupressus lusitanica MILL. PLANTATION CLEARCUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Cielo-Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus lusitanica has a relatively low potential for fostering colonization of native species beneath the forest canopy. However, following the clearcut of a Cupressus lusitanica plantation in the State Forest of Avaré (SFA, southeastern Brazil, a vigorous regeneration of Atlantic forest tree and shrub species was observed. We evaluated the passive restoration of this site by comparing its regenerating vegetation to the vegetation established in man-made gaps in Atlantic forest in the State Park of Cantareira (SPC, southeastern Brazil. The frequency distribution of dispersal syndromes for species and the rate of reduction in abundance of pioneer species in a rank/abundance plot did not differ between the two areas. The rarefaction curves for species richness and diversity of the SPC fall below the corresponding curves of the SFA. The proportions of non-pioneer species and of individuals of non-pioneer species were greater in the SFA. The frequency distribution of dispersal syndromes for individuals differed between the two areas due mainly to a more conspicuous predominance of zoochory in the SFA. The rate of reduction in abundance of non-pioneer species in a rank/abundance plot was smaller in the SFA. We concluded that passive restoration may successfully recover native vegetation attributes following the clearcut of forest plantations without conspicuous regeneration of native species beneath the forest canopy. However, this phenomenon may be influenced by particular properties of the forest species, logging practices and faunal seed dispersal integrity.

  9. Ecological Restoration and Reforestation of Fragmented Forests in Kianjavato, Madagascar

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    Christophe Manjaribe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reforestation effort in Kianjavato Commune in southeast Madagascar is presented that combines native diversity with rapidly growing introduced and native pioneer trees. This work utilizes a three-tiered corridor design that capitalizes on the region’s mountainous terrain. The process of seed selection, transplantation, and survival rate of seedlings over a 16 month period is reported. The uppermost 50% of each mountain is planted with 38 woody species and most closely approximates native forest. This tier was divided into two categories, pioneer and secondary species. Most of the pioneer species were not native; however, results showed that four fast-growing, environmentally-tolerant native species could be suitable alternatives: Streblus mauritianus, Syzygium bernieri, Treculia madagascariensis and Uapaca thouarsii. More than 70,000 seeds of secondary species were extracted from fecal samples from wild, free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs; the majority of which germinated significantly better after gut passage. The most effective pretreatment that enhanced germination was to scarify unwashed seeds. Commercially valuable trees, belonging to the community members, were grown on the lower half of each mountain. Lastly, the various contributions of the community are described along with agroforestry development plans designed to reduce pressure on forest resources and generate supplemental income.

  10. Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  11. Social-Ecological Changes in a Quilombola Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kjersti

    2014-01-01

    Through a combined adaptive cycle and political ecology approach, this article explores how the Afro-Brazilian Quilombolas of Bombas, living inside the protected area of PETAR, respond to and shape social-ecological changes in the Atlantic Forest. Field data reveal that both environmental restrictions and social policies of state transfer payments and food packages have contributed to decreased engagement in agricultural practices, loss of traditional knowledge, and reduced agro-biodiversity. The claim to land rights based on a Quilombola identity and recent negotiations with forest authorities insinuate a shift of this trend. Contrary to dominant conservation narratives, the findings indicate that small-scale shifting cultivation practices by the Quilombolas have the potential to increase structural ecological complexity of the Atlantic Forest. The article therefore argues that legalization of settlement and subsistence activities is important not only for livelihood security and social cohesion of Bombas inhabitants, but also possibly for biodiversity conservation.

  12. Agaricomycetes in low land and montane Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil

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    Tatiana Gibertoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain Forest represents a group of extra-amazonic forests, among which the coastal and montane (“brejos de altitude” are the most common in Northeast Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013, 110 field trips were performed in nine reserves in the domain of the Atlantic Rain Forest. Two thousand two hundred sixty three Agaricomycetes were collected and represented 271 species, among which several new species to science, new occurrences to the continent, country, region, biome and States were found. Besides recently collected material, 309 exsiccates of Agaricomycetes deposited in the Herbarium URM were revised and represented 38 species, among which several new occurrences to the region and States. The results indicate the importance of the constant inventories and also of revisions of material deposited in herbaria as tools to improve the knowledge about the Brazilian micota.

  13. A new species of Lonchophylla (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, with comments on L. bokermanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo L; Moratelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clarify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type locality of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla peracchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats.

  14. Hepáticas (Marchantiophyta de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica na Serra da Jibóia, Município de Santa Teresinha, BA, Brasil Hepatics (Marchantiophyta from a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Serra da Jibóia, in the Municipality of Santa Teresinha, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados do levantamento das hepáticas de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, no Município de Santa Teresinha, Bahia. Foram registradas 70 espécies pertencentes a 41 gêneros e 14 famílias: Aneuraceae (2, Bryopteridaceae (2, Calypogeiaceae (1, Cephaloziaceae (2, Geocalycaceae (2, Herbertaceae (1, Jubulaceae (4, Lejeuneaceae (37, Lepidoziaceae (4, Metzgeriaceae (2, Pallaviciniaceae (2, Plagiochilaceae (8, Radulaceae (2, Trichocoleaceae (1. A família Lejeuneaceae é representada por 53% das espécies. A comunidade corticícola apresentou a maior riqueza específica (67%, seguida pelas epífila (33% e epíxila (14%. Cinco tipos de formas de crescimento foram reconhecidas: trama (69%, talosa (9%, tapete (19%, pendente (3% e tufo (1%. Os táxons registrados para a Serra da Jibóia correspondem àqueles mais característicos de florestas tropicais baixo montana e submontana.This paper provid the results of the survey of hepatics at Serra da Jibóia, remaining Atlantic Forest, Santa Teresinha Municipality, Bahia. Seventy especies were recorded belonging to 41 genera and 14 families: Aneuraceae (2, Bryopteridaceae (2, Calypogeiaceae (1, Cephaloziaceae (2, Geocalycaceae (2, Herbertaceae (1, Jubulaceae (4, Lejeuneaceae (37, Lepidoziaceae (4, Metzgeriaceae (2, Pallaviciniaceae (2, Plagiochilaceae (8, Radulaceae (2, Trichocoleaceae (1. The family Lejeuneaceae were represents for 52,9% of the species. Three substrates were colonized: living trunks (67%, trunks in decomposition (14% and leaves (33%. Five growth-forms were found: mat (69%, thallose (9%, carpet (19%, pendent (3% and turf (1%. The results are similar to these found in tropical rainforest lower montane and submontane.

  15. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  16. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

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    Ainhoa Magrach

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity. These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches. Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  17. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  18. Hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture in the Atlantic rain forest region

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    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously covered by tropical rain forest. To reach this goal we measured the precipitation, soil matric potential, discharge, surface runoff and water table levels during one year. The results indicated that there is a decrease in surface soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, as low intensity rainfall prevails, the lower water conductivity does not necessarily leads to a substantially higher surface runoff generation. Regarding soil water matric potential, the pasture presented higher moisture levels than forest during the dry season. This increase in soil moisture implies in higher water table recharge that, in turn, explain the higher runoff ratio. This way, land-use change conversion from forest to pasture implies a higher annual streamflow in pasture catchments. Nonetheless, this increase in runoff due to forest conversion to pasture implies in losses of biological diversity as well as lower soil protection.

  19. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T. S.; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004–2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation.

  20. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T. S.; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004–2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation. PMID:28195145

  1. Effects of forest fragmentation on phenological patterns and reproductive success of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Quesada, Mauricio; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lobo, Jorge A

    2006-08-01

    Spatial isolation caused by forest fragmentation and temporal isolation caused by asynchronous flowering of plants have been proposed as important factors that affect the reproduction ofplant populations. In a 4-year study, we determined the effects of forest fragmentation and spatial isolation on flowering phenology and reproductive success of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia ([Kunth] Britton & Rose). We conducted our study in the dry forest of Mexico and compared populations in two habitat conditions based on density and environmental conditions: (1) disturbed habitat (four populations of reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by agriculturalfields or pastures) and (2) undisturbed habitat (three populations of groups of >6 reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by undisturbed mature forest). We compared the following variables within these populations over 4 years: flowering overlap, proportion of individuals with flowers and fruit, total flower production, total fruit production, fruit set, seed production, and seed abortion. Little overlap in flowering occurred among the populations in the two habitat conditions. The flowering period of trees in the disturbed habitat initiated between 15 to 20 days before the flowering period of trees in the undisturbed habitat during 3 years. Flowering of trees in the undisturbed habitat peaked at the end of the flowering period of the trees in the disturbed habitat. The proportion of trees that flowered was greater in the undisturbed habitat. Nevertheless, total flower production was greater in the disturbed habitat and these differences were maintained across 3 years. The proportion of individuals that produced fruit did not differ across habitat conditions but did differ across years. Total fruit production was greater in the disturbed habitat, but fruit set and seed production were the same across years and between habitat conditions. Seed abortion varied over years between habitats. We concluded that forest

  2. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

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    Mayara Lautert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp., Polypodiaceae (18 spp., Aspleniaceae (13 spp., and Thelypteridaceae (11 spp.. Asplenium (12 spp., Thelypteris (10 spp., and Blechnum (seven spp. were among the most represented genera. The occurrence of Dicksonia sellowiana was noteworthy because it was associated with seasonal semideciduous forest and is threatened in Brazil. Similarity among areas was determined by a cluster analysis (UPGMA and Sørensen’s index and the relation between similarity and geographic distance was determined through Matel’s analysis. The analyses revealed greater similarity among the four study areas and, for these areas as a whole, greater similarity to fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, which is evidence that these areas have similar environmental conditions.

  3. Spatial patterns of tree community dynamics are detectable in a small (4 ha and disturbed fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic forest Padrões espaciais de dinâmicas da comunidade de arbórea num fragmento pequeno (4 ha e perturbado podem ser detectados

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    Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the tree community of a fragment of tropical semideciduous forest was investigated in south-eastern Brazil. Surveys were carried out in 2000 and 2005 in 29 20 × 20 m plots. The main purpose was to assess the possibility of detecting spatial patterns of dynamics that could be related to the heterogeneity of both the environment and disturbance history in a small forest area (4.0 ha. Rates of mortality and recruitment of trees and gain and loss of basal area were obtained for the whole sample, four pre-defined soil habitats, diameter classes and twelve tree populations. The tree community was rather unstable in the period, once mortality rates surpassed recruitment rates and loss rates of basal area surpassed gain rates all-over the area denoting the prevalence of a degradation process, possibly triggered by a clear felling in 1985 that reduced the area of the fragment in 26%. The tree community dynamics showed no spatial autocorrelation but was not evenly distributed throughout the fragment. This spatial heterogeneity was chiefly determined by the disturbance history of each site while environmental heterogeneity played a secondary but significant role. The main causes of disturbance heterogeneity were the extension of the adjacent felled area, cattle trampling and selective logging. The environmental variables that most strongly correlated with the variations of the dynamics rates were those related to the availability of light, water and mineral nutrients. In contrast with the overall trends, three understory species expanded in the period, possibly at the expense of the steeply declining density of mid-sized trees.A dinâmica da comunidade arbórea e de doze populações foi investigada em um fragmento de Floresta Semidecídua, com base em inventários conduzidos em 2000 e 2005 em 29 parcelas de 20 × 20 m. O objetivo principal foi verificar se seria possível detectar padrões de dinâmica relacionados à heterogeneidade

  4. Impact of human pressure and forest fragmentation on the Endangered Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, Nelly; Rantier, Yann; Foulquier, Adrien; Qarro, Mohamed; Chillasse, Lahcen; Vallet, Dominique; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Butet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Overexploitation of forests by humans can lead to highly fragmented populations of forest-dependent species that have poor dispersal abilities. We tested the influence of habitat quality, landscape structure and human pressure on densities of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the largest wild population, in the Middle Atlas of Morocco. We surveyed 14 forest fragments of 5-142 km2 that are separated from each other by an inhospitable matrix. We estimated the habita...

  5. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  6. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

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    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  7. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests.

  8. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

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    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in

  9. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Affects Floral Visitors but Not the Structure of Individual-Based Palm-Pollinator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  10. Who wants to conserve remaining forest fragments in the Manompana Corridor?

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    Hans R. Felber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contiguous forests in Madagascar are continuously converted into forest fragments due to deforestation, and dispersed into landscape mosaics dominated by agriculture. These fragments are of increasing importance for biodiversity conservation as well as for the well being of rural inhabitants, providing a high diversity of timber and non- timber forest products. An increasing number of international projects are therefore trying to preserve remaining forests and to transfer the management of these forests to local communities. However, it is not known how important the preservation of forest fragments is to local people. We therefore explore the importance of forest fragments as a source of cash income to different groups separated by wealth level and access to forest resources. A multi-method research approach was taken, based on score application exercises as well as interviews with individual households and focus groups. Our study site was located at the east coast of Madagascar in the Manompana corridor. Results show that some groups are significantly more interested in the preservation of forest fragments than others. Interest is significantly related to the wealth of local inhabitants as well as to the walking distance between villages and forest resources. Nevertheless, interest in resource preservation does not depend on how important fragments are to local people, but rather on the awareness about resource scarcity. RésuméEn raison d’une forte déforestation sur la côte est de Madagascar, de nombreux massifs forestiers d’un seul tenant et de vastes écosystèmes interconnectés ont été détruits, laissant des fragments de forêts qui s’intègrent dans une mosaïque paysagère dominée par l’agriculture. Ces fragments gagnent en importance. Ils jouent un rôle de premier plan dans les réseaux de biodiversité en assurant un certain niveau de connectivité. Mais les fragments sont essentiels au bien - être de la population

  11. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  12. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Peter

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter. In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore

  13. Patch size and isolation predict plant species density in a naturally fragmented forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Montiel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the effects of patch size and isolation on plant species density have yielded contrasting results. However, much of the available evidence comes from relatively recent anthropogenic forest fragments which have not reached equilibrium between extinction and immigration. This is a critical issue because the theory clearly states that only when equilibrium has been reached can the number of species be accurately predicted by habitat size and isolation. Therefore, species density could be better predicted by patch size and isolation in an ecosystem that has been fragmented for a very long time. We tested whether patch area, isolation and other spatial variables explain variation among forest patches in plant species density in an ecosystem where the forest has been naturally fragmented for long periods of time on a geological scale. Our main predictions were that plant species density will be positively correlated with patch size, and negatively correlated with isolation (distance to the nearest patch, connectivity, and distance to the continuous forest). We surveyed the vascular flora (except lianas and epiphytes) of 19 forest patches using five belt transects (50×4 m each) per patch (area sampled per patch = 0.1 ha). As predicted, plant species density was positively associated (logarithmically) with patch size and negatively associated (linearly) with patch isolation (distance to the nearest patch). Other spatial variables such as patch elevation and perimeter, did not explain among-patch variability in plant species density. The power of patch area and isolation as predictors of plant species density was moderate (together they explain 43% of the variation), however, a larger sample size may improve the explanatory power of these variables. Patch size and isolation may be suitable predictors of long-term plant species density in terrestrial ecosystems that are naturally and anthropogenically fragmented.

  14. Patch size and isolation predict plant species density in a naturally fragmented forest.

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    Miguel A Munguía-Rosas

    Full Text Available Studies of the effects of patch size and isolation on plant species density have yielded contrasting results. However, much of the available evidence comes from relatively recent anthropogenic forest fragments which have not reached equilibrium between extinction and immigration. This is a critical issue because the theory clearly states that only when equilibrium has been reached can the number of species be accurately predicted by habitat size and isolation. Therefore, species density could be better predicted by patch size and isolation in an ecosystem that has been fragmented for a very long time. We tested whether patch area, isolation and other spatial variables explain variation among forest patches in plant species density in an ecosystem where the forest has been naturally fragmented for long periods of time on a geological scale. Our main predictions were that plant species density will be positively correlated with patch size, and negatively correlated with isolation (distance to the nearest patch, connectivity, and distance to the continuous forest. We surveyed the vascular flora (except lianas and epiphytes of 19 forest patches using five belt transects (50×4 m each per patch (area sampled per patch = 0.1 ha. As predicted, plant species density was positively associated (logarithmically with patch size and negatively associated (linearly with patch isolation (distance to the nearest patch. Other spatial variables such as patch elevation and perimeter, did not explain among-patch variability in plant species density. The power of patch area and isolation as predictors of plant species density was moderate (together they explain 43% of the variation, however, a larger sample size may improve the explanatory power of these variables. Patch size and isolation may be suitable predictors of long-term plant species density in terrestrial ecosystems that are naturally and anthropogenically fragmented.

  15. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guedje, N.M.; Lejoly, J.; Nkongmeneck, B.A.; Jonkers, W.B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,

  16. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

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    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  17. Floristic diversity analysis along a fragmentation gradients: a case study of beech forests in the Molisean Appenines (southern Italy

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    Frate L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of fragmentation of natural habitats is increasing exponentially worldwide and represents one of the foremost threats to biological diversity. Forest fragmentation is considered to heavily affect the demographic and genetic structure of forest plant populations. Habitat fragmentation is a landscape process occurring when areas of continuous habitat are broken into smaller and discontinuous patches. In this paper we analyzed the effects of fragmentation on vascular plant diversity of Fagus sylvatica forest in central Italy (habitat of Community interest -92/43/ECC- “Appenine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex” - cod. 9210*. First, by integrating five parameters that describe beech forest patches structure (patch area, perimeter, shape index, corea area, euclidean nearest neighbor we identified three levels of fragmentation: high, medium and absent. Then the vascular plants of each level of fragmentation were sampled following a random stratified design. The diversity of vascular plant species was analyzed considering two species groups: all sampled species and “diagnostic” species of the habitat 9210* (sensu Directive 92/43/ECC. We compared the biodiversity patterns of the different fragmentation levels by using rarefaction curves and Rényi’s profiles. We also tested the significance of the founded differences by a bootstrapping procedure. The diversity pattern of the two species groups (diagnostics and all species showed two opposite trends. As the diversity of the entire pool of species increased on fragmented beech forests the diversity of the diagnostic group decreased. The differences between diversity values of high and low fragmentation levels resulted significant. Our results emphasize the existence of two diagnostic species: Cardamine kitaibelii and Paris quadrifolia that are indicators of not fragmented beech forests. Additionally the diversity pattern of the diagnostics species allow us to propose them as

  18. Protected areas network and conservation efforts concerning threatened amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Campos,F.S.; Llorente, G. A.; L. Rincón; R. Lourenço-de-Moraes; Solé, M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common conservation strategies used to preserve threatened species is the establishment of protected areas (PAs), providing a maximum representation of biodiversity with the smallest possible cost. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the 35 global biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities, having high rate of habitat loss, which is one of the main factors driving threatened amphibians to extinction. Considering that amphibians are the vertebrate g...

  19. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  20. Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Galetti; Ricardo S. Bovendorp; Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Carlos O. A. Gussoni; Marcos Rodrigues; Ariane D. Alvarez; Guimarães Jr., Paulo R.; Kaiser Alves

    2009-01-01

    Islands can serve as model systems for understanding how biological invasions affect native species. Here we examine the negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil. Anchieta Island has the highest density of mammals of the entire Atlantic forest, especially nest predators such as marmosets and coatis, introduced more than 20 years ago. This indiscriminate introduction of mammals may have affected directly the ...

  1. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF PALMS (ARECACEAE IN A FOREST FRAGMENT OF LOWLAND DENSE HUMID FOREST IN SOUTH BRAZIL

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    Laura Cappelatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the Dense Humid Forest is reduced to less than 5% of its original cover. However, it still has the highest richness of palms in this state, which constitute an important and economically relevant group. Environmental and demographic aspects of plant populations in forest fragments are of great importance for their management and conservation. We conducted a study on the spatial distribution and age structure of five palm species in a forest fragment at the municipality of Três Cachoeiras, in the north coast of Rio Grande do Sul. We delimited 25 10×10 m plots and counted the number of individuals in the stages of seedling, juvenile and adult for each palm species. Aggregation Indices were calculated with software SADIEShell. We performed variation partitioning analyses among species distribution and environmental variables canopy openness and soil moisture. A total of 1,443 plants were counted and the most abundant species was Euterpe edulis. The average density was of 57.72 ind. 100 m-2. Three species showed a pattern of “inverse J”, which indicated that they have a potential for regenerating in that palm community. The predominant spatial pattern was aggregated (Ia>1 and canopy openness did not influence species abundances. Only the distribution of Bactris setosa and Geonoma gamiova, both understory species, was explained by soil moisture, suggesting that other abiotic or biotic factors may be influencing the spatial arrangement of the canopy species.

