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Sample records for atlantic forest brazil

  1. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Werner Hopp; Edilson Caron; Richard Ottermanns; Martina Roß-Nickoll

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment) and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage...

  2. Nitrogen dynamics in the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. M.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important biomes by several things, among them, they are important reservoirs of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water (Bonan, 2008). In Brazil, at Sao Paulo State, the coastal Atlantic Forest runs along an altitudinal gradient from near seal level (Lowland Forest) up to more than 1,000m (Montane Forest). Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as well as above ground biomass are higher at the Montante Forest in relation to the Lowland Forest. In contrast, annual fluxes of N2O and riverine N output are higher lower altitudes, although. Therefore, it seems that lower temperature at higher altitude limits N transfer between different reservoirs, which in turn leads to higher N stocks. In this study we test if the litter decomposition of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves at higher altitudes also decomposes slower than at low altitudes. At the same time we also test if Fabaceae leaves decompose faster than non Fabaceae leaves due to the higher N content and lower C:N ratio of the former in comparison to the later. Preliminary results indicate that both hypothesis seems to be right.

  3. Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme do Carmo Silveira; Anderson Machado Nascimento; Silvia Helena Sofia; Solange Cristina Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil. Euglossine bees, attracted to scent baits of cineole, eugenol and vanillin, were collected with entomological nets, from December 1998 to November 1999. Samplings were carried out once a month simultaneously by two collectors positioned in two different sites in an Atlantic Forest remnant in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 859 male euglossine bees, belonging t...

  4. DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION OF DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE IN TWO ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista; Maria Jesus Nogueira Rodal; José Antonio Aleixo da Silva; Ana Carolina Borges Lins e Silva; Francisco Tarcisio Alves Junior; José Márcio de Mello

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragm...

  5. Agaricomycetes in low land and montane Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Gibertoni; Carla Rejane Sousa de Lira; Georgea Santos Nogueira de Melo; Ianne Maria Macedo de Miranda Henriques; Lídia Silva Araújo Neta; Mirela Natália Santos; Rayanne Thallita Gusmão da Costa; Renata dos Santos Chikowski; Valéria Ferreira da Silva; Victor Rafael Matos Coimbra; Felipe Wartchow

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Rain Forest represents a group of extra-amazonic forests, among which the coastal and montane (“brejos de altitude”) are the most common in Northeast Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013, 110 field trips were performed in nine reserves in the domain of the Atlantic Rain Forest. Two thousand two hundred sixty three Agaricomycetes were collected and represented 271 species, among which several new species to science, new occurrences to the continent, country, region, biome and States were...

  6. Karyology of the Atlantic forest rodent Juliomys (Cricetidae): A new karyotype from southern Brazil

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    Roberta Paresque; Alexandre Uarth Christoff; Valéria Fagundes

    2009-01-01

    Juliomys is a small rodent from the family Cricetidae which inhabits the Atlantic forest and forests from Argentina to eastern Brazil. The three species recognized so far have different karyotypes. In this paper, we describe a new karyotype with 2n = 32, FN = 48 found in Juliomys specimens from a high-altitude area in the Atlantic forest of southern Brazil. The karyotype was analyzed after G- and C-banding and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NOR) and its G-banding patte...

  7. Body masses and measurements of birds from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Bianca L Reinert; Júlio C Pinto; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Mauro Pichorim; Miguel Â. Marini

    1996-01-01

    Five hundred and eigh body masses of 74 forest birds, and measurements of wing, tail, tarsus and beak of 14 poorly known species mist-netted at two sites in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraná State, southern Brazil, are presented.

  8. Two new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lobão, A.Q.; Maas, P.J.M.; de Mello-Silva, R.

    2010-01-01

    Guatteria emarginata and G. stenocarpa, two new species from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil, are presented here. Guatteria emarginata is characterized by narrowly obovate, verruculose leaves, densely covered with cinereous hairs on the lower side and an emarginate apex. Guatteria stenocarpa is remarkable among the Atlantic Forest species of the genus for its narrowly ellipsoid to cylindric monocarps of 22–25 mm long.

  9. Ticks infesting birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Ileyne Tenório; Costa, Luís Flávio da Silva; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum.

  10. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Moura Aguiar; Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2012-01-01

    Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine...

  11. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (Collembola: Paronellidae from Atlantic Forest, Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Diego Dias da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa, a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus from Brazil with all eye lenses. All other Brazilian species present 0+0 or 2+2 eyes. It is also the first species of Trogolaphysa described from the Northeast Region of Brazil.

  12. A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Lourenço Dumas; Jorge Luiz Nessimian

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Cernotina (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) from the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. Cernotina Ross, 1938, with 64 extant species, is a New World genus of caddisflies. In Brazil, there are 31 described species of which 28 are recorded from the Amazon basin. Cernotina puri sp. nov. is described and figured based on specimens collected in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished by the shape of the interm...

  13. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1

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    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  14. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Henrique Rosa; Marina Capelari

    2009-01-01

    Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil.

  15. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Luiz Henrique Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil.

  16. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Capelari, Marina

    2009-10-01

    Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24031432

  17. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Atlantic Forest, Northeast Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Dias da Silva; Bruno Cavalcante Bellini

    2015-01-01

    Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa), a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus f...

  18. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela morphology. The latter is proposed as a replacement name for Mikania dentata G.M.Barroso, a later homonym of M. dentata Spreng. Line drawings and comments about conservation status are made for bot...

  19. Euglossine bees (Apidae) in Atlantic forest areas of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Cordeiro, Guaraci; Boff, Samuel; Almeida Caetano, Tiago; Fernandes, Paulo; Alves-Dos-Santos, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of euglossine bees in ten areas of Atlantic Forest Domain in São Paulo State, Brazil. Bees were collected with odor baits for 2 years, from March 2007 to March 2009. From a standardized effort during the first year of sampling, we compare the four areas using indexes of diversity, evenness, and similarity of euglossine communities. In the second year, we added six new places for presenting a general overview on the Atlantic forest in São Paulo. A total of 2,395 i...

  20. Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Márcio Z; Quek Swee-Peck; Albuquerque de Moura Priscila; Kronforst Marcus R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on po...

  1. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

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    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  2. A new species of Lonchophylla (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, with comments on L. bokermanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo L; Moratelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clarify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type locality of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla peracchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats. PMID:26171531

  3. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  4. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...

  5. A new species of Sycorax Curtis, 1839 from Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    Claudiney Biral dos Santos; Adelson Luiz Ferreira; Aloísio Falqueto

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Sycorax Curtis, 1839 (Diptera, Psychodidae) from the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Sycorax bravoi Santos, Ferreira & Falqueto sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on samples collected with a Möricke trap installed on the ground at the Biological Station of Santa Lúcia, municipality of Santa Teresa, in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Males have a paramere with a spiniform prolongation on the distal surface and an aedeagus with a long posterior membranou...

  6. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Loise Araujo Costa; Luís Fernando Pascholati Gusmão

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011) and dry (January 2013) seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season y...

  7. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha; Igor Soares de Oliveira; Marilia Teresinha Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2), Bufonidae (2), Centrolenidae (1), Cycloramphidae (1), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (18), Hylodidae (1), Leiuperidae (2), Leptodactylidae (3), and Microhylidae (1). Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while ...

  8. Reproduction of the Yellow-browed Woodpecker (Piculus aurulentus, Picidae) in Atlantic forest, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Piero Angeli Ruschi; José Eduardo Simon; Fernando Moreira Flores

    2014-01-01

    The breeding behavior of the Yellow-browed Woodpecker (Piculus aurulentus) is unknown like in many other woodpecker species. Here we describe some aspects of its biology based on a nest found in Atlantic Forest habitat of southeastern Brazil. The nest construction matches the pattern typically observed in this family, consisting of a vertical cavity excavated in a trunk tree. Clutch size was two eggs. Our findings include details about the mating display, nest excavation, incubation, parental...

  9. Genetic diversity of bats coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest hotspot biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Ambar, Guilherme; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo Pereira; Munir, Muhammad; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Bats are notorious reservoirs of genetically-diverse and high-profile pathogens, and are playing crucial roles in the emergence and re-emergence of viruses, both in human and in animals. In this report, we identified and characterized previously unknown and diverse genetic clusters of bat coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest Biome, Brazil. These results highlight the virus richness of bats and their possible roles in the public health. PMID:27473780

  10. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

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    Raphael S Pimenta; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Carlos A Rosa

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered fro...

  11. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

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    Gustavo Borba de Miranda; Mateus Da Fré; Márcia Regina Wolfart; Elaine Maria Lucas

    2013-01-01

    The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We register...

  12. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

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    André Filipe Testoni; Sérgio Luiz Althoff; André Paulo Nascimento; Francisco Steiner-Souza; Ives José Sbalqueiro

    2010-01-01

    Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nin...

  13. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  14. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  15. Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Márcio Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on population connectivity in butterflies with home-range behavior. Results We generated microsatellite, AFLP and mtDNA sequence data for 136 Heliconius erato specimens from eight collecting locations and 146 H. melpomene specimens from seven locations. Population genetic analyses of the data revealed high levels of genetic diversity in H. erato relative to H. melpomene, widespread genetic differentiation among populations of both species, and no evidence for isolation-by-distance. Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the extensive habitat fragmentation along Brazil's Atlantic Forest has reduced dispersal of Heliconius butterflies among neighboring habitat patches. The results also lend support to the observation that fine-scale population genetic structure may be common in Heliconius. If such population structure also exists independent of human activity, and has been common over the evolutionary history of Heliconius butterflies, it may have contributed to the evolution of wing pattern diversity in the genus.

  16. A new genus and a new species of Sminthuridae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Diego Dias; Palacios-Vargas, José G; Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Sminthuridae comprises approximately 240 species distributed worldwide. In Brazil it is represented only by 11 species and four genera. Herein we describe a new genus and species of subfamily Sminthurinae from Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The new described genus is similar to Gisinurus, Songhaica, Dietersminthurus and Soqotrasminthurus, especially in its unguis shape, with open cavity; but differs from all other genera of Sminthuridae by the presence of a single pretarsal chaeta in anterior side, smooth mucronal edges and a unique head chaetotaxy. PMID:26250241

  17. Agaricomycetes in low land and montane Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil

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    Tatiana Gibertoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain Forest represents a group of extra-amazonic forests, among which the coastal and montane (“brejos de altitude” are the most common in Northeast Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013, 110 field trips were performed in nine reserves in the domain of the Atlantic Rain Forest. Two thousand two hundred sixty three Agaricomycetes were collected and represented 271 species, among which several new species to science, new occurrences to the continent, country, region, biome and States were found. Besides recently collected material, 309 exsiccates of Agaricomycetes deposited in the Herbarium URM were revised and represented 38 species, among which several new occurrences to the region and States. The results indicate the importance of the constant inventories and also of revisions of material deposited in herbaria as tools to improve the knowledge about the Brazilian micota.

  18. Small mammal community structure and microhabitat use in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Daniela O. de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913, Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829, Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840 - were captured. Thaptomys nigrita is recorded in the state of Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Species richness was poor when compared with communities in the central portions of the Atlantic Forest, but equivalent to that found in the Araucaria and Dense Ombrophilous forests of southern Brazil. The species most often captured in our study, A. montensis and O. nigripes, are also the most common in the majority of faunistic studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. Akodon montensis and S. angouya used places with high abundance of bamboo, possibly to avoid predators. Oligorizomys nigripes used areas with a high density of scrubs, what could facilitate aboveground movements, and was negatively correlated to mature forest indicators, which reinforce the idea that this species has opportunistic habits.

  19. Leaf morphology of 89 tree species from a lowland tropical rain forest (Atlantic forest) in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Torres Boeger; Luiz Carlos Alves; Raquel Rejane Bonatto Negrelle

    2004-01-01

    We examined the leaf morphology and anatomy of 89 tree species growing in an area of coastal Atlantic Forest in South Brazil. The majority of the species (> 75%) had small (notophyll and microphyll) elliptical simple leaves with entire margins. These leaves presented a typical anatomical structure consisting of a single epidermal cell layer, single palisade parenchyma cell layer, and spongy parenchyma with 5 to 8 cell layers. The sclerenchyma was limited to the vascular bundles. The majority ...

  20. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  1. Diversity of Penicillium in soil of Caatinga and Atlantic Forest areas of Pernambuco, Brazil: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Roberta; Santos, Cledir; de Lima, Juliana Silva; Moreira, Keila; Motta, Cristina Souza

    2013-01-01

    Caatinga is characterised as being a unique semi-arid biome only found in Brazil. It is characterised mainly for its soil poor in mineral and organic nutrients, and low water activity. On the other hand, Atlantic Forest is mainly characterised by its nutrient-rich soil, and its high water activity. Fungi are important constituents of both biomes. Among the fungi frequently isolated from soil of both Caatinga and Atlantic Forest, species of Penicillium are prominent. The richness, abundance, e...

  2. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Begossi Alpina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particula...

  3. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) in south-western Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton C. Cáceres; Wellington Hannibal; Dirceu R. Freitas; Edson L. Silva; Cassiano Roman; Janaina Casella

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites) and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80) within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23) were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled ...

  4. Remotely sensed biomass over steep slopes: An evaluation among successional stands of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jomar Magalhães; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Bitencourt, Marisa Dantas

    2014-02-01

    Remotely sensed images have been widely used to model biomass and carbon content on large spatial scales. Nevertheless, modeling biomass using remotely sensed data from steep slopes is still poorly understood. We investigated how topographical features affect biomass estimation using remotely sensed data and how such estimates can be used in the characterization of successional stands in the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We estimated forest biomass using a modeling approach that included the use of both satellite data (LANDSAT) and topographic features derived from a digital elevation model (TOPODATA). Biomass estimations exhibited low error predictions (Adj. R2 = 0.67 and RMSE = 35 Mg/ha) when combining satellite data with a secondary geomorphometric variable, the illumination factor, which is based on hill shading patterns. This improved biomass prediction helped us to determine carbon stock in different forest successional stands. Our results provide an important source of modeling information about large-scale biomass in remaining forests over steep slopes.

  5. Litterfall mercury deposition in Atlantic forest ecosystem from SE-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Daniel C; Montezuma, Rita C; Oliveira, Rogério R; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V

    2012-05-01

    Litterfall is believed to be the major flux of Hg to soils in forested landscapes, yet much less is known about this input on tropical environment. The Hg litterfall flux was measured during one year in Atlantic Forest fragment, located within Rio de Janeiro urban perimeter, in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The results indicated a mean annual Hg concentration of 238 ± 52 ng g(-1) and a total annual Hg deposition of 184 ± 8.2 μg m(-2) y(-1). The negative correlation observed between rain precipitation and Hg concentrations is probably related to the higher photosynthetic activity observed during summer. The total Hg concentration in leaves from the most abundant species varied from 60 to 215 ng g(-1). Hg concentration showed a positive correlation with stomatal and trichomes densities. These characteristics support the hypothesis that Tropical Forest is an efficient mercury sink and litter plays a key role in Hg dynamics. PMID:22310056

  6. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

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    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  7. A new species of Ibitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae) from the Atlantic forest, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Vasconcellos

    2002-01-01

    The sterile castes of Ibitermes inflatus sp. nov. from Rio Tinto, State of Paraíba, Brazil are described and illustrated. This is the first record of a species of Ibitermes from the Brazilian northeast and from the Atlantic Forest biome. The absence of ridges in the molar plate of the left mandible and the presence of granules of sand and silt mixed with organic matter in advanced stage of decomposition in the digestive tube of workers suggest that the species is a typical humus feeding termi...

  8. Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Cid Maia; Sheila Patrícia Carvalho-Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil): Galling insects in Rio de Janeiro state are known by their great diversity, despite most of the surveys have been done in restinga. This paper investigated the insect galls from a remnant of Atlantic Forest located in São Francisco de Itabapoana municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galling insect fauna was surveyed from March, 2013 to April, 2014 at the Estação Ecológic...

  9. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. PMID:21864959

  10. Changes in seed rain across Atlantic Forest fragments in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cíntia Gomes; Dambros, Cristian; Camargo, José Luís Campana

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution of seeds in remnant fragments of the Atlantic Coastal Forest and to determine whether the species diversity, seed weight, and species composition of plant communities are altered by forest fragmentation. A transect of 100 m was established in the core of each of nine fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in a private sugarcane plantation in the state of Alagoas, NE Brazil, and ten seed-traps were distributed at intervals of 10 m each along the transects. For 12 consecutive months seeds were collected, dried, counted, weighed, and identified to species. Seeds were assigned to categories according to their size, dispersal mode, and shade tolerance. Multiple regression models and Mantel correlation tests were used to detect the effects of fragment size, percent forest cover nearby, distance from the source area, and distance from the nearest fragment on species diversity, mean seed weight, and species similarity. Analyses were carried out for all species and for subsets corresponding to each seed category. A total of 21,985 diaspores of 190 species were collected. Most seeds were small, shade-intolerant, and zoochoric, which corroborates other studies of fragmented forest landscapes and reflects the high disturbance levels in isolated forest remnants. Our data indicate that fragmentation processes such as habitat loss can alter species diversity and species composition by reducing habitat availability and increasing fragment isolation. We also found that large-seeded species are more affected by fragment isolation, possibly because their seed dispersers rarely cross non-forested areas between fragments, while zoochoric species are more strongly affected by fragment size and apparently more strongly associated with local edaphic conditions than with distance from seed sources.

  11. Caamembecaia gratiosus n. gen., n. sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae), from Trinomys gratiosus (Gunter) (Rodentia: Echimydae), of Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto S Gazêta; Marinete Amorim; David EP Bossi; Arício X Linhares; Nicolau M Serra-Freire

    2006-01-01

    From June 1999 to May 2001, small mammals were captured in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil and examined for ectoparasites. Analysis of ectoparasites revealed the presence of a new chigger genus and species, Caamembecaia gratiosus, from Trinomys gratiosus. This is the first record of a chigger from T. gratiosus.

  12. Litterfall mercury deposition in Atlantic forest ecosystem from SE – Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litterfall is believed to be the major flux of Hg to soils in forested landscapes, yet much less is known about this input on tropical environment. The Hg litterfall flux was measured during one year in Atlantic Forest fragment, located within Rio de Janeiro urban perimeter, in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The results indicated a mean annual Hg concentration of 238 ± 52 ng g−1 and a total annual Hg deposition of 184 ± 8.2 μg m−2 y−1. The negative correlation observed between rain precipitation and Hg concentrations is probably related to the higher photosynthetic activity observed during summer. The total Hg concentration in leaves from the most abundant species varied from 60 to 215 ng g−1. Hg concentration showed a positive correlation with stomatal and trichomes densities. These characteristics support the hypothesis that Tropical Forest is an efficient mercury sink and litter plays a key role in Hg dynamics. - Highlights: ► The litter production from an Atlantic Forest was measured by one year. ► Concentration and flux of mercury was measured from these litter samples. ► The Hg concentrations from 5 trees were taken. ► Correlations between the data found and meteorological and anatomical plant parameters were confronted. ► The high Hg values found and their distribution points to a great sequester potential from this biome. - Hg high values in litter are a pattern found at Tropical Forest, it seems to be correlated with physio-anatomical plant characteristics from this biome.

  13. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  14. Two new species of Leandra s.str. (Melastomataceae) from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Reginato, M.; Goldenberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Two species of Leandra that occur in the Atlantic Forest, in the state of Espírito Santo, eastern Brazil, are described and illustrated here. Leandra cristata has been found in the understory of montane rain forest, and can be recognized by the distinct nodal ridges on the young branches, by the leaves with decurrent bases and transversal nerves consistently perpendicular to the main nerve, by the triangular external teeth, and by the dorsal bump on the stamen connective. Leandra fontanae has...

  15. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

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    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  16. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Loise Araujo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011 and dry (January 2013 seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141 and taxa (76 compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa. The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.

  17. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  18. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting birds in an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Pacheco, Richard C; Uezu, Alexandre; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-09-01

    Brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parazitizing birds. The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil. During 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. A total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. In total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks: 1,800 larvae and 539 nymphs. The prevalence of ticks was higher among birds from the families Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, and Momotidae. The most common tick parasitizing birds was Amblyomma nodosum Koch. Other tick species, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma ovale Koch, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, and Amblyomma naponense (Packard), were found sporadically. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense was the most common, followed by A. coelebs, A. naponense, Amblyomma brasilense Aragão, and Hemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley. PMID:19769058

  19. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Raphael S; Alves, Priscila D D; Almeida, Gabriel M F; Silva, Juliana F M; Morais, Paula B; Corrêa, Ary; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  20. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  1. DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION OF DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE IN TWO ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragments of 87 ha (F1 and 388 ha (F2. We calculated the annual rates of mortality and recruitment, the mean annual increment, and the basal area for each of the 3-year periods. Data from the first and second surveys were used to project the third inventory measurements, which were compared to the observed values in the permanent plots using chi-squared tests (a = 0.05. In F1, a decrease in the number of individuals was observed due to mortality rates being higher than recruitment rates; however, there was an increase in the basal area. In this fragment, the fit to the Markov model was adequate. In F2, there was an increase in both the basal area and the number of individuals during the 6-year period due to the recruitment rate exceeding the mortality rate. For this fragment, the fit of the model was unacceptable. Hence, for the studied fragments, the demographic rates influenced the stem density more than the floristic composition. Yet, even with these intense dynamics, both fragments showed active growth.

  2. Bird species diversity in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is not explained by the Mid-domain Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE. We searched for bird inventories in the literature and also analysed our own survey data using limited-radius point counts along an 800 m elevational gradient in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We found 10 investigations of elevational diversity of Atlantic Forest birds and identified five different elevational patterns: monotonic decreasing diversity, constant at low elevations, constant at low elevations but increasing towards the middle, and two undescribed patterns for Atlantic Forest birds, trough-shaped and increasing diversity. The average MDE fit was low (r² = 0.31 and none of the MDE predictions were robust across all gradients. Those studies with good MDE model fits had obvious sampling bias. Although it has been proposed that the MDE may be positively associated with the elevational diversity of birds, it does not fit the Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird elevational diversity.

  3. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  4. Pressure Indicators of Wood Resource Use in an Atlantic Forest Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-03-01

    Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.

  5. Bird species diversity in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is not explained by the Mid-domain Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Vagner Cavarzere; Luís Fábio Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE). We searched for bird inventories in the literature a...

  6. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Delir Corrêa; Cruz Rosane Pereira da; Vicente Joaquim Júlio; Pinto Roberto Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819), Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934) F...

  7. Acanthothecis sarcographoides (Ascomycota: Graphidaceae), a morphologically unique, new lichen species in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Eugenia da Silva Cáceres; Robert Lücking

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Acanthothecis is described in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Unlike any other species in the genus, it has distinctly pseudo-stromatic ascomata that resemble those of the genus Sarcographa. However, its apically spinulose paraphyses, I-negative ascospores with thin endospore closely resemble those of other Acanthothecis species. A previous molecular phylogenetic analysis places the new species close to the type species of Acanthothecis, A. hololeucoides. The disc...

  8. Reproductive ecology, seedling performance, and population structure of Parkia pendula in an Atlantic forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Piechowski, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive ecology, seedling performance, and population structure of Parkia pendula (Mimosaceae) were studied in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil. The developmental phases from buds to ripe pods, capitulum and flower morphology, breeding system, floral odour, nectar production and nectar sugar and amino acid composition, as well as the mammalian flower visitors were studied in detail during this 2-years lasting investigation. Furthermore, edge effects on the populatio...

  9. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes

    2009-01-01

    The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...

  10. Synopsis of Martinella Baill. (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae), with the description of a new species from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Zuntini; Lúcia Lohmann

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Martinella has traditionally included two species, Martinella iquitoensis and Martinella obovata, that are characterized by the presence of interpetiolar ridges surrounding the stems and minute prophylls of the axillary buds. A third species, Martinella insignis, is here described as new, illustrated and compared to other species in the genus. Martinella insignis is the first record of the genus in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, and differs from other species of Martinella by the yel...

  11. Wild Trypanosoma cruzi I genetic diversity in Brazil suggests admixture and disturbance in parasite populations from the Atlantic Forest region

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, VS; Jansen, AM; Messenger, LA; Miles, MA; Llewellyn, MS

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) infection is an ancient and widespread zoonosis distributed throughout the Americas. Ecologically, Brazil comprises several distinct biomes: Amazonia, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Sylvatic T. cruzi transmission is known to occur throughout these biomes, with multiple hosts and vectors involved. Parasite species-level genetic diversity can be a useful marker for ecosystem health. Our aims were to: investiga...

  12. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Marinho, Jorge R.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2009-01-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene f...

  13. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O

    2009-10-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

  14. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high.

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Eliana; Domingues Marcus; Garcia Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoologi...

  16. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the coastal forests of southern Brazil: diversity, efficiency of sampling methods and comparison with other Atlantic forest surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa C. Mattozo; Luiz R. R. Faria; Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of orchid bees at the Brazilian Atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. For this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at Atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of São Paulo (Sete Barras, Faz. Morro do Capim: SP3) and state of Paraná (Antonina, Reserva Natural do Rio Cachoeira: PR3), in southern Brazil. In PR3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for...

  17. Phenological synchrony and seasonality of understory Rubiaceae in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Scarpati Liuth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.

  18. Degradation of Atlantic Forest in NE Brazil and dynamics of its regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Kimmel, Thomas Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This work treats the degradation of the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco and its natural regeneration. It has three focuses: the vulnerability of tree species dispersed by specific animals, the dispersal and pollination modes of woody species of young secondary forest and the germination and survival of seedlings of native tree species directly seeded in secondary vegetation.

  19. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Wachlevski; Luciana Kreutz Erdtmann; Paulo Christiano de Anchietta Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species,...

  20. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Behling; Raquel R.B. Negrelle

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes) of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa). The calculated average influx of...

  1. Avifauna in forest fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest in the south of Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rossano Dario

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out in forest fragments located in the Atlantic Rainforest, in the town of Anchieta, south of Espírito Santo State, Brazil (located at latitude 20o40’S to 20o48’S, longitude 40o34’W to 40o42’W), along the seasons of 2008. The main objective of the study was to analyze the groups of birds that were affected by the forest fragmentation and the degree of isolation of these areas. The method used to register the avifauna specimens was the technique of observation per fixed ...

  2. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644

  3. Reproductive phenology of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman (Arecaceae in Atlantic Forest, in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the reproductive phenology of Syagrus romanzoffiana in an area of secondary vegetation of Atlantic Forest in Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Evaluations were made every 30 days, for 39 reproductive palms, from June 2006 to July 2008. Two flowering events were recorded, one from November 2006 to February 2007 and another from October 2007 to March 2008. Flowering intensity was greater in December 2006 (mean ± sd (0.38 ± 0.63 inflorescences/plant and January 2008 (0.59 ± 0.55. Fruiting was continuous, with green fruits present during all 26 months of the study; intensity was greatest in March of 2008 (1.64 ± 1.11 infructescenses/plant. Ripe fruits were discontinuously present, occurring between March and November, with the highest intensity of infructescences in July 2006 (0.56 ± 0.50 and July 2008 (0.51 ± 0.51. The monthly mean of inflorescences and mature infructescences per plant showed significant correlations with the photoperiod, rainfall and temperature during the months of the study period. The reproductive intensity of Syagrus romanzoffiana, between 2006 and 2008, varied with periods of greater and smaller intensity.

  4. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  5. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids.

  6. Additional information about tick parasitism in Passeriformes birds in an Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturano, Ralph; Faccini, João L H; Daemon, Erik; Fazza, Patrícia O C; Bastos, Ronaldo R

    2015-11-01

    The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations.

  7. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, P S; Gentile, R; Maroja, L S; Fernandes, F A; Coura, R; Cerqueira, R

    2007-02-01

    This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133), Akodon cursor (n = 74), Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25) and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58) and Philander frenatus (n = 50). Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry) months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  8. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  9. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  10. The soil seed bank during Atlantic Forest regeneration in Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baider, C.; M. TABARELLI; Mantovani, W

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the density and species composition of viable seeds buried in four stands of a tropical montane forest at Parque Estadual Intervales, Brazil. The objective was to understand: (1) how numbers and composition of the soil seed bank change as the forest regrows, and (2) how such changes affect the species available for regeneration if forests of different ages are cut down. In each forest stand (5, 18, 27-yr-old and a mature forest), 57 soil samples were collec...

  11. Fallow Effects on Improving Soil Properties and Decreasing Erosion: Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. P.; Silva, L. M.; Lima, R. L.; Donagemma, G. K.; Bertolino, A. V. A.; Fernandes, N. F.; Correa, F. M.; Polidoro, J. C.; Tato, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil tillage plays a major role in changing physical and hydrological properties of soils through time, and in consequence, in the dynamics of infiltration, soil water and erosion. In the hilly landscape of southeastern Brazil, many areas originally occupied by the Atlantic Forest (one the most threatened biomes on the planet) have been continuously transformed in the last decades into agricultural systems, usually associated with small farming properties. Traditionally, the agricultural activities in these areas incorporate rotational systems which include a fallow period, where previously farmed areas repose for at least five years. In some areas, vegetation grows so fast that after 7 or 8 years these sites may be considered by regulator agencies as forests, impeding their use again for farming. As a consequence, farmers tend to decrease the amount of time used fallow impeding the recovery of original soil properties, reducing in consequence the infiltration rate, and increasing the runoff and erosion. Currently, the Brazilian laws allow that the farmers use the fallow system for 10 years in areas where this technique has been used traditionally. So, a major issue here is for how long the farming plots should be left reposing. Therefore, this study aims both to characterize the effects of continuous farming on soil physical and hydrological properties, as well as to define the impacts of different fallow periods on the improvement of soil properties and in the reduction of runoff and erosion. The experiments were carried out in a cultivation site located at Bom Jardim city, close to Rio de Janeiro city. The area is situated at about 800m of elevation in the hilly steep topography of the Serra do Mar, a coast range in southeastern Brazil, with an average total annual rainfall of 2000 mm. In this study, carried out in a typical farm of the area, we compared the effects of 5 different soil usages on soil properties: banana, coffee, F2 (2-year fallow), F5 (5-year

  12. Small mammal community structure and microhabitat use in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela O. de Lima; Bethânia O. Azambuja; Vagner L. Camilotti; Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913), Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818), Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913), Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829), Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphi...