  2. Ecology of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Carlos Brisola; Santos-Neto Luiz Gonzaga; Lozovei Ana Leuch

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influence...

  3. Gene Flow of a Forest-Dependent Bird across a Fragmented Landscape.

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    Rachael V Adams

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and anthropogenic barriers within riparian systems have fragmented these forested habitats. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to assess the fine-scale genetic structure of a forest-dependent species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus, along 10 different river systems in Southern Alberta. Using a landscape genetic approach, landscape features (e.g., land cover were found to have a significant effect on patterns of genetic differentiation. Populations are genetically structured as a result of natural breaks in continuous habitat at small spatial scales, but the artificial barriers we tested do not appear to restrict gene flow. Dispersal between rivers is impeded by grasslands, evident from isolation of nearby populations (~ 50 km apart, but also within river systems by large treeless canyons (>100 km. Significant population genetic differentiation within some rivers corresponded with zones of different cottonwood (riparian poplar tree species and their hybrids. This study illustrates the importance of considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation at small spatial scales as well as other ecological processes to gain a better understanding of how organisms respond to their environmental connectivity. Here, even in a common and widespread songbird with high dispersal potential, small breaks in continuous habitats strongly influenced the spatial patterns of genetic

  4. Species interactions regulate the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem function in tropical forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Tom P; Lees, Alexander C; Seddon, Nathalie; Macgregor, Hannah E A; Darski, Bianca; Aleixo, Alexandre; Bonsall, Michael B; Tobias, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    Competitive interactions among species with similar ecological niches are known to regulate the assembly of biological communities. However, it is not clear whether such forms of competition can predict the collapse of communities and associated shifts in ecosystem function in the face of environmental change. Here, we use phylogenetic and functional trait data to test whether communities of two ecologically important guilds of tropical birds (frugivores and insectivores) are structured by species interactions in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape. In both guilds, we found that forest patch size, quality, and degree of isolation influence the phylogenetic and functional trait structure of communities, with small, degraded, or isolated forest patches having an increased signature of competition (i.e., phylogenetic and functional trait overdispersion in relation to null models). These results suggest that local extinctions in the context of fragmentation are nonrandom, with a consistent bias toward more densely occupied regions of niche space. We conclude that the loss of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is mediated by niche-based competitive interactions among species, with potentially far-reaching implications for key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal and plant damage by phytophagous insects.

  5. Got Dung? Resource Selection by Dung Beetles in Neotropical Forest Fragments and Cattle Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, A; Escobar, F; MacGregor-Fors, I; Moreno, C E

    2016-10-01

    Both the impact of habitat modification on the food preferences of species and its impact on ecosystem functioning are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed food selection by dung beetles in 80 tropical forest fragments and their adjacent cattle pastures in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Ten pitfall traps were placed at each site, half baited with human dung and the other half with fish carrion. We assessed dung beetle food selection and classified any specialization in resource use quantitatively using a multinomial classification model. We collected 15,445 beetles belonging to 42 species, 8747 beetles (38 species) in forest fragments and 6698 beetles (29 species) in cattle pastures. Twenty-five species were present in both habitats. Of all the beetles captured, 76% were caught in dung traps (11,727 individuals) and 24% in carrion traps (3718 individuals). We found 21 species of dung specialists, 7 carrion specialists, 8 generalists, and 6 species too rare to classify. The bait most frequently selected by beetles in this study was dung in both forests and pastures. Specialists tended to remain specialists in both habitats, while generalists tended to change their selection of bait type depending on the habitat. In summary, our results show that replacing forests with cattle pastures modifies the patterns of resource selection by dung beetles and this could affect ecosystem functioning.

  6. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

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    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  7. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Milena Wachlevski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species, among which Aplastodiscus cochranae, A. ehrhardti, and Hypsiboas poaju are included in the list of endangered species in the state. The highest number of species was associated to spring and summer. The most frequent anuran species were H. bischoffi, Adenomera araucaria, and Physalaemus nanus, registered throughout the study period. The daily activity of males was concentrated between 8 p.m. and 12 p.m., but some species keep vocalizing overnight, indicating that vocal activity can differ among species undergoing the same weather conditions. The diversity of anurans recorded in our study was high, including endangered species and species with poor biological knowledge, reinforcing the relevance of Serra do Tabuleiro as a priority area for preserving the Atlantic Forest.

  8. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  9. Vascular epiphytic flora of a high montane environment of Brazilian Atlantic Forest: composition and floristic relationships with other ombrophilous forests

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    Samyra Gomes Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Only a few studies regarding vascular epiphytes have been conducted in mixed ombrophilous forests (MOF in Serra da Mantiqueira, a mountainous environment in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where the relationships of epiphytic flora with other physiognomies are unknown. This study aimed to survey the epiphytes of a MOF remnant located in Serra da Mantiqueira, and to analyze the floristic relationships with ombrophilous forests of the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. The checklist was compared with 51 other areas composed of ombrophilous forests and/or ecotones with other physiognomies using UPGMA (with Sørensen index, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. We recorded 138 species, and Orchidaceae and Polypodiaceae were the richest families (51 and 23 species, respectively. The UPGMA showed the importance of physiognomy and elevation in the floristic relationships, and CCA reinforced the influence of elevation, in addition to the shortest distance to the ocean and minimum annual temperature; however, in this analysis, the physiognomies showed little influence on the relationships. The epiphytic flora of MOF of Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil has different relationships compared with the data available for shrubs and trees, suggesting a greater importance of phorophytic species than geographical distance and, to some extent, environmental variables.

  10. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

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    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively. Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations

  11. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  12. Biodiversity of leaf-litter ants in fragmented tropical rainforests of Borneo: the value of publically and privately managed forest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Tawatao, N; Lucey, JM; M Senior (Referee); Benedick, S; Vun Khen, C; Hill, JK; Hamer, KC

    2014-01-01

    In view of the rapid rate of expansion of agriculture in tropical regions, attention has focused on the potential for privately-managed rainforest patches within agricultural land to contribute to biodiversity conservation. However, these sites generally differ in their history of forest disturbance and management compared with other forest fragments, and more information is required on the biodiversity value of these privately-managed sites, particularly in oil-palm dominated landscapes of S...

  13. Temporal bird community dynamics are strongly affected by landscape fragmentation in a Central American tropical forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandón, A.C.; Perelman, S.B.; Ramírez, M.; López, A.; Javier, O.; Robbins, Chandler S.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the main causes of species extinctions, particularly in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of tropical bird communities in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation in eastern Guatemala. We evaluated five bird community dynamic parameters for forest specialists and generalists: (1) species extinction, (2) species turnover, (3) number of colonizing species, (4) relative species richness, and (5) a homogeneity index. For each of 24 landscapes, community dynamic parameters were estimated from bird point count data, for the 1998–1999 and 2008–2009 periods, accounting for species’ detection probability. Forest specialists had higher extinction rates and a smaller number of colonizing species in landscapes with higher fragmentation, thus having lower species richness in both time periods. Alternatively, forest generalists elicited a completely different pattern, showing a curvilinear association to forest fragmentation for most parameters. Thus, greater community dynamism for forest generalists was shown in landscapes with intermediate levels of fragmentation. Our study supports general theory regarding the expected negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the temporal dynamics of biotic communities, particularly for forest specialists, providing strong evidence from understudied tropical bird communities.

  14. Diversity of bryophytes in priority areas for conservation in the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil

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    Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest is the region with the greatest diversity of bryophytes in the country. However, knowledge about bryophytes is irregularly distributed among Brazilian regions. Therefore, we aimed to contribute to knowledge about bryophytes on a regional scale in the northeastern Atlantic forest, to identify the centers of bryophyte diversity in that region, and to reiterate the importance and identify locations for which new protected areas should be created. We built a database of bryophytes in 23 locations of the region, based on a literature review and new floristic inventories. To identify the locations of greatest relevance to bryophyte conservation, we considered 1 total and endemic species richness, 2 phylogenetic diversity (PD, and 3 functional diversity (proportion of shade specialists. The northeastern Atlantic rainforest contains 396 spp., representing 26% of the taxa occurring in the country, 13 of which are endemic. Generalist species predominated (164 spp., followed by shade (133 spp. and sun (92 spp. specialists. The Murici Ecological Station had the highest richness, number of endemic species, and phylogenetic diversity.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2012-03-01

    Dendrophryniscus is an early diverging clade of bufonids represented by few small-bodied species distributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. We used mitochondrial (414 bp of 12S, 575 bp of 16S genes) and nuclear DNA (785 bp of RAG-1) to investigate phylogenetic relationships and the timing of diversification within the genus. These molecular data were gathered from 23 specimens from 19 populations, including eight out of the 10 nominal species of the genus as well as Rhinella boulengeri. Analyses also included sequences of representatives of 18 other bufonid genera that were publically available. We also examined morphological characters to analyze differences within Dendrophryniscus. We found deep genetic divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, dating back to Eocene. Morphological data corroborate this distinction. We thus propose to assign the Amazonian species to a new genus, Amazonella. The species currently named R. boulengeri, which has been previously assigned to the genus Rhamphophryne, is shown to be closely related to Dendrophryniscus species. Our findings illustrate cryptic trends in bufonid morphological evolution, and point to a deep history of persistence and diversification within the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. We discuss our results in light of available paleoecological data and the biogeographic patterns observed in other similarly distributed groups.

  16. An Experimental Test of Competition among Mice, Chipmunks, and Squirrels in Deciduous Forest Fragments.

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    Jesse L Brunner

    Full Text Available Mixed hardwood forests of the northeast United States support a guild of granivorous/omnivorous rodents including gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus, and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus. These species coincide geographically, co-occur locally, and consume similar food resources. Despite their idiosyncratic responses to landscape and patch variables, patch occupancy models suggest that competition may influence their respective distributions and abundances, and accordingly their influence on the rest of the forest community. Experimental studies, however, are wanting. We present the result of a large-scale experiment in which we removed white-footed mice or gray squirrels from small, isolated forest fragments in Dutchess County, New York, and added these mammals to other fragments in order to alter the abundance of these two species. We then used mark-recapture analyses to quantify the population-level and individual-level effects on resident mice, squirrels, and chipmunks. Overall, we found little evidence of competition. There were essentially no within-season numerical responses to changes in the abundance of putative competitors. Moreover, while individual-level responses (apparent survival and capture probability did vary with competitor densities in some models, these effects were often better explained by site-specific parameters and were restricted to few of the 19 sites we studied. With only weak or nonexistent competition among these three common rodent species, we expect their patterns of habitat occupancy and population dynamics to be largely independent of one another.

  17. Temporal variation of soil entomofauna from an urban forest fragment in southern Brazil

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    Marta Custodio Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are important environmental bioindicators, due to the species diversity and wide range of habitats occupied. The present study evaluated the temporal variation in composition and abundance of soil insects in an urban forest fragment in the municipality of Toledo, in the state of Paraná, by analyzing their abundance and seasonality. Monthly samplings were conducted between August 2011 and July 2012 at four sampling sites within the fragment. At each site, three pitfall traps remained exposed for 48 hours. Captured insects were fixed in alcohol, sorted and identified. Throughout the study period, we captured 11,568 insects from 11 orders and 35 families. Coleoptera was the richest order (12 families, followed by Diptera and Hemiptera (5, Hymenoptera and Orthoptera (3. The order Hymenoptera was the most abundant (4,789 individuals, followed by Coleoptera (4,630 and Diptera (1,985. Coleoptera was represented mainly by the families Staphylinidae and Silphidae. Formicidae (Hymenoptera was the least abundant in colder months. Collembola was positively correlated with soil moisture. In general, the insect fauna in the forest fragment exhibited characteristics of the fauna from impacted habitats, that is, low diversity of families and dominance of generalist groups.

  18. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  19. Impacts of forest fragmentation on species richness: a hierarchical approach to community modelling

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    Zipkin, Elise F.; DeWan, Amielle; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    1. Species richness is often used as a tool for prioritizing conservation action. One method for predicting richness and other summaries of community structure is to develop species-specific models of occurrence probability based on habitat or landscape characteristics. However, this approach can be challenging for rare or elusive species for which survey data are often sparse. 2. Recent developments have allowed for improved inference about community structure based on species-specific models of occurrence probability, integrated within a hierarchical modelling framework. This framework offers advantages to inference about species richness over typical approaches by accounting for both species-level effects and the aggregated effects of landscape composition on a community as a whole, thus leading to increased precision in estimates of species richness by improving occupancy estimates for all species, including those that were observed infrequently. 3. We developed a hierarchical model to assess the community response of breeding birds in the Hudson River Valley, New York, to habitat fragmentation and analysed the model using a Bayesian approach. 4. The model was designed to estimate species-specific occurrence and the effects of fragment area and edge (as measured through the perimeter and the perimeter/area ratio, P/A), while accounting for imperfect detection of species. 5. We used the fitted model to make predictions of species richness within forest fragments of variable morphology. The model revealed that species richness of the observed bird community was maximized in small forest fragments with a high P/A. However, the number of forest interior species, a subset of the community with high conservation value, was maximized in large fragments with low P/A. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the responses of both individual, and groups of species, to environmental heterogeneity while illustrating the utility

  20. Ecology of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  1. Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, C B; Santos-Neto, L G; Lozovei, A L

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  2. Deforestation and fragmentation of natural forests in the upper Changhua watershed, Hainan, China: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jian-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The Changhua watershed is a center of endemism for plants and birds and the cradle of Hainan's main rivers. However, this area has experienced recent and ongoing deforestation and habitat fragmentation. To quantify habitat loss and fragmentation of natural forests, as well as the land-cover changes in the Changhua watershed, we analyzed Landsat images obtained in 1988, 1995, and 2005. Land-cover dynamics analysis showed that natural forests increased in area (97,909 to 104,023 ha) from 1988 to 1995 but decreased rapidly to 76,306 ha over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily throughout the study period while pulp plantations rapidly expanded after 1995. Similar patterns of land cover change were observed in protected areas, indicating a lack of enforcement. Natural forests conversion to rubber and pulp plantations has a general negative effect on biodiversity, primarily through habitat fragmentation. The fragmentation analysis showed that natural forests area was reduced and patch number increased, while patch size and connectivity decreased. These land-cover changes threatened local biodiversity, especially island endemic species. Both natural forests losses and fragmentation should be stopped by strict enforcement to prevent further damage. Preserving the remaining natural forests and enforcing the status of protected areas should be a management priority to maximize the watershed's biodiversity conservation value.

  3. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

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    Michela Balestri

    Full Text Available The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  4. Phytosociology analysis of a fragment of Seasonal Deciduous Forest: Parque Estadual do Turvo, RS, Brazil

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    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem formed by the Seasonal Deciduous Forest (SDF predominates in the region of Alto Uruguay in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to analyze descriptively the floristic composition and the phytosociology of trees from a fragment of SDF present in Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET located in the Municipality of Derrubadas, Rio Grande do Sul State (Yucumã forest. We used the method of fixed area, based on 18 sample units with 1,000 m2 installed randomly oriented by the main road of the park. All wood species with diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (DBH greater than 10 cm were measured and identified. It was observed the presence of 842 individuals belonging to 32 families, 67 genera and 83 species (12% were not identified. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae. Shannon index estimated was 3.72.

  5. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  6. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil.

  7. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

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    Hermann Behling

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa. The calculated average influx of pollen rain from the native Atlantic rain forest was 12465 pollen grains per cm² and year. The influx from the ± 50 years old and from the 7 years old secondary forest was relatively low (4112 and 3667 grains per cm² and year, respectively compared to the undisturbed rain forest. The occurrence of pollen grains of herbs and fern spores were significantly higher in the secondary forests than in the undisturbed rain forest.Estudou-se a relação entre a Floresta Tropical Atlântica sul brasileira e a chuva polínica atual através de coletores de pólen. O estudo foi realizado em uma parcela de um hectare de floresta não perturbada localizada na Reserva Volta Velha (26º 04' S, 48º 38' W, 9 m s.n.m. e duas outras parcelas de floresta secundária (± 50 e 7 anos de idade. Cerca de 248 espécies arbóreas, arbustivas e herbáceas (excluindo epifitas, englobadas em 50 familias estavam representadas por 126 diferentes tipos de pólen e esporos (incluindo taxa não locais. Na área não perturbada, a média do fluxo de entrada da chuva polínica foi de 12465 grãos de pólen por cm²/ano. Nas áreas de ± 50 anos e 7 anos correspondentes a estádios florestais secundários o fluxo de entrada foi relativamente baixo (4112 e 3667 grãos por cm²/ano, respectivamente comparativamente à área não perturbada. A ocorrência de grãos de pólen de herbáceas e esporos de pteridófitas foi significativamente maior nas áreas secundárias do que na área não perturbada.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of polypores (Agaricomycetes from the Atlantic forest and Caatinga, with new records from Brazil

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    Baltazar JM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is the better known Brazilian biome regarding polypore diversity. Nonetheless, species are still being added to its mycota and it is possible that the knowledge of its whole diversity is far from being achieved. On the other hand Caatinga is one of the lesser known. However, studies in this biome have been undertaken and the knowledge about it increasing. Based in recent surveys in Atlantic Forest and Caatinga remnants in the Brazilian States of Bahia, Pernambuco and Sergipe, and revision of herbaria, twenty polypore species previously unknown for these states were found. Fuscoporia chrysea and Inonotus pseudoglomeratus are new records to Brazil and nine are new to the Northeast Region. Furthermore, four species previously known from Brazil were found for the first time in the Atlantic Forest, viz. Flabellophora parva, F. chrysea, I. pseudoglomeratus and Trametes lactinea, and three in the Caatinga, viz. I. portoricensis, Phylloporia spathulata and Schizopora flavipora. Keys to the main taxa are provided.

  9. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

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    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  10. FOREST COVER EVALUATION IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST LANDSCAPE OF THE OURO PRETO REGION – MG, IN THE YEAR 2010

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    Rossi Allan Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the current state of conservation and the landscape connectivity in the area covering part of the counties of Ouro Preto, Mariana and Ouro Branco, MG. This area is located at the upper course of the Velhas river, Carmo river, Gualaxo do Sul river and Colônia creek. The region belongs to the Mata Atlantica phytogeographic ecosystem and encompasses different Conservation Units (CUs. RapidEye AG (Jun/2010 with 5 m of spatial resolution images were used. The study area was divided into three classes: Seasonal semideciduous montane forest; Natural vegetation 2; Anthropic use. The results showed that the study area is well preserved, particularly inside the CUs where the fragments are bigger and are considered priority sites for conservation. The natural formations of the region corresponded to 87.08% of the study area. The metrics showed that the average distance between the 262 fragments is 72.18 m. The shape of the fragments do not favor the preservation of biodiversity, because they are complex and irregular (fractal. The application of edge effects initially increases the fragmentation and, subsequently reduces the size of individual vegetation spots, smoothing their complex shapes. Strong anthropic pressures are present outside the buffer zone of the State Park of Itacolomi. The weak points are those surrounding pastoral and mining areas, mainly field areas of CUs in Ouro Branco and pasture areas inside the Cachoeira das Andorinhas State APA.