  13. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

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    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  14. Record of the occurrence of Lachesis muta (Serpentes, Viperidae) in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Paraíba, Brazil, with comments on the species’ preservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Arielson Santos Protázio; Daniel Orsi Laranjeiras; Diego José Santana; Ralph Lacerda de Albuquerque; Ricardo Rodrigues; Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2013-01-01

    In this study, one describes a new record of the bushmaster snake, Lachesis muta, in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. This species is regarded as the largest venomous snake from the New World. The specimen was found at night, crossing a narrow shortcut, close to a slope, about 20m away from a waterfall. The occurrence of L. muta in this fragment demonstrates the importance of conservating Atlantic Forest fragments for preservating this species.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen stock and fluxes in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil: potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, D M; Mattos, E A de; Pinto, A S; Vieira, S A; Martinelli, L A

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important biomes of Brazil. Originally covering approximately 1.5 million of km², today this area has been reduced to 12% of its original size. Climate changes may alter the structure and the functioning of this tropical forest. Here we explore how increases in temperature and changes in precipitation distribution could affect dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in coastal Atlantic Forest of the southeast region of Brazil The main conclusion of this article is that the coastal Atlantic Forest has high stocks of carbon and nitrogen above ground, and especially, below ground. An increase in temperature may transform these forests from important carbon sinks to carbon sources by increasing loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. However, this conclusion should be viewed with caution because it is based on limited information. Therefore, more studies are urgently needed to enable us to make more accurate predictions.

  16. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Leão-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorphological factors are more important in structuring anuran beta diversity than climatic and spatial factors. We obtained species composition via field survey (N = 766 individuals), museum specimens (N = 9,730) and literature records (N = 4,763). Sampling area was divided in four spatially explicit geomorphological units, representing historical predictors. Climatic descriptors were represented by the first two axis of a Principal Component Analysis. Spatial predictors in different spatial scales were described by Moran Eigenvector Maps. Redundancy Analysis was implemented to partition the explained variation of species composition by geomorphological, climatic and spatial predictors. Moreover, spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to test neutral theory predictions. Beta diversity was spatially structured in broader scales. Shared fraction between climatic and geomorphological variables was an important predictor of species composition (13%), as well as broad scale spatial predictors (13%). However, geomorphological variables alone were the most important predictor of beta diversity (42%). Historical factors related to geomorphology must have played a crucial role in structuring amphibian beta diversity. The complex relationships between geomorphological history and climatic gradients generated by the Serra do Mar Precambrian basements were also important. We highlight the importance of combining spatially explicit historical and contemporary predictors for understanding

  17. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Lautert; Lívia Godinho Temponi; Raquel S. Viveros; Alexandre Salino

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera) and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera) were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp.), Polypodiaceae (18 spp.), Aspleniaceae (...

  18. Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Insect galls of a protected remnant of the Atlantic Forest tableland from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil: Galling insects in Rio de Janeiro state are known by their great diversity, despite most of the surveys have been done in restinga. This paper investigated the insect galls from a remnant of Atlantic Forest located in São Francisco de Itabapoana municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galling insect fauna was surveyed from March, 2013 to April, 2014 at the Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba. 143 gall morphotypes were found in 31 plant families, 60 genera and 82 species. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the main host families, being Trichilia, Tontelea and Eugenia the main host genera. Most galls occured on leaves, with globose shape, green and glabrous. Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera were the inducing orders and the associated fauna comprised parasitoids (Hymenoptera, inquilines (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera: Coccoidea, successors (Psocoptera, Collembola and Acari, and predators (Pseudoscorpiones. Three plant genera and nine plant species are recorded for the first time as host of galls in Brazil. All the records are new to the municipality, and the distribution of 15 galling species is extended to the North of the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  19. Siphonaptera parasites of wild rodents and marsupials trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes Leandro Bianco de; Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti; Linhares Arício Xavier

    2003-01-01

    A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Souhtheastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species) and 50 marsupials (7 species) were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5%) captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 differen...

  20. Integrated Nitrogen CAtchment model (INCA) applied to a tropical catchment in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzini, M.; Forti, M. C.; Whitehead, P. G.; Arcova, F. C. S.; De Cicco, V.; Wade, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Stream-water flows and in-stream nitrate and ammonium concentrations in a small (36.7 ha) Atlantic Forest catchment were simulated using the Integrated Nitrogen in CAtchments (INCA) model version 1.9.4. The catchment, at Cunha, is in the Serra do Mar State Park, SE Brazil and is nearly pristine because the nearest major conurbations, São Paulo and Rio, are some 450 km distant. However, intensive farming may increase nitrogen (N) deposition and there are growing pressures for urbanisation. The...

  1. Occurrence of Prosthenorchis elegans in Free-living Primates from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S

    2016-04-28

    Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688

  2. Siphonaptera parasites of wild rodents and marsupials trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bianco de Moraes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Souhtheastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species and 50 marsupials (7 species were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5% captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 different species. New host records were determined for several flea species, and 5 significant associations between fleas and hosts were also found.

  3. A new species of Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 from the Atlantic Rain Forest, Eastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulisses Caramaschi; José P. Pombal Jr

    2006-01-01

    A new species of the genus Rhinella is described from Canavieiras, southern State of Bahia, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil. Rhinella hoogmoedi sp. nov. is characterized by the medium size for the genus (SVL 39.4-52.1 mm in males), snout rounded in dorsal view, with a vertical apical ridge which gives a nearly mucronate aspect, and nearly acute in profile, antorbital and supra-orbital crests developed, parietal crest poorly developed, post-orbital crest large, forming a small la...

  4. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  5. Home Range, Diet, and Activity Patterns of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Very Small and Isolated Fragments of the Atlantic Forest of Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Leonardo Nascimento Pinheiro; Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of very small and isolated forest fragments on the common marmosets home range, diet, and activity patterns, in the northeastern Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Three groups were studied in three forest fragments, from January to October 2010, totaling 360 hours of observations and 1,080 field-hours. Systematic observations were recorded using Instantaneous Scan Sampling, and a checklist of the items exploited was built through ad libitum observations. We recorded location o...

  6. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P., Jr

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in th...

  7. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Fabíola M. Carvalho; Claudia E Thompson; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T. R.; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-01-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related...

  8. Habitat selection by anurofauna community at rocky seashore in coastal Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, R C; Santori, R T; Gonçalves e Cunha, F C; Pontes, J A L

    2013-08-01

    height of the plant and the diameter on top view were correlated with the occurrence of amphibians, while during the driest period there was no correlation among variables and the bromeliad usage by amphibians. Recorded species were strongly associated to the Atlantic Forest domain. Nevertheless, the occupation of rocky seashores by anurans may be more associated with the specialized reproductive modes presented by species, since there is no permanent water available in ponds or streams. PMID:24212694

  9. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa; Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra; Vitor Xavier de Lima; Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m), in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons) in five types of microhabitats: dead ...

  10. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Milena Wachlevski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species, among which Aplastodiscus cochranae, A. ehrhardti, and Hypsiboas poaju are included in the list of endangered species in the state. The highest number of species was associated to spring and summer. The most frequent anuran species were H. bischoffi, Adenomera araucaria, and Physalaemus nanus, registered throughout the study period. The daily activity of males was concentrated between 8 p.m. and 12 p.m., but some species keep vocalizing overnight, indicating that vocal activity can differ among species undergoing the same weather conditions. The diversity of anurans recorded in our study was high, including endangered species and species with poor biological knowledge, reinforcing the relevance of Serra do Tabuleiro as a priority area for preserving the Atlantic Forest.

  11. Edge effect on vascular epiphytic composition in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Randolpho Gonçalves Dias-Terceiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are common in the canopy of temperate and tropical forests, where they substantially contribute to species diversity and to key ecosystem processes. However, little is known about the effects caused by deforestation on this group of species, especially in northeastern Brazil, an area experiencing intense anthropogenic pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of environmental variables on the structure of assemblies of vascular epiphytes in a fragment of open ombrophilous forest, Areia, northeastern Brazil. Sixty 10 × 10 m sampling plots were installed to cover different environments within the fragment. The relationship between environmental variables and species composition was evaluated by means of a generalized linear mixed model. The composition of assemblies of epiphytes differed with respect to distance from the edge and luminosity. In the study area, deforestation led to a change in the composition of epiphytic species both at the edge and the interior of the fragment.

  12. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

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    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This forest is largely cleared. There are many small remnant patches on private lands, able to support tamarins. Local NGO’s have successfully used limited funds to contribute to tamarin conservation in a highly cost effective way. We examined the mechanisms by analysing documents and interviewing landholders and other stakeholders. We found that the local NGOs successfully identified landholdings where ecological, legal, social and some financial hurdles had already been crossed, and helped landholders over the final financial hurdle by funding critical cost components. This cost <5% of the price of outright land purchase. This approach is scaleable for golden lion tamarin elsewhere within the Atlantic Forest biome, and applicable for other species and ecosystems worldwide.

  13. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m, in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons in five types of microhabitats: dead tree trunks, the bark of living trees, basidiomata, ground litter and aerial litter. A total of 753 specimens of 48 species were obtained from the trails known as Flores (4 km, Boa Vista (3 km and Cumbe (700 m. The Sørensen similarity coefficient revealed that the three trails are similar. The most constant and abundant species were Hemitrichia calyculata, H. serpula, Arcyria cinerea, A. denudata and Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa. Although myxomycetes sporulate throughout the year, some species have well-defined sporulation seasons. In terms of the constancy and abundance of species, Trichiaceae is the most important family in the rain forest studied, which is representative of the highland forests of northeastern Brazil.

  14. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G A; Araújo, H F P; Azevedo-Júnior, S M

    2016-06-27

    The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas. PMID:27355983

  15. Characterization of soil fauna under the influence of mercury atmospheric deposition in Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Teixeira, Daniel Cabral; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2015-06-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere arising from anthropogenic sources, have been the object of great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of strong importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transference to the soil through litter, playing an important role as sink of this element. Soil microarthropods are keys to understanding the soil ecosystem, and for such purpose were characterized by the soil fauna of two Units of Forest Conservation of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, inwhich one of the areas suffer quite interference from petrochemicals and industrial anthropogenic activities and other area almost exempts of these perturbations. The results showed that soil and litter of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil tend to stock high mercury concentrations, which could affect the abundance and richness of soil fauna, endangering its biodiversity and thereby the functioning of ecosystems. PMID:26040748

  16. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa; Eliza Maria Xavier Freire

    2010-01-01

    Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  17. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Reveals a New Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group (Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) from the Atlantic Forest of the Highlands of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruschi, Daniel P.; Lucas, Elaine M.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Shirlei M Recco-Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the high...

  18. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

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    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  19. Soil chemical and physical status in semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments affected by atmospheric deposition in central-eastern São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes MIMS; Ribeiro Dos Santos A; Zuliani Sandrin Camargo C; Bulbovas P; Giampaoli P; Domingos M.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agricultural, urban and industrial areas in the São Paulo State (SE Brazil) led to the fragmentation of the original semideciduous Atlantic Fo­rest into small, patchy forest remnants. Anthropogenic activities produce a variety of pollutants affecting many ecological processes in these remaining fo­rest fragments through soil acidification and fertilization. In this study, we investigated the soil chemical and physical status of six forest remnants (Paulínia, Holambra, America...

  20. [Response of the ant community to attributes of fragments and vegetation in a northeastern Atlantic Rain Forest area, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments. PMID:21271055

  1. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Beard, Karen H; Crump, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  2. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B Ferreira

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i 200 m inside the forest, ii 50 m inside the forest, iii at the forest edge, and iv 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types. By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog

  3. Dispersal syndromes in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Camila Ângelo Jerônimo Domingues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore dispersal process is crucial for plant reproduction, since the diaspores must reach a suitable site to germinate. This paper aimed to study morphological aspects of diaspores and determine the dispersal syndromes of species occurring in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, the Guaribas Biological Reserve. One conducted a monthly collection of fruits/seeds within the period from September 2007 to February 2009. All diaspores of the fruiting species were collected. After analyzing characteristics such as fruit and seed consistency, odor, color, size, and weight, one determined the dispersal syndrome of each species. One collected 3,080 diaspores belonging to 136 different species distributed into 27 families. Zoochory was the most abundant dispersal syndrome (58%, with 79 fruits adapted to it, followed by autochory (29%, and anemochory (13%. Throughout the study period, one found fruiting species, with a predominance of zoochoric fruits, a predictable fact in the Atlantic Forest, which provides fleshy fruits all the year round.

  4. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745

  5. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  6. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Ogrzewalska, Maria Halina; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Saraiva, Danilo Gonçalves; Pinter, Adriano; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Dubey, Jitender Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25) were found in 8.6% (13/151) of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48) of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus), and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita) presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes. PMID:26444068

  7. The leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in the Cantareira State Park – São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Soliva Ribeiro; Rodrigo dos Santos Machado Feitosa

    2005-01-01

    The present work surveys the leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in Cantareira State Park – SP, Brazil as a complement to the project “Richness and diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Forest – the eastern Brazilian rain forest” that forms part of the BIOTA-FAPESP program. The general protocol of the project was to collect 50 leaf litter samples of 1 m2 which were then sifted and submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Sixty-two...

  8. Litter fall production and decomposition in a fragment of secondary Atlantic Forest of São Paulo, sp, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Lamano Ferreira; Jaqueline Luana Silva; Edna Elisa Pereira; Ana Paula do Nascimento Lamano-Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Litter fall consists of all organic material deposited on the forest floor, being of extremely important for the structure and maintenance of the ecosystem through nutrient cycling. This study aimed to evaluate the production and decomposition of litter fall in a secondary Atlantic forest fragment of secondary Atlantic Forest, at the Guarapiranga Ecological Park, in São Paulo, SP. The litter samples were taken monthly from May 2012 to May 2013. To assess the contribution of litter fall forty ...

  9. Anurans in a forest remnant in the transition zone between cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest domains in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Renata M; Nascimento, Luciana B; Feio, Renato N

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the species richness, temporal distribution and reproductive activity of anurans from the Uaimií State Forest (Floresta Estadual do Uaimií - FLOE Uaimií), situated in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, municipality of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Field activities were performed monthly from September 2009 to August 2010. We recorded 36 anurans species, distributed in 10 families. The greatest richness of the sampled sites corresponds to a permanent rivulet in a secondary forest. The majority of anuran species presented seasonal vocalization activity pattern, mainly in the rainy season. The anuran species composition of FLOE Uaimií is similar to others studied areas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region. PMID:24068093

  10. Phosphorus 32 cycling in the root-litter mat of Pernambuco atlantic coastal forest, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a compartmental model to describe P cycling in the root-litter mat and surface mineral soil of an Atlantic coastal forest. Considerable amounts of P accumulate in this root-litter mat, relative to available P in the underlying mineral soil. We studied the mechanisms responsible for P retention five days after addition of sup(32)P on the surface of the 02 horizon. Total sup(31)P and sup(32)P were determined in leaves, humus, mineral soil and roots. In addition, we determined sup(31)P and sup(32)P in the solution and microbial biomass of the humus material. Fluxes of sup(31)P were obtained from published data and from experimental results of sup(32)P distribution among compartments. The main fluxes taking P out from the soils solution were uptake by the microbial biomass and sorption by the humus (12.9 e 5.2 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1), respectively), while the mean flux into the roots was 3.1 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1). The main compartment responsible for P accumulation was the humus+fragments, which had the highest P content (61% of total P in the forest floor) and the longest turnover time (15.5 months). (author)

  11. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. PMID:24706600

  12. Floral biology and breeding system of Psychotria tenuinervis Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae) in the Atlantic rain forest, SE Brazil Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Psychotria tenuinervis Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae) na Floresta Atlântica, SE Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Bernucci Virillo; Flavio Nunes Ramos; Cibele Cardoso de Castro; João Semir

    2007-01-01

    (Floral biology and breeding system oi Psychotria tenuinervis Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae) in the Atlantic rain forest, SE Brazil). The aim of this study was to investigate pollination biology, floral morphometry, morph ratio and breeding system oiPsychotria tenuinervis in an area of Atlantic rain forest in southeastern Brazil. Pollination biology was studied based on focal observations and the breeding system was determined using controlled crosses; data on flower production and floral morphometr...

  13. Foliar accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in native tree species from the Atlantic Forest (SE-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Paula L; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to living organisms. They can accumulate on foliar surfaces due to their affinity with apolar organic compounds, which enables the use of native plant species as sentinels of atmospheric PAH deposition in polluted ecosystems. The present study extends the knowledge about this subject in the tropical region by focusing on the PAH accumulation in the foliage of dominant tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha) in four remnants of Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by diversified sources of PAHs and located in the cities of Campinas, Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópilis (central-eastern part of São Paulo State, SE-Brazil). Leaves of the tree species were collected in the forest remnants during the wet and dry seasons (2011 to 2013). All samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector for identification of 14 PAHs. The native tree species showed distinct capacities to accumulate PAHs. All of them accumulated proportionally more light PAHs than heavy PAHs, mainly during the dry period. P. gonoacantha was the most effective accumulator species. Higher accumulations of most of the PAHs occurred during the dry periods. The predominance of moderately (1 ≤ EF < 5) to highly enriched (EF ≥ 5) leaf samples of P. gonoacantha with regard to BaA and PHE in all of the forest remnants indicated that vehicular sources were widely distributed in the entire region. The predominance of the moderate to high enrichment of ACE in leaf samples from the forest remnants located in Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópolis indicated that they were also affected by emissions from petrochemical industries. PMID:26657363

  14. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, S M; Ogrzewalska, M; Soares, H S; Saraiva, D G; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B; Dubey, J P

    2014-02-24

    Avian are considered important intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as source of infection for Felidae, which shed environmentally resistant oocysts after ingesting infected tissues. Little is known of epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 202 wild birds of 37 species captured in seven small areas of the Atlantic Forest, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and provided information on possible associated risk factors. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 73 (36.1%) of 202 birds with titers of 1:5 in 16 samples, 1:10 in 26 samples, 1:20 in 17 samples, 1:40 in 10 samples, 1:80 in three samples, and 1:160 in one sample. No association was observed between T. gondii seropositivity and the local where the birds were collected. Seropositivity was higher in birds that lived on the forest floor (pbirds (p=0.007; U=3939.0). T. gondii antibodies were reported for the first time in 23 species of birds enlarging the host range of this parasite. Notably, T. gondii antibodies were found in 83.3% (15/18) of the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris).

  15. [The genera of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) in four areas of Atlantic Rain Forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugrabi, Daniele F; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Barreto, Francisco C C; Azevedo, Celso O

    2008-01-01

    The generic richness and abundance of Bethylidae collected in four different hillside areas of Atlantic rain forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil were studied. The sites are Santa Maria de Jetibá (SMJ), Domingos Martins (DM), Pancas (P) and Atílio Vivacqua (AV). A total of 2,840 specimens of 12 genera were collected. Lepidosternopsis Ogloblin and Bakeriella Kieffer are first recorded from the State. Richness of taxa was calculated using first-order Jackknife richness with EstimateS program. Genera accumulation curves were ran to evaluate the samples. Abundance data were adjusted to the geometric distribution. Parameter k was used to compare areas. The generic profile was not equal for the sites we studied. The areas were considered disturbed. SMJ and DM presented genera richness bigger than in P and AV. The differences in the sites reflect the different preservation of each environment. Pseudisobrachium Kieffer and Dissomphalus Ashmead are most dominant genera in SMJ, DM and P, and Anisepyris Kieffer in AV. This study emphasizes the fact of Dissomphalus as the most abundant genus in rain forests. The generic profile found in AV is similar to that of some areas of Brazilian savannah. PMID:18506293

  16. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515

  17. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  18. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  19. Contribution to the knowledge of polypores (Agaricomycetes) from the Atlantic forest and Caatinga, with new records from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baltazar JM; Drechsler-Santos ER; Ryvarden L; MAQ. Cavalcanti; Gibertoni TB

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is the better known Brazilian biome regarding polypore diversity. Nonetheless, species are still being added to its mycota and it is possible that the knowledge of its whole diversity is far from being achieved. On the other hand Caatinga is one of the lesser known. However, studies in this biome have been undertaken and the knowledge about it increasing. Based in recent surveys in Atlantic Forest and Caatinga remnants in the Brazilian States of Bahia, Pernambuco and Sergi...

  20. Phenological aspects of Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K. Iwats. (Thelypteridaceae) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Paiva Farias; Sergio Romero da Silva Xavier

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the phenological aspects of a population of Thelypteris interrupta (Willd.) K. Iwats. that occurs in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. A population of this species was delimited in a field and observed for 12 months, during which phenological data was recorded and then compared to seasonal climatological data. The results revealed that climatic seasonality did not influence phenological events in T. interrupta. Moreover, there were no differenc...

  1. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Di-Nizo; Carolina Neves; Júlio Fernando Vilela; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the...

  2. Sphinctanthus fluvii-dulcis (Rubiaceae : Gardenieae), a new species from the Rio Doce Valley, Atlantic forest of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with detailed observations on ovary morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Delprete, Piero; Persson, C.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Sphinctanthus from the Rio Doce Valley, Atlantic forest in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is here described and illustrated. The species is peculiar within the genus by having placentation entirely parietal, while in the other species of Sphinctanthus the placentation is basally axial and distally parietal. In addition, despite its bright orange flowers (being a plant with high potential as an ornamental), it is only known from two collections from nearby localities, indi...

  3. Brumptomyia angelae, a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice A Bianchi Galati; Demilson Rodrigues dos Santos; Allan Martins da Silva

    2007-01-01

    The male of Brumptomyia angelae, sp. nov., a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new taxon is closely related to Brumptomyia ortizi Martins, Silva & Falcão 1971, Brumptomyia nitzulescui (Costa Lima, 1932), and Brumptomyia troglodytes (Lutz, 1922). The male genitalia of these three latter species have also been drawn.

  4. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  5. Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae) and genera of Odonata in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz F. J. Vescovi Rosa; Renato T. Martins; Vívian C. de Oliveira; Roberto da G. Alves

    2009-01-01

    In this note, the occurrence of phoresy between larvae of Rheotanitarsus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) and larvae of Heteragrion sp. (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae) and of unidentified genera of Calopterygidae (Odonata) collected in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is reported. During the dry season of 2007 and the rainy season of 2008, with the aid of a Surber sampler, 15 samples of each of the following mesohabitats were collected: litter from riffle area...

  6. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil Comunidades de leveduras em dois fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael S Pimenta; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Ary Corrêa Jr.; Carlos A Rosa

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered fro...

  7. Adequacy assessment of mathematical models in the dynamics of litter decomposition in a tropical forest Mosaic Atlantic, in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, F P; Garcia, Q S

    2015-05-01

    The study of litter decomposition and nutrient cycling is essential to know native forests structure and functioning. Mathematical models can help to understand the local and temporal litter fall variations and their environmental variables relationships. The objective of this study was test the adequacy of mathematical models for leaf litter decomposition in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. We study four native forest sites in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, a Biosphere Reserve of the Atlantic, which were installed 200 bags of litter decomposing with 20 × 20 cm nylon screen of 2 mm, with 10 grams of litter. Monthly from 09/2007 to 04/2009, 10 litterbags were removed for determination of the mass loss. We compared 3 nonlinear models: 1 - Olson Exponential Model (1963), which considers the constant K, 2 - Model proposed by Fountain and Schowalter (2004), 3 - Model proposed by Coelho and Borges (2005), which considers the variable K through QMR, SQR, SQTC, DMA and Test F. The Fountain and Schowalter (2004) model was inappropriate for this study by overestimating decomposition rate. The decay curve analysis showed that the model with the variable K was more appropriate, although the values of QMR and DMA revealed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the models. The analysis showed a better adjustment of DMA using K variable, reinforced by the values of the adjustment coefficient (R2). However, convergence problems were observed in this model for estimate study areas outliers, which did not occur with K constant model. This problem can be related to the non-linear fit of mass/time values to K variable generated. The model with K constant shown to be adequate to describe curve decomposition for separately areas and best adjustability without convergence problems. The results demonstrated the adequacy of Olson model to estimate tropical forest litter decomposition. Although use of reduced number of parameters equaling the steps of the decomposition

  8. The Effect of Altitudinal Gradient on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Almeida, D. Q.; Correa, L. O.; Carmo, J. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a vast heterogeneous region with 1.5 million km2, encompassing a large variety of forest physiognomies and compositions, containing large number of species. These forests are distributed in different topographic and climatic conditions, with high levels of precipitation. The rate of deforestation is high, approaching 350 km2 per year, showing be highly fragmented with a large number of species in extinction. The aim of this study was to understanding of the basic biogeochemistry functioning of the coastal Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Forest at sea level; Lowland Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 100m of altitude asl; Submontana Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 400m of altitude asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 1000m of altitude asl. A sampling area of 1 ha in each phytophysiognomies was subdivided in contiguous sub-parcels (10 x 10m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06m2) was collected monthly (n=15), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30m away from each other. Techniques of multivariate like principal components analysis (PCA) were used to determine correlations between the variable. The ordination graphs make possible to observe frequent of standards, representing a significant ratio of the variability of the data. The two first PCA axes cumulatively explained 60% of the total variance of the litter variables. Litter C and δ13C values were strongly influenced by altitude at 1000m. The N and δ15N of litter were influenced by altitude at 100 and 400m. The C/N relation was influenced by altitude at 0m. The lignin was elevated (p<0.01) at sea level in comparison with the other phytophysiognomies. The cellulose values did not vary significantly along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N concentrations progressively increased along the

  9. New records of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil Novos registros de Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) em Mata Atlântica no Nordeste brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni; Leif Ryvarden; Maria Auxiliadora de Queiroz Cavalcanti

    2004-01-01

    Non-poroid Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) in areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil are reported. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd) Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr. and Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome) Donk are new records to Northeast Brazil.Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) não poróides foram registrados em áreas de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste brasileiro...

  10. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, Udo; Kirchner, André; Sattler, Dietmar; Turetta, Ana Paula; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica). In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a) effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b) spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  11. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDO NEHREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica. In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  12. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  13. Falconiformes assemblages in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil

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    Alan Loures-Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecological analysis focused on distribution of Falconiformes, comprising abundance and morphology data, is provided. Samples were collected in a fragmented landscape within the Atlantic Rainforest, southern Brazil, between August and November 2001. Four main types of habitats were pinpointed among the 30 different sampling sites, while eight external morphological traits were employed. Twenty-one Falconiformes species were detected and jackknife estimates for regional richness reached 24.8 ± 2.56 species (p0.05. Mantel's test for relative abundance and species morphology reveals weak association rates, corroborating the lack of association between matrixes (r = 0.059, p>0.05. Difficulties in the analyses of distribution and species morphology data may have been caused by their generalist character and may be due to the high rate of environment degradation revealed by the regional landscape's mosaic aspect.Uma análise ecológica enfocando a distribuição das espécies de Falconiformes foi realizada, empregando dados de abundância e morfologia. As amostragens foram feitas em uma região de paisagem fragmentada sob o domínio da Floresta Atlântica, sul do Brasil, entre agosto e novembro de 2001, durante o período reprodutivo das espécies. A partir de 30 diferentes locais de amostragem, quatro principais tipos de hábitats foram encontrados (fragmentos de floresta, mata ciliar, várzea e campo/pastagem. Oito caracteres morfológicos externos foram utilizados nas análises. Foram detectadas 21 espécies de Falconiformes, sendo a estimativa Jackknife para a riqueza regional de 24.8 ± 2.56 espécies (P 0.05. O teste de Mantel para os dados de abundância relativa e morfologia das espécies indicou um fraco grau de associação, concordando com a hipótese de nenhuma associação entre as matrizes (r = 0.059, P > 0.05. As dificuldades encontradas nas análises dos dados de distribuição e de morfologia das espécies podem ter sido geradas

  14. Does nutrient cycling differ between fragments of Atlantic Forest with distinct structural aspects? A case study in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucio de Mello Cunha; Antonio Carlos Gama-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate litter biomass and nutrient inputs, as well as nutrient use efficiency (NUE), in two fragments of dense montane rain forest within the Atlantic Forest Biome in the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The total annual average litter production for the two fragments (designated M1 and M2) was 7.72 and 7.56 t ha−¹ year−¹, respectively. The annual nutrient return rate was 146.67, 4.84, 21.41, 64.93, and 17.25 kg ha−¹ year−¹ for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, r...

  15. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

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    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  16. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  17. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

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    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  18. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. - Highlights: • We searched for tree species from Atlantic Forest for future air pollution monitoring in Brazil. • Croton floribundus, Astronium graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha were possible bioindicators. • P. gonoachanta was a potential bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. • C. floribundus was a potential bioindicator of heavy metals and sulfur. • A. graveolens may be used for monitoring oxidative pollutants, due to its biochemical leaf traits. - Inherent characteristics of the most abundant native tree species were potential biomarkers for assessing pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

  19. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo RN; Hanazaki Natalia; Begossi Alpina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 nati...