  11. Geospatial characterization of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in Telangana state, India: conservation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Vazeed Pasha, S; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of biodiversity has been put to the highest priority throughout the world. The process of identifying threatened ecosystems will search for different drivers related to biodiversity loss. The present study aimed to generate spatial information on deforestation and ecological degradation indicators of fragmentation and forest fires using systematic conceptual approach in Telangana state, India. Identification of ecosystems facing increasing vulnerability can help to safeguard the extinctions of species and useful for conservation planning. The technological advancement of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System has increased greatly in assessment and monitoring of ecosystem-level changes. The areas of threat were identified by creating grid cells (5 × 5 km) in Geographical Information System (GIS). Deforestation was assessed using multi-source data of 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013. The forest cover of 40,746 km(2), 29,299 km(2), 18,652 km(2), 18,368 km(2), 18,006 km(2), 17,556 km(2) and 17,520 km(2) was estimated during 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, respectively. Historical evaluation of deforestation revealed that major changes had occurred in forests of Telangana and identified 1095 extinct, 397 critically endangered, 523 endangered and 311 vulnerable ecosystem grid cells. The fragmentation analysis has identified 307 ecosystem grid cells under critically endangered status. Forest burnt area information was extracted using AWiFS data of 2005 to 2014. Spatial analysis indicates total fire-affected forest in Telangana as 58.9% in a decadal period. Conservation status has been recorded depending upon values of threat for each grid, which forms the basis for conservation priority hotspots. Of existing forest, 2.1% grids had severe ecosystem collapse and had been included under the category of conservation priority hotspot-I, followed by 27.2% in conservation priority hotspot-II and 51.5% in conservation

  12. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  13. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change

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    AF. Colombo

    Full Text Available After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  14. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN IBITURUNA COUNTY, MG

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    Vagner Fernandes da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey describing the physiognomic structure and the species composition and diversityof the tree community was carried out in a fragment of tropical semideciduous forest. The forestfragment, with an area of 57ha, is situated at 21 °09’S of latitude and 44 °50’W of longitude, in Ibiturunacounty, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The surveys were carried out in two sectors of the fragment,Slope and Valley, where 26 (20 ×20m plots were located. All trees with diameter at breast height dbh ≥ 5 cm were identified and measured (diameter and height. The survey registered 1008 tree,distributed in 191 species, 128 genera and 54 families; 20 species were added to this total andregistered during incursions outside the plots. The Fabaceae (Leguminosae family stood out for itsrichness of species (30 and genera (18, representing 15,7% of the total species registered. In secondplace, the Myrtaceae family presented 20 species and 9 genera, followed by the Lauraceae family,with 17 species and 7 genera. Other families that contributed with an expressive number of specieswere: Meliaceae, with 11; Euphorbiaceae, with 8; Malvaceae and Rubiaceae, both with 7 species.This floristic profile may be considered typical of the semideciduous forests of the region.

  15. Bryophytes in fragments of Terra Firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, A C C; Ilkiu-Borges, A L; Tavares-Martins, A C C; Garcia, E T

    2015-08-01

    Microclimatic conditions of tropical forest favour the high richness of bryophytes, which by being sensitive to environmental changes, are important indicators of habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the richness and species composition of the bryophyte flora in fragments of terra firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil. The collections were made in August and September 2012 in 14 fragments, in which were installed two plots per fragment, one at the edge and one inside, measuring 10 × 10 m each. The results showed 77 species in 45 genera and 18 families. Lejeunea setiloba Spruce and Marchesinia brachiata (Sw.) Schiffn. are new records for Pará state. The richness families in this study were the ones typically found in tropical forest surveys. A high richness of rare species in comparison to common ones, a pattern usually observed for plants in tropical forests was not reported in this study, probably due to historical fragmentation and disturbance in the area. The richness and species composition were determined mainly by the physiognomic characteristics of the studied forest fragments.

  16. Quick assessment of wealth ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in rain forest fragments in the Alta Floresta region, MT

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    Jéssica Borges da Veiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation can change the community and wealth of ants, through changes to the vegetation structure, solar radiation and food availability. This study aims to evaluate the generic richness of ants in two forest fragments in the municipality of Alta Floresta - MT. Samples were collected at three points of both fragments (interior, transition and surrounding matrix, being delimited one quadrant of 5x5 m for each point, using attractive bait. The ants were identified according to Baccaro (2006 identification key. For statistical diagnosis used the Multivariate analysis of conglomerates through BioEstat 5.0 software, and analyzed the similarities between subfamilies, genera and environments. The study found a total of 71 ants distributed in seven subfamilies and 12 genera, especially the genus Camponotus to occur mainly in disturbed habitats and Paraponera kind to occur in forest area. The transition environment was the least similar to the other due to a higher number of individuals and general wealth. In this study, the forest fragment 2 had a higher number of ants in their transition area and is considered the richest in ant fauna when compared to the forest fragment 1.

  17. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Büntge, Anna B S; Herzog, Sebastian K; Kessler, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures.

  18. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Kendra, Paul E; Van Bloem, Skip; Whitmire, Stefanie; Mizell, Russ; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function for 6 mo in the field. The contour mapping analyses reveal that populations of fruit flies are focused around ovipositional hosts. Although the trapping system does not have a very long effective sampling range, it is ideal, when used in combination with contour analyses, for assessing fine-scale (on the order of meters) population distributions, including identifying resources around which fly populations are focused or, conversely, assessing the effectiveness of management tools. The results are discussed as they pertain to monitoring and detecting Anastrepha spp. with the McPhail-type trap and ammonium acetate and putrescine baiting system and the dispersal of these flies within Puerto Rico.

  19. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  20. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil

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    DS França

    Full Text Available We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity and the distribution of bromeliad pollinators in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies

    2012-08-01

    Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.

  2. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Loise Araujo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011 and dry (January 2013 seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141 and taxa (76 compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa. The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.

  3. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

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    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.

  4. Associations between forest fragmentation patterns and geneticstructure in Pfrimer’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), an endangered endemic to central Brazil’s dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Leonard F.; Bianchi, Carlos; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    When habitat becomes fragmented, populations of species may become increasingly isolated. In the absence of habitat corridors, genetic structure may develop and populations risk reductions in genetic diversity from increased genetic drift and inbreeding. Deforestation of the Cerrado biome of Brazil, particularly of the dry forests within the Parana˜ River Basin, has incrementally occurred since the 1970s and increased forest fragmentation within the region. We performed landscape genetic analyses of Pfrimer’s parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), a globally endangered endemic to the region, to determine if forest fragmentation patterns were associated with genetic structuring in this species. We used previously generated satellite imagery that identified the locations of Parana˜ River Basin forest fragments in 1977, 1993/94, and 2008. Behavioral data quantifying the affinity of Pfrimer’s parakeet for forest habitat was used to parameterize empirically derived landscape conductance surfaces. Though genetic structure was observed among Pfrimer’s parakeet populations, no association between genetic and geographic distance was detected. Likewise, least cost path lengths, circuit theorybased resistance distances, and a new measure of least cost path length complexity could not be conclusively associated with genetic structure patterns. Instead, a new quantity that encapsulated connection redundancy from the 1977 forest fragmentation data provided the clearest associations with pairwise genetic differentiation patterns (Jost’s D: r = 0.72, P = 0.006; FST: r = 0.741, P = 0.001). Our analyses suggest a 35-year or more lag between deforestation and its effect on genetic structure. Because 66 % of the Parana˜ River Basin has been deforested since 1977, we expect that genetic structure will increase substantially among Pfrimer’s Parakeet populations in the future, especially if fragmentation continues at its current pace.

  5. Characterizing fragmentation of the collective forests in southern China from multitemporal Landsat imagery: A case study from Kecheng district of Zhejiang province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhu, Z.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Xu, D.; Wen, W.; Liu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical forests provide important ecosystem goods and services including carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. These forests are facing increasing socioeconomic pressures and are rapidly being degraded and fragmented. This analysis focuses on the rate of change and patterns of fragmentation in a collective forest area in Zhejiang province, China, during the time period 1988-2005. The research consisted of two parts. The first was the development of general land cover maps and the identification of land cover changes by interpreting Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) time series imagery. The second part involved the computation and analysis of forest fragmentation metrics. For this portion of the study, fragmentation statistics were analyzed, and images were developed to depict forest fragmentation patterns and trends. Results revealed that there was a net loss of 7.8% in forest coverage, dropping from 66.8% in 1988 to 59.0% in 2005, primarily caused by agricultural expansion and poor forest management practices. An acceleration of forest fragmentation was also witnessed during the time intervals, which was evidenced by a decreasing trend in interior forest (57.2% in 1988, 55.0% in 1996 and 54.8% in 2005 respectively) coupled with the scales of the selected geospatial metrics. Continued forest loss and fragmentation are closely correlated with the existing political, educational, institutional and economic processes of contemporary China. To unlock the developmental potentials of the collective forests and to effectively mitigate the rate of forest loss and fragmentation, reforms of forest tenure and ecological immigration practices are recognized as a prospective alternative. The produced fragmentation maps further illustrates the importance of assessing landscape change history, especially the spatiotemporal patterns of forest fragments, when developing landscape level plans for biodiversity

  6. Wood Litter Consumption by three Species of Nasutitermes Termites in an Area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura,Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this specie...

  7. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  8. Diet and prey availability of terrestrial insectivorous birds prone to extinction in amazonian forest fragments

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    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared niche breath, prey size, and diet variability in two pairs of sympatric species of terrestrial insectivorous birds, each pair containing one species that can persist in small forest fragments and one that does not. The pairs were Myrmeciza ferruginea and Sclerurus rufigularis; and Formicarius colma and F. analis, respectively. The prey availability in forest fragments was also sampled and compared to the availability in continuous forests. Niche breath indices did not differ between pair members, but diet variability differed in the opposite direction from that hypothesized. Although the two bird species most vulnerable to fragmentation fed on larger prey than less vulnerable species, prey availability, including that based on prey size did not differ among fragmented versus continuous forest sites. Thus, diet per se appeared not to be an important cause of extinction-proneness in these species. The simplest explanation proposed, that vulnerability to fragmentation was directly related to territory size, requires testing. However, it was consistent with observations that the bird species feeding on larger prey also need larger territories.Dieta e disponibilidade de presas de aves insetívoras terrestres em fragmentos florestais amazônicos. As aves insetívoras terrestres são um dos grupos mais vulneráveis à fragmentação de florestas tropicais; no entanto algumas espécies desta guilda ainda sobrevivem em fragmentos florestais e em florestas secundárias. Se a sensibilidade destas aves à fragmentação de florestas estivesse associada à dieta, então espécies com a dieta relativamente flexível teriam maior propensão em persistir nos fragmentos florestais. Este estudo comparou sobreposição trófica, amplitude de nicho, tamanho de presas e variabilidade de dieta de dois pares de espécies de aves insetívoras terrestres, onde cada par foi composto por uma espécie que persiste nos fragmentos e outra que n

  9. Blow Flies from Forest Fragments Embedded in Different Land Uses: Implications for Selecting Indicators in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Mirian S; Pepinelli, Mateus; de Almeida, Eduardo C; Ochoa-Quintero, Jose M; Roque, Fabio O

    2016-01-01

    Given the general expectation that forest loss can alter biodiversity patterns, we hypothesize that blow fly species abundances differ in a gradient of native vegetation cover. This study was conducted in 17 fragments across different landscapes in central Brazil. Different land cover type proportions were used to represent landscape structure. In total, 2334 specimens of nine species of Calliphoridae were collected. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce dimensionality and multicollinearity of the landscape data. The first component explained 70%, and it represented a gradient of forest-pasture land uses. Alien species showed a wide distribution in different fragments with no clear relationship between the abundance values and the scores of PCA axes, whereas native species occurred only in areas with a predominance of forest cover. Our study revealed that certain native species may be sensitive to forest loss at the landscape scale, and they represent a bioindicator in forensic entomology.

  10. Living in forest fragments reduces group cohesion in diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in eastern Madagascar by reducing food patch size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Mitchell T

    2007-04-01

    Forest fragmentation is thought to threaten primate populations, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. However, fragmentation is known to cause dietary shifts in several primate species, and links between food resource distribution and within-group spatial dynamics are well documented. Thus, fragmentation has the potential to indirectly affect spatial dynamics, and these changes may present additional stresses to fragmented populations. I present the results from a 12-month study of Propithecus diadema at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar, including two groups in fragments and two in continuous forest. Instantaneous data on activity and spatial position were collected during all-day focal animal follows. Fragment groups had much lower cohesion, being more likely to have no neighbor within 5 and 10 m. For continuous forest groups, cohesion was highest in the rainy season (when food patches are large) and lowest in winter (when the animals rely on small-crowned mistletoes), and the chance of having no neighbor within 5 m was positively correlated with mistletoe consumption. Thus their decreased cohesion in fragment groups is inferred to result from their increased reliance on mistletoes and other small resources, which causes them to spread out among multiple patches. This scenario is consistent with the reduced body mass of subordinate individuals (males and immatures) in fragments, and suggests the occurrence of steeper within-group fitness gradients. Further research is necessary to determine whether these patterns apply to other primates; however, since fragmentation tends to cause the loss of the largest trees, many primates in fragments may lose their largest food resources and undergo similar behavioral shifts.

  11. Biogeographic distribution patterns and their correlates in the diverse frog fauna of the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

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    Tiago S Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Anurans are a highly diverse group in the Atlantic Forest hotspot (AF, yet distribution patterns and species richness gradients are not randomly distributed throughout the biome. Thus, we explore how anuran species are distributed in this complex and biodiverse hotspot, and hypothesize that this group can be distinguished by different cohesive regions. We used range maps of 497 species to obtain a presence/absence data grid, resolved to 50×50 km grain size, which was submitted to k-means clustering with v-fold cross-validation to determine the biogeographic regions. We also explored the extent to which current environmental variables, topography, and floristic structure of the AF are expected to identify the cluster patterns recognized by the k-means clustering. The biogeographic patterns found for amphibians are broadly congruent with ecoregions identified in the AF, but their edges, and sometimes the whole extent of some clusters, present much less resolved pattern compared to previous classification. We also identified that climate, topography, and vegetation structure of the AF explained a high percentage of variance of the cluster patterns identified, but the magnitude of the regression coefficients shifted regarding their importance in explaining the variance for each cluster. Specifically, we propose that the anuran fauna of the AF can be split into four biogeographic regions: a less diverse and widely-ranged species that predominantly occur in the inland semideciduous forests; b northern small-ranged species that presumably evolved within the Pleistocene forest refugia; c highly diverse and small-ranged species from the southeastern Brazilian mountain chain and its adjacent semideciduous forest; and d southern species from the Araucaria forest. Finally, the high congruence among the cluster patterns and previous eco-regions identified for the AF suggests that preserving the underlying habitat structure helps to preserve the historical

  12. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will

  13. Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island

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    Mauro Galetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Islands can serve as model systems for understanding how biological invasions affect native species. Here we examine the negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil. Anchieta Island has the highest density of mammals of the entire Atlantic forest, especially nest predators such as marmosets and coatis, introduced more than 20 years ago. This indiscriminate introduction of mammals may have affected directly the bird community, nowadays represented by 100 species comprised mainly by water-crossing birds, being 73 forest-dwelling species. A small component of these remnant bird species nests in tree holes and on the forest floor, null model analysis suggest that birds within these two nest types are under-represented on Anchieta Island. All guilds were affected negatively, but "opportunist insectivorous/omnivorous". Experiments using artificial nests showed a predation of 73% of nests on the floor while only 26% on the mainland. Camera traps recorded predation by coatis, agoutis, and opossums. The restoration of the bird community on this island is highly constrained by the high density of hyper abundant nest predators.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity to light of two congeneric trees from contrasting habitats: Brazilian Atlantic Forest versus cerrado (savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, F de V; Goulart, M F; Telles, S B Sá; Lovato, M B; Valladares, F; de Lemos-Filho, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity. Functional traits of Dalbergia nigra and D. miscolobium from the Atlantic Forest and cerrado, respectively, were evaluated under shade (25% of full sunlight) and full sunlight in a nursery experiment. We hypothesised that both species should benefit from high phenotypic plasticity in relation to light. Plasticity was estimated using the relative distance phenotypic index (RDPI). D. miscolobium had lower shoot growth under both light conditions, suggesting it has low competitive capacity in the forest environment, which could explain its limited ability to expand over areas of Atlantic Forest. The studied species exhibited photoprotection strategies under high light and improved light capture under low light. Stomatal conductance, ETR(max) (maximum electron transport rate), PPFD(sat) (saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density), chlorophyll and carotenoid content had higher RDPI than stem morphological traits. Although both species showed considerable phenotypic plasticity, D. miscolobium had higher RDPI for eight of 11 evaluated traits. This high plasticity could be one of the factors that explain the occurrence of this species in a wide range of environmental conditions, from open grassland to dense woodlands, and it could also reflect its adaptation to high light. D. nigra also had considerable plasticity and good growth performance in both shade and full sunlight, but its absence in areas of cerrado suggests that factors other than light limit its occurrence in these habitats.

  15. STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS IN A FRAGMENT OF SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST IN LAVRAS, MG, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Burkowski Meyer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aimed at describing the structural dynamics of the tree community of a forest fragment of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (Mata do Capivari situated in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, South-eastern Brazil. The study was based on three surveys carried out during an 11-year period (1997, 2003 and 2008 in 28 20×20 m permanent plots where records were made of the species and diameter at breast height (dbh of trees with dbh ≥ 5 cm, including survival, mortality and recruits. The hypothesis was that the patterns of dynamics found in the first interval (1997-2003 persisted in the second (2003-2008. The descriptors of dynamics were the rates of mortality and recruitment of individual trees (dynamics of demography, rates of gain and loss of tree basal area (dynamics of biomass, and respective net change rates. Between 2003 and 2008, the mortality rate, of 3.30%.yr-1, surpassed the recruitment rate, of 2.78%.yr-1. The gain rate in basal area was 2.72%.yr-1, only a little inferior to the loss rate, of 2.98%.yr-1. In general, these patterns repeated those of the first interval (1998-2003, with a persisting slow demographic decline, particularly concentrated near the river, and a nearly stable basal area. Comparatively speaking, the Mata do Capivari is one of the most stable among those studied in the region despite persistent human interference.

  16. NUTRIENTS IN THE LITTER OF A SEASONAL DECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT OF ITAARA, RS

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    Márcio Viera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to quantity aboveground mass and nutrients in a deciduous seasonal forest fragment in the district of Itaara, RS, Brazil. For quantification and fractionation of the litter, sampling was carried out using two methodologies: the first one for leaves and branches with diameter smaller than 1 cm (S0 and the second one for woody material with diameter varying from 1 cm to 3 cm (S1, 3.1 cm to 6 cm (S2, and greater than 6 cm (S3.  To evaluate the S0 fraction, 50 randomly sample were collected with a metallic frame of 25 cm x 25 cm, and for S1, S2 and S3 10 plots of 3 m x 2 m were distributed randomly in the area of study.  Samples was packed and taken to the Laboratory of Forest Ecology of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, where they were dried, weighed, ground and analyzed for nutrient contents. The woody senescent litter represented about 45% of the litter layer.  Litter classes differed statistically in relation to nutrient content (p < 0.05, except for Mg and Cu; usually the S0 fraction presented higher contents. The fractions S1, S2 and S3 showed an accumulation of nutrients ranging from 53.3% to 8.7% K for Fe in the total litter, demonstrating the importance of quantification of these components during the evaluation of nutrient stocks contained in the litter of the forest ecosystem.

  17. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Danielle O; Mendes, Sérgio L

    2016-01-01

    Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605). We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590) to George Marcgrave (1610-1644). We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  18. Two new land planarian species (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Ana Laura Almeida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest harbors the world's richest areas of land planarians (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida. Nevertheless, the number of undiscovered species from this biological unit remains seemingly high. Herein we describe Geoplana piriana Almeida & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Rio de Janeiro, and Geoplana tingauna Kishimoto & Carbayo, sp. nov. from the state of Santa Catarina. Each species shows a dorsum with a unique color pattern among Geoplaninae species. Their internal morphology also differs: G. piriana sp. nov. shows a unique combination of features, including an extrabulbar, non-bifurcated prostatic vesicle, a non-folded male atrium, a horizontal, cylindrical penis papilla, a female atrium anteriorly narrowed, and lined with an epithelium with multilayered aspect. Geoplana tingauna sp. nov. possesses a prostatic vesicle constituted of a pair of branches opening into the very distal portion of a tubular, unpaired portion, a feature not seen in other Geoplaninae species.

  19. A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rivera, Danielle; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-10-01

    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change.

  20. Diversity of nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments in forested upland and wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Braker, Gesche; Tiedje, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in forested upland and marsh soil was investigated using molecular methods. nirK gene fragments could be amplified from both soils, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only from...... the marsh soil. PCR products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative fragments were sequenced. The diversity of nirK clones was lower than the diversity of nirS clones. Among the 54 distinct nirK RFLP patterns identified in the two soils, only one...... marsh clones and all upland clones. Only a few of the nirK clone sequences branched with those of known denitrifying bacteria. The nirS clones formed two major clusters with several subclusters, but all nirS clones showed less than 80% identity to nirS sequences from known denitrifying bacteria. Overall...

  1. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

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    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  2. Phyllosphere Metaproteomes of Trees from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Show High Levels of Functional Redundancy.