  20. Leaf blade anatomy and ultrastructure of six Simira species (Rubiaceae) from the Atlantic rain forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Tarsila Maria da Silva; Barros, Claudia Franca; Silva Neto, Sebastião José; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Da Cunha, Maura

    2009-12-01

    Simira is a predominantly woody Neotropical genus comprising 41 taxa, 16 of which occur in Brazil and eight of them in the southeastern region of Brazil. Leaf blades of Simira eliezeriana Peixoto, S. glaziovii (K. Schum.) Steyem., S. grazielae Peixoto, S. pikia (K. Schum.) Steyerm., S. rubra (Mart.) Steyerm., S. sampaioana (Standl.) Steyerm. were collected in the southeastern region of Brazil and fixed according to usual methods for light and electron microscopy. The leaf blades show typical characteristics of the Rubiaceae family as dorsiventral mesophyll and paracytic stomata. The presence of two bundle sheaths that extend to the upper epidermal layer, prismatic crystal and crystal-sand, alkaloids in the mesophyll and the organization micromorphological of the outer periclinal wall are considered characteristics representative for the genus. This study also demonstrates some leaf blade characteristics that can be used to Simira species identification (leaf surface, domatia types, epicuticular wax types and patterns of epidermis anticlinal cell walls). PMID:20067031

  1. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigues Eliana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology

  2. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

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    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  3. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Leonan Novaes; Daniel Rosa; Davor Vrcibradic; Leonardo Avilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we ...

  4. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of leaves, litter and soils of the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil along an altitudinal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, S. M.; Della Coletta, L.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study the carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and stable carbon (δ13C) and stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition were determined in samples of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves, litter, and soil samples in two different altitudes (Lowland and Montane Forests) of the coastal Atlantic Forest situated in the Southeast region of Brazil. In both altitudes there were two main differences between Fabaceae and non Fabaceae specimens. Fabaceae had a higher foliar nitrogen content and lower foliar δ15N than non Fabaceae specimens. As a consequence it seems that most of the Fabaceae specimens are fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere in both altitudes. This fact is contrary to most of other studies that found that most Fabaceae are not fixing nitrogen in tropical forests. We speculate that the main reason that Fabaceae are actively fixing nitrogen in the coastal Atlantic Forest is the steepness of the terrain that leads to frequent landslides, causing frequent disturbances of the nitrogen cycle, fostering nitrogen fixation. The main difference between the Lowland and the Montane Forest plots was the higher δ15N in the former in comparison with the later. We speculated that this difference is caused by larger losses of nitrogen by denitrification and riverine output, leading an enriched 15N substrate.

  5. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Chiarello, A G

    2008-11-01

    Presence of exotic species in forest remnants is a major concern for the conservation of wild species, not only on islands, where potential impact is higher. Although the problem is widespread and increasing, there are few studies on Neotropical forests. Here we quantify the occurrence of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in an Atlantic forest reserve in south-eastern Brazil (Santa Lúcia Biological Station--SLBS). Throughout two years of monitoring with camera traps (2,142 camera-days), 25 records of 16 individual dogs were obtained in the interior of SLBS, making dogs the fourth most frequently recorded species of mammals in general and the first-ranking among Carnivora, ahead of the ocelot and puma, the top two terrestrial predators present in SLBS. Dogs entered the forest year round, in almost half of the sampled months (48%), and predominantly during daytime (89%). They were detected in various trails inside the reserve, but mostly in areas nearest to the reserve's border ( 0.05 in all cases), suggesting an erratic, non-seasonal pattern of entrance in the reserve. Data indicate that domestic dogs can be abundant and frequent visitors to little disturbed Atlantic forest reserves even when these are located in regions of low density of human population. The potential impact to native fauna is discussed. PMID:19197494

  6. Rainfall and throughfall chemistry in the Atlantic Forest: a comparison between urban and natural areas (São Paulo State, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Forti, M. C.; Bicudo, D. C.; Bourotte, C.; De Cicco, V.; Arcova, F. C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Two areas in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State, Brazil), with contrasting environments in respect of human occupation, were monitored from 1999 to 2001. One area named PEFI (23°38'08''-23°40'18'' S and 46°36'48''-46°38'00'' W) at an altitude of 798 m a.s.l., 526.4 ha in area and about 50 km from the sea, lies in a State Park within the largest metropolis of South America - São Paulo. The other area, named CUNHA (between 23°13'18'' and 23°16'10'' S and 45&d...

  7. Pollen resources and trophic niche breadth of Apis mellifera and Melipona obscurior (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a subtropical climate in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgert-Moreira, Suzane; Nascher, Carla; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia; Blochtein, Betina

    2013-01-01

    Pollen sources that comprise the trophic niche of native bee species Melipona obscurior and introduced Apis mellifera and the breadth of this niche were studied in two areas in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil. Pollen obtained from the forager bees during a period of 12 months showed that the richness of pollen types found in each sample varied from 5 to 21 for A. mellifera and from 1 to 10 for M. obscurior. In both areas, A. mellifera had higher niche breadth. M. obscurior demonst...

  8. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  9. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

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    Mayara Lautert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp., Polypodiaceae (18 spp., Aspleniaceae (13 spp., and Thelypteridaceae (11 spp.. Asplenium (12 spp., Thelypteris (10 spp., and Blechnum (seven spp. were among the most represented genera. The occurrence of Dicksonia sellowiana was noteworthy because it was associated with seasonal semideciduous forest and is threatened in Brazil. Similarity among areas was determined by a cluster analysis (UPGMA and Sørensen’s index and the relation between similarity and geographic distance was determined through Matel’s analysis. The analyses revealed greater similarity among the four study areas and, for these areas as a whole, greater similarity to fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, which is evidence that these areas have similar environmental conditions.

  10. Evaluation of the Swat Model in a Small Watershed Representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, I. R.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Beling, F. A.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the results of simulations with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a small watershed in Southern Brazil (latitude 29°38'37.5 " and longitude 53°48'2.2"), representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome. This area was monitored by two sequential stations, each with one rain gauge and one stage gauge, having contributing areas of 4.5 km2 and 12 km2 respectively. The altitudes in the basins range from 316 m to 431 m and vegetation is predominantly composed of native forest (55%) and native pasture (39%). The simulated period was from August 2007 to July 2011, corresponding to the period of monitoring. The temperature ranged from -2.2°C to 39.2°C, and annual rainfall ranged between 2005 mm and 2250 mm. For this application, a modification in the SWAT 2000 model algorithm was made, as proposed by Paiva and Paiva (2006), to adjust the rate of leaf area during the winter season of the region. The quality of the results was characterized by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) and by the coefficient of determination (R2). The model was evaluated in a monthly and daily scale. At the monthly scale, the values obtained for NSE in the calibration phase, were 0.73 and 0.81, respectively for the two sections. The values obtained for R2 were 0.77 and 0.83 in the same sections. At the daily scale, in the calibration phase NSE values were -0.44 and -0.31, respectively, for the two sections, while for R2, the values were 0.27 and 0.38 in the same sections. These results show that the fit was good for monthly values, but for daily values a proper adjustment was not possible. Due to the short period of monitoring, the validation of the model results was made with the observed data from first station with an area of 4.5 km2. The values obtained for the NSE in the validation phase were 0.73 and -0.33 for the monthly and daily scales respectively, and for R2, 0.77 and 0.27 for the monthly and daily values, thus confirming the quality of the fit

  11. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2015-09-01

    Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the unenocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teres6polis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 %) in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 %) in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 %) in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII) differed in relation to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatum and S. pertinax were significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted sites. On the other hand

  12. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2015-09-01

    Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the unenocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teres6polis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 %) in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 %) in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 %) in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII) differed in relation to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatum and S. pertinax were significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted sites. On the other hand

  13. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Severino R. Pinto; Felipe Melo; Marcelo Tabarelli; Aurélio Padovesi; Carlos A. Mesquita; Carlos Alberto de Mattos Scaramuzza; Pedro Castro; Helena Carrascosa; Miguel Calmon; Ricardo Rodrigues; Ricardo Gomes César; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.

    2014-01-01

    In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP) is a coalition of 260+ st...

  14. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Christopher Buckley; Fernanda ede Vasconcellos Pegas

    2015-01-01

    Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Ja...

  15. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin in Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Ralf C.; de Vasconcellos Pegas, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social, and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Jane...

  16. Sleeping sites choice by a wild group of howler monkeys (Alouatta belzebul) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Martin‑Klimoczko, Lucille; Meunier, Hélène; Moura, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Study of primates sleeping habits is important to understand their behaviour and adaptations. Red-handed howler monkey is a new world monkey which is classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN red list. The present study aims to understand the choice of sleeping trees by these monkeys to facilitate the establishment of an adapted conservation plan. Indeed, data were collected in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest, following a wild monkey group from dawn to dusk. Trees criteria and monkey...

  17. Lessons from the Rain Forest : Experiences of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Amazon and Atlantic Forests of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The largest hydrographic basin in the world, the Amazon is the source of 20 percent of all the fresh water on the planet. The Basin covers some 600 million hectares in nine countries, over half of which are located within Brazil's national boundaries. A striking characteristic of the Amazon region is its tremendous biodiversity, which includes an estimated 50,000 species of plants, 3,000 s...

  18. New records of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil Novos registros de Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota em Mata Atlântica no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-poroid Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota in areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil are reported. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr. Fr. and Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome Donk are new records to Northeast Brazil.Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota não poróides foram registrados em áreas de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste brasileiro. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr. Fr. e Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome Donk são novas ocorrências para o Nordeste do Brasil.

  19. Orchid bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) of Atlantic Forest fragments inside an urban area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, André; Silveira, Fernando A

    2007-01-01

    Male orchid bees were collected by chemical baiting in four forest fragments in parks of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. One thousand three hundred and twenty-five males belonging to 14 species were captured within one year. The capture data were compared through correlation tests. The data suggest that abundance of orchid bees tend to increase with fragment size, although no correlation between species richness and fragment size was obtained. The results presented herein suggest that forest fragments in a large city may be of importance concerning conservation of orchid-bee faunas.

  20. Last millennium environmental changes and climate inferences in the Southeastern Atlantic forest, Brazil

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    Luiz C.R. Pessenda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents paleoenvironmental data based on pollen, elemental and isotopic compositions of organic matter (TOC, N, d13C and d15N and 14C dating of 170 cm lake sediment record. Samplings have been made in Lagoa Grande at Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira - PETAR, Southern São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The variations in relative frequencies (in percentage of arboreal pollen along the core range between 40 and 80%. The d13C values ranged from -23‰ to -30‰ and C/N of ~10 to 15, indicating the contribution of terrestrial C3 plants and algae in the sediment organic matter. The d15N results presented values from 3 to 4.5‰, also suggesting a mixture of algae and terrestrial C3 plants. The 14C dating indicates modern age for the shallow horizons to ~1030 BP at the base of the core. A probable wetter climate in the period of ~370 BP to ~340 BP was inferred from the data set, which corresponds to a part of the period covered by the Little Ice Age (LIA.Este estudo apresenta dados paleoambientais baseados em análises de pólen, da composição elementar e isotópica da matéria orgânica (TOC, N, d13C e d15N e datação 14C, de um testemunho sedimentar lacustre de 170 cm. A amostragem foi realizada na Lagoa Grande localizada no Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira - PETAR, Vale do Ribeira, sul do estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. As variações nas frequências relativas de pólen arbóreo (em porcentagem apresentaram-se entre 40 e 80% ao longo de todo o testemunho. Os valores de d13C variaram de -23‰ à -30‰, indicando a contribuição de plantas C3 (terrestres e algas na matéria orgânica sedimentar. Os resultados de d15N apresentaram valores entre 3 e 4,5‰, também sugerindo uma mistura de algas e plantas C3. A datação 14C indica idade moderna para as camadas superficiais do testemunho e uma idade de até 1030 anos AP para a camada mais profunda do mesmo. Um provável clima mais úmido para o per

  1. Feeding ecology of a stream fish assemblage in an Atlantic Forest remnant (Serra do Japi, SP, Brazil

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    Ana Paula Pozzo Rios Rolla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the trophic structure of the fish assemblage in streams of the Serra Japi, an ecotonal area between the Atlantic Forest and inland forests of São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Fish were collected with electrofishing equipment in 15 sites covering different regions, substrate types and riparian vegetation, distributed throughout the Caguaçú River, Caxambú, Piraí and Guapeva River micro-basins, during the rainy (January/February and dry season (June of 2007. The 589 specimens analyzed from 22 species, were assigned to different trophic groups, discriminated through a matrix of similarity, based on the food index (IAi. The results show the formation of seven groups with a predominance of insectivorous and omnivorous species, followed by detritivores, piscivores, omnivore-carnivores and herbivores, which consumed mostly items of autochthonous origin, where algae and young insects were dominant. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA, correlating the biomass of trophic groups to environmental variables, showed that omnivores, insectivores and omnivore-carnivores displayed a wide distribution, while detritivores, herbivores and piscivores were restricted to specific locations, related to different physical and chemical variables as total nitrogen, conductivity and temperature. Despite the increase in total biomass at the most urbanized sites, the results indicate that the streams maintain a diverse community, suggesting that most of them are in preserved conditions.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a estrutura trófica da comunidade de peixes de riachos da Serra do Japi, uma área de transição entre a Mata Atlântica e o interior paulista, no sudeste brasileiro. Os peixes foram coletados com equipamento de pesca elétrica em 15 pontos localizados em regiões com diferentes tipos de substrato e vegetação ripária, distribuídos pelas microbacias do Ribeirão Caguaçú, Caxambú, Piraí e

  2. Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and

  3. Land fauna composition of small mammals of a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.

  4. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 ...

  5. LITTER DEPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION IN A FRAGMENT OF ATLANTIC FOREST IN THE ISLAND OF MARAMBAIA, MANGARATIBA, RJ, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes; Nivaldo Schultz

    2009-01-01

    Litter production and decomposition of an Atlantic Forest fragment in Marambaia Island, Mangaratiba, RJ, were monitored from December 2003 to November 2004. For the litter deposition evaluation, 30 litter traps were installed and 36 litter bags were allocated in the area to quantify litter decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth to evaluate soil fertility. The litter production was 7.9 Mg ha-1 and the highest deposition was verified in November and th...

  6. Coexistence and geographical distribution of Leguminosae in an area of Atlantic forest in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacira R. LIMA; Vidal F. MANSANO; Francisca S. ARA(U)JO

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect plant species distribution and coexistence in areas with high plant species diversity is a challenge for ecologists.According to some authors,species occupy specific niches,but for others,species coexistence and geographical distribution patterns are random.Floristic composition of the family Leguminosae was studied on moist and dry slopes of the Baturité mountains in semi-arid northeastern Brazil and was compared with findings for other plant formations elsewhere in Brazil.Substantial floristic differences were found between the moist windward and dry leeward slopes of the Baturité mountains despite their close geographical proximity.The leeward slope was slightly more diverse than the windward slope.Similarity analyses showed that the windward face is floristically allied to the Amazon forest,whereas the leeward slope is similar to other dry-area formations of northeastern Brazil,such as thorny woodland (caatinga) and seasonal forests.The strong floristic differences that were observed between the windward and leeward slopes corroborate the theory of ecological niche conservatism,which holds that species occurrence is closely linked to environmental factors,such as temperature and precipitation.

  7. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and their rickettsia in an Atlantic rain forest reserve in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Guilherme S; Pinter, Adriano; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-09-01

    The current study investigated the occurrence of ticks and their rickettsiae in the Serra do Mar State Park, which encompasses one of the largest Atlantic rain forest reserves of Brazil. From July 2008 to June 2009, a total of 2439 ticks (2,196 free living and 243 collected on hosts) was collected, encompassing the following 13 species: Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas), Amblyomma brasiliense AragAo, Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann, Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, Amblyomma incisum Neumann, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma naponense (Packard), Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma ovale Koch, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca, Ixodes loricatus Neumann, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Ticks were submitted to polymerase chain reaction assays targeting portions of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. Polymerase chain reaction products were DNA sequenced and compared with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Rickettsia bellii, a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, was detected in one A. aureolatum, one A. ovale, and three A. incisum specimens. At least 8.8% (3/34) of the free-living A. ovale ticks, 13.6% (8/59) of the A. ovale ticks collected from dogs, and 1.9% (1/54) of the R. sanguineus (Latreille) ticks were found to be infected by Rickettsia sp strain Atlantic rain forest, a novel strain that has been shown to cause an eschar-associated spotted fever in the state of Sho Paulo. Our results suggest that A. ovale is the vector of Rickettsia sp strain Atlantic rain forest in the state of São Paulo. PMID:20939390

  8. Fruit-feeding butterflies in the Atlantic Forest at Serra do Tabuleiro State Park, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Gabriela Corso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-feeding butterflies are used in ecological studies following standardized sampling protocols because they are easily collected using traps baited with food. This trait, and the fact that their populations respond rapidly to changes in habitat, make them good biological indicators. The goal of this study is to present a list of fruit-feeding butterfly species, including morphological and ecological characteristics of this group, for the Atlantic Forest of Serra do Tabuleiro State Park (Santa Catarina, to improve the knowledge about the butterflies from this region. Six field expeditions were carried out between November 2009 and August 2010. Twenty-five bait traps were used, which remained active for ten days and were checked every 48 h to replace the bait and collect individuals. Twenty species and 331 individuals were captured, which belonged to three subfamilies: Biblidinae, Charaxinae and Satyrinae. The study added eleven new species to the already existing list of the Atlantic Forest butterflies of Santa Catarina.

  9. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

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    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  10. Rainfall and throughfall chemistry in the Atlantic Forest: a comparison between urban and natural areas (São Paulo State, Brazil

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    M. C. Forti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State, Brazil, with contrasting environments in respect of human occupation, were monitored from 1999 to 2001. One area named PEFI (23°38'08''-23°40'18'' S and 46°36'48''-46°38'00'' W at an altitude of 798 m a.s.l., 526.4 ha in area and about 50 km from the sea, lies in a State Park within the largest metropolis of South America - São Paulo. The other area, named CUNHA (between 23°13'18'' and 23°16'10'' S and 45°02'53'' and 45°05'15'' W about 1050 m a.s.l. with an area of 2854 ha and about 15 km from the sea, is also within a State Park in the Atlantic Forest, but is surrounded by rural areas and small villages. For each area, the rainfall and throughfall chemistry were examined and pH and Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- as well as trace metals were determined. Compared with PEFI, CUNHA is characterised by low chemical fluxes and the largest differences are for the ions such as Ca2+, H+, NO3- and SO42- which are mainly anthropogenic in origin. Differences in throughfall chemical fluxes are linked to the nutritional status of the trees.

  11. Meta-analysis of pollen limitation reveals the relevance of pollination generalization in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

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    Marina Wolowski

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome - one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species. Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the

  12. Meta-analysis of pollen limitation reveals the relevance of pollination generalization in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, Marina; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome - one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d) from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically, phenotypic and ecological specialists (plants with zygomorphic flowers and pollinated by one species of pollinator, respectively) had higher pollen limitation than generalist plants (actinomorphic flowers and pollination by two or more species). Functional generalists (plants pollinated by three or more functional groups) were not pollen limited. On the other hand, breeding system and life habit were not associated to pollen limitation. Pollen limitation was observed in the Atlantic forest and its magnitude was comparable to that for angiosperms as a whole. The finding that pollination specialization was the strongest predictor of pollen limitation suggests that specialist plants in this biome may be most prone to the reproductive failure

  13. Vertical oviposition activity of mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil with emphasis on the sylvan vector, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecilia Ferreira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; de Almeida, Sergio Antonio Silva; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the vertical patterns of oviposition and temporal changes in the distribution of mosquito species in an area of the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and in particular, the behavior and oviposition of potential yellow fever virus vectors. Mosquito samples were collected from the Ecological Reserve Guapiaçu (REGUA, Brazil), which includes a somewhat disturbed forest, with a large diversity of plants and animals. In all, 5,458 specimens (ten species from seven genera) were collected. Haemagogus leucocelaenus was the most frequently captured species, representing 73% of the specimens collected. Species richness and diversity were the highest in the samples collected from the ground-level ovitraps and decreased with height. Species composition also differed significantly among heights. The largest species differences were detected between ovitraps set at the ground level and those set at 7 m and 9 m; Hg. leucocelaenus, Limatus durhamii, and Limatus paraensis contributed most to these differences. Sampling month and climatic variables had significant effects on species richness and diversity. Species diversity and richness decreased with height, suggesting that the conditions for mosquito breeding are more favorable closer to the ground. Species composition also showed vertical differences. PMID:27232120

  14. Vertical oviposition activity of mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil with emphasis on the sylvan vector, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecilia Ferreira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; de Almeida, Sergio Antonio Silva; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the vertical patterns of oviposition and temporal changes in the distribution of mosquito species in an area of the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and in particular, the behavior and oviposition of potential yellow fever virus vectors. Mosquito samples were collected from the Ecological Reserve Guapiaçu (REGUA, Brazil), which includes a somewhat disturbed forest, with a large diversity of plants and animals. In all, 5,458 specimens (ten species from seven genera) were collected. Haemagogus leucocelaenus was the most frequently captured species, representing 73% of the specimens collected. Species richness and diversity were the highest in the samples collected from the ground-level ovitraps and decreased with height. Species composition also differed significantly among heights. The largest species differences were detected between ovitraps set at the ground level and those set at 7 m and 9 m; Hg. leucocelaenus, Limatus durhamii, and Limatus paraensis contributed most to these differences. Sampling month and climatic variables had significant effects on species richness and diversity. Species diversity and richness decreased with height, suggesting that the conditions for mosquito breeding are more favorable closer to the ground. Species composition also showed vertical differences.

  15. Candida riodocensis and Candida cellae, two new yeast species from the Starmerella clade associated with solitary bees in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mariana R C; Antonini, Yasmine; Martins, Rogério P; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2005-06-01

    Two new ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the Starmerella clade were discovered in nests of two solitary bee species in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil. Candida riodocensis was isolated from pollen-nectar provisions, larvae and fecal pellets of nests of Megachile sp., and Candida cellae was found in pollen-nectar provisions of Centris tarsata. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 large-subunit ribosomal DNA showed that C. riodocensis is phylogenetically related to C. batistae, and the closest relative of C. cellae is C. etchellsii. The type strains are C. riodocensis UFMG-MG02 (=CBS 10087(T) = NRRL Y-27859(T)) and C. cellae UFMG-PC04 (=CBS 10086(T) = NRRL Y-27860(T)). PMID:15925316

  16. Tmesiphantes mirim sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae from the Atlantic Forest of Bahia, Brazil, biogeographical notes and identification keys for species of the genus

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    Willian Fabiano-da-Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 is described and illustrated, based on eight male specimens collected at the Una Biological Reserve, southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It is distinguished by the morphology of male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis. The new species is very small and is the smallest theraphosid described to date (body length 5.5 mm. It is distinguished from congeners by the size, which vary from 12 mm (T. riopretano to 23.8 mm (T. nubilus in other species of the genus, aspect of palpal bulb, sternal posterior sigillae close to sternal margin and by the aspect of tibial apophysis which lacks the prolateral branch. Tmesiphantes presently comprises nine species. Sixth have been described for the southern region of Bahia, a well known area of endemism in the Atlantic Forest. Identification keys for Tmesiphantes males and females are presented.

  17. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  18. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  19. Factors Controlling Fluxes of Nitrous Oxide (N-N2O) in AN Upland Tropical Forest (atlantic Forest) - Brazil, Rio de Janeiro

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    Perry, I.; de Mello, W. Z.; McDowell, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    Atlantic Forest is located along the Brazilian coast and inland to Paraguay and Argentina. It has been largely devastated years ago by anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture and urbanization. Only ten percent of its original area remains (100.000 km2), which is concentrated on high lands. Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot that receives high nitrogen (N) input through atmospheric deposition in forests of Rio de Janeiro; however, not much is known about the consequences of this N addition. This study has been conducted in the Serra dos Orgaos National Park (SONP - 22.782 km2) located a few kilometers Northeast of Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region, Sea Mountain. The forest, characterized as Tropical Moist Forest, is rigorously protected. Vegetation varies along the altitudinal gradient, where the highest peak is at 2,200m asl. Previous studies reported that N atmospheric deposition in SONP varies from 14 to 24 kg ha-1 year-1. The high N deposition on tropical forests increases emission to the atmosphere of N-N2O, a greenhouse gas. There is a lack of N-N2O measurements in tropical forests, mainly in upland tropical forests. We present fluxes of N-N2O from a Brazilian upland tropical forest, and assess the factors controlling N-N2O fluxes. Samples were collected from eight grids (48m2), between 330-451m asl (Subtropical vegetation) and eight grids between 1137-1251m (Montane vegetation), during the dry (July 2008) and wet (Jan-Feb 2009) seasons. Daily, N-N2O (N=372) and soil (N=185) were collected. Nitrous oxide emission was 0,7 (lower altitude) and 0,3 kgN ha-1 year-1 (higher altitude), which is lower than in other upland tropical forests, such as Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, where atmospheric N input (4 kg ha-1 year-1) is not as high as in SONP. Water filled pore space, soil temperature, phosphorus and C:N are the main factors controlling N-N2O fluxes. Manganese was not a good indicator for presence or absence of N-N2O. Higher N-N2O

  20. LITTER DEPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION IN A FRAGMENT OF ATLANTIC FOREST IN THE ISLAND OF MARAMBAIA, MANGARATIBA, RJ, BRAZIL

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    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Litter production and decomposition of an Atlantic Forest fragment in Marambaia Island, Mangaratiba, RJ, were monitored from December 2003 to November 2004. For the litter deposition evaluation, 30 litter traps were installed and 36 litter bags were allocated in the area to quantify litter decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth to evaluate soil fertility. The litter production was 7.9 Mg ha-1 and the highest deposition was verified in November and the lowest in June. The leaf fraction presented the highest contribution comparing to the others. In seven months of observation, litter decomposition rate was 40% and showed an exponential decrease. Different behavior for N, P and K release was verified. Exception for P, carbon, nutrients and H+Al presented highest concentrations in superficial layer.

  1. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers, with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae. Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited.

  2. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure.

  3. Deposition of trace substances via cloud droplets in the Atlantic Rain Forest of the Serra Do Mar, São Paulo State, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautz, W.; Pahl, S.; Pilger, H.; Schilling, M.; Klockow, D.

    The Atlantic Rain Forest of the Serra do Mar close to Cubatão, São Paulo State, SE Brazil, is severely affected by the emissions of a big industrial complex. Measurements of trace substance concentrations in air as well as in rain were carried out over a period of 6 years to investigate the interrelation of pollution and vegetation damage. Due to the local atmospheric circulation, orographic clouds occur very frequently at the top of the Serra do Mar, where vegetation damage also is very high. Therefore, additional information was required about trace substance deposition via cloud water. During three field experiments, various samples of cloud water and of the interstitial aerosol were taken by help of a sampling device especially modified for this purpose, and were analysed for the major anions and cations (hydrogen ions, ammonium, chloride, sodium, nitrate and sulphate). The trace substance concentrations found in cloud water were in the same range as for polluted sites in Europe. Over all samples, about 90-100% of the trace substances—both gaseous and particulate matter—found in the atmosphere before a cloud event were found in the cloud water. A resistance model using meteorological input data (wind speed, atmospheric liquid water content) was adapted to the characteristics of the Atlantic Rain Forest to estimate the cloud water deposition to vegetation. The results from cloud water analyses and from modelled cloud water deposition were combined to investigate the ion deposition to the vegetation. A rough estimate of the annual deposition showed, that the deposition via rain is in the order of one magnitude (factor 6-40) higher than that via cloud. The high amount of water deposition via precipitation overcompensates the higher trace substance concentrations in cloud water. Furthermore the trace substance deposition to vegetation via cloud water in the Atlantic Rain Forest is in the order of one magnitude lower than for typical German spruce forests due

  4. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites. PMID:27085719

  5. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites.

  6. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  7. Edge effect on vascular epiphytes in a subtropical Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Santos Bianchi; Rodrigo de Andrade Kersten

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation affects biological communities by reducing habitat and increasing edges, thus reducing the effective size of the habitable zones. The subtropical atlantic Araucaria forest, typical on the southern Brazil, in some regions has been reduced to less than 1% of its original size lasting only in small isolated fragments. This study aimed to analyse the impact the edge has on vascular epiphyte ensemble in a remnant of Araucaria forest. We surveyed 40 host trees in four transects...

  8. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L; Engela, Marcela R G S; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B; Alves, Edenise S; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Gomes, Eduardo P C; Furlan, Claudia M; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. PMID:25818087

  9. Thermal ecology and thermoregulatory behavior of Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae, in a fragment of the Atlantic forest of northeastern, Brazil

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    Pablo A. G. de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the thermal ecology and thermoregulatory behavior of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999 in a remnant of a northern coastal patch of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Data were collected during four 20-day field excursions over the course of one year. We assessed the importance of substrate and air temperatures, in addition to time of exposure to sunlight, as relevant factors for the regulation of body temperature in this species. After each specimen was captured, body (Tb, substrate (Ts and air (Ta temperature were measured 10 cm above the ground, using a temperature sensor coupled to a fast response thermo-hygrometer. Ad libitum and focal animal methods were used to describe thermoregulatory behavior. The mean body temperature of C. natalensis was 31.3 ± 3°C (amplitude of 26.9 and 38.4°C, n = 20. A positive relationship was found between Tb and environmental temperatures; further, substrate temperature explained the additional variability of temperature variations in this species. With respect to environmental observations, individuals of C. natalensis did not expose themselves directly to the sun, moving equally between full and filtered sun. Our results indicate that C. natalensis is umbrophylic and a passive thermoregulator.

  10. Soil chemical and physical status in semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments affected by atmospheric deposition in central-eastern São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lopes MIMS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agricultural, urban and industrial areas in the São Paulo State (SE Brazil led to the fragmentation of the original semideciduous Atlantic Fo­rest into small, patchy forest remnants. Anthropogenic activities produce a variety of pollutants affecting many ecological processes in these remaining fo­rest fragments through soil acidification and fertilization. In this study, we investigated the soil chemical and physical status of six forest remnants (Paulínia, Holambra, Americana, Jaguariúna, Campinas and Cosmópolis differently affected by industrial, rural and urban pollution in central-eastern São Paulo in order to determine the soil potential to buffer the inputs of pollutants. Soil samples from 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm depths were collected in the dry and the wet season and the following variables were analyzed: soil texture, pH in CaCl2 solution, exchangeable cations and exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, extractable sulfur, phosphorus and heavy metals. Distinct buffering capacities were observed in industrial and in rural and urban areas, primarily due to the natural characteristics of the soils, such as soil texture, acidification and organic matter. The forest soils affected by atmospheric deposition from the industrial complex (Paulínia and Americana were more sandy and acidic (pH = 3.6 than those near rural and urban sources (pH = 4.5. The optimal chemical conditions (high contents of organic matter, exchangeable bases, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur were found in the clay soils of fo­rest remnants located in Campinas and Jaguariúna, which were more affected by rural or urban pollution than by industrial emissions. Such clay soils provide the highest buffering capacity against environmental impacts in the study region.

  11. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  12. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest?

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro; Helena Piccoli Romanowski

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest) and in a transition zone (forest edge). The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected...

  13. Drosophilids (Diptera) from an Atlantic Forest Area in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil Drosofilídeos (Diptera) de uma Área de Floresta Atlântica em Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil

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    Jonas S. Döge; Valente, Vera L. S.; Paulo R. P Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims at knowing the faunal composition of drosophilids in forest areas of southern Brazil. Besides, estimation of species richness for this fauna is briefly discussed. The sampling were carried out in three well-preserved areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Santa Catarina. In this study, 136,931 specimens were captured and 96.6% of them were identified in the specific level. The observed species richness (153 species) is the largest that has been registered in f...

  14. Cytogenetic study in natural hybrids of Callithrix (Callitrichidae: Primates in the Atlantic forest of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Denise M. Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro, Callithrix aurita (É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812 is a native species vulnerable to extinction and C. jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758 and C. penicillata (É. Geoffroy, 1812 are invasive species. The major threats to the native species are habitat degradation and hybridization, although there are currently no genetic data about natural hybrids available. Previous studies have revealed that species of the Callithrix genus are extremely homogeneous in their karyotypes with the exceptions of the morphology and size of the Y chromosome and its nucleolar organizer region (NOR banding pattern. Three male marmosets captured in the wild in Guapimirim municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, considered as possible hybrids between C. aurita and C. jacchus or C. penicillata on the basis of pelage pattern, were cytogenetically studied. Metaphase chromosomes were obtained by using short-term lymphocyte cultures and Ag-NOR staining was performed. The hybrids karyotypes were 2n=46, 14 uni- and 30 bi-armed autosomes, a median size submetacentric X and NOR bearing autosomes, being compatible with that observed for the genus. In the three individuals studied, Y chromosomes were similar to those found for C. aurita, without NORs. The data obtained suggest the involvement of C. aurita in natural hybridization with one of the invasive species. We discuss the possible consequences of this hybridization.

  15. Effect of CO2 and 1-octen-3-ol attractants for estimating species richness and the abundance of diurnal mosquitoes in the southeastern Atlantic forest, Brazil

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    Gabriel Z Laporta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that both carbon dioxide (CO2 and octenol (1-octen-3-ol are effective attractants for mosquitoes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the attractiveness of 1-octen-3-ol and CO2 for diurnal mosquitoes in the southeastern Atlantic forest. A Latin square experimental design was employed with four treatments: CDC-light trap (CDC-LT, CDC-LT and 1-octen-3-ol, CDC-LT and CO2 and CDC-LT with 1-octen-3-ol and CO2. Results demonstrated that both CDC-CO2 and CDC-CO2-1-octen-3-ol captured a greater number of mosquito species and specimens compared to CDC-1-octen-3-ol; CDC-LT was used as the control. Interestingly, Anopheles (Kerteszia sp. was generally attracted to 1-octen-3-ol, whereas Aedes serratus was the most abundant species in all Latin square collections. This species was recently shown to be competent to transmit the yellow fever virus and may therefore play a role as a disease vector in rural areas of Brazil.

  16. Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae and genera of Odonata in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    Beatriz F. J. Vescovi Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, the occurrence of phoresy between larvae of Rheotanitarsus sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae and larvae of Heteragrion sp. (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae and of unidentified genera of Calopterygidae (Odonata collected in a first-order stream in an area of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is reported. During the dry season of 2007 and the rainy season of 2008, with the aid of a Surber sampler, 15 samples of each of the following mesohabitats were collected: litter from riffle areas, litter from pool areas and sediment in pool areas. Eighty-five Odonata larvae were obtained, 10 (11.76% with cases of phoresy by Rheotanytarsus sp.. These chironomids were associated with only one specimen of Megapodagrionidae, whereas the other larvae were recorded in association with Calopterygidae. Most of the Odonata with cases of phoresy by Rheotanytarsus sp. were recorded in the dry season. In the present study, the absence of the phoretic association with other potential hosts for Rheotanytarsus sp. found in the samples indicates a possible preference of these larvae for Odonata, which accounted for only 2.42% of the collected macroinvertebrates in litter and sediment.

  17. Karyotype characterization and nucleolar organizer regions of marsupial species (Didelphidae from areas of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in Brazil

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    Núbia P. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of 23 specimens belonging to 16 species from nine genera of Brazilian marsupials (family Didelphidae were studied. The animals were collected in eight localities of Cerrado or Atlantic Forest biomes in the states of Goiás, Tocantins and São Paulo. The karyotypes were analyzed after conventional Giemsa staining and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. New karyotypic data were obtained for Gracilinanus microtarsus (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosops paulensis (2n = 14, FN = 24 , Micoreus paraguayanus (2n = 14, FN = 20 and Monodelphis rubida (2n = 18, FN = 32 and are discussed in detail. The karyotypes of G. microtarsus , M. paulensis and M. paraguayanus include three large pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 1, 2 and 3 and a medium-sized metacentric or submetacentric pair 4. Pairs 5 and 6 are small submetacentrics in G. microtarsus and M. paulensis and acrocentrics in M. paraguayanus . M. paulensis presented a single Ag-NOR in pair 6 (6p6p, while M. paraguayanus exhibited multiple Ag-NORs in pairs 5 and 6 (5pq5pq6p6p. There was variation in size and morphology of the sex chromosomes among these species. Monodelphis rubida presented a karyotype with 2n = 18 and FN = 32 composed of a large submetacentric pair 1, a medium-sized metacentric pair 2 and six pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 3 through 8. The X was a small acrocentric and the Y was dot-like. A single Ag-NOR bearing pair (5p5p characterized M. rubida. Relevant karyotypic information was obtained for 19 specimens belonging to 12 species collected in areas sampled for the first time [ Caluromys lanatus and C. philander (2n = 14, FN = 20, Gracilinanus emiliae (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosa murina , Metachirus nudicaudatus and Micoureus demerarae (2n = 14, FN = 20, Monodelphis americana (2n = 18, FN = 32 and M. domestica (2n = 18, FN = 20, and Didelphis marsupialis, Philander frenata, P. opossum and P. sp (2n = 22, FN = 20]. Although the karyotypes were relatively

  18. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  19. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    de Albuquerque Ulysses; de Lucena Reinaldo; Gazzaneo Luiz

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant...

  20. Androlaelaps marmosops (Acari: Laelapidae), a new species associated with the mouse opossum, Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1840) in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS-HATANO F.; GETTINGER D.; BERGALLO H. G.

    2001-01-01

    Androlaelaps marmosops, a new species of laelapid mite, is described from the pelage of the mouse opossum, Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1840) (Mammalia: Didelphidae), in two areas of Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro State. Measurements and illustrations are included for females only.

  1. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated to the bromeliad Vriesea inflata of the Atlantic Forest (Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Mestre Luiz Augusto M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated water inside the bromeliad leaf rosette is a microhabitat for several animal and plant species. In this study, the associated fauna of bromeliad Vriesea inflata was analyzed related to seasons, bromeliad height in relation to the ground and environmental factors. The samples were seasonally collected in Quatro Barras (a municipality of Paraná State, southern Brazil between March 1996 and March 1997. The associated fauna was very rich and it was grouped in 23 taxonomic groups, with a dominance of Coleoptera Scirtidae, Diptera and Hymenoptera Formicidae. We found higher abundance of macroinvertebrates in terrestrial bromeliads during the spring/1996 and in epiphyte bromeliads in the autumn/1997.

  2. Meta-Analysis of Pollen Limitation Reveals the Relevance of Pollination Generalization in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wolowski, Marina; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome – one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We asse...

  3. Radon levels and transport parameters in Atlantic Forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In natural forest soils, the radon transport processes can be significantly intensified due to the contribution of living organism activities to soil porosity. In this paper, the first results of the radon concentrations were obtained for soil gas from the Atlantic Forest, particularly in the Refugio Ecologico Charles Darwin, Brazil. The estimation of permeability and radon exhalation rate were carried out in this conservation unit. For forested soils, radon concentrations as high as 40 kBq m-3 were found. Based on the radon concentrations and on the permeability parameter, the results indicated considerable radon hazard for human occupation in the neighborhood. (author)

  4. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates Cães-domésticos em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil: padrões de entrada e de ocupação obtidos a partir de armadilhas fotográficas

    OpenAIRE

    AC. Srbek-Araujo; AG. Chiarello

    2008-01-01

    Presence of exotic species in forest remnants is a major concern for the conservation of wild species, not only on islands, where potential impact is higher. Although the problem is widespread and increasing, there are few studies on Neotropical forests. Here we quantify the occurrence of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in an Atlantic forest reserve in south-eastern Brazil (Santa Lúcia Biological Station - SLBS). Throughout two years of monitoring with camera traps (2,142 camera-days),...

  5. The Phlebotominae sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna of two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Nataly A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, studies on the sand fly fauna in Poço das Antas and Fazenda Bom Retiro, two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves from the State of Rio de Janeiro, were performed using Shannon traps, CDC light traps and human bait collections. Eleven species were identified; Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. edwardsi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. fischeri, L. shannoni, L. ayrozai, L. hirsuta, L. monticola and L. misionensis (first occurrence in the State of Rio de Janeiro. L. intermedia and L. whitmani were the predominant anthropophilic species around houses, while L. hirsuta predominated in the forest.

  6. Population structure and genetic diversity of the orchid bee Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini) from Atlantic Forest remnants in southern and southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Freiria, Gabriele; Ruim, Juliana; Souza, Rogério; Sofia, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In this study, both the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea from six Atlantic Forest fragments, located in four Brazilian states, were assessed using microsatellite markers. The results showed that genetic diversity was high in all populations and the genetic differentiation (Φ ST), based on allelic frequency differences, for all population pairwise comparisons was found to be significantly different from zero, indicating from low to moderate genetic diffe...

  7. The Phlebotominae sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna of two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Nataly A; Andrade-Coêlho Claudia A; Vilela Maurício L; Rangel Elizabeth F

    2001-01-01

    During two consecutive years, studies on the sand fly fauna in Poço das Antas and Fazenda Bom Retiro, two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves from the State of Rio de Janeiro, were performed using Shannon traps, CDC light traps and human bait collections. Eleven species were identified; Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. edwardsi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. fischeri, L. shannoni, L. ayrozai, L. hirsuta, L. monticola and L. misionensis (first occurrence in the State of Rio de Janeiro). L. int...

  8. Canopy gap colonization in the Atlantic Montane Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Renato A. Ferreira de Lima; Leila Cunha de Moura

    2006-01-01

    In the Atlantic Montane Rain Forest of South-eastern Brazil, a study was carried out to describe and evaluate canopy gap colonization. Gap composition by herb species was assessed through their soil coverage and woody species by measuring and identifying all individuals taller than one meter. Gap structure (gap size, number and diameter of treefalls), topographic position and surrounding vegetation were also measured. Two genera of Marantaceae were markedly frequent and abundant inside gaps. ...

  9. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts. PMID:18439337

  10. Reduced availability of large seeds constrains Atlantic forest regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Janaina B. P.; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Santos, Bráulio A.; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Secondary forests are expanding in defaunated fragmented tropical landscapes, but their resilience potential remains poorly understood. In this study we used a chronosequence of advancing (19-62-yr old) Atlantic forest regeneration following slash-and-burn agriculture to infer successional shifts in seed rain in terms of seed density, species richness, taxonomic and functional composition, and local spatial distribution. After monitoring seed rain during 12 months in 60 1-m2 seed traps, we recorded over 400,000 seeds belonging to 180 morphospecies. From early to late-successional stage, seed rain decreased in density, increased in per capita species richness, gradually changed in species composition, and became less aggregated spatially. Regardless the age of forest stand, vertebrate-dispersed seeds accounted for 67-75% of all species recorded. Large-seeded species typical of old-growth forests, on the other hand, accounted for only 5-8% of the species recorded in the seed rain, a proportion around five times smaller than that reported for the old-growth forests of the same study site (31%). Our results suggest that the secondary forests considered, which are embedded in one of the largest (3500 ha) and best preserved remnant of the severely fragmented Atlantic forest of Northeast Brazil, may fail attaining older successional stages due to the reduced availability of large-seeded late-successional species. This regeneration constraint may be even stronger in smaller, more isolated forest remnants of the region, potentially reducing their ability to provide ecosystem services.

  11. Borrelia-like spirochetes recovered from ticks and small mammals collected in the Atlantic Forest Reserve, Cotia county, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Abel IS; Marzagão G; NH Yoshinari; TTS Schumaker

    2000-01-01

    Forty-four marsupials, 77 rodents and 161 ticks were captured in an Atlantic Forest Reserve in Cotia county, State of São Paulo, where human cases of Lyme disease (LD) simile were reported. Twenty-one borrelia-like spirochete isolates were recovered from the mammals' blood and rodent livers or spleens, and triturated ticks inoculated into BSK II medium. Our results suggest that the reservoirs and ticks collected may harbor borrelia-like spirochetes, some of which have an antigenic similarity ...

  12. A new species of Serracutisoma (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Goniosomatinae) from the coastal Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio B. DaSilva

    2014-01-01

    Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is described from the coastal Ombrophylous Dense Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states. It differs from other Serracutisoma by having a retrolateral row of spines on femur IV, a rounded white-mark on the carapace and a low dorsal apophysis on trochanter IV. It is likely the sister-species of S. proximum, and with it and other five species forms the S. proximum group, herein formally proposed. Given that the biologic, phylogenetic and biogeographi...

  13. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  14. Hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture in the Atlantic rain forest region

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Silvio Fronsini de Barros Ferraz; Jorge Marcos de Moraes; Rodrigo Trevisan; Gustavo Bicci Seghesi; Juliano Daniel Groppo; Luiz Felippe Salemi

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously cover...

  15. Efeito da alteração ambiental sobre comunidades de Odonata em riachos de Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais, Brasil Effects of environmental degradation on Odonata community of Atlantic Forest streams from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Ferreira-Peruquetti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of riparian deforestation and stream impoundments on an odonate community was studied in áreas of surviving Atlantic forest in Viçosa and in Rio Doce State Park (PERD, Marliéria, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 1997 16 species of Libellulidae, 4 Coenagrionidae, 2 Gomphidae, 2 Calopterygidae, 1 Megapodagrionidae, 1 Aeshnidae and 3 Protoneuridae were collected. In Viçosa, the association of sampled odonates with lotic or lentic systems, and in PERD for areas with or without riparian vegetation were compared. The results suggest that although overall odonate taxonomic richness is high in areas without riparian vegetation. Likely, because productivity increase of such areas and its invasion by lentic Odonata species.

  16. Culicídeos associados a entrenós de bambu e bromélias, com ênfase em Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Culicids associated with bamboo internodes and bromeliads, with emphasis on Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Martins da Silva; Valdecir Nunes; José Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) larvae were recorded for the first time in the internodes of bamboo cuts found in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The bamboo, Bambusa sp., was introduced in the area of Imbucuí-Mirim town, across the municipal district of Paranaguá and towards the interior of the Atlantic Forest. A total of 251 larvae of Aedes albopictus (37.9%), Culex (Microculex) spp. (13.9%), Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901 (39.8%), Toxorhynchites sp. (0.4%) and...

  17. Cyathus species (Basidiomycota: Fungi from the Atlantic Forest of Pernambuco, Brazil: taxonomy and ecological notes Especies de Cyathus (Basidiomycota: Fungi del bosque atlántico de Pernambuco: taxonomía y notas ecológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyathus specimens were collected over a one-year period in 4 remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco, Brazil. According to traditional morphological analysis, the following species were identified: C. intermedius, C. montagnei, C. setosus and C. triplex. These 4 species had previously been recorded from Brazil, but C. setosus is reported for the first time from northeastern Brazil. The holotype of C. setosus was examined and we found differences in the spore dimensions from those described in the original publication. An identification key for the species of Cyathus recorded from Pernambuco is provided.Se recolectaron ejemplares de Cyathus durante 1 año en 4 vestigios de bosque atlántico en Pernambuco, Brasil. Según el análisis morfológico tradicional, se identificaron: C. intermedius, C. montagnei, C. setosus y C. triplex, las cuales se conocen en el país, pero C. setosus es registrada por primera vez en la región noreste de Brasil. El holotipo de C. setosus se examinó encontrándose diferencias en el tamaño de las esporas con la publicación original. Se presenta una clave de identificación para las especies de Cyathus conocidas en Pernambuco.

  18. Habitat use, social structure and basic ethological aspects of a band of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766 (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Atlantic Forest area, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah de Barros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coatis (Nasua nasua are terrestrials, despite their extreme ease of climbing trees, and have a complex social structure, where the males are solitary outside the reproductive season and the females live in groups with their pups and juveniles for most of the year. This study aimed to describe the use of habitat and social structure of a coati group in the Cantareira State Park, a fragment of the Atlantic Forest located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. The behavior of these animals was observed in the fragment twice per week. The results showed that it was similar to that described in the literature, with a preference for the ground habitat rather than trees, the fact that the males are solitary (except at the time of reproduction, and the gregarious habit of females and their pups and juveniles.

  19. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Rodrigo Lima Massara

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  20. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  1. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Doherty, Paul Francis; Hirsch, André; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor), but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas) and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators. PMID:26560347

  2. Seed survival and dispersal of an endemic Atlantic forest palm: the combined effects of defaunation and forest fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Galetti, Mauro; Donatti, C.I.; A. Pires; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Jordano, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    About 45 palm species occur in the Atlantic forest of Brazil, and most of them are affected by loss of seed dispersers resulting from forest fragmentation and hunting. Here we report the effects of habitat loss and defaunation on the seed dispersal system of an endemic palm, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum. We evaluated seed removal, insect and rodent seed predation, and scatter-hoarding in nine sites, ranging from 19 ha to 79 000 ha. We report the seedling, juvenile and adult ...

  3. Low abundance of long-tongued pollinators leads to pollen limitation in four specialized hawkmoth-pollinated plants in the Atlantic Rain forest, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Felipe W.; Wyatt, Graham E.; Sazima, Marlies

    2014-11-01

    Long-tubed hawkmoth-pollinated species present some of the most remarkable examples of floral specialization depending exclusively on long-tongued hawkmoths for sexual reproduction. Nonetheless, long-tongued hawkmoths do not rely exclusively on specialized plants as nectar sources, which may limit sexual reproduction through pollen limitation. However, very few studies have quantified the level of pollen limitation in plants with highly specialized floral traits in tropical regions. In this context, we studied four sympatric hawkmoth-pollinated species in a highland Atlantic Rain forest and assessed pollen limitation and their dependence on pollinators by analyzing the floral biology, breeding system, pollination mechanisms, and abundance of long-tongued pollinators. We showed that the four species are self-compatible, but are completely dependent on long-tongued hawkmoths to set fruits, and that flower visitation was infrequent in all plant species. Pollen limitation indices ranged from 0.53 to 0.96 showing that fruit set is highly limited by pollen receipt. Long-tongued moths are much less abundant and comprise only one sixth of the hawkmoth fauna. Pollen analyses of 578 sampled moths revealed that hawkmoths visited ca. 80 plant species in the community, but only two of the four species studied. Visited plants included a long-tubed hawkmoth-pollinated species endemic to the lowland forest ca. 15-20 km away from the study site. Specialization index ( H 2 ' = 0.20) showed that community-level interactions between hawkmoths and plants are generalized. We suggest that sexual reproduction of these highly specialized hawkmoth-pollinated species is impaired by competition among plants for pollinators, in conjunction with the low abundance and diversity of long-tongued pollinators.

  4. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolpho Menezes; Sergio Andena; A.F. Carvalho; Costa, M A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic...

  5. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Ricardo P Vieira; Alexander M Cardoso; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rodolpho M Albano; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Meth...

  6. Artificial nests as an alternative to studies of arboreal small mammal populations: a five-year study in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Loretto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great diversity of Brazilian Atlantic forest small mammals, natural history of most species is unknown due to their cryptic and nocturnal habits, but also due to the inadequacy of methods to capture some species, especially those of arboreal habits. A new technique, based on the use of artificial nests (AN to record arboreal marsupials, is presented. Artificial nests were combined with traditional live traps to study the population ecology of four didelphid marsupial species. After 62 months of monitoring, 119 individuals were recorded 243 times (total success = 5.2%. Only 26 individuals (22% were recorded by both AN and live trap methods, and two of the four species were never captured by live traps, only by AN. Live traps alone would have provided biased data of the structure of small mammal assemblages, creating artificial tendencies in population dynamics of many species. Detectability estimates based on mark-recapture data could correct bias resulting from the use only live traps, but these estimates require that at least some individuals of each age class or stage are captured. Only the combination of AN and live traps can produce more accurate data on population dynamics and assemblage structure. This study demonstrates that artificial nests represent a new method that should be combined with live traps in studies of small mammal assemblages and populations.

  7. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of land snails in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, G K M; Santos, S B

    2012-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of terrestrial molluscs are affected by environmental factors, but data are lacking for Brazilian land snails. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between measured environmental factors and the land-snail species composition of two hillsides covered with Atlantic Rain Forest on Ilha Grande. On each hillside, five plots located at 100 m intervals between 100 to 500 m asl were chosen. Each plot was sampled by carrying out timed searches and collecting and sorting litter samples from ten quadrats of 25 × 75 cm. A range of environmental data was measured for each of the quadrats in a plot. A Cluster Analysis was carried out for the richness and abundance data. The environmental variables were analysed using a Pearson Correlation Matrix and Discriminant Analysis. Our results show that the two mountains are similar in species richness, but species composition and abundance are different, probably reflecting observed differences in environmental conditions. The environmental factors associated with compositional variation between the two mountains were: atmospheric temperature, soil temperature, litter depth, and relative air humidity. Distinct luminosity and canopy closure conditions were related to the composition of the land-snail community of one hillside. PMID:22437388

  8. A new species of Serracutisoma (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Goniosomatinae from the coastal Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. DaSilva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is described from the coastal Ombrophylous Dense Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states. It differs from other Serracutisoma by having a retrolateral row of spines on femur IV, a rounded white-mark on the carapace and a low dorsal apophysis on trochanter IV. It is likely the sister-species of S. proximum, and with it and other five species forms the S. proximum group, herein formally proposed. Given that the biologic, phylogenetic and biogeographic aspects of Serracutisoma have been studied, the implications of the discovery of a new species are discussed, for instance the evolution of male fight, aggregation and maternal care, traits that are shared with other species. The geographic range of Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is compatible with the "Paraná" area of endemism, but with an unique distribution pattern compared to other endemic harvestmen species, which could indicate a new area of endemism also occupied by the primate Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson, 1990.

  9. Study of the physical and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of the licuri palm (Syagrus coronata (Mart. Becc. found in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdino Xavier de Paula Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Atlantic Forest has species of native fruits, consumed fresh and processed, which have an important contribution to food sovereignty of families that consume it. This study examined the physical and physicochemical characteristics, proximate composition, concentration of carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E and minerals in the pulp and kernels of fruits of licuri (Syagrus coronata (Mart. Becc.. Titratable acidity was analyzed by volumetric neutralization, soluble solids by refractometry, proteins by the micro-Kjeldahl method, lipids by gravimetry using soxhlet, dietary fiber by non-enzymatic gravimetry, carotenoids and vitamin C by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E by HPLC-fluorescence, and minerals by ICP-AES. Pulp were a source of Zn (0.95 mg 100–1, a good source of fiber (6.15 g 100–1, excellent source of provitamin A (758.75 RAE 100–1, Cu (0.69 mg 100–1, Fe (3.81 mg 100–1, Mn (3.40 mg 100–1 and Mo (0.06 mg 100–1. The kernel were a source of Fe (3.36 mg 100–1 and excellent source of Mn (6.14 mg 100–1, Cu (0.97 mg 100–1 and Mo (0.07 mg 100–1. The nutritional value and wide availability of licuri fruit make it an important resource for reducing food insecurity and improving nutrition of the rural population and other individuals who have access to it.

  10. Distribution and Conservation of Davilla (Dilleniaceae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Martins Pereira; Vera Lúcia Gomes-Klein; Milton Groppo

    2014-01-01

    We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae) which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm ...

  11. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae) at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins; Mara C. Kiefer; Carla C. Siqueira; Monique Van Sluys; Vanderlaine A Menezes; Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae) includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mount...

  12. Species richness of pteridophytes in a montane Atlantic rain forest plot of Southern Brazil Riqueza específica de pteridófitas em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Densa montana no Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich; Jorge Luiz Waechter; Alexandre Salino

    2005-01-01

    A floristic survey of pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies) was carried out in a 1ha plot in the Pico do Marumbi State Park, Morretes, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The study area is covered with a closed ombrophilous forest (Brazilian Atlantic Forest) and lies approximately 630 m in elevation. All species and life-forms of pteridophytes growing in the plot were registered and most of them were collected for taxonomic identification. A total of 81 species, belonging to 17 families were re...

  13. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    PAUNIĆ, ALIDA

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different rene...

  14. Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil

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    Fernando Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.

  15. The drosophilid fauna (Diptera, Drosophilidae of the transition between the Pampa and Atlantic Forest Biomes in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil: first records

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    Cleverton J.C. Hochmüller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although studies on drosophilid (Diptera, Drosophilidae assemblages have become relatively abundant in the past decades, many environments remain to be searched. The present study investigates the composition, the species abundances and the richness of the drosophilid assemblages in two localities of the municipality of Cruz Alta, northwestern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, a point of contact between the biomes Atlantic Forest and Pampa: (i an urban area (2007, constituted by a domestic orchard with Citrus trees, and (ii a forested area, in Centro de Educação, Pesquisa e Proteção Ambiental - CEPPA (2008/2009, of Universidade de Cruz Alta, located in a fragment of riparian forest. Collections were conducted using fermented banana-baited traps and repeated periodically. A total of 7,428 individuals were caught, belonging to two subfamilies, six genera and 53 species. In the urban area, 22 species were found, from two genera (N = 2,421, while in the forested area 46 species were found, from six genera (N = 5,007. Six exotic species were found, markedly more abundant in the urban area, where they corresponded to 95% of the specimens, in comparison to 50% in the forest. Between the Neotropical species, the most common were Drosophila maculifrons Duda and D. polymorpha Dobzhansky & Pavan. Only D. simulans Sturtevant was captured in all samples in both localities. The present survey represents the first records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul of the D. canalinea and D. virilis species groups and the species D. arassari Cunha & Frota-Pessoa, D. fuscolineata Duda, D. nigricruria Patterson & Mainland, D. papei Bächli & Vilela, D. senei Vilela, D. trifilum Frota-Pessoa, D. virilis Sturtevant, Leucophenga maculosa (Coquillett and Rhinoleucophenga obesa (Loew. Furthermore, it also represents the first record for the state of the genera Amiota Loew, Leucophenga Mik and Rhinoleucophenga Hendel and of the subfamily Steganinae. So, the present

  16. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

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    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  17. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Andena, Sergio R; Carvalho, Antonio F; Costa, Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State. PMID:22368453

  18. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

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    Rodolpho Menezes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo. S. septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This finding extends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for S. septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State.