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    Lambais, M R; Barrera, S E; Santos, E C; Crowley, D E; Jumpponen, A

    2017-01-01

    The phyllosphere of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been estimated to contain several million bacterial species that are associated with approximately 20000 plant species. Despite the high bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere, the function of these microorganisms and the mechanisms driving their community assembly are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in the phyllospheres of four tree species of the Atlantic Forest (Mollinedia schottiana, Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, and Tabebuia serratifolia) and their metaproteomes to examine the basic protein functional groups expressed in the phyllosphere. Bacterial community analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed prior observations that plant species harbor distinct bacterial communities and that plants of the same taxon have more similar communities than more distantly related taxa. Using LC-ESI-Q-TOF, we identified 216 nonredundant proteins, based on 3503 peptide mass spectra. Most protein families were shared among the phyllosphere communities, suggesting functional redundancy despite differences in the species compositions of the bacterial communities. Proteins involved in glycolysis and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism, solute transport, protein metabolism, cell motility, stress and antioxidant responses, nitrogen metabolism, and iron homeostasis were among the most frequently detected. In contrast to prior studies on crop plants and Arabidopsis, a low abundance of OTUs related to Methylobacterium and no proteins associated with the metabolism of one-carbon molecules were detected in the phyllospheres of the tree species studied here. Our data suggest that even though the phyllosphere bacterial communities of different tree species are phylogenetically diverse, their metaproteomes are functionally convergent with respect to traits required for survival on leaf surfaces.

  3. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss

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    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas’ beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  4. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, C E; Uieda, V S

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders) of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  5. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  6. Invasão biológica de Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no Nordeste do Brasil: impactos sobre a fitodiversidade e os solos dos sítios invadidos Biological invasion of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil: impacts on phytodiversity and soils of invaded sites

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    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os impactos causados por A. heterophyllus sobre a riqueza e diversidade da vegetação e sobre os solos de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, Município de Areia, PB. A área estudada localiza-se no Campus II da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. No fragmento, foram instaladas 10 pares de parcelas de 100 m². Metade destas unidades amostrais (AI - ambiente invadido foi disposta de forma que apresentasse em seu centro um exemplar adulto de A. heterophyllus. Paralelamente a cada uma destas parcelas, outra unidade amostral (AN - ambiente natural foi alocada. Foi avaliado o número de espécies, a abundância de indivíduos, a diversidade e a equabilidade, além da química dos solos. Foram amostrados 14.008 indivíduos pertencentes a 79 espécies, dos quais 12.369 indivíduos de 50 espécies no AI e 1.639 indivíduos de 75 espécies no AN. A diversidade e a equabilidade geral foram, respectivamente, 0,24 e 0,06 no AI e 3,42 e 0,79 no AN. Todas as variáveis apresentaram diferenças significativas demonstrando que A. heterophyllus modifica os ambientes onde se dispersa. Quanto aos solos, alguns elementos tiveram suas concentrações mudadas enquanto outros não. Constatou-se que A. heterophylus altera de forma contundente a riqueza de espécies, a diversidade da vegetação e os solos dos sítios invadidos, o que torna necessárias ações de mitigação para o controle da mesma.The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts caused by A. heterophyllus on the richness and diversity of vegetation, and the soils, in a fragment of open rainforest, in Areia, PB. The study area is located in the Campus II of Universidade Federal da Paraíba. In this fragment, 10 pairs of plots of 100 m² were established. Half of these sampling units (AI - environment invaded were laid out so there was an adult A. heterophyllus in the center. Alongside each of these plots, one sample unit (AN - natural environment was

  7. Functional traits variation explains the distribution of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae in pronounced moisture gradients within fog-dependent forest fragments

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    Beatriz eSalgado-Negret

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species’ responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain forest patches in semiarid Chile, we explored how the magnitude, variability and correlation patterns of leaf and xylem vessel traits and hydraulic conductivity varied across soil moisture gradients established within and among forest patches of different size, which are associated with differences in tree establishment and mortality patterns. Leaf traits varied across soil-moisture gradients produced by fog interception. Trees growing at drier leeward edges showed higher LMA (leaf mass per area, trichome and stomatal density than trees from the wetter core and windward zones. In contrast, xylem vessel traits (vessels diameter and density did not vary producing loss of hydraulic conductivity at drier leeward edges. We also detected higher levels of phenotypic integration and variability at leeward edges. The ability of A. punctatum to modify leaf traits in response to differences in soil moisture availability established over short distances (<500 m facilitates its persistence in contrasting microhabitats within forest patches. However, xylem anatomy showed limited plasticity, which increases cavitation risk at leeward edges. Greater patch fragmentation, together with fluctuations in irradiance and soil moisture in small patches, could result in higher risk of drought-related tree mortality, with profound impacts on hydrological balances at the ecosystem scale.

  8. Effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system of a cool-temperate heterodichogamous tree Acer mono

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    Satoshi Kikuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a key process for reproduction and gene flow in flowering plants. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation, however, can disrupt plant–pollinator interactions, and may have a negative impact on the reproductive success and population viability of entomophilous plants. Heterodichogamous plants containing protandrous and protogynous individuals within a population may be susceptible to habitat fragmentation due to a lack of available mating partners. In this study, we investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system in the heterodichogamous plant Acer mono, a major constituent of cool-temperate deciduous forests in Japan. Microsatellite analysis was applied to 212 adult trees and 17 seed families from continuous and fragmented forests. Dispersal kernel modeling using the neighborhood model indicated that pollen dispersal of A. mono was highly fat-tailed. The estimated parameters of the model suggested that the siring success of a pollen donor increased approximately fivefold, with a 100 cm increase in its diameter at breast height (DBH, and that disassortative mating was five times more frequent than assortative mating. The mating system parameters of each mother tree, outcrossing rate (tm, biparental inbreeding (tm−ts, and paternity correlation (rpm varied among sites and conditions, depending on the local density of potential pollen donors. Whereas A. mono was effectively outcrossed (tm=0.901, tm−ts=0.052, and the number of effective sires was 1/rpm=14.93 in the continuous forest, clumped trees within the fragmented forest showed increased biparental inbreeding and reduced pollen pool genetic diversity (tm=0.959, tm−ts=0.245,1/rpm=1.742 as a result of localized mating combined with spatial genetic structures. In contrast, the isolated trees had a higher selfing rate, but the pollen pool diversity was maintained (tm=0.801, tm−ts=0.022, and 1/rpm=15.63 due to frequent long-distance pollination. These

  9. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development) is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development's attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer). Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more compacted

  10. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA

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    Marcela Suarez-Rubio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Housing development beyond the urban fringe (i.e., exurban development is one of the fastest growing forms of land-use change in the United States. Exurban development’s attraction to natural and recreational amenities has raised concerns for conservation and represents a potential threat to wildlife. Although forest-dependent species have been found particularly sensitive to low housing densities, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of houses affects forest birds. The aim of this study was to assess forest bird responses to changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development and also to examine species responses when forest loss and forest fragmentation were considered. We evaluated landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey stops between 1986 and 2009 by developing a compactness index to assess changes in the spatial pattern of exurban development over time. Compactness was defined as a measure of how clustered exurban development was in the area surrounding each survey stop at each time period considered. We used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis to detect the response of forest and forest-edge species in terms of occurrence and relative abundance along the compactness gradient at two spatial scales (400-m and 1-km radius buffer. Our results showed that most forest birds and some forest-edge species were positively associated with high levels of compactness at the larger spatial scale; the proportion of forest in the surrounding landscape also had a significant effect when forest loss and forest fragmentation were accounted for. In contrast, the spatial configuration of exurban development was an important predictor of occurrence and abundance for only a few species at the smaller spatial scale. The positive response of forest birds to compactness at the larger scale could represent a systematic trajectory of decline and could be highly detrimental to bird diversity if exurban growth continues and creates more

  11. Systematics of spiny predatory katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest based on morphology and molecular data.

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    Verônica Saraiva Fialho

    Full Text Available Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition.

  12. Edge effects on fern community in an Atlantic Forest remnant of Rio Formoso, PE, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A A; Pereira, A F N; Barros, I C L

    2011-05-01

    We have investigated how edge effects influence the fern community of Jaguarão Forest (08º 35' 49" S and 35º 15' 39" W), located in the district of Rio Formoso, Pernambuco, Brazil. A comparative analysis was made of the interior and edge of the fragment of forest, regarding the richness, abundance and diversity of ferns in the two areas. Six plots of 10 × 20 m were chosen, three in each area. A total of 381 ferns were recorded, which were distributed among 25 species, 17 genera and 12 families. The two areas (edge and interior) were found to differ, with distinct relative air humidities and temperatures (p = 0.00254 and p = 0.00019, respectively). The interior showed higher diversity (t = 7.251 and p = 0.018) and richness (t = 6.379 and p = 0.023) than the edge area, but the same abundance (t = 1.728; p = 0.226) as the edge. Regarding the composition of the flora, it was clear that the interior is a habitat completely distinct from the edge with regard to the fern community, given that only one species, Adiantum petiolatum Desv., was common to both environments. It was concluded that the edge effect causes a decrease in richness and abundance of the fern species found in Jaguarão Forest, where the more sensitive species are being replaced by species that are tolerant to the disturbance caused by the creation of an edge.

  13. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

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    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  14. Structural aspects and floristic similarity among tropical dry forest fragments with different management histories in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce useful knowledge to the initiatives of protection and management of forest fragments, more specifically for tropical dry forests which suffer with frequent anthropic activities, and due to the lack of specific studies, this article aimed describe the structure and the floristic similarity among three areas of dry forest with different management histories. The study was developed in Capitão Enéas municipality, Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, where three fragments were evaluated, being one in regeneration for 30 years, another submitted to occasional fire and the third with selective cut in small scale. The sampling was developed through the point quarter method considering all the alive phanerophyte individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH > 15 cm. In the three fragments, 512 individuals, distributed in 60 species, 47 genera, and 23 families were sampled. The most representative families were Fabaceae (26, Anacardiaceae (4, Bignoniaceae (3 and Combretaceae (3. However, fourteen families were represented by only one species. Only eight species were common to all fragments - Myracrodruon urundeuva standed out with 26.9% of all sampled individuals - while a great number of species were exclusive of each fragment. The floristic and structural differences between the fragments are possibly related to the history and intensity of management in each area besides the topography variations and the presence or absence of limestone outcrops. These results show the importance of each fragment, indicating that the loss of anyone would cause negative impacts on the regional flora and consequently to the associated biodiversity.

  15. Reproductive phenology of coastal plain Atlantic forest vegetation: comparisons from seashore to foothills.

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    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira

    2011-11-01

    The diversity of tropical forest plant phenology has called the attention of researchers for a long time. We continue investigating the factors that drive phenological diversity on a wide scale, but we are unaware of the variation of plant reproductive phenology at a fine spatial scale despite the high spatial variation in species composition and abundance in tropical rainforests. We addressed fine scale variability by investigating the reproductive phenology of three contiguous vegetations across the Atlantic rainforest coastal plain in Southeastern Brazil. We asked whether the vegetations differed in composition and abundance of species, the microenvironmental conditions and the reproductive phenology, and how their phenology is related to regional and local microenvironmental factors. The study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 at three contiguous sites: (1) seashore dominated by scrub vegetation, (2) intermediary covered by restinga forest and (3) foothills covered by restinga pre-montane transitional forest. We conducted the microenvironmental, plant and phenological survey within 30 transects of 25 m × 4 m (10 per site). We detected significant differences in floristic, microenvironment and reproductive phenology among the three vegetations. The microenvironment determines the spatial diversity observed in the structure and composition of the flora, which in turn determines the distinctive flowering and fruiting peaks of each vegetation (phenological diversity). There was an exchange of species providing flowers and fruits across the vegetation complex. We conclude that plant reproductive patterns as described in most phenological studies (without concern about the microenvironmental variation) may conceal the fine scale temporal phenological diversity of highly diverse tropical vegetation. This phenological diversity should be taken into account when generating sensor-derived phenologies and when trying to understand tropical vegetation

  16. Phenological synchrony and seasonality of understory Rubiaceae in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

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    Heitor Scarpati Liuth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.

  17. Spatial distribution of water erosion risk in a watershed with eucalyptus and Atlantic Forest

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    Junior Cesar Avanzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of water erosion occurs in watersheds throughout the world and it is strongly affected by anthropogenic influences. Thus, the knowledge of these processes is extremely necessary for planning of conservation efforts. This study was performed in an experimental forested watershed in order to predict the average potential annual soil loss by water erosion using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and a Geographic Information System (GIS, and then compared with soil loss tolerance. All the USLE factors were generated in a distributed approach employing a GIS tool. The layers were multiplied in the GIS framework in order to predict soil erosion rates. Results showed that the average soil loss was 6.2 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Relative to soil loss tolerance, 83% of the area had an erosion rate lesser than the tolerable value. According to soil loss classes, 49% of the watershed had erosion less than 2.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1. However, about 8.7% of the watershed had erosion rates greater than 15 Mg ha-1 yr-1, being mainly related to Plinthosol soil class and roads, thus requiring special attention for the improvement of sustainable management practices for such areas. Eucalyptus cultivation was found to have soil loss greater than Atlantic Forest. Thus, an effort should be made to bring the erosion rates closer to the native forest. Implementation of the USLE model in a GIS framework was found to be a simple and useful tool for predicting the spatial variation of soil erosion risk and identifying critical areas for conservation efforts.

  18. Quantifying habitat requirements of tree-living species in fragmented boreal forests with Bayesian methods.

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    Berglund, Håkan; O'Hara, Robert B; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative conservation objectives require detailed consideration of the habitat requirements of target species. Tree-living bryophytes, lichens, and fungi are a critical and declining biodiversity component of boreal forests. To understand their requirements, Bayesian methods were used to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of individual species and habitat factors at the tree and the stand scale in a naturally fragmented boreal forest landscape. The importance of unexplained between-stand variation in occurrence of species was estimated, and the ability of derived models to predict species' occurrence was tested. The occurrence of species was affected by quality of individual trees. Furthermore, the relationships between occurrence of species at the tree level and size and shape of stands indicated edge effects, implying that some species were restricted to interior habitats of large, regular stands. Yet for the habitat factors studied, requirements of many species appeared similar. Species occurrence also varied between stands; most of the seemingly suitable trees in some stands were unoccupied. The models captured most variation in species occurrence at tree level. They also successfully accounted for between-stand variation in species occurrence, thus providing realistic simulations of stand-level occupancy of species. Important unexplained between-stand variation in species occurrence warns against a simplified view that only local habitat factors influence species' occurrence. Apparently, similar stands will host populations of different sizes due to historical, spatial, and stochastic factors. Thus, habitat suitability cannot be assessed simply by population sizes, and stands lacking a species may still provide suitable habitat and merit protection.

  19. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  20. Forest Fragmentation in the Lower Amazon Floodplain: Implications for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Provision to Riverine Populations

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    Vivian Renó

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the process of forest fragmentation of a floodplain landscape of the Lower Amazon over a 30-year period and its implications for the biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services to the riverine population. To this end, we created a multi-temporal forest cover map based on Landsat images, and then analyzed the fragmentation dynamics through landscape metrics. From the analyses of the landscape and bibliographic information, we made inferences regarding the potential impacts of fragmentation on the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. Subsequently, we used data on the local populations’ environmental perception to assess whether the inferred impacts on biodiversity are perceived by these populations and whether the ecosystem services related to the biodiversity of the addressed groups are compromised. The results show a 70% reduction of the forest habitat as well as important changes in the landscape structure that constitute a high degree of forest fragmentation. The perceived landscape alterations indicate that there is great potential for compromise of the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. The field interviews corroborate the inferred impacts on biodiversity and indicate that the ecosystem services of the local communities have been compromised. More than 95% of the communities report a decreased variety and/or abundance of animal and plant species, 46% report a decrease in agricultural productivity, and 19% confirm a higher incidence of pests during the last 30 years. The present study provides evidence of an accelerated process of degradation of the floodplain forests of the Lower Amazon and indicate substantial compromise of the ecosystem services provision to the riverine population in recent decades, including reductions of food resources (animals and plants, fire wood, raw material and medicine, as well as lower agricultural productivity due to probable lack of pollination

  1. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

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    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  2. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

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    J. Lebamba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical evergreen to semi-evergreen forest (TRFO biome is well identified from semi-deciduous forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map must be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  3. Assessing the effects of subtropical forest fragmentation on leaf nitrogen distribution using remote sensing data

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    Cho, M.A.; Ramoelo, A.; Debba, P.; Mutanga, O.; Mathieu, R.; Deventer, van H.; Ndlovu, N.

    2013-01-01

    Subtropical forest loss resulting from conversion of forest to other land-cover types such as grassland, secondary forest, subsistence crop farms and small forest patches affects leaf nitrogen (N) stocks in the landscape. This study explores the utility of new remote sensing tools to model the spati

  4. Carbon and nitrogen stock and fluxes in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil: potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning

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    DM Villela

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important biomes of Brazil. Originally covering approximately 1.5 million of km², today this area has been reduced to 12% of its original size. Climate changes may alter the structure and the functioning of this tropical forest. Here we explore how increases in temperature and changes in precipitation distribution could affect dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in coastal Atlantic Forest of the southeast region of Brazil The main conclusion of this article is that the coastal Atlantic Forest has high stocks of carbon and nitrogen above ground, and especially, below ground. An increase in temperature may transform these forests from important carbon sinks to carbon sources by increasing loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. However, this conclusion should be viewed with caution because it is based on limited information. Therefore, more studies are urgently needed to enable us to make more accurate predictions.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen stock and fluxes in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil: potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning.

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    Villela, D M; Mattos, E A de; Pinto, A S; Vieira, S A; Martinelli, L A

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important biomes of Brazil. Originally covering approximately 1.5 million of km², today this area has been reduced to 12% of its original size. Climate changes may alter the structure and the functioning of this tropical forest. Here we explore how increases in temperature and changes in precipitation distribution could affect dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in coastal Atlantic Forest of the southeast region of Brazil The main conclusion of this article is that the coastal Atlantic Forest has high stocks of carbon and nitrogen above ground, and especially, below ground. An increase in temperature may transform these forests from important carbon sinks to carbon sources by increasing loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. However, this conclusion should be viewed with caution because it is based on limited information. Therefore, more studies are urgently needed to enable us to make more accurate predictions.

  6. Thirty Years of Human Demography and Land-Use Change in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina: an Evaluation of the Forest Transition Model

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    Carlos D. De Angelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years, tropical and subtropical forests have been deforested for agriculture, grazing, and timber extraction. Nevertheless in the last decade, several publications have suggested that some regions of Latin America are showing a process of forest transition. Forest transition theory predicts that industrialization and urbanization will lead to the abandonment of marginal agriculture lands and the recovery of natural systems such as forests. However, there are many ecological, economic, and social factors that could act as barriers to ecosystem recovery. To evaluate this hypothesis, we analyzed the socioeconomic and land-use changes during the last 30 years at the provincial and departmental level in the province of Misiones, Argentina. We described the changes in the distribution of urban and rural populations based on national population censuses from 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2001. Land-use change was based on a supervised analysis of four mosaics of Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper satellite images from 1973, 1979, 1987/1989, and 2006. Although the change in the rural population varied greatly among the departments, there has been a dramatic increase in the urban population at the provincial level. The major land-use changes between 1973 and 2006 were an increase in monospecific plantations of mainly Pinus and Eucalyptus of 2702 km² and a loss of 4689 km² of natural forest. Misiones possesses the largest remnant of continuous Atlantic Forest, which is famous for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, but much of this forest now comprises monospecific plantations. Although demographic changes in Misiones are similar to those that have occurred other regions (i.e., rural–urban migration, and the increase in forest plantations helps to maintain forest cover, this cover has much lower ecological value than that of natural forest. To ensure the conservation of the high-diversity Atlantic Forest in Misiones requires a

  7. Effects of forest fragmentation on the seedling recruitment of a tropical herb: assessing seed vs. safe-site limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, María; Bruna, Emilio M; Rubim, Paulo; Anciães, Marina; Jonckheere, Inge

    2010-05-01

    Studies simultaneously evaluating the importance of safe-site and seed limitation for plant establishment are rare, particularly in human-modified landscapes. We used spatially explicit neighborhood models together with data from 10 0.5-ha mapped census plots in a fragmented landscape spanning 1000 km2 to (1) evaluate the relative importance of seed production, dispersal, and safe-site limitation for the recruitment of the understory herb Heliconia acuminata; and (2) determine how these processes differ between fragments and continuous forests. Our analyses demonstrated a large degree of variation in seed production, dispersal, and establishment among and within the 10 study plots. Seed production limitation was strong but only at small spatial scales. Average dispersal distance was less than 4 m, leading to severe dispersal limitation at most sites. Overall, safe-site limitation was the most important constraint on seedling establishment. Fragmentation led to a more heterogeneous light environment with negative consequences for seedling establishment but had little effect on seed production or dispersal. These results suggest that the effects of fragmentation on abiotic processes may be more important than the disruption of biotic interactions in driving biodiversity loss in tropical forests, at least for some functional groups. These effects may be common when the matrix surrounding fragments contains enough tree cover to enable movement of dispersers and pollinators.

  8. The macrofungal diversity and community of Atlantic oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur forests in Ireland

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    Harrington, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The oak species Quercus petraea and Q. Robur are dominant canopy tree species of native deciduous forests in Ireland and coastal regions of Western Europe. These forests are typically plant species-rich, and can also have a rich fungal flora. This survey examined macrofungi found in five native oak sites across Ireland over three years. Overall, 94 macrofungal species belonging to 39 genera were discovered with Mycena, Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius the most species-rich genera. The species accumulation curve did not show signs of levelling off, indicating that more sampling would reveal more new species. Species richness estimation using the Chao2 estimator indicated that up to 135 species may be present across all of our plots, with individual plots receiving estimates from 19 to 61 species per plot. Sampled-based rarefaction analysis showed no significant differences in macrofungal species richness between our plots. The five most common species were Laccaria amethystina, L. laccata, Stereum hirsutum, Armillaria mellea and Cortinarius flexipes. Comparisons of the results with results from oak forests in similar regions found that the communities in Great Britain were most similar to those found in Ireland. There were some key oak forest distinguishing fungal species from the family Boletaceae lacking from Irish oak forests. It is hypothesised that the historic deforestation of Ireland, caused a reduction of suitable habitats for Irish oak associated macrofungi, leading to the unspecific mycota found in the oak forests of this study. The threats to Atlantic oak forests in Ireland are briefly discussed.Las especies de Quercus petraea y Q. Robur se encuentran en bosques de Irlanda y regiones de influencia atlántica de Europa Occidental. Estos bosques, típicamente ricos en especies de plantas, presentan una abundante micobiota. Este estudio examina la diversidad de macromicetes en cinco bosques naturales de roble en Irlanda durante un

  9. Assessing the impact of forest fragmentation due to natural gas development on wild turkey nesting success in Van Buren County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, James Kendall

    Natural gas exploration and production has caused large scale changes to portions of the Arkansas landscape. Well pad site construction, access roads, and pipelines utilized to extract and transport natural gas have fragmented forested areas. The forest fragmentation resulting from these rapid changes could be contributing to the documented decline in nesting success of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). This study quantified temporal changes in forest fragmentation in terms of the number of forest patches, mean forest patch area, and forest edge length. The correlation between these fragmentation variables and nesting success data was explored to test the hypotheses of this study that 1) the number of forest patches is negatively correlated to nesting success, that 2) forest patch size is positively correlated to nesting success, and that 3) forest edge habitat length is negatively correlated to nesting success. There were 838 wells added within Van Buren County during the years 2000 through 2009. These wells resulted in a total forest loss of about 1.5% area from the initial inventory of forest in 2000. Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) values ranging from -0.19 to 0.17 suggests relationships exist between poults per hen and forest fragmentation due to natural gas development. These PPMC values and their respective directions confirm the hypothesis. However, their p-values were all greater than 0.5 which suggests the correlations may not be statistically significant. A stronger regression model, giving adjusted R squared value of 0.766, was constructed which takes into account annual precipitation, previous year's wild turkey harvest, along with the number of conifer forest patches. This study concludes that the low wild turkey nesting success may not be directly influenced by forests lost due to natural gas development within the study area Van Buren County Arkansas.

  10. Improving collection efforts to avoid loss of biodiversity: lessons from comprehensive sampling of lycophytes and ferns in the subtropical Atlantic Forest

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    André Luís de Gasper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estimating species richness with herbarium data and new collections allows us to understand the distribution of diversity. We investigated the accuracy of lycophyte and fern sampling along a vegetation gradient in the subtropical Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. We compiled lycophyte and fern collection metadata and estimated species richness and assessed sampling accuracy for sixty 50 x 50 km units using ACE, Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 and Jackknife 2 estimators. We compiled data for 12,779 fern specimens of 441 species, 67 of which were sampled in only one unit (singletons and 35 in two units (duplicates. Of the 60 units examined, only 11 had observed values that were above 70% of their estimated values, and 14 had observed levels between 65-70% of the estimated values, meaning that 35 units had a sampling accuracy of less than 65%. In spite of the long history of lycophyte and fern collecting in the study area, there remain units with a lower than expected sampling accuracy for a subtropical forest. This finding indicates that a sizeable collection effort is needed in order to discover the actual distribution of species before the effects of fragmentation and deforestation become permanent.

  11. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in an Atlantic forest fragment

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    Augusto Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of water quality in five streams located in the "Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural" (RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula and its surroundings, in the municipality of Nova Lima near the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. This region has been strongly modified by human activities including mining and urbanization. Samples were collected in the field every three months between August 2004 and November 2005, totaling six samplings in the rainy and dry seasons. This assessment identified one area ecologically altered while the other sampling sites were found to be minimally disturbed systems, with well-preserved ecological conditions. However, according to the Biological Monitoring Work Party (BMWP and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT indices, all sampling sites had excellent water quality. A total of 14,952 organisms was collected, belonging to 155 taxa (148 Insecta, two Annelida, one Bivalvia, one Decapoda, one Planariidae, one Hydracarina, and one Entognatha. The most abundant benthic groups were Chironomidae (47.9%, Simuliidae (12.3%, Bivalvia (7.5%, Decapoda (6.1%, Oligochaeta (5.2%, Polycentropodidae (3.7%, Hydropsychidae (2.5%, Calamoceratidae (1.8%, Ceratopogonidae (1.7%, and Libellulidae (1.2%. The assessment of the benthic functional feeding groups showed that 34% of the macroinvertebrates were collector-gatherers, 29% predators, 24% collector-filterers, 8% shredders, and 5% scrapers. The RPPN Mata Samuel de Paula comprises diversified freshwater habitats that are of great importance for the conservation of many benthic taxa that are intolerant to organic pollution.

  12. Dynamic anthropogenic edge effects on the distribution and diversity of fungi in fragmented old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruete, Alejandro; Snäll, Tord; Jönsson, Mari

    2016-07-01

    Diversity patterns and dynamics at forest edges are not well understood. We disentangle the relative importance of edge-effect variables on spatio-temporal patterns in species richness and occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. We related richness and log occupancy by 10 old-growth forest indicator fungi and by two common fungi to log conditions in natural and anthropogenic edge habitats of 31 old-growth Picea abies forest stands in central Sweden. We compared edge-to-interior gradients (100 m) to the forest interior (beyond 100 m), and we analyzed stand-level changes after 10 yr. Both richness and occupancy of logs by indicator species was negatively related to adjacent young clear-cut edges, but this effect decreased with increasing clear-cut age. The occupancy of logs by indicator species also increased with increasing distance to the natural edges. In contrast, the occupancy of logs by common species was positively related or unrelated to distance to clear-cut edges regardless of the edge age, and this was partly explained by fungal specificity to substrate quality. Stand-level mean richness and mean occupancy of logs did not change for indicator or common species over a decade. By illustrating the importance of spatial and temporal dimensions of edge effects, we extend the general understanding of the distribution and diversity of substrate-confined fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. Our results highlight the importance of longer forest rotation times adjacent to small protected areas and forest set-asides, where it may take more than 50 yr for indicator species richness levels to recover to occupancy levels observed in the forest interior. Also, non-simultaneous clear-cutting of surrounding productive forests in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e., dynamic buffers) may increase the effective core area of small forest set-asides and improve their performance on protecting species of special concern for

  13. Change and fragmentation trends of Zhanjiang mangrove forests in southern China using multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1977-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. S.; Mao, L. J.; Shen, W. J.; Liu, S. Q.; Wei, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Mangrove forests, which are found in saline coastal environments around the tropical and subtropical latitudes, are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems in the world and provide valuable ecological and societal goods and services. The objective of this work was to characterize the spatio-temporal changes in mangrove distribution and fragmentation patterns in the Zhanjiang National Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve, Guangdong province of Southern China, from 1977 through 2010. In addition, a major goal was to assess the socio-economic drivers contributing to the chronic changes taking place within and around the mangrove reserve. Land use and land cover data sets were generated for the reserve for multiple years via unsupervised classification using Landsat time series images. Mangrove fragmentation patterns were then assessed with a fragmentation model. Results revealed that the mangrove spatial extent decreased sharply during the period from 1977 to 1991 due to deforestation caused by diverse development programs, particularly shrimp farming. Afterwards, there was a continuous increase in mangrove extent from 1991 to 2010 due to afforestation and conservation efforts. The mangrove fragmentation trends depicted by the fragmentation model had a high degree of correlation with the observed areal changes. Additionally, the recorded dynamics of the local biodiversity (mainly birds) were consistent with the mangrove ecosystem fragmentation trends over time, and different fragmentation components, including interior, perforated and edge, had distinct impacts on the local mangrove-dependent biodiversity. The most effective way to protect and expand the current mangroves include the following: (1) establishment of mangrove natural reserves, (2) forceful implementation of regulations, (3) establishment of educational programs related to mangrove management, (4) deepening international exchanges and cooperation and (5) increasing the transparency of the project

  14. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year-1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximumnumber of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha-1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year-1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  15. Behavior and foraging technique of the Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami (Sciuridae: Rodentia in an Araucaria moist forest fragment

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    Calebe Pereira Mendes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the foraging techniques, body positions and behavior of free-ranging Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami Thomas, 1901 in a region of the Araucaria moist forest, in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The animals were observed using the "all occurrence sampling" method with the aid of binoculars and a digital camcorder. All behaviors were described in diagrams and an ethogram. We recorded five basic body positions, 24 behaviors, two food choices, and three feeding strategies utilized to open fruits of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., the main food source of Ingram's squirrels. We also observed a variance in the animals' stance, which is possibly influenced by predation risk, and discuss the causes of some behaviors.

  16. Bat-Fruit Interactions Are More Specialized in Shaded-Coffee Plantations than in Tropical Mountain Cloud Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montero, Jesús R.; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A.; Galindo-González, Jorge; Sosa, Vinicio J.

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance causes specialization of plant-frugivore networks and jeopardizes mutualistic interactions through reduction of ecological redundancy. To evaluate how simplification of a forest into an agroecosystem affects plant-disperser mutualistic interactions, we compared bat-fruit interaction indexes of specialization in tropical montane cloud forest fragments (TMCF) and shaded-coffee plantations (SCP). Bat-fruit interactions were surveyed by collection of bat fecal samples. Bat-fruit interactions were more specialized in SCP (mean H2 ' = 0.55) compared to TMCF fragments (mean H2 ' = 0.27), and were negatively correlated to bat abundance in SCP (R = -0.35). The number of shared plant species was higher in the TMCF fragments (mean = 1) compared to the SCP (mean = 0.51) and this was positively correlated to the abundance of frugivorous bats (R= 0.79). The higher specialization in SCP could be explained by lower bat abundance and lower diet overlap among bats. Coffee farmers and conservation policy makers must increase the proportion of land assigned to TMCF within agroecosystem landscapes in order to conserve frugivorous bats and their invaluable seed dispersal service. PMID:25992550

  17. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  18. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  19. Reproductive phenology of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman (Arecaceae in Atlantic Forest, in southern Brazil

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    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the reproductive phenology of Syagrus romanzoffiana in an area of secondary vegetation of Atlantic Forest in Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Evaluations were made every 30 days, for 39 reproductive palms, from June 2006 to July 2008. Two flowering events were recorded, one from November 2006 to February 2007 and another from October 2007 to March 2008. Flowering intensity was greater in December 2006 (mean ± sd (0.38 ± 0.63 inflorescences/plant and January 2008 (0.59 ± 0.55. Fruiting was continuous, with green fruits present during all 26 months of the study; intensity was greatest in March of 2008 (1.64 ± 1.11 infructescenses/plant. Ripe fruits were discontinuously present, occurring between March and November, with the highest intensity of infructescences in July 2006 (0.56 ± 0.50 and July 2008 (0.51 ± 0.51. The monthly mean of inflorescences and mature infructescences per plant showed significant correlations with the photoperiod, rainfall and temperature during the months of the study period. The reproductive intensity of Syagrus romanzoffiana, between 2006 and 2008, varied with periods of greater and smaller intensity.

  20. Soil Loss Vulnerability in an Agricultural Catchment in the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

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    Rafael Gotardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates soil loss vulnerability using field samples and spatial data in a 30 km² area in the Atlantic forest biome in southern Brazil. The anthropogenic part of the landscape consists mainly of small agricultural properties. Soil loss vulnerability was calculated using adaptations of the universal soil loss equation. The results were compared to sediment data collected during field surveys. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographical information system (GIS and fine resolution data (1 m. Both field and spatial analyses produced similar results, 5.390 tons of soil loss per year using field data and 5.691 tons per year using GIS. Using soil loss and sediment data related to the Concordia River, we estimate that of all the exported sediment 25% of the lost soil reaches the river. These data are an effective source of information for municipal administrators of the region, which consists of small agricultural catchments (dominated by small properties that comprise the regional economy. A thematic map was used to determine sub-drainage priority as information for public managers.

  1. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

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    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  2. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

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    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  3. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

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    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515

  4. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

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    DANIELLE O. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605. We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590 to George Marcgrave (1610-1644. We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  5. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

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    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  6. Atlantic forest bird communities provide different but not fewer functions after habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-07-22

    Habitat loss often reduces the number of species as well as functional diversity. Dramatic effects to species composition have also been shown, but changes to functional composition have so far been poorly documented, partly owing to a lack of appropriate indices. We here develop three new community indices (i.e. functional integrity, community integrity of ecological groups and community specialization) to investigate how habitat loss affects the diversity and composition of functional traits and species. We used data from more than 5000 individuals of 137 bird species captured in 57 sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a highly endangered biodiversity hotspot.Results indicate that habitat loss leads to a decrease in functional integrity while measures of functional diversity remain unchanged or are even positively affected. Changes to functional integrity were caused by (i) a decrease in the provisioning of some functions, and an increase in others; (ii) strong within-guild species turnover; and (iii) a replacement of specialists by generalists. Hence, communities from more deforested sites seem to provide different but not fewer functions. We show the importance of investigating changes to both diversity and composition of functional traits and species, as the effects of habitat loss on ecosystem functioning may be more complex than previously thought. Crucially, when only functional diversity is assessed, important changes to ecological functions may remain undetected and negative effects of habitat loss underestimated, thereby imperiling the application of effective conservation actions.

  7. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids.

  8. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758 roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation

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    AC Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101, in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates.

  9. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758) roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Mendes, S L; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101), in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates.

  10. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  11. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Almeida, Viviane Medeiros de; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample) were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals) we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  12. Floral Resources Used by Euglossini Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Coastal Ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest

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    L. C. Rocha-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was carried out from August 2007 to July 2009 in two coastal ecosystems in Ubatuba, Brazil. In order to obtain information on flower resources collected by Euglossini bees in loco, all bees observed on flowers were collected, pollinaria of Orchidaceae occasionally attached to the body of males were identified, and the pollinic analysis of 68 females was carried out. One hundred twelve bees from 14 species were associated to 105 plant species which represented pollen, nectar, resin, and fragrances sources. These data reinforce the relevance of orchid bees to the maintenance and reproductive success of many tropical plants.

  13. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

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    PS. D’Andrea

    Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  14. Identification of a new lipase family in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoro, Helisson; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Souza, Emanuel M; Rigo, Liu U; Cruz, Leonardo M; Monteiro, Rose A; Pedrosa, Fábio O

    2011-12-01

    Lipases are the most investigated class of enzymes in metagenomics. Phylogenetic classification of bacterial lipases comprises eight families. Here we describe the construction and screening of three metagenomic libraries from Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil and identification of a new lipase family. The metagenomic libraries, MAF1, MAF2 and MAF3, contained 34 560, 29 280 and 36 288 clones respectively. Lipase screening on triolein-rhodamine B plates resulted in one positive clone, Lip018. The DNA insert of Lip018 was fully sequenced and 20 ORFs were identified by comparison against the GenBank. Transposon mutagenesis revealed that ORF15, similar to serine peptidases, and ORF16, a hypothetical protein, were both required for lipase activity. ORF16 has a typical lipase conserved pentapeptide G-X-S-X-G and the comparison against the Pfam database showed that ORF16 belongs to family 5 of αβ-hydrolase. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that ORF16, together with other related proteins, may be a member of a new lipase family, named LipAP, activated by a putative serine protease. Partial characterization of ORF16 lipase showed that the enzyme has activity against a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters, but only after activation by the predicted peptidase ORF15.

  15. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, P S; Gentile, R; Maroja, L S; Fernandes, F A; Coura, R; Cerqueira, R

    2007-02-01

    This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133), Akodon cursor (n = 74), Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25) and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58) and Philander frenatus (n = 50). Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry) months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  16. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

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    Lisandro Negrete

    Full Text Available Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina, and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB. Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity than the alpha diversity.

  17. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  18. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  19. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197, equine (63, pigs (25, sheep (11, and dogs (28 were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197 among cattle and 10.7% (3/28 among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular

  20. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    C. B. Kasper

    Full Text Available Abstract Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus, margay (Lepardus wiedii and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  1. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

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    AC. Silva

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh, total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  2. Richness and abundance of bats captured at the edge and within a forest fragment in Acre, Brazil

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    Armando Muniz Calouro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of deforestation, forest fragmentation is a reality that is increasingly present in the western part of the state of Acre, Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in the richness and abundance of bats in an urban forest fragment of approximately 150ha, which is located in Rio Branco (AC. Collections were performed in two places: two points that were 200m from the edge and two that were 20m from the edge. Mist-nets were opened four hours after sundown during three nights/month. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’ and the Jaccard Similarity index (J were used for comparative analysis. On 48 nights (November/2005 to July/2007, 85 individual bats of 15 species were captured, with greater richness and abundance of chiropters within the fragment. The similarity index of species was low (J=0.44, indicating habitat preference. The diversity index (H’=2.091 was similar to that of previous studies in the Amazon, especially in Brazil, with lower diversity at the edge (H’=1.864 than inside the fragment (H’=2.047. Carollia perspicillata (n=32 and Artibeus lituratus (n=13 were responsible for 57.6% of the total captured. The characteristics of the matrix and the adaptation of the bats to the mist-nets explained the observed values.

  3. Feeding resource partitioning between two understorey insectivorous birds in a fragment of Neotropical cloud forest.

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    Manhães, M A; Dias, M M; Lima, A L C

    2015-11-01

    The food habits and niche overlap based on diet composition and prey size of two species of understorey insectivorous birds were investigated in an area of montane rain forest in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. A total of 43 birds were captured: 33 individuals of Conopophaga lineata (Conopophagidae) with 13 recaptures, and 10 individuals of Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Parulidae) with 12 recaptures, from which were obtained respectively 33 and 10 fecal samples. Fragments of 16 groups of arthropods, plus insect eggs, were identified in these samples. Conopophaga lineata predominantly consumed Formicidae (32%) and Isoptera (23.6%). However, the index of alimentary importance (AI) of Isoptera (3.53) was lower than other groups such as Formicidae (AI = 61.88), Coleoptera (AI = 16.17), insect larvae (AI = 6.95) and Araneae (AI = 6.6). Myiothlypis leucoblephara predominantly consumed Formicidae (28.2%) and Coleoptera (24.4%), although Coleoptera and Hymenoptera non-Formicidae had the highest values of AI (38.71 and 22.98 respectively). Differences in the proportions of the types of arthropods consumed by birds were not enough to reveal their separation into feeding niches (overlap = 0.618, p observed ≤ expected = 0.934), whereas differences in the use of resources was mainly due to the size of the prey (p<0.001), where C lineata, the species with the highest body mass (p<0.001) consumed larger prey. It is plausible that prey size is an axis of niche dimension that allows the coexistence of these species.