  19. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is Brazil. PMID:26667031

  20. Climate and Hydrological Data Analysis for hydrological and solute transport modelling purposes in the Muriaé River basin, Atlantic Forest Biome, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Künne, Annika; Kralisch, Sven; Fink, Manfred; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The Muriaé River basin in SE Brazil has been experiencing an increasing pressure on water resources, due to the population growth of the Rio de Janeiro urban area connected with the growth of the industrial and agricultural sector. This leads to water scarcity, riverine forest degradation, soil erosion and water quality problems among other impacts. Additionally the region has been suffering with seasonal precipitation variations leading to extreme events such as droughts, floods and landslides. Climate projections for the near future indicate a high inter-annual variability of rainfall with an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events combined with a statistically significant increase in the duration of dry periods and a reduced duration of wet periods. This may lead to increased soil erosion during the wet season, while the longer dry periods may reduce the vegetation cover, leaving the soil even more exposed and vulnerable to soil erosion. In consequence, it is crucial to understand how climate affects the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. In this context, physically-based hydrological modelling can contribute to a better understanding of spatial-temporal process dynamics in the Earth's system and support Integrated Water Resourses Management (IWRM) and adaptation strategies. The study area is the Muriaé river basin which has an area of approx. 8000 km² in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro States. The basin is representative of a region of domain of hillslopes areas with the predominancy of pasture for livestock production. This study will present some of the relevant analyses which have been carried out on data (climate and streamflow) prior to using them for hydrological modelling, including consistency checks, homogeneity, pattern and statistical analyses, or annual and seasonal trends detection. Several inconsistencies on the raw data were

  1. Edge effect on vascular epiphytes in a subtropical Atlantic Forest

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    Juliana Santos Bianchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation affects biological communities by reducing habitat and increasing edges, thus reducing the effective size of the habitable zones. The subtropical atlantic Araucaria forest, typical on the southern Brazil, in some regions has been reduced to less than 1% of its original size lasting only in small isolated fragments. This study aimed to analyse the impact the edge has on vascular epiphyte ensemble in a remnant of Araucaria forest. We surveyed 40 host trees in four transects: one at the edge; and three at 15, 30 and 60 m from the edge. On each host tree we estimated the epiphyte biomass, using four size classes. We compared the transects using Jackknife estimator of absolute species number, diversity indices, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and multi-response permutation procedure analysis. We recorded 85 epiphytes species. Absolute species richness and diversity were lower at the edge and higher at 60 m in from the edge. Shannon's evenness did not differ significantly among transects and Simpson's evenness values were inconsistent. The vascular epiphyte community under study was significantly altered by the edge.

  2. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  3. Siphlophis compressus (Daudin, 1803) (Squamata: Dipsadidae): First records for the Atlantic forest north of the São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ubiratan; Gomes De Lima, Marcelo; Vilela, Bruno; Skuk, Gabriel Omar

    2011-01-01

    Brazil, Alagoas State. Municipality of Murici: Fazenda Bananeira (9° 16' S, 35° 59' W; 550 m, Datum: SAD69). Collection data: 4 November 1994, Col.: Eliza Maria Xavier Freire & others. Deposited in the herpetological collection of the Museum of Natural History, Federal University of Alagoas (MUFAL). MUFAL 1773, adult female (SVL [snout–vent length]: 338 mm, HW [head width]: 7.9 mm, TL [tail length]: 100.1 mm, SVL/ TL: 0.30).

  4. Toward a better understanding of the subtropical Atlantic Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil: tree sampling accuracy, species richness and frequency of rare species

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Leite Rezende; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; André Luís de Gasper; Alexander Christian Vibrans; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of floristic composition is crucial when planning and designing research projects and public policies. In this study, our goal was to assess tree sampling accuracy and to identify sites with higher concentrations of rare tree species, as well as those with the highest tree species richness, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We determined sampling accuracy using the first-order jackknife and Chao 2 estimators, calculated the number of rare species (singletons and doubl...

  5. Host-ectoparasite specificity in a small mammal community in an area of Atlantic Rain Forest (Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro), Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Brum Bittencourt; Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha

    2003-01-01

    The analyses of the ectoparasite species associated with a small mammal community on Ilha Grande, a coastal island in southern of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, evaluated the level of host-ectoparasite specificity. Was used the Jaccard index for qualitative data to analyse the similarity. The lowest value of similarity occurred between Proechimys iheringi and Marmosops incanus and between Sciurus aestuans and Nectomys squamipes (Cj = 0.08) and the highest between P. iheringi and Oxymyct...

  6. Simulium (Chirostilbia) bifenestratum (Diptera, Simuliidae), a new black-fly species from the Atlantic forest, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Hamada; Mateus Pepinelli

    2004-01-01

    The larva, pupa, male, and female of Simulium bifenestratum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The pupae of the new species have 10 gill filaments, thick at their base and arranged in a three-dimensional way, surrounding the head and thorax. Its pupal cocoon is peculiar, not found in any of the known Brazilian black-fly species; it is very thick and hard with two openings in the anterior region. S. bifenestratum n. sp. was collected in one stream in the Bocaina mountain chain, Atlantic for...

  7. ASSESSING PASSIVE RESTORATION OF AN ATLANTIC FOREST SITE FOLLOWING A Cupressus lusitanica MILL. PLANTATION CLEARCUTTING

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    Roque Cielo-Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus lusitanica has a relatively low potential for fostering colonization of native species beneath the forest canopy. However, following the clearcut of a Cupressus lusitanica plantation in the State Forest of Avaré (SFA, southeastern Brazil, a vigorous regeneration of Atlantic forest tree and shrub species was observed. We evaluated the passive restoration of this site by comparing its regenerating vegetation to the vegetation established in man-made gaps in Atlantic forest in the State Park of Cantareira (SPC, southeastern Brazil. The frequency distribution of dispersal syndromes for species and the rate of reduction in abundance of pioneer species in a rank/abundance plot did not differ between the two areas. The rarefaction curves for species richness and diversity of the SPC fall below the corresponding curves of the SFA. The proportions of non-pioneer species and of individuals of non-pioneer species were greater in the SFA. The frequency distribution of dispersal syndromes for individuals differed between the two areas due mainly to a more conspicuous predominance of zoochory in the SFA. The rate of reduction in abundance of non-pioneer species in a rank/abundance plot was smaller in the SFA. We concluded that passive restoration may successfully recover native vegetation attributes following the clearcut of forest plantations without conspicuous regeneration of native species beneath the forest canopy. However, this phenomenon may be influenced by particular properties of the forest species, logging practices and faunal seed dispersal integrity.

  8. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa; Raul F. D. Sales; Eliza M.X. Freire

    2012-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49) were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also co...

  9. A new genus and species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    OpenAIRE

    Kreiter, Serge; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The phytoseiid mite Ragusaseius ferraguti n. gen., n. sp. is described from the primary Atlantic Forest Mata Atlantica in Brazil, based on specimens collected on Cyphomandra calycina Sendth (Solanaceae). This mite is unique in the following combination of characters: setae J3 and J4 present; dorsal setae medium to long, except for J5, and serrated; ventrianal shield anteriorly eroded, containing only JV2 and occasionally ZV2 in addition to circumanal setae.

  10. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Camargos Costa; Vanessa Pecini da Cunha; Gabriela Maria Pereira de Assis; Júlio César de Souza Junior; Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano; Mércia Eliane de Arruda; Flora Satiko Kano; Luzia Helena Carvalho; Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito

    2014-01-01

    Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the po...

  11. Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Galetti; Ricardo S. Bovendorp; Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Carlos O. A. Gussoni; Marcos Rodrigues; Ariane D. Alvarez; Guimarães Jr., Paulo R.; Kaiser Alves

    2009-01-01

    Islands can serve as model systems for understanding how biological invasions affect native species. Here we examine the negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil. Anchieta Island has the highest density of mammals of the entire Atlantic forest, especially nest predators such as marmosets and coatis, introduced more than 20 years ago. This indiscriminate introduction of mammals may have affected directly the ...

  12. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  13. A Preliminary Note on Yeasts Associated With Fecal Pellets of Rodents and Marsupials of Atlantic Forest Fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Abranches; Hilda N. Nóbrega; Patrícia Valente; Leda C. Mendonça-Hagler; Allen N. Hagler

    1998-01-01

    Yeasts had mean counts of above 106 CFU/g in the fecal pellets of small mammals from tropical forest fragments. Most of the 55 species isolated were fermentative ascomycetes, with the most frequent being Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia membranifaciens and Issatchenkia orientalis, whereas Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most frequent yeast of basidiomycetous affinity.Leveduras em pelotas fecais de pequenos mamíferos provenientes de fragmentos de Mata Atlântica tiveram contagem média acima de 10...

  14. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Lyra-Neves Rachel M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87% were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%, Proctophyllodes (56,52% and Trouessartia (45,65%.

  15. A new species of Enchenopa (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Lencioni-Neto; Albino M. Sakakibara

    2015-01-01

    Enchenopa luizae sp. nov. (holotype female from Brazil, State of São Paulo, municipality of São José dos Campos, Parque Natural Municipal Augusto Ruschi at 23°04'05°S", 45°56'22"W, 06.VIII.2011, R. La Rosa leg. deposited in DZUP) is described and diagnosed from the Atlantic Forest Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is very similar to Enchenopa monoceros (Germar, 1821) in overall aspects but much larger and with inconspicuous lateral secondary carinae. The fourth instar nymph ...

  16. Variation in the diet of a small characin according to the riparian zone coverage in an Atlantic Forest stream, northeastern Brazil

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    Márcia Emília de Jesus Trindade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: in this study we present data from the diet of Astyanax vermilion which were used as a tool to compare two sites of streams with different vegetation cover in Ribeirão Limoeiro, Cachoeira River Basin, BA. METHODS: Four samples were taken (March, June, September and December using electrofishing as the collection method in two contiguous sites of the headwaters: stretch without riparian vegetation and with riparian vegetation. RESULTS: The qualitative composition of the diet was analyzed by the method of frequency of occurrence. The allochthonous resources of vegetal origin made up the bulk of the diet in the stretch without riparian vegetation with a frequency of occurrence of 64%. In the section with riparian vegetation allochthonous resources of animal origin made up the bulk of the diet with a frequency of 62%, which emphasizes the importance of food items from the surrounding environment. The mean Shannon diversity index, calculated from the frequency of occurrence of food items was significantly different (p = 0.04 when comparing reach deforested (H'= 1.44 with reach forested (H'= 1.80. The average weight of stomachs in the deforested reach (WS D = 0.18g was significantly higher than that of the forested reach (WS F = 0.14g. CONCLUSIONS: in the stretch with riparian vegetation, the food diversity was greater and the fish that are in the riparian stretch do not need as much food to satisfy their physiological needs. These results underscore the importance of the type of riparian vegetation as a food source for fish

  17. Establishing the redox potential of Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native tree species from the Atlantic Rain Forest, in the vicinity of an oil refinery in SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Domingos, Marisa

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to establish the seasonal variations in the redox potential ranges of young Tibouchina pulchra plants growing in the Cubatão region (SE Brazil) under varying levels of oxidative stress caused by air pollutants. The plants were exposed to filtered air (FA) and non-filtered air (NFA) in open-top chambers installed next to an oil refinery in Cubatão during six exposure periods of 90 days each, which included the winter and summer seasons. After exposure, several analyses were performed, including the foliar concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione in its reduced (AsA and GSH), total (totAA and totG) and oxidized forms (DHA and GSSG); their ratios (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG); the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR); and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The range of antioxidant responses in T. pulchra plants varied seasonally and was stimulated by high or low air pollutant concentrations and/or air temperatures. Glutathione and APX were primarily responsible for increasing plant tolerance to oxidative stress originating from air pollution in the region. The high or low air temperatures mainly affected enzymatic activity. The content of MDA increased in response to increasing ozone concentration, thus indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance may not have been reached. PMID:24407781

  18. New species of Zygoclistron Rehn, 1905 (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae: Copiocerinae) in the central corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe a new species of Copiocerinae, Zygoclistron ruschii Silva n. sp., from Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil, collected from the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi in the Santa Teresa municipality, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diagnosis of this new species is based on phallic complex and terminalia characters. PMID:27395585

  19. Elevation as a barrier: genetic structure for an Atlantic rain forest tree (Bathysa australis) in the Serra do Mar mountain range, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Talita Soares; Ciampi-Guillardi, Maísa; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maës

    2015-05-01

    Distance and discrete geographic barriers play a role in isolating populations, as seed and pollen dispersal become limited. Nearby populations without any geographic barrier between them may also suffer from ecological isolation driven by habitat heterogeneity, which may promote divergence by local adaptation and drift. Likewise, elevation gradients may influence the genetic structure and diversity of populations, particularly those marginally distributed. Bathysa australis (Rubiaceae) is a widespread tree along the elevation gradient of the Serra do Mar, SE Brazil. This self-compatible species is pollinated by bees and wasps and has autochoric seeds, suggesting restricted gene dispersal. We investigated the distribution of genetic diversity in six B. australis populations at two extreme sites along an elevation gradient: a lowland site (80-216 m) and an upland site (1010-1100 m.a.s.l.). Nine microsatellite loci were used to test for genetic structure and to verify differences in genetic diversity between sites. We found a marked genetic structure on a scale as small as 6 km (F ST = 0.21), and two distinct clusters were identified, each corresponding to a site. Although B. australis is continuously distributed along the elevation gradient, we have not observed a gene flow between the extreme populations. This might be related to B. australis biological features and creates a potential scenario for adaptation to the different conditions imposed by the elevation gradient. We failed to find an isolation-by-distance pattern; although on the fine scale, all populations showed spatial autocorrelation until ∼10-20 m. Elevation difference was a relevant factor though, but we need further sampling effort to check its correlation with genetic distance. The lowland populations had a higher allelic richness and showed higher rare allele counts than the upland ones. The upland site may be more selective, eliminating rare alleles, as we did not find any evidence for

  20. Population structure of Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) in fragments of seasonally flooded lowland Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Trindade Nascimento; Ezequiel Moraes dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the population structure of Symphonia globulifera in forest fragments of lowland Atlantic Forest in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve (RBPA) and the União Biological Reserve (RBU), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A comparative analysis of the role of seed and vegetative reproduction in the plant population structure was also carried out. Three sampling areas were selected in the RBPA (PORT, CM and ARI) and one area in the RBU. Two types of population structure were found: 1) p...

  1. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  2. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  3. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britaldo Soares-Filho

    Full Text Available Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES. The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  4. High Diversity of Drosophilidae in High-Altitude Wet Forests in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, L S; Garcia, A C L; Oliveira, G F; Rohde, C

    2016-06-01

    The high-altitude wet forests of northeastern Brazil, locally known as "Brejos de Altitude," are enclaves of the Atlantic Forest situated above 500 m, surrounded by dryland vegetation, the Caatinga. The aim of this study was to characterize drosophilid communities in these upland forests, since few ecological studies on drosophilid communities have been conducted in northeastern Brazil. Four sites were investigated in three different times of the year throughout standardized traps. The results reveal the presence of 55 different species in a total of 13,064 specimens collected. The data were evaluated using ecological diversity measurements and compared with those obtained for other environments in the same geographic region. As for species composition, the Bonito upland forest, in a boundary forest location, stood out as having high species richness. PMID:26957082

  5. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  6. A radio tracking study of home range and movements of the marsupial Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Mammalia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil

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    Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available From August 2001 to July 2002 the home range and movements of seven Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (three males and four females were investigated using radio tracking in the União Biological Reserve, state of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. A total of 436 locations was obtained and home range estimated with fixed Kernel (95% of data points, and minimum convex polygon (MCP methods, with 100 and 95% of data points. Male home ranges estimated by MCP (100% ranged from 5.4-24.2 ha and females from 0.3-10.7 ha. Corresponding figures calculated with Kernel (95% were 4-10.9 ha for males and 1.3-5.9 ha for females. Animals travelled on average 423 m/night, with males travelling significantly further (582.8 m/night than females (335.1 m/night (t test, t = 3.609, p = 0.001. We concluded that radio tracking produced much larger home ranges than those estimated with traditional live-trapping techniques, suggesting that the latter might underestimate ranging when the area covered with traps is relatively small (ca. 1 ha or less. Radio tracking also indicated that M. demerarae, although predominantly arboreal and weighting only ca. 130 g., has movements similar in magnitude to larger-sized terrestrial didelphimorph marsupials, such as Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758, Philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Metachirus (Desmarest, 1817.No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 a área de uso e o movimento de sete Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (três machos e quatro fêmeas foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foi obtido um total de 436 localizações e estimou-se a área de uso através dos métodos Kernel fixo (95% das localizações e polígono mínimo convexo (PMC, com 100 e 95% das localizações. A área de uso dos machos estimada pelo PMC (100% variou de 5,4-24,2 ha e fêmeas de 0,3-10,7 ha. Áreas calculadas com Kernel (95% foram 4-10,9 ha para machos e 1,3-5,9 ha para f

  7. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

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    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.Este estudo descreveu os hábitos alimentares do lambari Astyanax aff. fasciatus. Foram comparadas as composições alimentares de espécimes de dois sítios (A e B de um rio no sul do Brasil de acordo com o tamanho dos indivíduos e do período sazonal. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de março de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, sendo o conteúdo estomacal de 290 exemplares analisado. A dieta de A. aff. fasciatus foi composta basicamente por plantas e insetos, especialmente fragmentos de folhas, sementes, frutos, algas filamentosas, insetos aquáticos e terrestres

  8. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  9. Status of the globally threatened forest birds of northeast Brazil

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    Glauco Alves Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil hosts a unique biota which is among the most threatened in the Neotropics. Near-total conversion of forest habitat to sugar cane monocultures has left the region's endemic forest-dependent avifauna marooned in a few highly-fragmented and degraded forest remnants. Here we summarise the current status of 16 globally threatened species based on surveys conducted over the last 11 years. We found a bleak situation for most of these species and consider that three endemics: Glaucidium mooreorum (Pernambuco Pygmy-owl, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Cryptic Treehunter and Philydor novaesi (Alagoas Foliage-gleaner are most likely globally extinct. Some positive news can, however, be reported for both Leptodon forbesi (White-collared Kite and Synallaxis infuscata (Pinto's Spinetail which may warrant re-evaluation of their respective red list statuses. We outline a road map to prioritise conservation interventions in the region directed at preventing the extinction of this suite of threatened bird species and their companion biota.

  10. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada

    2013-01-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  11. Diversidade de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sul de Santa Catarina Diversity of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Luiz A. Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a variação sazonal da fauna de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera foi avaliada entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006 em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica na região sul de Santa Catarina (Brasil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W e Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Foram realizadas coletas mensais ao longo de trilhas nas três áreas, utilizando guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura para amostrar nas bordas de mata. Para um esforço amostral de 108 horas foram coletados 595 indivíduos, distribuídos em 4 famílias, 29 gêneros e 49 espécies. Pentatomidae foi a família mais abundante (82,69% seguida de Cydnidae (15,97%, Scutelleridae (0,84% e Tessaratomidae (0,50%. Pentatomidae também apresentou a maior riqueza com 37 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 e Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. O período de maior captura foi entre o final da primavera e início do outono, representando 71,76% do total coletado. O Parque do Maracajá apresentou abundância e riqueza sgnificativamente maiores do que as demais áreas. Este estudo representa o primeiro inventário da diversidade de Pentatomoidea em habitats naturais no estado de Santa Catarina.The composition and the seasonal variation of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera were evaluated between September 2005 and August 2006 in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in the southern region of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W and Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W

  12. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

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    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  13. Searching for bioindicators of forest fragmentation: passerine birds in the Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil Busca por bioindicadores de fragmentação florestal: aves Passeriformes na Floresta Atlântica do Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    A. Piratelli; SD. Sousa; JS. Corrêa; VA. Andrade; RY. Ribeiro; LH. Avelar; EF. Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate the potential of Passerine birds as bioindicators of forest fragmentation, we studied the avifauna in the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro by mist-netting between 2001 and 2005. We sampled six sites, including four small fragments (from 4 to 64 ha) in an agricultural area (Teresópolis), one second-growth forest (440 ha - Miguel Pereira) and a continuous forest (10,600 ha, Serra dos Órgãos National Park - SONP). Indicator Species analysis and a Monte Carlo test...

  14. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  15. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  16. Hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture in the Atlantic rain forest region

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    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously covered by tropical rain forest. To reach this goal we measured the precipitation, soil matric potential, discharge, surface runoff and water table levels during one year. The results indicated that there is a decrease in surface soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, as low intensity rainfall prevails, the lower water conductivity does not necessarily leads to a substantially higher surface runoff generation. Regarding soil water matric potential, the pasture presented higher moisture levels than forest during the dry season. This increase in soil moisture implies in higher water table recharge that, in turn, explain the higher runoff ratio. This way, land-use change conversion from forest to pasture implies a higher annual streamflow in pasture catchments. Nonetheless, this increase in runoff due to forest conversion to pasture implies in losses of biological diversity as well as lower soil protection.

  17. Caracterização morfológica de minas foliares em espécies de Melastomataceae de Mata Atlântica, PE Morphological characterization of leaf mines in species of Melastomataceae in Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Aretuza B Brito-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a morfologia e a anatomia de folhas íntegras e minadas de cinco espécies de Melastomataceae, ocorrentes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, PE. As minas foram visualizadas em uma ou ambas as faces das folhas, possuindo padrão sinuoso ou retilíneo, distribuídas entre as nervuras ou por toda a lâmina, sendo estas características distintas para cada espécie. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada com estômatos presentes na face abaxial e tricomas dendríticos, multicelulares, estrelados e com mais de cinco ramos, em ambas ou apenas uma das faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e o sistema vascular em forma de arco. As larvas minadoras observadas em Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl. DC., M. albicans (Sw. Triana e Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don consomem o parênquima paliçádico e esponjoso, enquanto as de M. prasina (Sw. DC. e M. ciliata (Rich. DC. se alimentam do conteúdo e das paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas, caracterizando-as como do tipo epidérmica. Entretanto, em M. minutiflora, M. albicans e C. capitellata a epiderme permaneceu intacta formando uma proteção para o minador, enquanto que em M. prasina e M. ciliata a proteção é realizada pelas paredes periclinais externas e cutícula da folha. Tecido de cicatrização foi observado ao longo das minas em M. prasina.This study describes the morphology and anatomy of whole and mined leaves of five species of Melastomataceae native to an Atlantic Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mines can be found on one or both sides of the leaves, with a sinuous or rectilinear pattern, and distributed between the veins or throughout the entire leaf blade. These characteristics are distinct for each species. The leaves, in cross section, have a uniseriate epidermis, stomata on the abaxial surface, and unbranched hairs on both or at least one side. The mesophyll is bifacial and the vascular bundle is semi-circular. The leaf-miner larvae observed in

  18. Agaricales em áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Densa e plantações de Pinus no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Agaricales in Atlantic rain forest and Pinus plantations in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Fernanda Karstedt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas florestais de Santa Catarina são poucos estudados em relação à diversidade de Agaricales. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar e comparar a diversidade de Agaricales em dois sistemas florestais, no município de Joinville, SC. Parcelas de 20×20 m foram estabelecidas: três em Floresta Ombrófila Densa e três em plantações de Pinus. Basidiomas de fungos agaricóides foram coletados em janeiro, março, maio, julho, setembro e novembro/2004. Foram identificadas 40 espécies, 31 na Floresta e 10 nas plantações. A família mais representada foi Tricholomataceae, com 48% das espécies registradas na Floresta. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% na Floresta e Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% nas plantações. As mesmas espécies foram também as mais freqüentes, com 44% e 78% de freqüência de ocorrência, respectivamente. Considerando a riqueza de espécies e o índice de diversidade de Shannon, o estudo sugere que há maior diversidade de Agaricales na Floresta do que nas plantações de Pinus.Forest systems in Santa Catarina state are virtually unknown regarding Agaricales diversity. Our goal was to determine and compare the Agaricales diversity of two forest systems in Joinville municipality, SC. Plots of 20×20 m were established: three in the Atlantic rain forest and three in Pinus plantations. Basidiomata of Agaricales were collected in January, March, May, July, September and November/2004. Forty species were identified, 31 in the forest and 10 in the plantations. Tricholomataceae was the most important family, with 48% of the species found in the forest. The species with the highest relative abundance were Camarophyllus buccinulus (41% and Lactarius cf. fragilis (53% in the forest and in the plantations, respectively. These were also the most frequent species recovered in the forest and in the plantations, with frequency values of 44% and 78%, respectively. Considering species

  19. Duas espécies novas de membracídeos (Hemiptera, Membracidae da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Two new species of treehopper (Hemiptera, Membracidae from the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies são descritas da Mata Atlântica do Estado de São Paulo: uma pertencente ao gênero Antonae Stål (Smiliinae-Ceresini, Antonae brasiliensis sp. nov. e outra a Hypheodana Metcalf (Darninae-Darnini, Hypheodana gargionei sp. nov., ambas de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. O gênero Antonae é registrado pela primeira vez no Brasil e Hypheodana, por outro lado, para a Mata Atlântica.Two species are described: one belonging to the genus Antonae Stål (Smiliinae, Ceresini, Antonae brasiliensis sp. nov., and another to Hypheodana Metcalf (Darninae-Darnini, Hypheodana gargionei sp. nov., both from Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. The genus Antonae Stål is recorded for the first time in Brazil, and Hypheodana, on the other hand, in the Atlantic Forest.

  20. Status of chemical elements in Atlantic Forest tree species near an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental quality assessment studies have been conducted with tree species largely distributed in the Atlantic Forest. Leaf and soil samples were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) nearby the industrial complex of Cubatao, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results were compared to background values obtained in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB). The higher As, Fe, Hg and Zn mass fractions in the tree leaves of PESM indicated anthropogenic influence on this conservation unit. (author)

  1. Candida materiae sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from rotting wood in the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Anne C; Cadete, Raquel M; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species, Candida materiae sp. nov., were isolated from rotting wood in an Atlantic rain forest site in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA showed that this species belonged to the Spathaspora clade and was related to Candida jeffriesii and Spathaspora passalidarum. Unlike C. jeffriesii and S. passalidarum, C. materiae sp. nov. did not ferment xylose. The type strain of C. materiae sp. nov. is UFMG-07-C15.1BT (=CBS 10975T=CBMAI 956T). PMID:19605715

  2. Aves de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no alto Rio Doce, Minas Gerais: colonização e extinção The birds of an Atlantic Forest fragment at upper Rio Doce valley, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil: colonization and extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana M. A. Faria

    2006-12-01

    from different ages, characterised mainly by semi deciduous forest. Bird census were carried out through transect, mist-net captures, point counts and recording bird vocalizations. The present survey was compared to an unpublished survey performed in 1989 to find out possible extinctions and colonization. It was recorded 231 species, belonging to 57 families. This represents 33% of all 682 bird species recorded for the Atlantic forest biome of east Brazil. Thirty-three species are considered endemic to the Atlantic Forest and one is considered endemic to the Cerrado biome of central Brazil. Five species are threatened in the state of Minas Gerais and one species is globally threatened to extinction, the red-billed curassow Crax blumenbachii Spix, 1825 (Cracidae. It was found 35 species not reported before for the area. Also, 52 species went locally extinct from the fragment. The EPDA-Peti holds a significant number of the Atlantic Forest bird species, and long-term bird monitoring on such fragments will reveal important aspects for the understanding of colonization and extinction in the biome.

  3. Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentrations in urban and natural forest soils in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State)

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Bourotte; Maria Cristina Forti; Yves Lucas; Adolpho J. Melfi

    2009-01-01

    Studies about pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tropical soils and Brazil are scarce. A study was performed to examine the PAHs composition, concentrations and sources in red-yellow Oxisols of remnant Atlantic Forest of the São Paulo State. Sampling areas were located in an urban site (PEFI) and in a natural one (CUNHA).The granulometric composition, pH, organic matter content and mineralogical composition were determined in samples of superficial soils. The sum of PAHs ...

  4. Millennial-Scale ITCZ Variability in the Tropical Atlantic and Dynamics of Amazonian Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Shen, C.; Smart, P. L.; Richards, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Precipitation in the Amazon Basin is largely related to the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the tropical Atlantic which undergoes a regular seasonal migration. We chose a site south of the present day rainforest in semiarid northeastern Brazil, in order to study the timing of pluvial periods when the southern extend of the ITCZ would have been much further south than today. Shifts in the ITCZ position may have influenced the dynamics of rain forest and species diversity. We collected speleothems from northern Bahia state, located southeast of Amazonia. Age determinations with U-series dating methods show that samples grew rapidly during relatively short intervals (several hundreds of years) of glacial periods in the last 210 kyr. In addition, paleopluvial phases delineated by speleothem growth intervals show millennial-scale variations. Pluvial phases coincide with the timing of weak East Asian summer monsoon intensities (Wang et al., 2001, Science 294: 2345-2348), which have been correlated to the timing of stadials in Greenland ice core records and Heinrich events (Bond and Lotti, 1995, Science 267: 1005-1010). Furthermore, these intervals correspond to the periods of light color reflectance of Cariaco Basin sediments from ODP Hole 1002C (Peterson et al., 2000, Science, 290: 1947-1951), which was suggested to be caused by a southward shift of the northernmost position of the ITCZ and decreased rainfall in this region. Abrupt precipitation changes in northeastern Brazil may be due to the southward displacement of the southernmost position of the ITCZ associated with atmosphere-ocean circulation changes caused by (1) an increase in northern high latitude-tropical temperature gradient (Chiang et al., 2003, Paleoceanography, in press), and/or (2) the bipolar seesaw mechanism (Broecker et al., 1998, Paleoceanography 13: 119-121) during these Heinrich events. Pluvial phases are also coincident with higher insolation at 10° S during austral autumn. This

  5. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane

    2010-12-01

    Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991

  6. The Fate of the Forest in Brazil, 2000 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding the drivers of tropical deforestation is essential to research on global climate change and biodiversity loss, and would be particularly informative to ongoing international climate change negotiations. Geographically explicit maps of post-forest land cover can provide valuable information about the extent and spatial distribution of the major drivers of deforestation. Brazil is the country with the largest extent of tropical forest in the world and the one with the most tropical forest cover loss since the turn of this century. This fate of the forest study aims to determine which land covers have replaced forest cover in Brazil. Using a classification tree algorithm, we determined pasture and cropland extent in areas of forest cover loss in Brazil circa 2012. We used 30 m resolution Landsat data for the 2000-2013 time period as well as tree cover loss data from the Global Forest Change (GFC) maps published by Hansen et al. (2013). The GFC data was used to mask out areas not categorized as forest cover lost between 2000 and 2013. Additionally, the year of loss layer was used to disaggregate pasture and cropland extent by year. Our results comprehensively demonstrate the extent to which pasture is the dominant post-forest land cover in Brazil. More broadly, the product reveals spatiotemporal patterns of forest conversion to pasture and cropland in Brazil, which could lead to a better understanding of the underlying drivers of deforestation.