  4. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  5. Desiring the city: the urban imaginary in rural collective settlements in a Brazilian submontane Atlantic forest reserve

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    Bruno César Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available This article discusses data obtained in a study on populations who live near an important Brazilian submontane Atlantic forest, a geographical zone of north-eastern states located between the beach zone and the savanna-scrub zone. The populations in question live in a so-called Ecological Station from Murici (Esec-Murici, in the Murici Forest Complex (CFM, in the forest zone of Alagoas, distributed between two Incra rural collective settlements and on farms. Cultural forms used by such populations have been discussed by using social indexes taken from this survey and associating them with economical and environmental sustainability notions in their interfaces with these groups' social development and with regards to the actions of other agents in the CFM, suggesting that the maintenance of an urban imaginary which produces new subjectivities can be easily linked with environmental conservation policies.

  6. Effects of logging, hunting, and forest fragment size on physiological stress levels of two sympatric ateline primates in Colombia

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    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Heistermann, Michael; Gómez-Posada, Carolina; Galvis, Nelson; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbances are of major concern to the conservation of endangered species because of their potentially negative impact on animal populations. Both processes can impose physiological stress (i.e. increased glucocorticoid output) on animals, and chronically elevated stress levels can have detrimental effects on the long-term viability of animal populations. Here, we investigated the effect of fragment size and human impact (logging and hunting pressure) on glucocorticoid levels of two sympatric Neotropical primates, the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the critically endangered brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus). These two species have been reported to contrast strongly in their ability to cope with anthropogenic disturbances. We collected faecal samples from eight spider monkey groups and 31 howler monkey groups, living in seven and 10 different forest fragments in Colombia, respectively. We measured faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGCM) levels in both species using previously validated methods. Surprisingly, fragment size did not influence FGCM levels in either species. Spider monkeys showed elevated FGCMs in fragments with the highest level of human impact, whereas we did not find this effect in howler monkeys. This suggests that the two species differ in their physiological responsiveness to anthropogenic changes, further emphasizing why brown spider monkeys are at higher extinction risk than red howler monkeys. If these anthropogenic disturbances persist in the long term, elevated FGCM levels can potentially lead to a state of chronic stress, which might limit the future viability of populations. We propose that FGCM measurements should be used as a tool to monitor populations living in disturbed areas and to assess the success of conservation strategies, such as corridors connecting forest fragments. PMID:27293615

  7. Landscape composition influences abundance patterns and habitat use of three ungulate species in fragmented secondary deciduous tropical forests, Mexico

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    G. García-Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary forests are extensive in the tropics. Currently, these plant communities are the available habitats for wildlife and in the future they will possibly be some of the most wide-spread ecosystems world-wide. To understand the potential role of secondary forests for wildlife conservation, three ungulate species were studied: Mazama temama, Odocoileus virginianus and Pecari tajacu. We analyzed their relative abundance and habitat use at two spatial scales: (1 Local, where three different successional stages of tropical deciduous forest were compared, and (2 Landscape, where available habitats were compared in terms of landscape composition (proportion of forests, pastures and croplands within 113 ha. To determine the most important habitat-related environmental factors influencing the Sign Encounter Rate (SER of the three ungulate species, 11 physical, anthropogenic and vegetation variables were simultaneously analyzed through model selection using Akaike’s Information Criterion. We found, that P. tajacu and O. virginianus mainly used early successional stages, while M. temama used all successional stages in similar proportions. The latter species, however, used early vegetation stages only when they were located in landscapes mainly covered by forest (97%. P. tajacu and O. virginianus also selected landscapes covered essentially by forests, although they required smaller percentages of forest (86%. All ungulate species avoided landscape fragments covered by pastures. For all three species, landscape composition and human activities were the variables that best explained SER. We concluded that landscape is the fundamental scale for ungulate management, and that secondary forests are potentially important landscape elements for ungulate conservation.

  8. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina.

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    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T R; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979-2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf's variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf 's scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and sustainable

  9. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, Nina-S.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  10. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

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    Nina-S Kelch

    Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  11. Wood litter consumption by three species of Nasutitermes termites in an area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m(2). The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain.

  12. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a transiti

  13. Effects of human activities on rivers located in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest

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    Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.

  14. Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Priscila L. MacCord

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992-1993 to 2002-2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992-1993 and during the same months in 2002-2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.

  15. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2012-11-01

    Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with

  16. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  17. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species

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    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P.; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  18. Birds on fragmented islands: persistence in the forests of Java and Bali

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    Balen, van S.

    1999-01-01

    This study describes, analyses and provides suggestions for the amelioration of the impact of age-long deforestation on the distribution of forest birds on the islands of Java and Bali (Indonesia). The first section deals with colonisation and extinction processes of forest birds in a number of rema

  19. Jaguars on the move: modeling movement to mitigate fragmentation from road expansion in the Mayan Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colchero, Fernando; Conde, Dalia Amor; Manterola, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Road-induced habitat fragmentation is one of the greatest threats to large carnivores. Wildlife passes have been used to reduce fragmentation by mitigating the effects of roads as barriers to animal movement. However, direct observations of animals crossing roads are extremely rare and thus indir...

  20. Siphonaptera parasites of wild rodents and marsupials trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

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    Leandro Bianco de Moraes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Souhtheastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species and 50 marsupials (7 species were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5% captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 different species. New host records were determined for several flea species, and 5 significant associations between fleas and hosts were also found.

  1. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

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    Rodrigo B Ferreira

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i 200 m inside the forest, ii 50 m inside the forest, iii at the forest edge, and iv 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types. By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog

  2. Relief influence on the spatial distribution of the Atlantic Forest cover on the Ibiúna Plateau, SP

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    WG. Silva

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that, on a large scale, relief conditions influence the Atlantic Forest cover. The aim of this work was to explore these relationships on a local scale, in Caucaia do Alto, on the Ibiúna Plateau. Within an area of about 78 km², the distribution of forest cover, divided into two successional stages, was associated with relief attribute data (slope, slope orientation and altitude. The mapping of the vegetation was based on the interpretation of stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs, from April 2000, on a scale of 1:10,000, while the relief attributes were obtained by geoprocessing from digitalized topographic maps on a scale of 1:10,000. Statistical analyses, based on qui-square tests, revealed that there was a more extensive forest cover, irrespective of the successional stage, in steeper areas (>10 degrees located at higher altitudes (>923 m, but no influence of the slope orientation. There was no sign of direct influence of relief on the forest cover through environmental gradients that might have contributed to the forest regeneration. Likewise, there was no evidence that these results could have been influenced by the distance from roads or urban areas or with respect to permanent preservation areas. Relief seems to influence the forest cover indirectly, since agricultural land use is preferably made in flatter and lower areas. These results suggest a general distribution pattern of the forest remnants, independent of the scale of study, on which relief indirectly has a strong influence, since it determines human occupation.

  3. The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the roots of a ruderal forb is not related to the forest fragmentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Gabriel; Urcelay, Carlos; Galetto, Leonardo; Davison, John; Vasar, Martti; Saks, Ülle; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja

    2015-08-01

    Land-use changes and forest fragmentation have strong impact on biodiversity. However, little is known about the influence of new landscape configurations on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. We used 454 pyrosequencing to assess AMF diversity in plant roots from a fragmented forest. We detected 59 virtual taxa (VT; phylogenetically defined operational taxonomic units) of AMF - including 10 new VT - in the roots of Euphorbia acerensis. AMF communities were mainly composed of members of family Glomeraceae and were similar throughout the fragmented landscape, despite variation in forest fragment size (i.e. small, medium and large) and isolation (i.e. varying pairwise distances). AMF communities in forest fragments were phylogenetically clustered compared with the global, but not regional and local AMF taxon pools. This indicates that non-random community assembly processes possibly related to dispersal limitation at a large scale, rather than habitat filtering or biotic interactions, may be important in structuring the AMF communities. In this system, forest fragmentation did not appear to influence AMF community composition in the roots of the ruderal plant. Whether this is true for AMF communities in soil and the roots of other ecological groups of host plants or in other habitats deserves further study.

  4. Dipteran fauna associated with decaying organic matter in semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás, Brazil

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    José Eduardo Neto de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran diversity was studied in four seasonal, semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás state, Brazil. Species richness of Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families was analyzed. The insects were collected each two months over the course of one year, using traps with decaying bait. The traps were kept in the field for five days each sampling period. A total of 1,956 individuals belonging to 13 families were collected. 29 species were identified belonging to the main families. Muscidae had the highest abundance, while Sarcophagidae presented the greatest number of species. We also report the occurrence of Philornis schildi (Muscidae for the first time in Brazil. These data reinforce the importance of preserving these areas, and indicate the need for new studies to improve knowledge of the biodiversity associated with these fragments. This information may also be useful in future studies regarding the impact of human activity on insect fauna associated with this environment.

  5. STRUCTURE OF THE TREE AND REGENERATION LAYER ON A SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS STATE

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    Michel Eduardo Valentim Milhomem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812352Semideciduous forests occur in a few places in the Cerrado biome, but are being suppressed through byagriculture and livestock in central Brazil. The objective of this study was characterize the horizontaland vertical structures, the dispersal syndromes, successional groups and floristic similarity of the treelayer and regeneration in a semideciduous forest fragment in Itumbiara, Goiás state. All trees alive withcircumference at breast height (CAP ≥ 15 were identified and measured for height and diameter in 25 plotsof 20 x 20 m. To the regenerative stratum the criteria was the inclusion of individuals with height ≥ 1m untilCAP = 14.9 cm in 25 plots of 10 × 10 m. In both layers were sampled 100 species. The species with thehighest importance in the tree layer were Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, and in the regenerativestratum, Siparuna guianensis Aubl. Both layers had a higher proportion of early secondary species and thezoochory dispersion syndrome was more frequent. Several important species are not represented in othersemideciduous forests, and then this forest is an important permanent conservation area.

  6. Heterozygote excess through life history stages in Cestrum miradorense Francey (Solanaceae), an endemic shrub in a fragmented cloud forest habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Zepeda, F; González-Astorga, J; Montaña, C

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of genetic diversity and population genetic structure among different life history stages provide important information on the effect of the different forces and micro-evolutionary processes that mould diversity and genetic structure after fragmentation. Here we assessed genetic diversity and population genetic structure using 32 allozymic loci in adults, seeds, seedlings and juveniles of eight populations of the micro-endemic shrub Cestrum miradorense in a highly fragmented cloud forest in central-eastern Mexico. We expected that due to its long history or rarity, this species may have endured the negative effects of fragmentation and would show moderate to high levels of genetic diversity. High genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.445 ± 0.03), heterozygote excess (F(IT) = -0.478 ± 0.034, F(IS) = -0.578 ± 0.023) and low population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.064 ± 0.011) were found. Seeds had higher genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.467 ± 0.05) than the later stages (overall mean for adults, seedlings and juveniles H(e) = 0.438 ± 0.08). High gene flow was observed despite the fact that the fragmentation process began more than 100 years ago. We conclude that the high genetic diversity was the result of natural selection, which favours heterozygote excess in all stages, coupled with a combination of a reproductive system and seed/pollen dispersal mechanisms that favour gene flow.

  7. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

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    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  8. Dictyostelids living in the soils of the Atlantic forest, Iguazú region, Misiones, Argentina: description of new species.

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    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C

    2007-01-01

    Thirteen new species and varieties of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (csm) were isolated from soils of the Atlantic Subtropical Rain Forest at the Iguazú Falls, Northeastern Misiones Province, Argentina. Seven new species are described herein, one of them is a Polysphondylium, while the rest of the species belong to the genus Dictyostelium. Also, six taxa are new varieties of Dictyostelium and Acytostelium, which will be reported later. Fourteen Northern Hemisphere (Tikal) species have also been isolated from Iguazú soils, some of them new records for Southern South America. This csm community, when compared with others from forests of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly Tikal, Guatemala, give some insight into a possibly different evolutionary history and/or natural selection in the two areas.

  9. Simulation of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from tropical primary forests in the Costa Rican Atlantic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Reiners, William A.; Keller, Michael; Schimel, Davis S.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are important atmospheric trace gases participating in the regulation of global climate and environment. Predictive models on the emissions of N2O and NO emissions from soil into the atmosphere are required. We modified the CENTURY model (Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 51 (1987) 1173) to simulate the emissions of N2O and NO from tropical primary forests in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica at a monthly time step. Combined fluxes of N2O and NO were simulated as a function of gross N mineralization and water-filled pore space (WFPS). The coefficients for partitioning N2O from NO were derived from field measurements (Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8 (1994) 399). The modified CENTURY was calibrated against observations of carbon stocks in various pools of forest ecosystems of the region, and measured WFPS and emission rates of N2O and NO from soil to the atmosphere.

  10. Metacommunity composition of web-spiders in a fragmented neotropical forest: relative importance of environmental and spatial effects.

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    Ronei Baldissera

    Full Text Available The distribution of beta diversity is shaped by factors linked to environmental and spatial control. The relative importance of both processes in structuring spider metacommunities has not yet been investigated in the Atlantic Forest. The variance explained by purely environmental, spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Field work was done in one landscape mosaic representing a slight gradient of urbanization. Environmental variables encompassed plot- and patch-level measurements and a climatic matrix, while principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNMs acted as spatial variables. A forward selection procedure was carried out to select environmental and spatial variables influencing web-spider beta diversity. Variation partitioning was used to estimate the contribution of pure environmental and pure spatial effects and their shared influence on beta-diversity patterns, and to estimate the relative importance of selected environmental variables. Three environmental variables (bush density, land use in the surroundings of patches, and shape of patches and two spatial variables were selected by forward selection procedures. Variation partitioning revealed that 15% of the variation of beta diversity was explained by a combination of environmental and PCNM variables. Most of this variation (12% corresponded to pure environmental and spatially environmental structure. The data indicated that (1 spatial legacy was not important in explaining the web-spider beta diversity; (2 environmental predictors explained a significant portion of the variation in web-spider composition; (3 one-third of environmental variation was due to a spatial structure that jointly explains variation in species distributions. We were able to detect important factors related to matrix management influencing the web

  11. Metacommunity composition of web-spiders in a fragmented neotropical forest: relative importance of environmental and spatial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Ronei; Rodrigues, Everton N L; Hartz, Sandra M

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of beta diversity is shaped by factors linked to environmental and spatial control. The relative importance of both processes in structuring spider metacommunities has not yet been investigated in the Atlantic Forest. The variance explained by purely environmental, spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Field work was done in one landscape mosaic representing a slight gradient of urbanization. Environmental variables encompassed plot- and patch-level measurements and a climatic matrix, while principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNMs) acted as spatial variables. A forward selection procedure was carried out to select environmental and spatial variables influencing web-spider beta diversity. Variation partitioning was used to estimate the contribution of pure environmental and pure spatial effects and their shared influence on beta-diversity patterns, and to estimate the relative importance of selected environmental variables. Three environmental variables (bush density, land use in the surroundings of patches, and shape of patches) and two spatial variables were selected by forward selection procedures. Variation partitioning revealed that 15% of the variation of beta diversity was explained by a combination of environmental and PCNM variables. Most of this variation (12%) corresponded to pure environmental and spatially environmental structure. The data indicated that (1) spatial legacy was not important in explaining the web-spider beta diversity; (2) environmental predictors explained a significant portion of the variation in web-spider composition; (3) one-third of environmental variation was due to a spatial structure that jointly explains variation in species distributions. We were able to detect important factors related to matrix management influencing the web-spider beta

  12. Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bulafu, Collins Edward; Baranga, Deborah; Mucunguzi, Patrick; Telford,Richard; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2013-01-01

    Private forests harbor considerable biodiversity, however, they are under greater threat than reserved areas, particularly from urbanization, agriculture, and intense exploitation for timber and fuel wood. The extent to which they may act as habitats for biodiversity and how level of protection impacts trends in biodiversity and forest structure over time remain underresearched. We contribute to filling this research gap by resampling a unique data set, a detailed survey from 1990 of 22 fores...

  13. Variability in fruit and seed morphology among and within populations of Plathymenia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) in areas of the Cerrado, the Atlantic forest, and transitional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, M Figueiredo; Pires Lemos Filho, J; Lovato, M B

    2006-01-01

    Plathymenia reticulata is a tree species that occurs in two different Brazilian biomes, the Cerrado (a savannah environment), and the Atlantic Forest. In the present study, we evaluated morphological variation within and among five populations located in these vegetation types and in transitional sites in order to test the hypothesis that habitat selective pressures, being different in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest, would cause adaptive differences in morphological traits in individuals occurring under these different circumstances. Thirteen morphological traits of fruits, seeds, and of the membranous endocarp were obtained from 30 fruits and 20 seeds from each of nine to 10 individuals per population. Significant variation was found for all traits while comparing individuals within populations, and most traits varied significantly among populations as well. Some traits differed significantly between forest and Cerrado populations, while transition sites showed intermediate patterns and higher within-population variation. Contrary to our hypothesis, variation in seed size and mass among populations from different habitats was not significant. However, as predicted, the membranous endocarp was shorter for the seeds from Cerrado populations than from the Atlantic Forest. These data suggest the existence of P. reticulata ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest; the relevance to Plathymenia evolution and to its wide ecological distribution is discussed.

  14. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catão, Elisa C P; Lopes, Fabyano A C; Araújo, Janaína F; de Castro, Alinne P; Barreto, Cristine C; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Quirino, Betania F; Krüger, Ricardo H

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial communities found in "Mata de galeria" forest soil samples from the Cerrado biome have a tendency to separate from the other Cerrado vegetation microbial communities in the direction of those found in the Atlantic Forest, which is correlated with a high abundance of Acidobacteria subgroup 2 (GP2). Environmental conditions seem to promote a negative correlation between GP2 and subgroup 1 (GP1) abundance. Also GP2 is negatively correlated to pH, but positively correlated to high Al(3+) concentrations. The Cerrado soil showed the lowest Acidobacteria richness and diversity indexes of OTUs at the species and subgroups levels when compared to Atlantic Forest soils. These results suggest specificity of acidobacterial subgroups to soils of different biomes and are a starting point to understand their ecological roles, a topic that needs to be further explored.

  15. Vertical stratification and development aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest tree species in a metropolitan region in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A M; Silva, V P M; Queiroz, P V S; Andrade, H T A; Loiola, M I B; Ximenes, M F F M

    2007-12-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Norte in northeast Brazil, cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur mainly in the periurban areas of the city of Natal. Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania chagasi (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae) to humans, is found throughout the state. Flora and fauna influence the distribution of sand fly species, whose horizontal or vertical stratification can be used as a parameter for identifying potential vectors, considering the presence of vertebrate hosts in the area. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sand flies in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, and associate it with the presence of other animals in the peridomiciliary environment as well as to analyze, under laboratory conditions, aspects of L. longipalpis reproduction in wild females. The sand flies were captured with light traps hung at different heights in species of Atlantic Forest trees and in a peridomiciliary environment in animal shelters. The traps were placed between 17:30 and 6:00 of the following day, in a peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary area of a forest fragment in both dry and rainy months. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. The biological cycle of L. longipalpis was followed from the eggs of 200 wild females. Specimens of L. lenti, L. walkeri, and L. migonei were captured. The comparison and statistical analysis showed that L. longipalpis is more abundant at a height of 3 m and L. evandroi at 1 m. In the animal shelters (chickens, horses, and armadillos), we captured mainly specimens of L. longipalpis and L. evandroi. The duration of the biological cycle of L. longipalpis was approximately 38 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C.

  16. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

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    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  17. Floristic units and their predictors unveiled in part of the Atlantic Forest hotspot: implications for conservation planning

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    FELIPE Z. SAITER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We submitted tree species occurrence and geoclimatic data from 59 sites in a river basin in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil to ordination, ANOVA, and cluster analyses with the goals of investigating the causes of phytogeographic patterns and determining whether the six recognized subregions represent distinct floristic units. We found that both climate and space were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 important in the explanation of phytogeographic patterns. Floristic variations follow thermal gradients linked to elevation in both coastal and inland subregions. A gradient of precipitation seasonality was found to be related to floristic variation up to 100 km inland from the ocean. The temperature of the warmest quarter and the precipitation during the coldest quarter were the main predictors. The subregions Sandy Coastal Plain, Coastal Lowland, Coastal Highland, and Central Depression were recognized as distinct floristic units. Significant differences were not found between the Inland Highland and the Espinhaço Range, indicating that these subregions should compose a single floristic unit encompassing all interior highlands. Because of their ecological peculiarities, the ferric outcrops within the Espinhaço Range may constitute a special unit. The floristic units proposed here will provide important information for wiser conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  18. Dispersal syndromes in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Camila Ângelo Jerônimo Domingues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore dispersal process is crucial for plant reproduction, since the diaspores must reach a suitable site to germinate. This paper aimed to study morphological aspects of diaspores and determine the dispersal syndromes of species occurring in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, the Guaribas Biological Reserve. One conducted a monthly collection of fruits/seeds within the period from September 2007 to February 2009. All diaspores of the fruiting species were collected. After analyzing characteristics such as fruit and seed consistency, odor, color, size, and weight, one determined the dispersal syndrome of each species. One collected 3,080 diaspores belonging to 136 different species distributed into 27 families. Zoochory was the most abundant dispersal syndrome (58%, with 79 fruits adapted to it, followed by autochory (29%, and anemochory (13%. Throughout the study period, one found fruiting species, with a predominance of zoochoric fruits, a predictable fact in the Atlantic Forest, which provides fleshy fruits all the year round.