  7. FLOWERING AND POLLINATORS OF THREE DISTYLOUS SPECIES OF Psychotria (Rubiaceae) CO-OCCURRING IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST1

    OpenAIRE

    Celice Alexandre Silva; Milene Faria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates the flowering and pollinators of the floral morphs of three co-occurring distylous species, Psychotria conjugens Müll, P. hastisepala Müll. Arg. and P. sessilis Vell., in two consecutive flowering seasons in an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. The species have diurnal, cream-colored, tubular, nectariferous flowers and their flowering occurs in the rainy season, from September to April, with little or no overlapping between species, characterizi...

  8. Quantitative analysis of forest fragmentation in the atlantic forest reveals more threatened bird species than the current red list.

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    Jessica K Schnell

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric - cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range - was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds' abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km(2. In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species' ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction or high capacity (very small risk of extinction. This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat.

  9. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

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    Iuri Dias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l. located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams, through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1, Brachycephalidae (3, Bufonidae (4, Centrolenidae (2, Ceratophryidae (1, Craugastoridae (7, Eleutherodactylidae (2, Hemiphractidae (2, Hylidae (42, Hylodidae (1, Leptodactylidae (7, Microhylidae (3, Siphonopidae (1, Odontophrynidae (3 and Pipidae (1. Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  10. Canopy gap colonization in the Atlantic Montane Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. Ferreira de Lima

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Atlantic Montane Rain Forest of South-eastern Brazil, a study was carried out to describe and evaluate canopy gap colonization. Gap composition by herb species was assessed through their soil coverage and woody species by measuring and identifying all individuals taller than one meter. Gap structure (gap size, number and diameter of treefalls, topographic position and surrounding vegetation were also measured. Two genera of Marantaceae were markedly frequent and abundant inside gaps. The more abundant and frequent woody species were shade tolerant. Species-rich families found inside gaps did not differ from the forest as a whole. Results revealed that direct and indirect influences of topography were important to determine gap composition of woody species. Evidently gap colonization had a considerable influence of topography and pre-established individuals besides variables of gap structure.Na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Montana do Sudeste Brasileiro, foi realizado um estudo para descrever e avaliar a colonização de clareiras. A composição de clareiras foi levantada através da cobertura do solo para as espécies herbáceas enquanto que todos os indivíduos lenhosos maiores que um metro de altura foram mensurados e identificados. Também foram coletadas informações sobre a estrutura das clareiras (área da clareira, número e diâmetro das quedas, posição topográfica e vegetação circundante. Dois gêneros de Marantaceae apresentaram considerável freqüência e abundância nas clareiras. As espécies lenhosas mais freqüentes e abundantes pertenceram ao grupo não-pioneiro e as famílias mais ricas encontradas nas clareiras não diferiram quando comparado à floresta como um todo. Como para as variáveis do estrato herbáceo e da vegetação circundante, os resultados revelaram que efeitos diretos e indiretos da topografia são importantes na determinação da composição interna de clareiras por espécies lenhosas. Estes

  11. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José R. de Oliveira Nascimento; Tae T. Fernandes; de Souza, Debora R.; Suguituru, Silvia S.; M. Santina de C. Morini

    2012-01-01

    Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In t...

  12. Diversidade de Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae em dois fragmentos de Mata Atlântica localizados na região urbana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Diversity of Euglossinac (Hymenoptera, Apidae in two Atlantic Forest fragments located in the urban area of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Porto Bezerra

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fragrances to attract males of Euglossinae bees has been an important tool to increase the knowledge of the group. In the Northeastern of Brazil, studies on euglossine bees are still uncommon, mainly in urban areas. The goals of this study are to identify the Euglossinae species composition, to know the diversity and the community structure of Euglossinae species, verify their preferences for different fragrances and evaluate the phenology of these species, in two Atlantic Forest fragments of the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba state, Brazil. Bees were sampled at 15 days intervals, over the course of one year, from 8:00 to 17:00 hours, through the use of traps baited with seven types of fragrances. In both areas, 1082 individuals belonging to nine species were sampled. None significant difference of diversity and relative abundance of bees between fragments were observed. Eucalyptol was the most attractive fragrance. Bees were more abundant between 8:00 and 9:00 AM. Visits to the fragrances were more frequent from the middle of dry season to the beginning of the rainy season and positively correlated with the monthly mean temperature. Most species of bees visited all the baits over the year, but the number of attracted males was highest in April.

  13. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota.

  14. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota. PMID:26628227

  15. Effects of pioneer tree species hyperabundance on forest fragments in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarelli, Marcelo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Girão, Luciana C; Peres, Carlos A; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2010-12-01

    Despite many studies on fragmentation of tropical forests, the extent to which plant and animal communities are altered in small, isolated forest fragments remains obscure if not controversial. We examined the hypothesis that fragmentation alters the relative abundance of tree species with different vegetative and reproductive traits. In a fragmented landscape (670 km(2) ) of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, we categorized 4056 trees of 182 species by leafing pattern, reproductive phenology, and morphology of seeds and fruit. We calculated relative abundance of traits in 50 1-ha plots in three types of forest configurations: forest edges, small forest fragments (3.4-83.6 ha), and interior of the largest forest fragment (3500 ha, old growth). Although evergreen species were the most abundant across all configurations, forest edges and small fragments had more deciduous and semideciduous species than interior forest. Edges lacked supra-annual flowering and fruiting species and had more species and stems with drupes and small seeds than small forest fragments and forest interior areas. In an ordination of species similarity and life-history traits, the three types of configurations formed clearly segregated clusters. Furthermore, the differences in the taxonomic and functional (i.e., trait-based) composition of tree assemblages we documented were driven primarily by the higher abundance of pioneer species in the forest edge and small forest fragments. Our work provides strong evidence that long-term transitions in phenology and seed and fruit morphology of tree functional groups are occurring in fragmented tropical forests. Our results also suggest that edge-induced shifts in tree assemblages of tropical forests can be larger than previously documented.

  16. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will

  17. Compilation of woody species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex

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    Rodrigo Scarton Bergamin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity conservation because of its high levels of endemism and threatened areas. Three main forest types, differentiated by their floras, compose the Atlantic Forest: ‘Atlantic Forest’ sensu strictu, ‘Araucaria Mixed Forest’ and ‘Seasonal Forest’. The flora comprises taxa from the Amazon forest, Cerrado gallery forests and the Andean region, which makes the Atlantic Forest a relevant study system for ecologists and biogeographers. Here, we present data from 206 floris- tic checklists describing the occurrence of 1,916 species across the southern portion of the Atlantic Forest. This dataset can be useful for understanding mechanisms underlying plant community assembly processes and the historical relationships between different forest formations.

  18. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  19. Testing Dragonflies as Species Richness Indicators in a Fragmented Subtropical Atlantic Forest Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S; Sahlén, G; Périco, E

    2016-06-01

    We surveyed 15 bodies of water among remnants of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil for adult dragonflies and damselflies to test whether an empirical selection method for diversity indicators could be applied in a subtropical ecosystem, where limited ecological knowledge on species level is available. We found a regional species pool of 34 species distributed in a nested subset pattern with a mean of 11.2 species per locality. There was a pronounced difference in species composition between spring, summer, and autumn, but no differences in species numbers between seasons. Two species, Homeoura chelifera (Selys) and Ischnura capreolus (Hagen), were the strongest candidates for regional diversity indicators, being found only at species-rich localities in our surveyed area and likewise in an undisturbed national forest reserve, serving as a reference site for the Atlantic Forest. Using our selection method, we found it possible to obtain a tentative list of diversity indicators without having detailed ecological information of each species, providing a reference site is available for comparison. The method thus allows for indicator species to be selected in blanco from taxonomic groups that are little known. We hence argue that Odonata can already be incorporated in ongoing assessment programs in the Neotropics, which would also increase the ecological knowledge of the group and allow extrapolation to other taxa. PMID:26686194

  20. Diversidade de Scarabaeidae s. str. (Coleoptera da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brasil: uma comparação entre Mata Atlântica e Tabuleiro Nordestino Diversity of Scarabaeidae s. str. (Coleoptera in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraiba, Brazil: a comparison between Atlantic Forest and northeast's Tabuleiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aline Endres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os Scarabaeidae consomem fezes e carcaças de grandes vertebrados. Comunidades de escarabeídeos foram comparadas entre áreas de Mata e Tabuleiro da Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraíba. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente durante o período de Novembro/2001 a Abril/2002 em áreas de Tabuleiro e Mata. Para coleta dos insetos foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas pitfall iscadas, 12 em cada área, sendo seis iscadas com fezes humanas e seis com fígado apodrecido. Na área de Mata foram coletados 15 espécies e 1298 indivíduos. Na área de Tabuleiro, 25 espécies e 2235 indivíduos. Onze espécies ocorrem conjuntamente nos dois ambientes, sendo 14 registradas apenas para o Tabuleiro e 4 para a Mata. Dichotomius sericeus (Harold, 1867 foi a espécie mais abundante nas duas áreas. A área de Tabuleiro apresentou maior riqueza, entretanto a Mata apresentou maior dominância. O compartilhamento de espécies comuns entre a Mata e o Tabuleiro confere a estes ambientes similaridade moderada.Diversity of Scarabaeidae s. str. (Coleoptera in the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, Paraiba, Brazil: a comparison between Atlantic Forest and northeast's Tabuleiro. Scarabaeid beetles consume dung and carcasses of large vertebrates. Guilds of scarabeids were compared between Forest and Tabuleiro at the Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Mamanguape, in the state of Paraíba. Samples were collected monthly from November 2001 to April 2002 in Forest and Tabuleiro. Insects were collected by using 24 pitfall-traps, 12 in each area, with six traps baited with human excrement and six with rotten liver. Fifteen species and 1298 specimens were collected in the Forest and 25 species and 2235 specimens in the Tabuleiro. Eleven species occurred in both areas, whereas 14 were found only in the Tabuleiro and four in the Forest. Dichotomius sericeus (Harold, 1867 was the most abundant species in the two areas. The Tabuleiro was the most species-rich; however

  1. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region. PMID:21184703

  2. Lanternfish (Myctophidae from eastern Brazil, southwest Atlantic Ocean

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    Adriana da Costa Braga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine species from 11 genera of Myctophidae were taken in daytime midwater and bottom trawl hauls off eastern Brazil (11º-22ºS. Trawls were performed aboard the French R/V Thalassa to depths from 19 to 2271 m, including samples from shelf, slope and in the vicinity of oceanic banks and seamounts. Diaphus garmani was the most abundant species, accounting for 84% of all identified individuals and with four other species (D. dumerilii, D. brachycephalus, D. perspicillatus and Myctophum obtusirostre accounted for >95% of all myctophids caught. Regarding longitudinal distribution patterns, 16 species are broadly tropical, seven tropical, three subtropical, two temperate and one amphi-Atlantic. For the most abundant and frequent species, highest abundances were associated mainly with cold waters, either South Atlantic Central Water or Antarctic Intermediate Water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling based on species presence-absence in the samples and oceanographic conditions was used to identify spatial distribution of myctophid assemblages. Three assemblages were identified in the studied area: north of Abrolhos Bank, south of Abrolhos Bank, and seamounts.

  3. Comunidades de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil Euglossine bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae community in Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil

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    André Villaça Ramalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comunidade de abelhas Euglossina foi amostrada através de armadilhas com iscas aromáticas, ao longo de 12 meses (novembro de 2004 a outubro de 2005 em cinco fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica submontana com diferentes tamanhos e níveis de degradação, na bacia do Rio São João, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito (21 ha e Afetiva (19 ha. Foram registrados 4094 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies de três gêneros (Euglossa, Eulaema e Exaerete nas 5 áreas. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa sapphirina Moure, 1968, sendo maior a importância relativa desta última nos fragmentos menores. Dentre as espécies encontradas, Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840 é sugerida como possível indicadora de florestas mais preservadas. Na comparação entre as cinco áreas foram verificadas correlações positivas e significativas da riqueza de espécies de abelhas com o tamanho da área e da diversidade de abelhas (H´ com a diversidade florística (H´. Estes dados sugerem que perdas de área e qualidade de hábitat influenciam negativamente a comunidade destas abelhas, reduzindo a riqueza e diversidade de espécies. Os maiores valores de similaridade foram observados na comparação entre os fragmentos da região do Imbaú, distantes entre si por até 2 Km, sugerindo que estes não estejam isolados para as populações de Euglossina, ou que venham sofrendo igualmente os efeitos da fragmentação.The Euglossine bee community was sampled with chemical bait traps throughout 12 months (November 2004 to October 2005 in five remnants of submontane Atlantic Forest in São João river basin, in the north of Rio de Janeiro state with different sizes and degradation levels: Reserva Biológica União (3126 ha, Andorinhas (145 ha, Imbaú (130 ha, Estreito

  4. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

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    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.

  5. Spatial heterogeneity and the distribution of bromeliad pollinators in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Sazima, Marlies

    2012-08-01

    Interactions between plants and their pollinators are influenced by environmental heterogeneity, resulting in small-scale variations in interactions. This may influence pollinator co-existence and plant reproductive success. This study, conducted at the Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (EBSL), a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, investigated the effect of small-scale spatial variations on the interactions between bromeliads and their pollinators. Overall, hummingbirds pollinated 19 of 23 bromeliad species, of which 11 were also pollinated by bees and/or butterflies. However, spatial heterogeneity unrelated to the spatial location of plots or bromeliad species abundance influenced the presence of pollinators. Hummingbirds were the most ubiquitous pollinators at the high-elevation transect, with insect participation clearly declining as transect elevation increased. In the redundancy analysis, the presence of the hummingbird species Phaethornis eurynome, Phaethornis squalidus, Ramphodon naevius, and Thalurania glaucopis, and the butterfly species Heliconius erato and Heliconius nattereri in each plot was correlated with environmental factors such as bromeliad and tree abundance, and was also correlated with horizontal diversity. Since plant-pollinator interactions varied within the environmental mosaics at the study site, this small-scale environmental heterogeneity may relax competition among pollinators, and may explain the high diversity of bromeliads and pollinators generally found in the Atlantic Forest.

  6. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest Toposequence.

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    Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Gumiere, Thiago; de Lourdes Colombo Mescolotti, Denise; Oehl, Fritz; Nogueira Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was studied in the Atlantic Forest in Serra do Mar Park (SE Brazil), based on seven host plants in relationship to their soil environment, altitude and seasonality. The studied plots along an elevation gradient are located at 80, 600, and 1,000 m. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in four seasons from SE Brazilian winter 2012 to autumn 2013. AMF spores in rhizosperic soils were morphologically classified and chemical, physical and microbiological soil caracteristics were determined. AMF diversity in roots was evaluated using the NS31/AM1 primer pair, with subsequent cloning and sequencing. In the rhizosphere, 58 AMF species were identified. The genera Acaulospora and Glomus were predominant. However, in the roots, only 14 AMF sequencing groups were found and all had high similarity to Glomeraceae. AMF species identities varied between altitudes and seasons. There were species that contributed the most to this variation. Some soil characteristics (pH, organic matter, microbial activity and microbial biomass carbon) showed a strong relationship with the occurrence of certain species. The highest AMF species diversity, based on Shannon's diversity index, was found for the highest altitude. Seasonality did not affect the diversity. Our results show a high AMF diversity, higher than commonly found in the Atlantic Forest. The AMF detected in roots were not identical to those detected in rhizosperic soil and differences in AMF communities were found in different altitudes even in geographically close-lying sites. PMID:26304552

  7. Seasonal changes in dominant bacterial taxa from acidic peatlands of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etto, Rafael Mazer; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; Galvão, Franklin; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Reynaud Steffens, Maria Berenice

    2014-09-01

    The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are essential for maintenance of the Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. While these ecosystems are closely linked to conservation issues, their microbial community ecology and composition remain unknown. In this work, histosol samples were collected from three acidic peatland regions during dry and rainy seasons and their chemical and microbial characteristics were evaluated. Culturing and culture-independent approaches based on SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing were used to survey the bacterial community and to identify environmental factors affecting the biodiversity and microbial metabolic potential of the Brazilian peatlands. All acidic peatlands were dominated by the Acidobacteria phylum (56-22%) followed by Proteobacteria (28-12%). The OTU richness of these phyla and the abundance of their Gp1, Gp2, Gp3, Gp13, Rhodospirillales and Caulobacteriales members varied according to the period of collection and significantly correlated with the rainy season. However, despite changes in acidobacterial and proteobacterial communities, rainfall did not affect the microbial metabolic potential of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest peatlands, as judged by the metabolic capabilities of the microbial community. PMID:24893336

  8. Atlantic Forest. A natural reservoir of chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of chemical elements in biological compartments is one of the strategies of tropical species to adapt to a low-nutrient soil. This study focuses on the Atlantic Forest because of its eco-environmental importance as a natural reservoir of chemical elements. About 20 elements were determined by INAA in leaf, soil, litter and epiphyte compartments. There was no seasonality for chemical element concentrations in leaves, which probably indicated the maintenance of chemical elements in this compartment. Considering the estimated quantities, past deforestation events could have released large amounts of chemical elements to the environment. (author)

  9. Prokaryotic communities of acidic peatlands from the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    R. M. Etto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are ecosystems essential for the maintenance of the Atlantic Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. In this work, we investigated the composition of prokaryotic communities in four histosols of three acidic peatland regions by constructing small-subunit (SSU rRNA gene libraries and sequencing. SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (38.8% and Proteobacteria (27.4% of the Bacteria domain and Miscellaneous (58% and Terrestrial (24% groups of Crenarchaeota of the Archaea domain. As observed in other ecosystems, archaeal communities showed lower richness than bacterial communities. We also found a limited number of Euryarchaeota and of known methanotrophic bacteria in the clone libraries.

  10. Phylogeography of four frog species in forest fragments of northeastern Brazil--a preliminary study.

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    Carnaval, Ana Carolina O Q

    2002-11-01

    I contrast mitochondrial DNA genealogies based on 612 bp of the cytochrome b gene across four co-distributed species of frogs in Northeastern Brazil. They are Hyla albomarginata, Hyla branneri, Proceratophrys boiei, and Scinax nebulosus. Samples were collected from the core or edge of six rainforest remnants in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas. Three fragments are located within the humid Atlantic Forest morphoclimatic domain (municipalities of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Ibateguara, and Jaqueira), two are located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest domain and the semi-arid Caatinga (Caruaru and Timbaúba), and one is found within the Caatinga (Brejo da Madre de Deus). Results show that local patterns and levels of genetic diversity are influenced by taxon-specific habitat requirements. Populations of the montane, closed-canopy species P. boiei show strong geographical structure, reflecting barriers to gene flow that predate human-driven habitat destruction. Species occurring along forest edges, such as H. albomarginata and S. nebulosus, show genetic patterns similar to those of P. boiei, but lower levels of genetic divergence. The more generalist Hyla branneri shows no geographic pattern. The data are in agreement with distribution and fossil data gathered for other groups of organisms, suggesting that mesic forests occupied the currently arid Caatinga in the recent past. PMID:21680371

  11. Biologia de aves capturadas em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Biology of birds captured in an Atlantic Forest fragment at Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Vivyanne S. Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna do Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, fragmento de 60 ha de Mata Atlântica, no município de Igarassu, Pernambuco. Objetivando obter informações acerca das espécies desse bioma, foram realizadas observações entre agosto de 1996 e julho de 1997 e capturas mensais utilizando redes de neblina, entre julho de 2003 e junho de 2004. Entre observações, capturas, recapturas e recuperações, foram registradas 151 espécies (31 famílias para a área, onde 456 aves (53 espécies/25 famílias foram capturadas com redes ornitológicas. Foram recuperadas 10 espécies (tempo de anilha de seis a oito anos. O número de capturas foi maior nos meses mais quentes. A maioria das espécies capturadas (52,8% teve freqüência de ocorrência menor que 25%, sendo Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766, Arremon taciturnus (Hermann, 1783, Neopelma pallescens (Lafresnaye, 1853 e Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 as mais freqüentes. Houve correlação significativa entre as análises dos valores médios entre massa corpórea e sexo, dados biométricos (medidas da asa, tarso e diâmetro do tarso e sexo e entre mudas e estação do ano. O maior período com muda associada à placa de incubação foi de março a maio (pico em maio. Os resultados fortaleceram a imprevisibilidade dos efeitos das alterações ambientais na estrutura da comunidade de aves em longo prazo. Reforçam ainda que os desequilíbrios populacionais possam vir a aumentar as chances de extinção, sendo necessárias novas alternativas para a proteção da biodiversidade, sobretudo em fragmentos florestais.We carried out a study about the biology of the avifauna of Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, a 60 ha fragment of Atlantic Forest in the town of Igarassu, Pernambuco. To obtain information about species of this bioma, observations were done between August, 1996 and July, 1997 and monthly captures using mist nets were conducted between July, 2003

  12. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, C E; Uieda, V S

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders) of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  13. Effects of soil mechanical resistance on nematode community structure under conventional sugarcane and remaining of Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Cardoso, Mércia; Pedrosa, Elvira M R; Rolim, Mário M; Silva, Enio F F E; de Barros, Patrícia A

    2012-06-01

    Nematodes present high potential as a biological indicator of soil quality. In this work, it was evaluated relations between soil physical properties and nematode community under sugarcane cropping and remaining of Atlantic Forest areas in Northeastern Pernambuco, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from September to November 2009 along two 200-m transects in both remaining of Atlantic Forest and sugarcane field at deeps of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm. For soil characterization, it was carried out analysis of soil size, water content, total porosity, bulk density, and particle density. The level of soil mechanical resistance was evaluated through a digital penetrometer. Nematodes were extracted per 300 cm(3) of soil through centrifugal flotation in sucrose being quantified, classified according trophic habit, and identified in level of genus or family. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation at 5% of probability. Geostatistical analysis showed that the penetration resistance, water content, total porosity, and bulk density on both forest and cultivated area exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale, and their experimental semivariograms were fitted to spherical and exponential models. In forest area, the ectoparasites and free-living nematodes exhibited spherical model. In sugarcane field, the soil nematodes exhibited pure nugget effect. Pratylenchus sp. and Helicotylenchus sp. were prevalent in sugarcane field, but in forest, there was prevalence of Dorylaimidae and Rhabditidae. Total amount of nematode did not differ between environments; however, community trophic structure in forest presented prevalence of free-living nematodes: omnivores followed by bacterial-feeding soil nematodes, while plant-feeding nematodes were prevalent in sugarcane field. The nematode diversity was higher in the remaining of Atlantic Forest. However, the soil mechanical resistance was higher under sugarcane cropping, affecting more directly the free

  14. Dr Jekyll and Mrs Hyde: Risky hybrid sex by amphibian-parasitizing chytrids in the Brazilian Atlantic Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pria; Fisher, Matthew C

    2016-07-01

    In their article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Jenkinson et al. () and colleagues address a worrying question-how could arguably the most dangerous pathogen known to science, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), become even more virulent? The answer: start having sex. Jenkinson et al. present a case for how the introduction into Brazil of the globally invasive lineage of Bd, BdGPL, has disrupted the relationship between native amphibians and an endemic Bd lineage, BdBrazil. BdBrazil is hypothesized to be native to the Atlantic Forest and so have a long co-evolutionary history with biodiverse Atlantic Forest amphibian community. The authors suggest that this has resulted in a zone of hybrid Bd genotypes which are potentially more likely to cause fatal chytridiomycosis than either parent lineage. The endemic-nonendemic Bd hybrid genotypes described in this study, and the evidence for pathogen translocation via the global amphibian trade presented, highlights the danger of anthropogenic pathogen dispersal. This research emphasizes that biosecurity regulations may have to refocus on lineages within species if we are to mitigate against the danger of new, possibly hypervirulent genotypes of pathogens emerging as phylogeographic barriers are breached. PMID:27373706

  15. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  16. SEASONAL AND TOPOGRAPHYCAL VARIATION OF THE LITTER NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF A ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENT

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    Rosângela A. Tristão Borém

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the effects of forest degradation on the supplyand contents of nutrients in the litter of two toposequences. The study area is located in a fragment ofthe Atlantic Forest, in Silva Jardim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (42°31'W and 22°31'S. The twotoposequences are under low and high degrees of human intervention. They were divided in lower,middle and upper slope, and the vegetation sampled with plots of 600m2. The litter was collected forquantitative and qualitative characterisation using a wood frame of 0,25m2 randomly distributedwithin the sample plots. Litter collection was carried out in two distinct dates in order to capture seasonalpatterns. The average litter production did not differ significantly between the toposequences.The total litter production was higher at the end of the dry season, and lower at the end of the rainyseason, indicating the seasonal pattern of the forest. The chemical analyses showed that the nutrientscontents varied widely between the toposequences. The lower and middle slope of the toposequenceunder high degree of human intervention presented the highest nutrient contents in the litter.

  17. Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island

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    Mauro Galetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Islands can serve as model systems for understanding how biological invasions affect native species. Here we examine the negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil. Anchieta Island has the highest density of mammals of the entire Atlantic forest, especially nest predators such as marmosets and coatis, introduced more than 20 years ago. This indiscriminate introduction of mammals may have affected directly the bird community, nowadays represented by 100 species comprised mainly by water-crossing birds, being 73 forest-dwelling species. A small component of these remnant bird species nests in tree holes and on the forest floor, null model analysis suggest that birds within these two nest types are under-represented on Anchieta Island. All guilds were affected negatively, but "opportunist insectivorous/omnivorous". Experiments using artificial nests showed a predation of 73% of nests on the floor while only 26% on the mainland. Camera traps recorded predation by coatis, agoutis, and opossums. The restoration of the bird community on this island is highly constrained by the high density of hyper abundant nest predators.

  18. Anurofauna of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment and its surroundings in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Gomes, M; Almeida-Santos, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Vrcibradic, D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Dias, A S; Souza, V V; Pinto, R R; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a study on the anurofaunal community from an Atlantic Forest fragment (Monte Verde mountains) and the surrounding area in Cambuci municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which constitutes one of the largest fragments remaining in the largely deforested landscape of the northern portion of the State. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, transects and pit-fall traps. We recorded twenty species of amphibians, of which only eleven were found within the forest fragment (and five of these also occurred in the surrounding matrix). Two of the species recorded in the present study (Crossodactylus sp. and Ischnocnema cf. parva) may represent undescribed taxa. Our records expand the distribution range of one species (Scinax trapicheiroi) to the north, and fill a geographic distribution gap for another one (Ischnocnema oea). The estimated overall density of frogs living in the leaf litter of the fragment (based on results of plot sampling) was 3.1 individuals/100 m², with Haddadus binotatus being the most abundant species (2.4 individuals/100 m²). Comparisons of our data with those of other studies suggest that anuran communities in forest fragments ca. 1,000 ha or smaller may be severely limited in their richness, and often include a large proportion of species tolerant to open areas, such as many hylids. Our results show the importance of increasing knowledge about the anurofaunal community of the northern portion of the State of Rio de Janeiro and preserve the forest remnants that still exist in the region. PMID:21085792

  19. Estádio sucessional e fatores geográficos como determinantes da similaridade florística entre comunidades florestais no Planalto Atlântico, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Successional stage and geographic features determine floristic similarity among Atlantic Forest remnants, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Durigan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A análise das relações de similaridade florística entre comunidades geralmente conduz ao estabelecimento de padrões, condicionados por fatores diversos que determinam a ocorrência ou não das espécies em diferentes locais. Em busca de tais padrões, foram analisadas as relações de similaridade florística entre comunidades florestais localizadas na região do Planalto de Ibiúna, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Incluíram-se na análise 21 fragmentos florestais e seis sítios em uma Reserva Florestal contínua, sendo que a composição florística e a estrutura da comunidade arbórea (DAP mínimo 5 cm em cada local foram amostradas pelo método de quadrantes. Aplicaram-se dois métodos de análises multivariadas: 1 Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, com base no índice de similaridade de Sørensen; e 2 Divisão Hierárquica Dicotômica (TWINSPAN. A similaridade florística foi mais elevada entre comunidades em estádios sucessionais semelhantes, especialmente se estivessem geograficamente próximas. Há um gradiente florístico associado à latitude, indicando tratar-se de uma região de transição entre biomas. Nos sítios situados na face norte da região de estudo estão presentes espécies que também ocorrem no cerradão e em floresta estacional semidecidual, enquanto nos sítios situados na face sul prevalecem espécies características da floresta ombrófila densa.Analysis of floristic similarity relationships between plant communities can detect patterns of species occurrence and also explain conditioning factors. Searching for such patterns, floristic similarity relationships among Atlantic Forest sites situated at Ibiúna Plateau, São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed by multivariate techniques. Twenty one forest fragments and six sites within a continuous Forest Reserve were included in the analyses. Floristic composition and structure of the tree community (minimum dbh 5 cm were assessed using the point

  20. Estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the case of the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Alves, Luciana Ferreira; Aidar, Marcos; Araujo, Luciana Spinelli; Baker, Tim; Batista, Joao Luis Ferreira; Campos, Mariana Cruz; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Chave, Jerome; Delitti, Welington Braz Carvalho; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Keller, Michael; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and discuss the best methods to estimate live above ground biomass in the Atlantic Forest. The methods presented and conclusions are the products of a workshop entitled "Estimation of Biomass and Carbon Stocks: the Case of Atlantic Rain Forest". Aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests is mainly contained in trees. Tree biomass is a function of wood volume, obtained from the diameter and height, architecture and wood density (dry weight per ...

  1. Spatial variation of dung beetle assemblages associated with forest structure in remnants of southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva; Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. Th...

  2. Plant diversity in hedgerows amidst Atlantic Forest fragments

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    Carolina C. C. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgerows are linear structures found in agricultural landscapes that may facilitate dispersal of plants and animals and also serve as habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among diversity and ecological traits of woody plants, hedgerow characteristics (size, age, and origin, and the structure of the surrounding Atlantic Forest landscape. Field data were collected from 14 hedgerows, and landscape metrics from 1000-m buffers surrounding hedgerows were recorded from a thematic map. In all sampled hedgerows, arboreal species were predominantly zoochoric and early-succession species, and hedgerow width was an important factor explaining the richness and abundance of this group of species. Connection with forest vegetation did not explain richness and abundance of animal-dispersed species, but richness of non-zoochoric species increased in more connected hedgerows. These results suggest that hedgerows are probably colonized by species arriving from nearby early-succession sites, forest fragment edges, and isolated trees in the matrix. Nonetheless, hedgerows provide resources for frugivorous animals and influence landscape connectivity, highlighting the importance of these elements in the conservation of biodiversity in fragmented and rural landscapes.

  3. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:26602351

  4. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

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    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  5. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  6. 13000 cal years upwelling variation in southwestern Atlantic (Brazil): continental paleoclima implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ana Luiza ALBUQUERQUE(1); Bruno TURCq(2); Abdel SIFEDDINE(1,2). (1) Departamento de Geoquímica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. (2) LOCEAN, IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Bondy, France. The Cabo Frio region as indicated by its name is a place of low SST due to a local upwelling triggered by the Northeast trade winds, the northward flow of cool South Atlantic Central Water and vortex of the Brazilian current in the upper warm Tropical Water. Paleoceanographic conditions during the last 13000 years have been reconstructed based on two cores collected on the outer shelf. The studied proxies included mineral and heavy metal quantification, bulk organic matter characteristics and planktonic foraminifera. A first phase of sedimentation between 13000 and 7000 cal BP is characterized by high mineral content probably due to the lower sea level. SST reconstruction indicate cool and highly variable temperatures that were probably not related to upwelling events made difficult by the low sea level but to lower regional SSTs. This is in good agreement with observations of continental climate dryer in southwest Brazil with intense events of precipitation. A second phase between 7000 and 3000 cal BP shows higher SST indicating few occurrences of upwelling. Its may be due to the decrease of South Atlantic Convergence Zone (ZCAS) intensity linked to the lower summer insolation and the reduced monsoonal flux at that time. On the adjacent continent the decrease monsoon is evidenced by low lake levels and poorly developed forests. The third and last phase, post 3000 cal BP, is characterized by the onset of upwelling events that may be related to an intensification of the South American Monsoon and of the ZCAS activity leading to an increase of Northeast winds during summer which is typically the upwelling season. On the continent this period was marked by forest development. The transition at 3000 yrs BP is very late compared to other Holocene Record. Paleoclimate model

  7. Pteridófitas de um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, Brasil: Pteridaceae Pteridophytes of a remainder of Atlantic Forest in São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, Brazil: Pteridaceae

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    Marcio Roberto Pietrobom

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento florístico da pteridoflora da Mata do Estado, localizada no município de São Vicente Férrer, Zona da Mata Norte do Estado de Pernambuco. O estudo foi desenvolvido nesta área, devido a sua grande extensão, ca. 600ha, e também pela existência de uma grande diversidade de pteridófitas, resultado de um gradiente de umidade onde os fatores ambientais e físicos como os níveis de altitude, as precipitações pluviométricas, bem como a distribuição dessas precipitações têm importância fundamental para a vegetação da área. Foram empregados métodos tradicionais para o levantamento florístico, no período de um ano. Para a análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literaturas especializadas. São apresentadas ilustrações e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como, descrição da espécie nova referência e comentários da família, gêneros e espécies. O trabalho contribui para um maior conhecimento florístico e ecológico da pteridoflora de Reservas de Floresta Atlântica Serrana no Nordeste do Brasil. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 20 espécies, distribuídas em sete gêneros (Pityrogramma Link, Adiantopsis Fée, Hemionitis L. e Acrostichum L. uma espécie cada; Doryopteris J. Sm. quatro espécies; Adiantum L. nove espécies e Pteris L. três espécies e uma variedade. Foi registrada uma nova referência para o estado de Pernambuco: Adiantum humile Kunze.A floristic survey of the pteridoflora at the Mata do Estado, located in the Municipality of São Vicente Férrer, Mata Norte (Atlantic Forest Zone in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, was performed. The study was developed in this area, due to its great extension of ca. 600ha, and also because of a great of diversity pteridophytes , result of a humidity gradient where the environmental and physical factors such as the altitude levels and the

  8. New Meliolaceae from the Brazilian Atlantic forest 2: species on host families Annonaceae, Cecropiaceae, Meliaceae, Piperaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Tiliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Danilo Batista; Firmino, André Luiz; Ferreira-Junior, Walnir Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini

    2013-01-01

    Continuing the study of black mildews in fragments of the Atlantic forest, three new species and five new records are described herein. Irenopsis luheae-grandiflorae, Meliola vicosensis and Meliola xylopia-sericiae are new species. Cecropia hololeuca, Piper gaudichaudianum and Trichilia lepidota are new hosts for Asteridiella leucosykeae, Asteridiella glabroides and Meliola trichiliae respectively. Asteridiella obesa and Meliola psychotriae var. chiococcae are reported for the first time from Brazil. The new species are described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy and tables with main characteristics of morphologically similar specimens with species collected in Viçosa are provided. Other species belonging to Meliolaceae collected on hosts belonging to the Annonaceae, Meliaceae and Tiliaceae in Brazil also were studied.

  9. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

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    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  10. Rediscovery and redescription of the sharpshooter Kogigonalia incarnata (Germar, 1821, comb. n. (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, with a key to the species of the genus

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    Gabriel Mejdalani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian sharpshooter Tettigonia incarnata Germar, 1821 was treated as incertae sedis in the most comprehensive and recent monograph of the New World Cicadellini. We have been able to identify male and female specimens of T. incarnata from northeastern and southeastern Brazil using high-resolution images of two syntypes deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Universität Humboldt, Berlin. Here we transfer T. incarnata to the genus Kogigonalia Young, 1977 and provide a detailed redescription of this species, including information on intraspecific color variation. In addition, we provide an updated key to the species of Kogigonalia. This is the first record of the genus from Brazil. Kogigonalia incarnata comb. n. can be recognized, among other features, by the subgenital plates with a distinct emargination at outer margin, aedeagus with a ventral unpaired process near midlength of shaft, and female sternite VII bearing an elongate strong projection on posterior margin.

  11. Population structure of Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae in fragments of seasonally flooded lowland Atlantic Forest

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    Marcelo Trindade Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the population structure of Symphonia globulifera in forest fragments of lowland Atlantic Forest in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve (RBPA and the União Biological Reserve (RBU, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A comparative analysis of the role of seed and vegetative reproduction in the plant population structure was also carried out. Three sampling areas were selected in the RBPA (PORT, CM and ARI and one area in the RBU. Two types of population structure were found: 1 populations with low recruitment and with several individuals originated from seeds that appeared to be senescent (PORT and ARI, and 2 populations with high number of recruits from vegetative reproduction (CM and RBU. Seedlings and saplings showed, in general, a higher number of individuals from vegetative reproduction. On the other hand, adults had a predominance of individuals from seed reproduction. These structured patterns appear to be related to the water regimes in each area. Therefore, these data suggest the occurrence of a strong differentiated mortality of seedlings and saplings from vegetative reproduction.

  12. Musgos (Bryophyta de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica na Serra da Jibóia, município de Santa Terezinha, BA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta from a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the Jibóia Mountains, Santa Terezinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento de musgos realizado em uma área de Mata Atlântica no município de Santa Terezinha, Bahia, resultou em flora rica, com 61 espécies pertencentes a 23 famílias e 46 gêneros. Sematophyllaceae (sete spp., Orthotrichaceae (seis spp., Pilotrichaceae (cinco spp., Calymperaceae (cinco spp., Leucobryaceae (cinco spp. e Meteoriaceae (quatro spp. apresentaram maior riqueza específica. Actinodontium integrifolium (Broth. Churchill e Calymperes venezuelanum (Mitt. Broth. ex Pittier constituem novos registros para o Brasil. Ectropothecium leptochaeton (Schwaegr. W.R. Buck, Eulacophyllum cultelliforme (Sull. W.R. Buck & Ireland, Fissidens santaclarensis Thér., Lepidopilidium portoricense (Müll. Hal. H.A. Crum & Steere, Mittenothamnium reptans (Hedw. Card., Orthostichella pentasticha (Brid. W.R. Buck, Pilotrichella flexilis (Hedw. Ångstr., Porotrichum mutabile Hampe e Thuidium tomentosum Schimp. são novas ocorrências para a Bahia. Houve predomínio de táxons de distribuição neotropical. A comunidade corticícola foi predominante com 70% das espécies, seguida da epíxila, com 23%. A brioflora do fragmento mostrou-se rica já que corresponde a 24% do total de briófitas atualmente conhecido no Estado.This work presents the results of an inventory of mosses carried out in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the Jibóia Mountains, Santa Terezinha, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 61 moss species distributed in 23 families and 46 genera were found. The families Sematophyllaceae (seven spp., Orthotrichaceae (six spp., Pilotrichaceae (five spp., Calymperaceae (five spp., Leucobryaceae (five spp. and Meteoriaceae (four spp. had higher species richness. Actinodontium integrifolium (Broth. Churchill and Calymperes venezuelanum (Mitt. Pitt. are new records for Brazil. Ectropothecium leptochaeton (Schwaegr. W.R. Buck., Eulacophyllum cultelliforme (Sull. W.R. Buck & Ireland, Fissidens santa-clarensis Thér., Mittenothamnium reptans (Hedw. Card

  13. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

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    Karina Vera Rosa Schafer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth’s overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  14. Species richness of pteridophytes in a montane Atlantic rain forest plot of Southern Brazil Riqueza específica de pteridófitas em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Densa montana no Sul do Brasil

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    Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A floristic survey of pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies was carried out in a 1ha plot in the Pico do Marumbi State Park, Morretes, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The study area is covered with a closed ombrophilous forest (Brazilian Atlantic Forest and lies approximately 630 m in elevation. All species and life-forms of pteridophytes growing in the plot were registered and most of them were collected for taxonomic identification. A total of 81 species, belonging to 17 families were registered. The richest were Polypodiaceae (12 species, Hymenophyllaceae (11 and Lomariopsidaceae (11. The richest genera were Asplenium (ten species, Elaphoglossum (10 and Trichomanes (six. Life-form composition was: epiphytes (49 species, terrestrials (28, lithophytes (two, epiphytes/terrestrials/lithophytes (one and epiphytes/lithophytes (one. No hemiepiphytes were found. Terrestrials included herbaceous (22 species, arborescent (four and climbing (two. Species richness of the plot can be considered as high when compared to other neotropical sites.Um inventário florístico de pteridófitas (samambaias e grupos aparentados foi realizado em uma área de 1ha (100×100 m no Parque Estadual Pico do Marumbi, município de Morretes, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A área de estudo é coberta por Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana e situase a aproximadamente 630 m de altitude. Todas as espécies e formas de vida de pteridófitas ocorrentes no interior da área foram registradas e a maioria foi coletada para determinação específica. No total, 81 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias foram registradas. As famílias mais ricas foram Polypodiaceae (12 espécies, Hymenophyllaceae (11 e Lomariopsidaceae (11. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Asplenium (dez espécies, Elaphoglossum (dez e Trichomanes (seis. A composição por forma de vida foi: epífitas (49 espécies, terrícolas (28, rupícolas (duas, epífitas/terrícolas/rupícolas (uma e epífitas/rupícolas (uma. Nenhuma

  15. Reproductive phenology, pollination, and fructification of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae) in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City

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    Caio César Corrêa Missagia; Fábio de Castro Verçoza

    2011-01-01

    Aspects of phenology and reproductive biology of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. in border and interior areas of an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, are apresented. Four plots of 10x10m were delineated, two on the edge and two inside the forest, and individuals of H. spathocircinata were monitored from June 2009 to June 2010. The observations were carried out from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. once a week on December and January, and fortnightly the rest of flowering. Helic...

  16. Feeding ecology of the pygmy gecko Coleodactylus natalensis (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Carolina M. C. A. Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding ecology of a population of Coleodactylus natalensis Freire, 1999, an endemic gecko of Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Lizards (N = 49 were collected manually through active search in the four habitats of Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, type locality of the species. In the laboratory, we measured the lizards and registered the number of consumed prey items identified to Order, its dimensions and frequencies. We also collected samples of leaf litter in each habitat to determine prey availability. Females were significantly larger than males, but head size did not differ between the sexes. The most important prey categories in the diet of C. natalensis based on number, volume and frequency were Isopoda and Araneae. Prey categories with highest importance indices in the diet were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Gryllidae. The diets of adult males and females were similar with respect to prey size, but differed qualitatively, mainly due to the larger trophic spectrum of females. We found some variations on trophic niche breadths and food preferences of lizards between habitats, but in general niche breadths were intermediate, and the most elected prey categories were Isopoda, Araneae, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. High electivities for Isoptera and Gryllidae occurred only in the open habitats (restinga and dunes, and for Mantodea in the forested habitats (high and low forest. Collembola was consumed in the same proportion of the environment, and Acarina and Formicidae had negative values of electivity, indicating rejection. We conclude that the population studied seems to have a selective diet, preferring relatively large prey items that are less abundant in the leaf litter, and possibly avoiding potentially toxic prey.

  17. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL FORESTS IN PANTANAL REGION, BRAZIL

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region in Brazil has an area of 140,000 km², with approximately 30 % of natural forests distributed as deciduous, semideciduous, and forested savannas. The subregion of Nhecolandia represents 19 % of this area. There is constant concern about the sustainability of these forested areas, as there is a constant demand for wood for farm maintenance, mainly for making fence poles. The objective of this article is to indicate sustainable forest management practices in the Pantanal region of Nhecolandia. The methodology of this novel approach consisted of the recovery and organization of the available information to calculate the sustainable allowable cut per hectare, considering: cutting cycle, wood stock, periodic annual increment (PAI in percentage of volume from the commercial or interesting species and the stand structure. For forested savannas, the diameter at breast height (DBH of 529 trees per hectare were estimated as follows: 28 % with a DBH lower than 10 cm, 36 % from 10 to 20 cm, 21 % from 20 to 30 cm, 10 % from 30 to 40 cm and only 4 % greater than 40 cm. The estimated total volume per hectare was 84.2 m³ and the estimated basal area was 18.6 m². The forested areas of the Pantanal region present potential for sustainable use. However, due to regional characteristics and the lack of available information, an enhancement in research is recommended to establish a basic management guide to ensure its perpetuation for future generations.

  18. Sustainable management of natural forests in pantanal region, Brazil.

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region in Brazil has an area of 140,000 km², with approximately 30 % of natural forests distributed as deciduous, semideciduous, and forested savannas. The subregion of Nhecolandia represents 19 % of this area. There is constant concern about the sustainability of these forested areas, as there is a constant demand for wood for farm maintenance, mainly for making fence poles. The objective of this article is to indicate sustainable forest management practices in the Pantanal region of Nhecolandia. The methodology of this novel approach consisted of the recovery and organization of the available information to calculate the sustainable allowable cut per hectare, considering: cutting cycle, wood stock, periodic annual increment (PAI in percentage of volume from the commercial or interesting species and the stand structure. For forested savannas, the diameter at breast height (DBH of 529 trees per hectare were estimated as follows: 28 % with a DBH lower than 10 cm, 36 % from 10 to 20 cm, 21 % from 20 to 30 cm, 10 % from 30 to 40 cm and only 4 % greater than 40 cm. The estimated total volume per hectare was 84.2 m³ and the estimated basal area was 18.6 m². The forested areas of the Pantanal region present potential for sustainable use. However, due to regional characteristics and the lack of available information, an enhancement in research is recommended to establish a basic management guide to ensure its perpetuation for future generations.

  19. Influence of pioneer-species combinations on restoration of disturbed ecosystems in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Influência da combinação de espécies pioneiras na restauração de ecossistema perturbado da Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Cortines; Ricardo Valcarcel

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of species composition and its effects on sustainability restoration processes in the Atlantic Forest with poor environmental attributes is important to improve rehabilitation techniques for disturbed ecosystems. Reforestation projects were used as Biological Measures (BM) of rehabilitation, where treatments differ in the composition of exotic species, utilized as anthropic pioneers: BM1 - 82% (73% Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth, 9% Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.); BM2 - 91% (9%, 82%...

  20. Screening of antibacterial extracts from plants native to the Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest

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    Suffredini I.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 20% of the world's biodiversity is located in Brazilian forests and only a few plant extracts have been evaluated for potential antibacterial activity. In the present study, 705 organic and aqueous extracts of plants obtained from different Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 100 µg/ml, using a microdilution broth assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. One extract, VO581, was active against S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 140 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 160 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems and two extracts were active against E. faecalis, SM053 (MIC = 80 µg/ml and MBC = 90 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from aerial parts, and MY841 (MIC = 30 µg/ml and MBC = 50 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems. The most active fractions are being fractionated to identify their active substances. Higher concentrations of other extracts are currently being evaluated against the same microorganisms.

  1. Culicidae (Insecta: Diptera em área de Floresta Atlântica, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1411 Culicidae (Insecta: Diptera in areas of Atlantic Forest, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1411

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    Mario Antonio Navarro-Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A alteração da paisagem natural pode gerar mudanças que favorecem o desenvolvimento e proliferação de determinadas espécies de Culicidae, em detrimento de outras que se deslocam para outros locais ou são extintas. Baseando-se nestas mudanças, algumas espécies podem ser utilizadas como bioindicadores do grau de degradação ambiental. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a composição e riqueza de Culicidae, em dois ambientes em área de Floresta Atlântica, e avaliar se as espécies encontradas indicam o grau de preservação dos fragmentos estudados. As coletas foram realizadas em dois ambientes, denominados Carvalho e Trilha, em área de Floresta Atlântica (Mananciais da Serra, no Estado do Paraná - Brasil, nos meses de dezembro/2002 a maio/2003, utilizando-se um aspirador elétrico manual. Foram identificadas 48 espécies de 636 espécimes de Culicidae. A composição taxonômica e riqueza das espécies de Culicidae diferenciaram-se entre os ambientes estudados, provavelmente, influenciadas pelo estado de preservação dos fragmentos florestais. Os maiores valores de riqueza observados no Carvalho, assim como o predomínio das espécies da tribo Sabethini e Kerteszia sugerem reduzida ação antrópica neste fragmento florestal. De modo contrário, a composição das espécies e os menores valores de riqueza observadas na Trilha indicam grau alto de degradação ambientalModifications in the landscape can lead to the development and proliferation of some Culicidae species, in detriment of others. As a result, some species may be forced to move to other places or become locally extinct. Based on these changes, some species can be used as bioindicators of environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to assess Culicidae composition and richness in two Atlantic Forest sites (Carvalho and Trilha; State of Paraná, Brazil, and to evaluate whether they can be used as indicators of environmental degradation of these sites

  2. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  3. A Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny Indicates Close Relationships between Populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the Rain-forest Regions of Amazônia and Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    EAY Ishikawa; Ready PD; Souza AA de; Day JC; EF Rangel; CR Davies; JJ Shaw

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). Thes...

  4. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  5. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S; Marins-Sá, Luiz G; Benedet, Rodrigo C; Freitas, Thales R O

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F(IS), effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software), we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software) that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk. PMID:22481876

  6. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

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    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  7. Bioaccumulation pattern of lanthanides in pteridophytes and magnoliophytes species from Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of chemical elements for plants is mainly dependent on the nature of the soil and characteristics of each species. The transfer factors of lanthanides from the soil to the tree leaves of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, were calculated for one fern species (Alsophila sternbergii-Pteridophyta division) and four magnoliophytes species (Bathysa australis, Euterpe edulis, Garcinia gardneriana and Guapira opposita-Magnoliophyta division) obtained in two areas of Serra do Mar State Park and collected in two different seasons. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF = Cplant:Csoil) in magnoliophytes species was correlated to the mass fraction of lanthanides in the soil, described by a exponential model (TF = a.Csoil-b). Despite the tree fern Alsophila sternbergii presented a hyperaccumulation of lanthanides, this species did not have a significant relationship between TF and mass fraction in soil. Results indicated that plants of Magnoliophyta division selected the input of lanthanides from the soil, while the same was not observed in Alsophila sternbergii. (author)

  8. Diversity and distribution of the bryophyte flora in montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

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    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes constitute an important component of tropical rain forests, which provide microhabitats favorable for their establishment. Bryophytes are also quite responsive to changes in microclimate, which makes them good bioindicators. This study aimed to determine the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in upper and lower montane forests of the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To that end, we studied community aspects such as richness, diversity, substrates colonized, life forms and floristic similarity between areas and regions. In 2007 and 2008, we collected specimens from six forest sites, located from the north to the south of the Chapada Diamantina region. We identified a total of 205 infrageneric taxa. In comparison with the lower montane forests, the upper montane forests presented higher diversity and species richness, as well as greater numbers of substrates colonized, life form types, species of restricted geographic distribution and species typical of shaded areas. We also found low similarity in the species composition, the populations of the upper and lower montane forests forming two large and distinct groups. Although presenting relatively high floristic homogeneity among themselves, the Chapada Diamantina areas presented little similarity with those of the Atlantic Forest. This can be explained by the differences between the two regions in terms of environmental conditions, precipitation, seasonality, elevation and continentality.

  9. Conhecimento local em horta medicinal numa comunidade rural adjacente à Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Local knowledge on medicinal plant gardens in a rural community near the Atlantic Rain Forest, southeastern Brazil

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    Alexandre G. Christo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou identificar as plantas medicinais cultivadas em uma horta medicinal, situada no município de Casimiro de Abreu, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e diagnosticar o acesso à sua utilização e importância para a população local, baseando-se em entrevistas com o administrador da horta, e quarenta usuários da comunidade. O índice de importância relativa (IR foi calculado para 96 espécies medicinais e, neste, observou-se que 27 espécies tiveram um RI>1,00, com Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. e Leonurus sibiricus L. (erva-macaé, atingindo o valor máximo (2,00. As entrevistas revelaram que a maioria dos usuários, residentes nas áreas rurais do município em que a horta está localizada, visitam-na com uma frequência semanal, depositando confiança no reconhecimento da planta e recomendações de uso do administrador, e sabem, em sua maioria, como preparar os remédios utilizados. As espécies que tratam afecções relacionadas ao sistema respiratório s��o as mais procuradas. O uso livre da horta pela comunidade local, associado com o pequeno investimento inicial, demonstra a viabilidade da iniciativa pública e do valor do conhecimento tradicional, mas também chama a atenção das autoridades para o uso humano de forma segura.The present study sought to identify the medicinal plants cultivated in a communal medicinal plant garden in Casimiro de Abreu, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and to access its utilization and importance to the local population based on interviews with the garden's administrator and forty rural users. The Relative Importance Index (RI was calculated for 96 medicinal species. Twenty-seven species had a RI>1.00, with Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. and Leonurus sibiricus L. (erva-macaé, having the largest value (2.00. Interviews revealed that the majority of the rural users live in the municipality where the garden is located, visit it on a weekly basis, trust the recommendations of the administrator, and know

  10. DNA barcoding in Atlantic Forest plants: what is the best marker for Sapotaceae species identification?

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    Caio Vinicius Vivas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a phytogeographic domain with a high rate of endemism and large species diversity. The Sapotaceae is a botanical family for which species identification in the Atlantic Forest is difficult. An approach that facilitates species identification in the Sapotaceae is urgently needed because this family includes threatened species and valuable timber species. In this context, DNA barcoding could provide an important tool for identifying species in the Atlantic Forest. In this work, we evaluated four plant barcode markers (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region -ITS in 80 samples from 26 species of Sapotaceae that occur in the Atlantic Forest. ITS yielded the highest average interspecific distance (0.122, followed by trnH-psbA (0.019, matK (0.008 and rbcL (0.002. For species discrimination, ITS provided the best results, followed by matK, trnH-psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, the combined analysis of two, three or four markers did not result in higher rates of discrimination than obtained with ITS alone. These results indicate that the ITS region is the best option for molecular identification of Sapotaceae species from the Atlantic Forest.

  11. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

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    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  12. Habitat, food, and climate affecting leaf litter anuran assemblages in an Atlantic Forest remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rievers, Camila Rabelo; Pires, Maria Rita Silvério; Eterovick, Paula Cabral

    2014-07-01

    Leaf litter anuran assemblages include both species that have terrestrial development and species that, during the breeding season, aggregate around bodies of water where their tadpoles develop. The resources used by these two groups in the leaf litter are likely to differ, as well as their sampled species richness, abundance and biomass as resource availability changes. We conducted a 12-month survey of leaf litter anuran assemblages at three forest areas in the largest Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Each month we estimated, based on capture rates, anuran species richness, abundance, and biomass as assemblage descriptors. We also measured variables that could potentially affect these descriptors in space and time: invertebrate litter fauna (abundance and richness of taxa), leaf litter biomass, and microclimatic conditions (air humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, and rainfall). We tested for differences in these variables among areas. We used general linear models to search for the variables that best explained variation in anuran abundance (based on capture rates) throughout the year. We analyzed species with terrestrial development (TD) and with aquatic larvae (AL) separately. We recorded 326 anurans of 15 species. Sampled anuran abundance (correlated to species richness and biomass) was explained by air humidity and/or invertebrate abundance for species with TD, and by soil water content or air humidity and leaf litter biomass for species with AL. The variability in the results of studies on leaf litter frogs that try to find variables to explain changes in community descriptors may be due to spatial variation of resources among areas and also to the fact that TD and AL species are frequently analyzed together, when in fact they are likely to show different responses to resources present in the leaf litter habitat, reflected on capture rates.

  13. Floristic units and their predictors unveiled in part of the Atlantic Forest hotspot: implications for conservation planning

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    FELIPE Z. SAITER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We submitted tree species occurrence and geoclimatic data from 59 sites in a river basin in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil to ordination, ANOVA, and cluster analyses with the goals of investigating the causes of phytogeographic patterns and determining whether the six recognized subregions represent distinct floristic units. We found that both climate and space were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 important in the explanation of phytogeographic patterns. Floristic variations follow thermal gradients linked to elevation in both coastal and inland subregions. A gradient of precipitation seasonality was found to be related to floristic variation up to 100 km inland from the ocean. The temperature of the warmest quarter and the precipitation during the coldest quarter were the main predictors. The subregions Sandy Coastal Plain, Coastal Lowland, Coastal Highland, and Central Depression were recognized as distinct floristic units. Significant differences were not found between the Inland Highland and the Espinhaço Range, indicating that these subregions should compose a single floristic unit encompassing all interior highlands. Because of their ecological peculiarities, the ferric outcrops within the Espinhaço Range may constitute a special unit. The floristic units proposed here will provide important information for wiser conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  14. Structure of the understory community in four stretches of Araucaria forest in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Trassi Polisel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the structure of the understory community in the Atlantic Forest sensu lato, for which phytosociological descriptions of the understory are lacking. We delineated 50 plots of 10 × 20 m each at four sites within an Araucaria forest (a subtype of Atlantic Forest, located in the municipalities of Bananal, Campos do Jordão, Itaberá and Barra do Chapéu, all of which are in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. To sample the resident species of the understory, we randomly selected five 1 × 1 m subplots within each plot, resulting in a total sampling area of 250 m² at each site. We identified differences among the locations, mostly due to proportional differences in growth forms, in terms of species richness and the importance values within the community. Factors potentially influencing the understory structure include macroclimatic and microclimatic conditions, as well as forest fragmentation, the abundance of deciduous trees in the canopy, the surrounding vegetation and geographic location.

  15. The influence of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents on the Southwestern Atlantic Shelf circulation

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    R. P. Matano

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic circulation over the southwestern Atlantic shelf is influenced by large tidal amplitudes, substantial freshwater discharges, high wind speeds and – most importantly – by its proximity to two of the largest western boundary currents of the world ocean: the Brazil and Malvinas currents. This review article aims to discriminate the dynamical processes controlling the interaction between this extensive shelf region and the deep-ocean. The discussion is focused on two broad regions: the South Brazil Bight to the north, and Patagonia to the south. The exchanges between the Brazil Current and the South Brazil Bight are characterized by the intermittent development of eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current at the shelfbreak. However, it is argued that this is not the only – nor the most important – influence of the Brazil Current on the shelf. Numerical simulations show that the thermohaline structure of the South Brazil Bight can be entirely ascribed to steady state, bottom boundary layer interactions between the shelf and the Brazil Current. The Malvinas Current does not show the development of eddies and meanders, but its influence on the Patagonian shelf is not less important. Models and observations indicate that the Malvinas Current not only controls the shelfbreak dynamics and cross-shelf exchanges but also influences the circulation in the shelf's interior.