  19. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

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    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  20. Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil: Galling insects in Rio de Janeiro state are known by their great diversity, despite most of the surveys have been done in restinga. This paper investigated the insect galls from a remnant of Atlantic Forest located in São Francisco de Itabapoana municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galling insect fauna was surveyed from March, 2013 to April, 2014 at the Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba. 143 gall morphotypes were found in 31 plant families, 60 genera and 82 species. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the main host families, being Trichilia, Tontelea and Eugenia the main host genera. Most galls occured on leaves, with globose shape, green and glabrous. Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera were the inducing orders and the associated fauna comprised parasitoids (Hymenoptera, inquilines (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera: Coccoidea, successors (Psocoptera, Collembola and Acari, and predators (Pseudoscorpiones. Three plant genera and nine plant species are recorded for the first time as host of galls in Brazil. All the records are new to the municipality, and the distribution of 15 galling species is extended to the North of the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Fruit-feeding butterflies in the Atlantic Forest at Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Gabriela Corso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-feeding butterflies are used in ecological studies following standardized sampling protocols because they are easily collected using traps baited with food. This trait, and the fact that their populations respond rapidly to changes in habitat, make them good biological indicators. The goal of this study is to present a list of fruit-feeding butterfly species, including morphological and ecological characteristics of this group, for the Atlantic Forest of Serra do Tabuleiro State Park (Santa Catarina, to improve the knowledge about the butterflies from this region. Six field expeditions were carried out between November 2009 and August 2010. Twenty-five bait traps were used, which remained active for ten days and were checked every 48 h to replace the bait and collect individuals. Twenty species and 331 individuals were captured, which belonged to three subfamilies: Biblidinae, Charaxinae and Satyrinae. The study added eleven new species to the already existing list of the Atlantic Forest butterflies of Santa Catarina.

  2. Heterogeneidade estrutural e diversidade de pequenos mamíferos em um fragmento de mata secundária de Minas Gerais, Brasil Structural heterogeneity and diversity of small mammals in a secondary forest fragment of Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Adriano Pereira Paglia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine the relationship between the diversity of small mammals and the structural heterogeneity and/or secondary successional stages in an Atlantic forest fragment at Viçosa (Minas Gerais. We used Sherman and hook live traps to sample this fauna, monthly from may 1992 to april 1993 in three areas: an abandoned plantation of Melinis minutiflora (campo and two distinct forest areas (capoeira and mata. The structural heterogeneity was determined as a function of the presence of dead trees, pioneer species, epiphytes, the distances between trees, the tree height and basal area measured by a modified quadrant sample method (Cottam & Curtis 1945. lt was sampled a total of 340 individuals belonging to 17 species. The homogeneous plantations had the highest diversity (H' = 1,67. Among the two forests stands the less heterogeneous capoeira had similar diversity (H' = 1,19 than the more heterogeneous stand, the mata (H' = 1,13. The unexpected higher diversity and species richness in the more homogeneous habitat may be explained by some hidden factor which decrease the competition for resources in this community.

  3. Secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles in an Amazonian forest fragment of Colombia: influence of dung type and edge effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Heredia, Carolina; Andresen, Ellen; Stevenson, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Seeds of many plant species are secondarily dispersed by dung beetles, but the outcome of this interaction is highly context-specific. Little is known about how certain anthropogenic disturbances affect this plant-animal interaction. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of dung type on secondary dispersal by dung beetles in a forest fragment, and to determine whether this interaction is affected by edge effects. Using pitfall traps, we captured dung beetles attracted to dung of 2 frugivorous mammals: woolly monkeys and howler monkeys. We found differences between both dung beetle assemblages, but these differences were not consistent in time. Using seeds surrounded by both dung types, we carried out a field experiment using seeds of 2 plant species. We found that the probability of secondary dispersal by dung beetles was higher for seeds placed in woolly monkey dung. Finally, we carried out a field experiment using plastic beads as seed mimics to assess edge effects. We found that secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles was negatively affected by edges. The disruption of plant-animal interactions along anthropogenic forest edges could have long-term negative effects on forest dynamics by affecting processes of regeneration.

  4. The Araceae in Ceará, Brazil: humid forest plants in a semi-arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Ivanilza Moreira de; Mayo,Simon Joseph; Silva, Maria Francilene Souza; Sousa,Danilo José Lima de; Matias,Lígia Queiroz; Ribeiro,Thales Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study consists of a taxonomic treatment of the Araceae of Ceará, a state lying within Brazil's semi-arid region. The aroid flora shows greater similarity to those of central Brazil and Amazonia than to the Atlantic forest. Most species occur in humid forest fragments - the "florestas serranas". Geophytes are also found in caatinga and dry forest (Taccarum ulei) and lithophytes on rock outcrops in dry forest (Philodendron acutatum). Floating aquatics occur in ponds and lakes throughout the...

  5. Meta-analysis of pollen limitation reveals the relevance of pollination generalization in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

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    Marina Wolowski

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome - one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species. Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the

  6. Meta-analysis of pollen limitation reveals the relevance of pollination generalization in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome - one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d) from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively) had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species). Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups) were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the reproductive failure

  7. When the shifting agriculture is gone: functionality of Atlantic Coastal Forest in abandoned farming sites

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    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for a very long time by the traditional populations (caiçaras on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. After a few years of use the plots are abandoned to fallow. We examined the processes of litter production and decomposition and the relationships between forest lands used by caiçara populations and landscape functionality. Five and 25-year-old forests growing on areas once used for subsistence agriculture were compared to a near-climax forest site. No significant differences between the three areas were noted in terms of litter production over a 2-yr period; the average litter productions were 9,927, 8,707 and 10,031 kg/ha/yr for the 5-year, 25-year and climax forests respectively. N and K nutrient input through litter was greatest in the climax forest; P and Mg input was greatest in the 5-yr forest; and Na greatest in the 25-yr forest. Ground litter accumulation (3,040-3,730 kg/ha/yr was not significantly different in the three areas. Litter turnover times (1/K were 0.33, 0.42 and 0.38 for the 5-yr, 25-yr and climax forests respectively. These secondary forests cover almost all of Ilha Grande and demonstrate low species diversity, but they have production and decomposition systems similar to those of mature forests.

  8. Functional traits enhance invasiveness of bamboos over co-occurring tree saplings in the semideciduous Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montti, Lía; Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I.; Gatti, M. Genoveva; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Many woody bamboo species are forest understory plants that become invasive after disturbance. They can grow rapidly forming a dense, nearly monospecific understory that inhibits tree regeneration. The principal aim of this study was to understand what functional traits of bamboos allow them to outcompete tree seedlings and saplings and become successful species in the semideciduous Atlantic Forests of northeastern Argentina. We studied leaf and whole-plant functional traits of two bamboo species of the genus Chusquea and five co-occurring saplings of common tree species growing under similar solar radiation and soil nutrient availabilities. Nutrient addition had no effect on bamboo or tree sapling survival and growth after two years. Tree species with high-light requirements had higher growth rates and developed relatively thin leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area and short leaf life-span when growing in gaps, but had lower survival rates in the understory. The opposite pattern was observed in shade-tolerant species that were able to survive in the understory but had lower photosynthetic capacity and growth than light-requiring species in gaps. Bamboos exhibited a high plasticity in functional traits and leaf characteristics that enabled them to grow rapidly in gaps (e.g., higher photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass and clonal reproduction in gaps than in the understory) but at the same time to tolerate closed-canopy conditions (they had thinner leaves and a relatively longer leaf life-span in the understory compared to gaps). Photosynthetic capacity per unit dry mass was higher in bamboos than in trees. Bamboo plasticity in key functional traits, such as clonal reproduction at the plant level and leaves with a relatively low C cost and high photosynthesis rates, allows them to colonize disturbed forests with consequences at the community and ecosystem levels. Increasing disturbance in some forests worldwide will likely enhance bamboo

  9. Worker morphology of the ant Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr (Formicidae, Ectatomminae in different landscapes from the Atlantic Forest domain

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    Roseli F. Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits, such as size and shape, may reflect a combination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Ants have been used to evaluate the relationship between the environment and species coexistence and morphology. In the present study, we analyzed the morphology of workers of Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr in different landscapes from the Atlantic Domain in southeastern Brazil, focusing on the variation in the morphological attributes of these populations compared to those from a dense ombrophilous forest. Eighteen morphological traits of functional importance for interactions between workers and the environment were measured to characterize the size and shape of the workers. In general, the results show that ants of urban areas possess some morphological attributes of smaller size, with highly overlapped morphological space between the populations in forested ecosystems. Further, some of the traits related to predation were relatively smaller in modified land areas than in the populations from preserved areas of dense ombrophilous forest. These results help broaden the knowledge regarding morphological diversity in G. striatula, suggesting that the characterization of the morphology may be important to quantify the effects of land use on morphological diversity, and presumably, to facilitate the use of ants as biological indicators.

  10. Soil profile, relief features and their relation to structure and distribution of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest trees

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    Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, the environmental heterogeneity can provide niche partitioning at local scales and determine the diversity and plant species distribution. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the variations of tree species structure and distribution in response to relief and soil profile features in a portion of the largest remnant of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. All trees ³ 5 cm diameter at breast height were recorded in two 0.99 ha plots. Topographic survey and a soil characterization were accomplished in both plots. Topsoil samples (0-20 cm were taken from 88 quadrats and analyzed for chemical and particle size properties. Differences for both diversity and tree density were identified among three kinds of soils. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA indicated that the specific abundance varied among the three kinds of soils mapped: a shallow Udept - Orthent / Aquent gradient, probably due to differences in soil drainage. Nutrient content was less likely to affect tree species composition and distribution than relief, pH, Al3+, and soil texture. Some species were randomly distributed and did not show restriction to relief and soil properties. However, preferences in niche occupation detected in this study, derived from the catenary environments found, rise up as an important explanation for the high tree species diversity in tropical forests.

  11. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

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    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  12. Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

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    Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2014-05-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity.

  13. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina

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    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979–2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf’s variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf ‘s scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and

  14. Floristic and phytosociological investigation of trees in a seasonal deciduous forest fragment at São Miguel do Oeste, Santa Catarina

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    Geniane Schneider

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests in Santa Catarina have been reduced and fragmented, and seasonal deciduous forests are among the most afflicted. The aim of the investigation was to describe arboreal composition and structure in a seasonal deciduous forest fragment. We established ten sample units of 20x20 m, covering a total area of 0.4 ha. Trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 25 cm were identified, and species richness and diversity were evaluated. A total of 205 individuals was sampled from 54 species, representing 44 genera and 23 families. Tree diversity was estimated to be 3.472 (nats using the Shannon-Weiner index (H’, and Pielou’s evenness (J’ was estimated at 0.87. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae and Sapindaceae. The species with the highest importance and coverage values were Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C. Burger, Lanjouw & Boer, and Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn. Mez. Species richness and diversity are within the range of values cited for seasonal deciduous forests in the Floristic Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, which shows the impact of exploration and fragmentation on this habitat. Nevertheless, the studied area has apparently conserved a significant portion of the tree species cited for this forest type.

  15. Ecologically scaled responses of forest-dwelling vertebrates to habitat fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ascensão, Fernando Jorge Portela Martins, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia da Conservação), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Road habitat fragmentation has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity conservation. Roads induce a ‘barrier effect’ by representing a physical obstacle or promoting animal-vehicle collisions, disrupting daily and seasonal movements and consequently leading to the depletion and genetic subdivision of animal populations. However, road verges may also provide resources for...

  16. PRECIPITATION AND NUTRIENT CONTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES OF ATLANTIC FOREST, PINHEIRAL, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE

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    Anderson Ribeiro Diniz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810550Forest cover has importance within the context of the water balance of a particular site and may alter the mechanism of entry of water and nutrients to the soil surface. The aim of this study was to quantify the net precipitation, interception addition of nutrients in throughfall and stem flow in a forest in different stages of regeneration Mata Atlântica: early-stage secondary forest (ESSF, intermediary stage secondary forest (ISSF and advanced stage secondary forest (AESF. The study was conducted in Pinheiral,  Rio de Janeiro state. The data collection was performed during the period April 2009 to March 2010. The values of incident precipitation,

  17. Anurans in a forest remnant in the transition zone between cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest domains in Southeastern Brazil.

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    Pirani, Renata M; Nascimento, Luciana B; Feio, Renato N

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the species richness, temporal distribution and reproductive activity of anurans from the Uaimií State Forest (Floresta Estadual do Uaimií - FLOE Uaimií), situated in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, municipality of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Field activities were performed monthly from September 2009 to August 2010. We recorded 36 anurans species, distributed in 10 families. The greatest richness of the sampled sites corresponds to a permanent rivulet in a secondary forest. The majority of anuran species presented seasonal vocalization activity pattern, mainly in the rainy season. The anuran species composition of FLOE Uaimií is similar to others studied areas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region.

  18. Anurans in a forest remnant in the transition zone between cerrado and atlantic rain forest domains in southeastern Brazil

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    RENATA M. PIRANI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the species richness, temporal distribution and reproductive activity of anurans from the Uaimií State Forest (Floresta Estadual do Uaimií – FLOE Uaimií, situated in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, municipality of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Field activities were performed monthly from September 2009 to August 2010. We recorded 36 anurans species, distributed in 10 families. The greatest richness of the sampled sites corresponds to a permanent rivulet in a secondary forest. The majority of anuran species presented seasonal vocalization activity pattern, mainly in the rainy season. The anuran species composition of FLOE Uaimií is similar to others studied areas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region.

  19. Trait-mediated seed predation, dispersal and survival among frugivore-dispersed plants in a fragmented subtropical forest, Southwest China.

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    Lai, Xin; Guo, Cong; Xiao, Zhishu

    2014-06-01

    By tracking the fate of individual seeds from 6 frugivore-dispersed plants with contrasting seed traits in a fragmented subtropical forest in Southwest China, we explored how rodent seed predation and hoarding were influenced by seed traits such as seed size, seed coat hardness and seed profitability. Post-dispersal seed fates varied significantly among the 6 seed species and 3 patterns were witnessed: large-seeded species with a hard seed coat (i.e. Choerospoadias axillaries and Diospyros kaki var. silvestris) had more seeds removed, cached and then surviving at caches, and they also had fewer seeds predated but a higher proportion of seeds surviving at the source; medium-sized species with higher profitability and thinner seed coat (i.e. Phoebe zhennan and Padus braohypoda) were first harvested and had the lowest probability of seeds surviving either at the source or at caches due to higher predation before or after removal; and small-seeded species with lower profitability (i.e. Elaeocarpus japonicas and Cornus controversa) had the highest probability of seeds surviving at the source but the lowest probability of seeds surviving at caches due to lower predation at the source and lower hoarding at caches. Our study indicates that patterns of seed predation, dispersal and survival among frugivore-dispersed plants are highly determined by seed traits such as seed size, seed defense and seed profitability due to selective predation and hoarding by seed-eating rodents. Therefore, trait-mediated seed predation, dispersal and survival via seed-eating rodents can largely affect population and community dynamics of frugivore-dispersed plants in fragmented forests.

  20. Anurans in a forest remnant in the transition zone between cerrado and atlantic rain forest domains in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    PIRANI,RENATA M.; Nascimento,Luciana B.; Renato N. Feio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the species richness, temporal distribution and reproductive activity of anurans from the Uaimií State Forest (Floresta Estadual do Uaimií – FLOE Uaimií), situated in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, municipality of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Field activities were performed monthly from September 2009 to August 2010. We recorded 36 anurans species, distributed in 10 families. The greatest richness of the sampled sites correspon...

  1. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

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    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  3. Adequacy assessment of mathematical models in the dynamics of litter decomposition in a tropical forest Mosaic Atlantic, in southeastern Brazil

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    FP. Nunes

    Full Text Available The study of litter decomposition and nutrient cycling is essential to know native forests structure and functioning. Mathematical models can help to understand the local and temporal litter fall variations and their environmental variables relationships. The objective of this study was test the adequacy of mathematical models for leaf litter decomposition in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. We study four native forest sites in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, a Biosphere Reserve of the Atlantic, which were installed 200 bags of litter decomposing with 20×20 cm nylon screen of 2 mm, with 10 grams of litter. Monthly from 09/2007 to 04/2009, 10 litterbags were removed for determination of the mass loss. We compared 3 nonlinear models: 1 – Olson Exponential Model (1963, which considers the constant K, 2 – Model proposed by Fountain and Schowalter (2004, 3 – Model proposed by Coelho and Borges (2005, which considers the variable K through QMR, SQR, SQTC, DMA and Test F. The Fountain and Schowalter (2004 model was inappropriate for this study by overestimating decomposition rate. The decay curve analysis showed that the model with the variable K was more appropriate, although the values of QMR and DMA revealed no significant difference (p> 0.05 between the models. The analysis showed a better adjustment of DMA using K variable, reinforced by the values of the adjustment coefficient (R2. However, convergence problems were observed in this model for estimate study areas outliers, which did not occur with K constant model. This problem can be related to the non-linear fit of mass/time values to K variable generated. The model with K constant shown to be adequate to describe curve decomposition for separately areas and best adjustability without convergence problems. The results demonstrated the adequacy of Olson model to estimate tropical forest litter decomposition. Although use of reduced number of parameters equaling the steps of the

  4. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, José Adelson C; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    Hunting is a problem to animal conservation in different parts of the world and it has caused the local extinction of several species. The aim of this study was to characterize the poaching activities in one of the main tabuleiro forest remnants of Brazil, the Linhares-Sooretama Block (LSB). Poaching records from 2010 to 2013 were gathered from the agencies responsible for monitoring and combating environmental crimes in the LSB. A total of 693 records (mean = 173 events/year) were collected involving direct (hunted animals, firearms, handmade firearms, traps, poachers, and various hunting supplies) and indirect (tree stands, baits, and poacher signs) evidences of poaching. No differences in the monthly cumulative number of records were found among years, but the distribution of records differed according to the type of evidence. A total of 40 animal seizure events were recorded involving a total of at least 15 taxa directly affected by poaching (reptiles = 2, birds = 6, mammals = 7) and 75 individuals seized (19 individuals/year). Five of the poached species are threatened. Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) and armadillos were the most poached mammals in the region. Most of the poachers conduct such activities for fun (entertainment) and/or professionally (commercial hunting). The collected data show an approximately 32% increase in the number of poaching events in the region compared with the historical data available for LSB. It may have resulted from a gradual decrease in protection, both in terms of the number of agents deployed and the levels of effort of the teams, which began in 2009. The data demonstrate that poaching is a significant threat to the conservation of the LSB fauna, as it is in other Atlantic Forest remnants and in other regions of the world. Protection activities must be intensified to effectively combat the impacts of poaching in the LSB region, thereby contributing to the conservation of species in one of the few Atlantic Forest

  5. Multilocus Phylogeography of the Treefrog Scinax eurydice (Anura, Hylidae) Reveals a Plio-Pleistocene Diversification in the Atlantic Forest

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    Menezes, Lucas; Canedo, Clarissa; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Gehara, Marcelo; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the genetic structure of an Atlantic Forest amphibian species, Scinax eurydice, testing the congruence among patterns identified and proposed by the literature for Pleistocene refugia, microrefugia, and geographic barriers to gene flow such as major rivers. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate predictions of such barriers and refugia on the genetic structure of the species, such as presence/absence of dispersal, timing since separation, and population expansions/contractions. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers on 94 tissue samples from 41 localities. We inferred a gene tree and estimated genetic distances using mtDNA sequences. We then ran population clustering and assignment methods, AMOVA, and estimated migration rates among populations identified through mtDNA and nDNA analyses. We used a dated species tree, skyline plots, and summary statistics to evaluate concordance between population’s distributions and geographic barriers and Pleistocene refugia. Scinax eurydice showed high mtDNA divergences and four clearly distinct mtDNA lineages. Species tree and population assignment tests supported the existence of two major clades corresponding to northeastern and southeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, each one composed of two other clades. Lineage splitting events occurred from late Pliocene to Pleistocene. We identified demographic expansions in two clades, and inexistent to low levels of migrations among different populations. Genetic patterns and demographic data support the existence of two northern Refuge and corroborate microrefugia south of the Doce/Jequitinhonha Rivers biogeographic divide. The results agree with a scenario of recent demographic expansion of lowland taxa. Scinax eurydice comprises a species complex, harboring undescribed taxa consistent with Pleistocene refugia. Two rivers lie at the boundaries among populations and endorse their role as secondary barriers to gene flow. PMID:27248688

  6. Genetic assessment of the Atlantic Forest bristle porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae), an endemic species threatened with extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C G; Martinez, R A; Giné, G A F; Faria, D M; Gaiotto, F A

    2011-05-24

    The bristle-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, an endemic rodent from Atlantic Forest, was considered to be abundant in the recent past, but population reductions due to habitat loss and expansion of human activities caused this species to be included in the "vulnerable" category of the World Conservation Union Red List. We performed the first genetic assessment in natural populations of this focal species along its geographical distribution. Thirty-five non-invasive samples (hair) were collected from three natural populations in the Brazilian States of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo. Genetic similarity obtained by Jaccard's index, based on dominant RAPD and ISSR markers, varied between 25 and 100%. Four clusters, mainly coincident with the geographical distribution of the populations, were observed. Analysis of molecular variance based on 47 polymorphic loci showed that there was 15.99% genetic variability among populations and 84.01% within populations. The estimated genetic structure among populations (Φ(ST)) was 0.16. The populations may have formed a continuum along the past distribution of the Atlantic rainforest but historical events of human occupation resulted in recent divergence among sampled populations.

  7. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

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    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  8. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site.

  9. Quantification of litter in the forest fragment national park Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State

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    Audenis Fagner de Jesus Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural forests are areas rich in biodiversity that contribute to the maintenance of environmental sustainability through the production of litter and nutrient cycling. Litter is a major route of nutrient return to the system plant – soil – plant and its determination to analyze the restructuring of anthropogenic forest environments. The knowledge of litterfall is critical to determine the potential for regeneration of an area through the intake and nutrient cycling. We quantified litter production in areas of white sand with vegetation in different stages of regeneration the National Park Sierra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State. In each of the areas of white sands open (ABA, white sands intermediary (ABI and white sands closed (ABF was installed 15 litter traps and litter fall was collected monthly from January to December 2011. The total contribution of litter on the White Sand Closed (2092 kg ha-1 was more than double the contribution in Areia Branca Open (881 kg ha-1 and White Sand Intermediate (687 kg ha-1. The leaf fraction contributed the largest mass in all areas and periods, and was the one with greater seasonal variation related to variation in precipitation. Precipitation was one of the factors that determined the seasonality of litter deposition in natural vegetation of the National Park of Sierra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State.

  10. Comparison of phytosociological parameters among three strata of a fragment of ombrophylous mixed forest

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies based on sampling have been very common in the last 20 years, however, they are rarely carried out using complete enumeration of trees (census. This research compare the phytossociological parameters between three different strata from a remnant of Ombrophylous Mixed Forest (OMF, which are: OMF Montana, Border OMF Montana and OMF Alluvial. The area of 13.71 was topographically divided in blocks of 50 x 50 meters for a better control of the 100% forest inventory (census. All trees with CBH (circumference measured at 1,30 m above ground ≥ 31,5 centimeters were measured, georeferencied, numbered, painted at DBH and identified at species level. In the strata OMF Montana the species with the highest Value of Coverage (VC was Araucaria angustifolia, with 30.6%, followed by Casearia sylvestris with 25.8%. In the Border OMF Montana the species that succeeded Araucaria angustifolia (29.0% was Gochnatia polymorpha with 27.2% of VC. The third strata, OMF Alluvial, presented as predominant species Schinus terebinthifolius (55,5%, followed by Sebastiania commersoniana (27,7%, both characteristics of alluvial environments. In the three strata there was prevalence of secondary pioneer species, proving that the area is in a secondary stage of ecological succession due to past exploratory process.

  11. Defaunation of large mammals leads to an increase in seed predation in the Atlantic forests

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    Mauro Galetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Defaunation can trigger cascading events in natural communities and may have strong consequences for plant recruitment in tropical forests. Several species of large seed predators, such as deer and peccaries, are facing dramatic population collapse in tropical forests yet we do not have information about the consequences of these extinctions for seed predation. Using remote camera traps we tested if defaunated forests have a lower seed predation rate of a keystone palm (Euterpe edulis than pristine areas. Contrary to our expectation, we found that seed predation rates were 2.5 higher in defaunated forests and small rodents were responsible for most of the seeds eaten. Our results found that defaunation leads to changes in the seed predator communities with potential consequences for plant–animal interactions.

  12. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

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    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  13. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Gennari, S M; Ogrzewalska, M; Soares, H S; Saraiva, D G; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B; Dubey, J P

    2014-02-24

    Avian are considered important intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as source of infection for Felidae, which shed environmentally resistant oocysts after ingesting infected tissues. Little is known of epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 202 wild birds of 37 species captured in seven small areas of the Atlantic Forest, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and provided information on possible associated risk factors. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 73 (36.1%) of 202 birds with titers of 1:5 in 16 samples, 1:10 in 26 samples, 1:20 in 17 samples, 1:40 in 10 samples, 1:80 in three samples, and 1:160 in one sample. No association was observed between T. gondii seropositivity and the local where the birds were collected. Seropositivity was higher in birds that lived on the forest floor (pbirds (p=0.007; U=3939.0). T. gondii antibodies were reported for the first time in 23 species of birds enlarging the host range of this parasite. Notably, T. gondii antibodies were found in 83.3% (15/18) of the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris).

  14. Microhabitat characteristics of Akodon montensis, a reservoir for hantavirus, and hantaviral seroprevalence in an Atlantic forest site in eastern Paraguay.

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    Goodin, Douglas G; Paige, Robert; Owen, Robert D; Ghimire, Kabita; Koch, David E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2009-06-01

    Hantaviruses may cause serious disease when transmitted to humans by their rodent hosts. Since their emergence in the Americas in 1993, there have been extensive efforts to understand the role of environmental factors on the presence of these viruses in their host rodent populations. HPS outbreaks have been linked to precipitation, but climatic factors alone have not been sufficient to predict the spatial-temporal dynamics of the environment-reservoir-virus system. Using a series of mark-recapture sampling sites located at the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, an Atlantic Forest site in eastern Paraguay, we investigated the hypothesis that microhabitat might also influence the prevalence of Jaborá hantavirus within populations of its reservoir species, Akodon montensis. Seven trapping sessions were conducted during 2005-2006 at four sites chosen to capture variable microhabitat conditions within the study site. Analysis of microhabitat preferences showed that A. montensis preferred areas with little forest overstory and denser vegetation cover on and near the ground. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the microhabitat occupied by antibody-positive vs antibody-negative rodents, indicating that microhabitats with greater overstory cover may promote transmission and maintenance of hantavirus in A. montensis.

  15. Study of the dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) community at two sites: Atlantic forest and clear-cut, Pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Silva, F A B; Costa, C M Q; Moura, R C; Farias, A I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) community structure at two sites in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil. Dung beetles were collected in 2006 using monthly samples from 48 pitfall traps baited with human dung and bovine carrion. The dung beetle communities from the study sites were compared in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity (Shannon index). Seasonality was analyzed by Spearman correlation between rainfall data and community parameters. In total, 2,560 individuals belonging to 40 species, 16 genera, and 6 tribes were collected. Species richness was higher for the clear-cut area compared with the forest habitat. Estimators of species richness suggested a total richness of 42-47 species in the entire study area. A positive correlation was observed between monthly rainfall and total abundance of individuals for the clear-cut area but not for the forest habitat. This study contributes to a better understanding of Scarabaeinae ecology in the Atlantic rainforest of northeastern Brazil.

  16. Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Efeitos de remanescentes de Mata Atlantica no controle biologico de Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) por Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele e Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murta, Aline F.; Ker, Fabricio T.O.; Costa, Dalbert B. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico de Pragas; Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Faria, Mauricio L. [Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 {+-} 7.61 vs. 14.8 {+-} 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations. (author)

  17. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-06-27

    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination.

  18. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

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    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  19. LITTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT ADDITION IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS IN SANTA MARIA DE JETIBÁ, ES

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    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished on Espíndula Farm, Santa Maria de Jetibá (ES, with the objective of evaluating the litter and nutrients deposition in areas with different succession stadiums. Two areas were selected with different vegetable coverings, defined as: (SF Secondary Forest, with about 25 ha of area, corresponding to an old area of cassava cultivation with about 50 years in process of ecological succession and where today there is a secondary forest and an Old Secondary Forest (OSF corresponding to a forest area that has just been submitted to a selective wood extraction for use of the farm itself. In each one of vegetal areas, approximately 0.1 ha was delimited and in these ten conical collectors were randomized distributed. The litter collections were accomplished monthly from November 2003 to October 2005. After drying, the material was stratified and the total contributed and the contribution of the different fractions, and the nutritious addition were evaluated. It was not verified significant differences among the total of litter deposited among the areas, being the highest production values observed in the summer, 5.70 Mg ha-1 (SF and 5.73 Mg ha-1(OSF, possibly due to the winds and rain mechanical action. The fraction of higher contribution was the foliar, corresponding to 74.62% for the SF area and 69.46% for the OSF area

  20. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest.

  1. Comparative phylogeography of the Atlantic forest endemic sloth (Bradypus torquatus) and the widespread three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) (Bradypodidae, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Silva, Juliana A B; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Morgante, J S

    2006-01-01

    The comparative phylogeographic study of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) and the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) was performed using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. We examined 19 B. torquatus from two regions and 47 B. variegatus from three distant regions of Atlantic forest. This first characterization of molecular diversity indicates a great diversity (B. torquatus: h = 0.901 +/- 0.039 and pi = 0.012 +/- 0.007; B. variegatus: h = 0.699 +/- 0.039 and pi = 0.010 +/- 0.006) and very divergent mitochondrial lineages within each sloth species. The different sampled regions carry distinct and non-overlapping sets of mtDNA haplotypes and are genetically divergent. This phylogeographic pattern may be characteristic of sloth species. In addition, we infer that two main phylogeographic groups exist in the Atlantic forest representing a north and south distinct divergence.

  2. Increased autumn rainfall disrupts predator-prey interactions in fragmented boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraube, Julien; Villers, Alexandre; Poudré, Léo; Varjonen, Rauno; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2016-07-02

    There is a pressing need to understand how changing climate interacts with land-use change to affect predator-prey interactions in fragmented landscapes. This is particularly true in boreal ecosystems facing fast climate change and intensification in forestry practices. Here, we investigated the relative influence of autumn climate and habitat quality on the food-storing behaviour of a generalist predator, the pygmy owl, using a unique data set of 15 850 prey items recorded in western Finland over 12 years. Our results highlighted strong effects of autumn climate (number of days with rainfall and with temperature abundance and were more prone to switch from main prey to alternative prey (passerine birds) depending on local climate conditions. High-quality habitat may allow pygmy owls to buffer negative effects of inclement weather and cyclic variation in vole abundance. Additionally, our results evidenced sex-specific trends in body condition, as the scaled mass index of smaller males increased while the scaled mass index of larger females decreased over the study period, probably due to sex-specific foraging strategies and energy requirements. Long-term temporal stability in local vole abundance refutes the hypothesis of climate-driven change in vole abundance and suggests that rainier autumns could reduce the vulnerability of small mammals to predation by pygmy owls. As small rodents are key prey species for many predators in northern ecosystems, our findings raise concern about the impact of global change on boreal food webs through changes in main prey vulnerability.

  3. Post-fragmentation population structure in a cooperative breeding Afrotropical cloud forest bird: emergence of a source-sink population network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, M; Cousseau, L; Callens, T; Matthysen, E; Vangestel, C; Hallmann, C; Lens, L

    2015-03-01

    The impact of demographic parameters on the genetic population structure and viability of organisms is a long-standing issue in the study of fragmented populations. Demographic and genetic tools are now readily available to estimate census and effective population sizes and migration and gene flow rates with increasing precision. Here we analysed the demography and genetic population structure over a recent 15-year time span in five remnant populations of Cabanis's greenbul (Phyllastrephus cabanisi), a cooperative breeding bird in a severely fragmented cloud forest habitat. Contrary to our expectation, genetic admixture and effective population sizes slightly increased, rather than decreased between our two sampling periods. In spite of small effective population sizes in tiny forest remnants, none of the populations showed evidence of a recent population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian modelling, however, suggested that differentiation of the populations coincided at least partially with an episode of habitat fragmentation. The ratio of meta-Ne to meta-Nc was relatively low for birds, which is expected for cooperative breeding species, while Ne /Nc ratios strongly varied among local populations. While the overall trend of increasing population sizes and genetic admixture may suggest that Cabanis's greenbuls increasingly cope with fragmentation, the time period over which these trends were documented is rather short relative to the average longevity of tropical species. Furthermore, the critically low Nc in the small forest remnants keep the species prone to demographic and environmental stochasticity, and it remains open if, and to what extent, its cooperative breeding behaviour helps to buffer such effects.

  4. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  5. Diversity and seasonality of Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in forest fragments in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    PEDRO G. DA SILVA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Scarabaeinae specimens were collected with the use of pitfall traps baited with human excrement, rotten meat and rotting banana, between May 2009 and April 2010, in three forest fragments in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: ‘Morro do Elefante' (MOEL, ‘Morro do Cerrito' (MOCE and ‘Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria' (UFSM. A total of 19,699 individuals belonging to 33 species were collected. Canthidium aff. trinodosum Boheman, 1858, Canthon latipes Blanchard, 1845, Dichotomius assifer (Eschscholtz 1822, Eurysternus caribaeus (Herbst 1789, Canthidium sp. and Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845, were the most abundant species. MOEL showed the greatest richness, MOCE the greatest abundance, while UFSM showed the lowest values of richness and abundance. The greatest similarity (qualitative and quantitative was found between MOEL and MOCE, while the lowest occurred between MOCE and UFSM. Only 51% of the species were common to all three fragments. The richness and abundance of Scarabaeinae were positively correlated with the air temperature. The richness of the fragment decreased according to the smaller size and the greater degree of disturbance of vegetation structure.Espécimes de Scarabaeinae foram coletados com o uso de armadilhas de queda iscadas com excremento humano, carne apodrecida e banana em decomposição, entre maio de 2009 e abril de 2010, em três fragmentos florestais em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: Morro do Elefante (MOEL, Morro do Cerrito (MOCE e Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM. Um total de 19.699 indivíduos de 33 espécies foi coletado; Canthidium aff. trinodosum Boheman, 1858, Canthon latipes Blanchard, 1845, Dichotomius assifer (Eschscholtz 1822, Eurysternus caribaeus (Herbst 1789, Canthidium sp. e Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845 foram as espécies mais abundantes. MOEL apresentou a maior riqueza, MOCE a maior abundância, enquanto UFSM teve os menores valores de riqueza e abund

  6. Diversity and seasonality of Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in forest fragments in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO G. DA SILVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Scarabaeinae specimens were collected with the use of pitfall traps baited with human excrement, rotten meat and rotting banana, between May 2009 and April 2010, in three forest fragments in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: ‘Morro do Elefante’ (MOEL, ‘Morro do Cerrito’ (MOCE and ‘Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria’ (UFSM. A total of 19,699 individuals belonging to 33 species were collected. Canthidium aff. trinodosum Boheman, 1858, Canthon latipes Blanchard, 1845, Dichotomius assifer (Eschscholtz 1822, Eurysternus caribaeus (Herbst 1789, Canthidium sp. and Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845, were the most abundant species. MOEL showed the greatest richness, MOCE the greatest abundance, while UFSM showed the lowest values of richness and abundance. The greatest similarity (qualitative and quantitative was found between MOEL and MOCE, while the lowest occurred between MOCE and UFSM. Only 51% of the species were common to all three fragments. The richness and abundance of Scarabaeinae were positively correlated with the air temperature. The richness of the fragment decreased according to the smaller size and the greater degree of disturbance of vegetation structure.Espécimes de Scarabaeinae foram coletados com o uso de armadilhas de queda iscadas com excremento humano, carne apodrecida e banana em decomposição, entre maio de 2009 e abril de 2010, em três fragmentos florestais em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: Morro do Elefante (MOEL, Morro do Cerrito (MOCE e Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM. Um total de 19.699 indivíduos de 33 espécies foi coletado; Canthidium aff. trinodosum Boheman, 1858, Canthon latipes Blanchard, 1845, Dichotomius assifer (Eschscholtz 1822, Eurysternus caribaeus (Herbst 1789, Canthidium sp. e Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845 foram as espécies mais abundantes. MOEL apresentou a maior riqueza, MOCE a maior abundância, enquanto UFSM teve os menores valores de riqueza e

  7. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin.

  8. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  9. Land planarians (Platyhelminthes) as a model organism for fine-scale phylogeographic studies: understanding patterns of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Presas, M; Carbayo, F; Rozas, J; Riutort, M

    2011-04-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the richest biodiversity hotspots of the world. Paleoclimatic models have predicted two large stability regions in its northern and central parts, whereas southern regions might have suffered strong instability during Pleistocene glaciations. Molecular phylogeographic and endemism studies show, nevertheless, contradictory results: although some results validate these predictions, other data suggest that paleoclimatic models fail to predict stable rainforest areas in the south. Most studies, however, have surveyed species with relatively high dispersal rates whereas taxa with lower dispersion capabilities should be better predictors of habitat stability. Here, we have used two land planarian species as model organisms to analyse the patterns and levels of nucleotide diversity on a locality within the Southern Atlantic Forest. We find that both species harbour high levels of genetic variability without exhibiting the molecular footprint of recent colonization or population expansions, suggesting a long-term stability scenario. The results reflect, therefore, that paleoclimatic models may fail to detect refugia in the Southern Atlantic Forest, and that model organisms with low dispersal capability can improve the resolution of these models.

  10. Low genetic diversity and intrapopulation spatial genetic structure of the Atlantic Forest tree, Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae

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    G. Forti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on population genetics are the key to designing effective in situ management plans for tree species, in particular, those subjected to pressure from anthropogenic processes, such as forest fragmentation and logging. To investigate genetic diversity, inbreeding and intrapopulation spatial genetic structure (SGS in a fragmented population of the insect-pollinated tropical tree, Esenbeckia leiocarpa, we developed specific microsatellite markers for this species and mapped and sampled 100 individuals in a forest plot. Two issues were addressed in particular: (i the level of genetic diversity, inbreeding and effective population size, (ii whether intrapopulation spatial genetic structure exists. Among the 14 loci developed, we only used the three that presented polymorphism to estimate the genetic parameters. Genetic diversity was low, whereby the average number of alleles per locus (A was 3.3 and observed (H0 and expected heterozygosities (He were 0.336 and 0.298, respectively. The average fixation index was significantly higher than zero (F = 0.112, suggesting inbreeding. Significant SGS was found up to 7 m and between 31 to 38 m, indicating that trees growing within these distances may be related. Estimates of the effective population size indicated that the 100 sampled trees correspond to 14 individuals that are neither related nor inbred. Our results suggest that the microsatellite markers developed in this study are suitable for studies on geneticdiversity and structure, mating systems, gene flow and SGS in this species.

  11. Neotropical Zoonotic Parasites in Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus) from Upper Paraná Atlantic Forests in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Rinas, Miguel; Irazu, Lucia; Miyagi, Adriana; Argüelles, Carina F; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2016-10-01

    Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine. From May to August 2011, a detection dog located 34 scats that were genetically confirmed as bush dog and georeferenced to northern Misiones. Of these 34 scats, 27 had sufficient quantity that allowed processing for zoonotic parasites using morphological (sedimentation and flotation) and antigen (coproantigen technique) analyses. Within these 27 scat