  16. The influence of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents on the southwestern Atlantic shelf circulation

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    R. P. Matano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic circulation over the southwestern Atlantic shelf is influenced by large tidal amplitudes, substantial freshwater discharges, high wind speeds and – most importantly – by its proximity to two of the largest western boundary currents of the world ocean: the Brazil and Malvinas currents. This review article aims to describe the dynamical processes controlling the interaction between the shelf and the deep-ocean. The discussion is focused on two broad regions: the South Brazil Bight to the north, and Patagonia to the south. The exchanges between the Brazil Current and the South Brazil Bight are characterized by the intermittent development of eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current at the shelfbreak. However, it is argued that this is not the only – nor the most important – influence of the Brazil Current on the shelf. Numerical simulations show that the thermohaline structure of the South Brazil Bight can be entirely ascribed to steady state, bottom boundary layer interactions between the shelf and the Brazil Current. The Malvinas Current does not show the development of eddies and meanders, but its influence on the Patagonian shelf is no less important. Models and observations indicate that the Malvinas Current not only controls the shelfbreak dynamics and cross-shelf exchanges but also the circulation in the shelf's interior.

  17. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  18. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Luiz dos Anjos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset

  19. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

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    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  20. PARTITIONING OF PLUVIAL PRECIPITATION IN A WATERSHED OCCUPIED BY ATLANTIC FOREST IN MANTIQUEIRA RANGE, MG STATE

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    Léo Fernandes Ávila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815739The analyze of pluvial precipitation and its interaction on the different hydrologic cycle phases in forested watersheds are essential in order to water balance characterization due to its relevant participation in the hydrological processes and to its spatial-temporal variability as function of edaphic, topographic, climatic and vegetation elements. Due to heterogeneity of Atlantic Forest associated to temporal and spatial variability of pluvial precipitation regime, the study of mechanisms that allow describing and linking the hydrological cycle elements are very important. This way, the objective of this study was to analyze the partitioning of pluvial precipitation at a micro-catchment entirely occupied by Atlantic Forest remnant, in Mantiqueira Range, during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hydrological years, relating it with the seasonal evolution of this ecosystem which was monitored by the application of normalized difference vegetation indexes (NDVI. It was observed greater percentage of internal pluvial precipitation during the periods with less rainfall. It was also verified greater water storage capacity of the Atlantic Forest’s canopy throughout rainy season. Yet, a plausible correlation was obtained between water storage capacity of Atlantic Forest and the regeneration of vegetation demonstrated by NDVI what can be associated to the processes responsible for Atlantic Forest’s growth.

  1. Understory species richness in an urban forest fragment, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina Ramos de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the floristic composition of the understory of Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, (08°01’15.1”S and 34°56’3.2”W, an area of about 370ha characterized as a lowland ombrophilous dense forest. The study included individuals with heights of up to 4.0m, such as treelets, shrubs, sub-bushes and terricolous herb plants, in fertile conditions. The collections were made every two weeks along a period of 24 months. A total of 108 species, belonging to 86 genera and 49 families, were recorded. The families with the highest number of species were Rubiaceae (14, Fabaceae (9 Melastomataceae (8, Asteraceae (8, Myrtaceae (6, and Poaceae (4. The Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae presented the highest number of understory species in this fragment. Generally, among the studies made in the Atlantic forest areas in Pernambuco, the presence of a set of tree species common to these forests is evidenced.

  2. Selecting areas for legal reserves in araucaria forest

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Ferreira Alves de Brito; Maurício Savi; João de Deus Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Mixed Forest (araucaria forest), a typical forest of southern Brazil, possesses species of very high commercial value such as Araucaria angustifolia and Ocotea porosa. This forest originally covered about 200,000 – 250,000 km². Unfortunately, the native araucaria forests are disappearing, largely due to the conversion of forest lands to agriculture, logging and pasture. Remaining forest cover represents less than 1% of the pre-settlement forest area. Many species, which live on t...

  3. Community of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in an Atlantic Forest Stream, Brazil

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    Rafael Azevedo

    2012-11-01

    Resumo. A composição, diversidade e densidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos foram descritas a partir de amostras provenientes de quatro localidades distintas do Rio Mato Grosso, Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro. Os dados bióticos e abióticos foram obtidos em janeiro 2006 em microhabitats com diferentes tipos de substrato. Foi amostrado um total de 5.605 espécimes de 28 famílias de insetos e duas de crustáceos. Os menores valores de riqueza, diversidade, equitabilidade e densidade foram registrados nas localidades de menor altitude. Folhiço foi o substrato com maiores valores de diversidade e densidade, enquanto areia apresentou os menores valores desses parâmetros.

  4. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Menini Neto,Luiz; Almeida,Thais; Mortara,Sara; Stehmann,Joao R; Amorim,André Márcio; Guimaraes,Elsie; A. Nadruz Coelho,Marcus; Zanin,Ana; Forzza,Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list ...

  5. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin,Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive spec...

  6. PARTITIONING OF PLUVIAL PRECIPITATION IN A WATERSHED OCCUPIED BY ATLANTIC FOREST IN MANTIQUEIRA RANGE, MG STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Léo Fernandes Ávila; Carlos Rogério de Mello; Leandro Campos Pinto; Antônio Marciano da Silva

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815739The analyze of pluvial precipitation and its interaction on the different hydrologic cycle phases in forested watersheds are essential in order to water balance characterization due to its relevant participation in the hydrological processes and to its spatial-temporal variability as function of edaphic, topographic, climatic and vegetation elements. Due to heterogeneity of Atlantic Forest associated to temporal and spatial variability of pluvial precipi...

  7. Worker morphology of the ant Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr (Formicidae, Ectatomminae in different landscapes from the Atlantic Forest domain

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    Roseli F. Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits, such as size and shape, may reflect a combination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Ants have been used to evaluate the relationship between the environment and species coexistence and morphology. In the present study, we analyzed the morphology of workers of Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr in different landscapes from the Atlantic Domain in southeastern Brazil, focusing on the variation in the morphological attributes of these populations compared to those from a dense ombrophilous forest. Eighteen morphological traits of functional importance for interactions between workers and the environment were measured to characterize the size and shape of the workers. In general, the results show that ants of urban areas possess some morphological attributes of smaller size, with highly overlapped morphological space between the populations in forested ecosystems. Further, some of the traits related to predation were relatively smaller in modified land areas than in the populations from preserved areas of dense ombrophilous forest. These results help broaden the knowledge regarding morphological diversity in G. striatula, suggesting that the characterization of the morphology may be important to quantify the effects of land use on morphological diversity, and presumably, to facilitate the use of ants as biological indicators.

  8. Composição Florística do estrato arbóreo da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual na Planície Aluvial do rio Doce, Linhares, ES, Brasil Floristic composition of the tree layer in Atlantic forest on the rio Doce alluvial floodplain, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Samir Gonçalves Rolim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a flora de espécies arbóreas e palmeiras na floresta estacional semidecidual na planície aluvial do rio Doce, uma área de cerca de 20.000 ha, a partir de Linhares (ES até próximo à foz no oceano atlântico. Foram determinadas 408 espécies (27 classificadas em gênero e 59 famílias, entre arbóreas e palmeiras. Por meio da análise de agrupamento, foi evidenciado que a floresta do rio Doce é muito semelhante floristicamente à floresta estacional dos tabuleiros terciários, que estas se agrupam com as florestas estacionais do rio Doce em MG e que, por sua vez, todas estas se agrupam com as florestas ombrófilas do sul da Bahia, sendo o conjunto nitidamente separado das outras formações ombrófilas costeiras. Foram encontradas dezenas de espécies deocorrência restrita ou pouco frequentes em levantamentos na floresta atlântica, enfatizando a importância da área para conservação da biodiversidade. Pelo fato das matas de cacau na região abrangerem mais de 80% dessa área, sugere-se a delimitação de uma Área de Proteção Ambiental, que permita conciliar o cultivo do cacau com a proteção da biodiversidade.The tree and palm flora was studied in the Atlantic forest of the rio Doce alluvial floodplain, in a 20,000ha area, between Linhares (Espírito Santo State and the Atlantic Ocean. The floristic survey recorded 408 species and 59 families. Floristic composition was compared to other forests of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro states using cluster analysis. The forest flora of the study area was most similar to that of forests in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Bahia. Dozens of species in the study area are restricted and rare in Atlantic forest; this area deserves special attention for biodiversity conservation. The Brazilian government should pay heed to the biological importance of this area and declare it an Environmental Protection Area, a type of conservation unit where

  9. Seasonal and spatial species richness variation of dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae s. str. in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil Variação sazonal e espacial da riqueza de espécies de besouros coprófagos (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae s. str. em Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

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    Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on Atlantic Forest scarab beetle fauna is quite limited. This biome is strongly degraded and these insects can be used as bioindicators since they are sensitive to forest destruction and show distinct organizational patterns in forest fragments or in areas that have been deteriorated by human activity. Thus, a study of the Scarabaeidae (sensu stricto dung beetles fauna that inhabit Serra do Japi, São Paulo, Brazil (23º12'-23º22' S and 46º53'-47º03'W was carried out; the monthly species richness was analyzed in six areas during one year and the vegetation's structural physiognomy was described. The areas included a conserved and a degraded valley, a northward and a southward hillside, a hilltop, and an area of secondary forest growing under eucalyptus trees. The specimens were collected using four pitfall traps baited with human feces, which remained at each spot during 48 hours. Between September, 1997 and August, 1998, 3524 individuals of 39 species were collected; the most abundant were: Canthidium trinodosum, Eurysternus cyanescens, Uroxys kratochvili, Scybalocanthon nigriceps, Uroxys lata, Canthonella sp., Dichotomius assifer, Deltochilum furcatum, Canthidium sp.2, Canthon latipes, Deltochilum rubripenne, Eurysternus sp., and Dichotomius sp.1. The number of individuals and species was greater in the hot, rainy season, when there was a correlation between the number of species and the mean annual temperature [r²= 0.69; pO conhecimento da fauna de besouros escarabeídeos da Mata Atlântica é bastante reduzido. Este bioma encontra-se fortemente degradado sendo que estes insetos podem ser usados como bioindicadores já que são sensíveis à destruição de florestas, apresentando distintos padrões de organização em fragmentos ou em áreas deterioradas pela ação humana. Foi realizado um levantamento dos Scarabaeidae (sensu stricto coprófagos que habitam a Serra do Japi, São Paulo, Brasil (23º12'-23º22' S e 46º53

  10. Vulnerability of Mid-Atlantic forested watersheds to timber harvest disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaberg, Rex H; Abt, Robert C

    2004-06-01

    Forested watersheds of the Mid-Atlantic Region are an important economic resource. They are also critical for maintaining water quality, sustaining important ecological services, and providing habitat to many animal and plant species of conservation concern. These forests are vulnerable to disturbance and fragmentation from changing patterns of land use in the Mid-Atlantic Region, and from harvests of commercially mature and relatively inexpensive timber. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) compiles data on forest condition by state and county. We have transformed these FIA data to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 6-digithdrologic unit code (HUC 6) watershed base, and projected trends in timber growth, inventory, and harvest to 2025 using a timber economics forecasting model (SRTS). We consider forest sustainability from the perspective of timber production, and from the perspective of landscape stability important to conservation values. Simulation data is combined with FIA planted pine acreage data to form a more complete picture of forest extent, composition, and silvicultural practice. Early recognition of prevailing economic trends which encourage the fragmentation of mature forests due to increasing timber harvests may provide managers and policy makers with a planning tool to mitigate undesirable impacts. PMID:15141449

  11. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  12. Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Priscila L. MacCord

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992–1993 to 2002–2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992–1993 and during the same months in 2002–2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.

  13. Colonisation of leaf litter by aquatic invertebrates in an Atlantic Forest stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V C; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2014-05-01

    Riparian vegetation along streams in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil contributes to the formation of a highly heterogeneous leaf litter in streambeds. To investigate the structure and composition of the aquatic invertebrate community during the process of leaf decomposition of two plant species present along the banks of the stream studied, 21 plastic mesh bags containing 2.5g (dry weight) of leaf matter from each species (Alchornea glandulosa (Vell) and Cabralea canjerana End. and Poeppig), for a total of 5.0g, were placed in the streambed. Three bags were removed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days. The taxonomic density was negatively correlated with the remaining weight. The high density of collector organisms, such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Amphipoda, on the last day of incubation, probably occurred due to the increased amount of fine organic matter in the more advanced decomposition stages. The highest α diversity (Shannon-Wiener) values were observed for the 3rd and 96th days of the experiment, while the β diversity values showed that these days presented the highest variation in the taxonomic composition, thus presenting a different faunistic composition. This study showed that the trophic structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates changes during the decomposition of leaf litter. The faunistic abundance and diversity observed in this study indicate that the entrance of material from plants growing along streams provides favorable conditions for the colonisation and establishment of invertebrates in lower-order streams, and thus points to the need to preserve riparian vegetation. PMID:25166310

  14. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography. PMID:19675929

  15. Carbon storage in old-growth forests of the Mid-Atlantic: toward better understanding the eastern forest carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C; Thompson, Jonathan R; Epstein, Howard E; Shugart, Herman H

    2015-02-01

    Few old-growth stands remain in the matrix of secondary forests that dominates the eastern North American landscape. These remnant stands offer insight on the potential carbon (C) storage capacity of now-recovering secondary forests. We surveyed the remaining old-growth forests on sites characteristic of the general Mid-Atlantic United States and estimated the size of multiple components of forest C storage. Within and between old-growth stands, variability in C density is high and related to overstory tree species composition. The sites contain 219 ± 46 Mg C/ha (mean ± SD), including live and dead aboveground biomass, leaf litter, and the soil O horizon, with over 20% stored in downed wood and snags. Stands dominated by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) store the most live biomass, while the mixed oak (Quercus spp.) stands overall store more dead wood. Total C density is 30% higher (154 Mg C/ha), and dead wood C density is 1800% higher (46 Mg C/ha) in the old-growth forests than in the surrounding younger forests (120 and 5 Mg C/ha, respectively). The high density of dead wood in old growth relative to secondary forests reflects a stark difference in historical land use and, possibly, the legacy of the local disturbance (e.g., disease) history. Our results demonstrate the potential for dead wood to maintain the sink capacity of secondary forests for many decades to come.

  16. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma; Milton de Souza Mendonça Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), galling 43 host...

  17. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

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    Bráulio A Santos

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  18. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

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    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  19. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  20. Reproductive phenology, seed removal and early regeneration in relation to distance from parental plants of a native palm in small Atlantic forest fragments

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    Vanessa Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a global biodiversity hotspot, but most of what remains are small fragments. Small fragments are often harsh environments for forest plant recruitment due to edge effects and the loss of frugivorous animals that provide seed dispersal. We recorded the one-year reproductive phenology of the keystone palm Syagrus romanzoffiana in small (<2.5ha Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We tested the Janzen-Connell hypothesis with seed-removal experiments and followed the five-year survival of recruits in relation to the distance from parental plants. Palms produced many fruits throughout the year (mean 2,600/plant. More seedlings were found away from parental plants than near them, thereby supporting the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Almost 45% of seedlings alive in 2010 were dead five years later, but recruitment of new seedlings compensated for this mortality. Distance-dependent factors influenced the density of early ontogenetic stages, but had limited effects on juveniles or on seed removal. High seed production, seed dispersal provided by disturbance-tolerant frugivores and the relatively long-term survival of adults, seedlings and juveniles seem to allow the persistence of S. romanzoffiana in the forest fragments, but possibly at the cost of an increased clumped distribution and reduced gene flow at the landscape scale.

  1. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

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    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  2. Multilocus Phylogeography of the Treefrog Scinax eurydice (Anura, Hylidae) Reveals a Plio-Pleistocene Diversification in the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Lucas; Canedo, Clarissa; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Gehara, Marcelo; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2016-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the genetic structure of an Atlantic Forest amphibian species, Scinax eurydice, testing the congruence among patterns identified and proposed by the literature for Pleistocene refugia, microrefugia, and geographic barriers to gene flow such as major rivers. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate predictions of such barriers and refugia on the genetic structure of the species, such as presence/absence of dispersal, timing since separation, and population expansions/contractions. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers on 94 tissue samples from 41 localities. We inferred a gene tree and estimated genetic distances using mtDNA sequences. We then ran population clustering and assignment methods, AMOVA, and estimated migration rates among populations identified through mtDNA and nDNA analyses. We used a dated species tree, skyline plots, and summary statistics to evaluate concordance between population’s distributions and geographic barriers and Pleistocene refugia. Scinax eurydice showed high mtDNA divergences and four clearly distinct mtDNA lineages. Species tree and population assignment tests supported the existence of two major clades corresponding to northeastern and southeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, each one composed of two other clades. Lineage splitting events occurred from late Pliocene to Pleistocene. We identified demographic expansions in two clades, and inexistent to low levels of migrations among different populations. Genetic patterns and demographic data support the existence of two northern Refuge and corroborate microrefugia south of the Doce/Jequitinhonha Rivers biogeographic divide. The results agree with a scenario of recent demographic expansion of lowland taxa. Scinax eurydice comprises a species complex, harboring undescribed taxa consistent with Pleistocene refugia. Two rivers lie at the boundaries among populations and endorse their role as secondary barriers to gene flow. PMID:27248688

  3. Records of the giant-armadillo Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae in the Atlantic Forest: are Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo the last strongholds of the species?

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report 20 records of Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792 collected between 1990 and 2009 in three nature reserves located in forested areas of southeastern Brazil within the Atlantic Forest biome. Seventeen records were collected in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD, state of Minas Gerais, two in Reserva Biológica de Sooretama and one in Reserva Natural Vale, both located in the state of Espírito Santo. The records were burrows (n = 11, photographs from camera-traps (n = 6, sightings (n = 2 and carcass (n = 1. Given the higher number of records, the PERD seems to maintain the largest population among the three study areas. We searched the literature and found no other recent evidence of the species' presence in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. There are few Museum specimens and a general lack of information on the presence of the species in this biome as a whole. These facts suggest that the conservation status of the giant armadillo is extremely critical in the Atlantic Forest.

  4. EVALUATION OF MARKET POTENTIAL OF BRAZIL FOR FOREST MACHINERY COMPANIES: CASE KESLA

    OpenAIRE

    de Figueiredo, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Biomass is one of the sources for energy production with the greatest potential for growth in Brazil. It is considered one of the main alternatives to diversify sources of energy and consequent reduction of dependence on fossil fuels. Brazil is a country rich in forests, having 35 % of the native forests in the world. Brazil is also the largest producer of tropical wood and the fifth-largest industrial wood producer. Particularly the use of wood chips for energy generation has been growing in...

  5. Demography of the endangered tree species Ocotea porosa (Lauraceae along a gradient of forest disturbance in southern Brazil

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    Cibele Amato Munhoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa (Ness Barroso (Lauraceae, a typical tree of the southern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, was heavily exploited for timber in the last century. With the aim of examining the status of the remaining populations, we surveyed five forest fragments in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil, and evaluated whether disturbances caused by selective logging and fragmentation were related to population structure of O. porosa. We assessed demographic aspects related to tree density, size hierarchy and individual allometry, correlating those parameters with fragment structure variables (fragment size, isolation and logging level. We found that, although all populations occurred in low densities (60-440 individuals ha−¹, the number of adults was significantly lower in the smaller and most disturbed fragments (13 and 35 individuals ha−¹, respectively. We did not detect changes in allometric relationships among individuals in the five populations studied. However, we found that populations in more heavily disturbed areas presented lower size hierarchy (i.e., less dominance of larger trees than did those in undisturbed areas, suggesting that selective logging affects the population structure of O. porosa, possibly affecting the rates of reproduction and fecundity, which may ultimately increase the probability of local extinction.

  6. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guedje, N.M.; Lejoly, J.; Nkongmeneck, B.A.; Jonkers, W.B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,

  7. Records of the giant-armadillo Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in the Atlantic Forest: are Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo the last strongholds of the species?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo; Leandro M. Scoss; André Hirsch; Adriano G. Chiarello

    2009-01-01

    We report 20 records of Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) collected between 1990 and 2009 in three nature reserves located in forested areas of southeastern Brazil within the Atlantic Forest biome. Seventeen records were collected in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD), state of Minas Gerais, two in Reserva Biológica de Sooretama and one in Reserva Natural Vale, both located in the state of Espírito Santo. The records were burrows (n = 11), photographs from camera-traps (n = 6), sightings (n = 2...

  8. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Castilho, Camila S.; Marins-Sá, Luiz G.; Rodrigo C. Benedet; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, o...

  9. Absence Of Zonation In A Mangrove Forest In Southeastern Brazil

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    João Marcos Miragaia Schmiegelow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove forest of the estuarine system of Santos, Brazil, occupies 71 km2 - an area consisting of a complex system of canals and rivers forming a predominantly depositional environment. The climate provides high rainfall, with no water deficit and minimum temperatures above 18oC. In this environment, 3,870 mangrove trees, distributed on 20 random transects, were identified, counted and measured and the litterfall measured. The phytosociological data (density, height and basal area were measured in parcels at different distances from the waterline. Three species of trees were identified: Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa. The data showed large variability between stands but with no zonation perpendicular to the fringe in relation to phytosociological descriptors, the distribution of the tree species and litterfall production. This phenomenon is attributed to the low energy subsidy occurring as a function of the microtidal regime, the reduced velocity of the water in the innermost regions of the estuarine system, the homogeneous sediment (silt and mostly the absence of any water deficit in the region. All these factors reduce the environmental gradient from the fringe to the interior of the basin. Some stands also showed immature features which were attributed to the anthropogenic impacts of many kinds, mainly over the last 60 years, that have been preventing the mangroves from attaining their full development.

  10. Florística e estrutura de comunidades vegetais em uma cronoseqüência de Floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Floristics and structure of plant communities along a chronosequence in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná State, Brazil

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    Dieter Liebsch

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos a estrutura do estrato arbóreo de três sítios de Floresta Atlântica no litoral do Paraná, objetivando detectar diferenças estruturais gerais e nas populações ao longo do processo sucessional, visando subsidiar futuros planos de recomposição da vegetação. O estudo foi realizado na Reserva Natural Rio Cachoeira, onde foram escolhidos três sítios, cujos históricos indicavam a ocorrência de corte da vegetação há 20 anos, 80 anos e 120 anos. O sítio com 20 anos apresentou os menores valores de riqueza, diversidade, área basal e volume. O sítio com 80 anos apresentou os maiores valores de densidade e riqueza. No sítio com 120 anos foi observado o maior valor de diversidade, equabilidade e volume. Observaram-se algumas diferenças significativas, em termos de diversidade, área basal e volume entre os sítios em diferentes estádios. Comparações das estruturas de populações de espécies que ocorriam em mais de um sítio não mostraram grandes diferenças. Por outro lado, as características das espécies exclusivas de cada sítio influenciaram nas diferenças observadas nos três sítios.We describe the tree structure of three Atlantic Forest fragments on the coast of Paraná, in order to detect differences in community structure throughout the succession process and to support future vegetation restoration projects. The study area was the Reserva Natural Rio Cachoeira, where three sites were chosen based on length of time since the last manmade disturbance (mostly agriculture and lodging; these were, respectively, 20-, 80- and 120-year-old forests. The 20-year-old forest had the lowest richness, diversity, basal area and volume. The 80-year-old forest had the highest density and richness. The 120-year-old forest had the highest diversity, equitability and volume. Diversity, basal area and volume were significantly different among the three sites. There were no important differences among structures of populations

  11. Moss and liverwort epiphytes on trunks of Cyathea delgadii in a fragment of tropical rain forest, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Daniel M.; Prado, Jefferson

    2006-01-01

    This study is a survey of the bryophyte species that occur on the trunks of Cyathea delgadii Sternb. (Cyatheaceae), a native tree fern, encountered in a fragment of Atlantic forest located in the area of the „Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI)“, São Paulo State, Brazil. Specimens of bryophytes were collected from March 2001 to October 2003. We found 35 bryophyte species (12 spp. of mosses and 23 of liverworts). Ceratolejeuenea dentacornuta Steph. is presented as a new record for Br...

  12. Mixed rain forest in southeastern Brazil: tree species regeneration and floristic relationships in a remaining stretch of forest near the city of Itaberá, Brazil

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    Tiago Maciel Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition, richness, and diversity of the upper and lower strata of a stretch of mixed rain forest near the city of Itaberá, in southeastern Brazil. We also investigated the differences between this conservation area and other stretches of mixed rain forest in southern and southeastern Brazil, as well as other nearby forest formations, in terms of their floristic relationships. For our survey of the upper stratum (diameter at breast height [DBH] > 15 cm, we established 50 permanent plots of 10 × 20 m. Within each of those plots, we designated five, randomly located, 1 × 1 m subplots, in order to survey the lower stratum (total height > 30 cm and DBH < 15 cm. In the upper stratum, we sampled 1429 trees and shrubs, belonging to 134 species, 93 genera, and 47 families. In the lower stratum, we sampled 758 trees and shrubs, belonging to 93 species, 66 genera, and 39 families. In our floristic and phytosociological surveys, we recorded 177 species, belonging to 106 genera and 52 families. The Shannon Diversity Index was 4.12 and 3.5 for the upper and lower strata, respectively. Cluster analysis indicated that nearby forest formations had the strongest floristic influence on the study area, which was therefore distinct from other mixed rain forests in southern Brazil and in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range.

  13. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

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    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  14. Territory size of three Antbirds (Aves, Passeriformes in an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil Tamanho de território de três espécies de Thamnophilidae (Aves, Passeriformes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil

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    Charles Duca

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Territory size is an important ecological attribute of populations that has been considered a factor determines population density. Antbirds is a large group of mainly insectivorous Neotropical passerines, usually well represented in bird communities from forested landscapes in Neotropical region. Territory sizes for three Antbirds, Thamnophilus caerulescens (Vieillot, 1816 (Variable Antshrike, Dysithamnus mentalis (Temmink, 1823 (Plain Antvireo e Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818 (White-shouldered Fire-eye, were mapped and their area estimated by the convex polygon method in a 50 ha forest fragment, in southeastern Brazil. The three species presented small territories of similar sizes ( T. caerulescens > D. mentalis. We failed to find any effect on territory size for the three species associated with forest edge or distance to the dirt road.O tamanho do território é um importante atributo ecológico das populações, sendo considerado um fator que pode determinar densidades populacionais. Os Thamnophilidae formam um grupo diverso de pássaros insetívoros, usualmente representativos nas comunidades de aves em florestas da região Neotropical. Neste estudo estimamos o tamanho de território de três espécies de Thamnophilidae, Thamnophilus caerulescens (Vieillot, 1816 (Choca-da-mata, Dysithamnus mentalis (Temmink, 1823 (Choquinha-lisa e Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818 (Papa-taoca-do-sul, através do método de polígono convexo, em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil. Os territórios foram pequenos ( T. caerulescens > D. mentalis. Não foi observada nenhuma relação entre o tamanho do território e sua distância à borda da mata e à estrada para as três espécies.

  15. Snake richness in urban forest fragments from Niterói and surroundings, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Citeli,Nathalie; Hamdan,Breno; Guedes, Thais

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity, an area which houses high species richness and endemism, but with high level of threat. With reference to the herpetofauna, until recently there has been no detailed information regarding diversity of snakes recorded in the Atlantic Forest, the number of endemic species and their distribution ranges. While these basic data were missing, large areas of original forest have continued to be lost to increased urbanization and ...

  16. Influence of pioneer-species combinations on restoration of disturbed ecosystems in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Influência da combinação de espécies pioneiras na restauração de ecossistema perturbado da Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Erika Cortines

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of species composition and its effects on sustainability restoration processes in the Atlantic Forest with poor environmental attributes is important to improve rehabilitation techniques for disturbed ecosystems. Reforestation projects were used as Biological Measures (BM of rehabilitation, where treatments differ in the composition of exotic species, utilized as anthropic pioneers: BM1 - 82% (73% Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth, 9% Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.; BM2 - 91% (9%, 82%; and BM3 - 25% (15%, 10%. The monitoring of spontaneous regeneration was evaluated in three 12-year-old reforestation sites between thr rainy season of 2004 and 2005, and compared with an approximately 100-year-old native forest fragment and a grassland: ecosystems with inertial tendency toward recuperation and degradation, respectively. It was detected that exotic species used as anthropic pioneers strongly influenced regeneration: BM1 (75%, BM2 (85%, BM3 (55%, Forest (0% and Grassland (50%. The highest similarity of species with forest regeneration (5% was found for treatment BM3.A análise da composição de espécie e suas influências na sustentabilidade dos processos de restauração de Mata Atlântica, com exíguos atributos ambientais, é importante para aperfeiçoar as técnicas de reabilitação de ecossistemas perturbados. Foram utilizados reflorestamentos como Medida Biológica (MB de reabilitação, em que os tratamentos diferem pela composição de espécies exóticas utilizadas como pioneiras antropizadas: BM1 - 82% (73% Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth, 9% Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.; BM2 - 91% (9%, 82%; e BM3 - 25% (15%, 10%. O monitoramento da regeneração espontânea foi avaliado nos três reflorestamentos com 12 anos de idade entre estações chuvosas de 2004-2005 e comparado com um fragmento de floresta nativa de aproximadamente 100 anos e pastagem: ecossistemas com tendência inercial de recuperação e degradação, respectivamente. Foi

  17. Biomassa e estoque de carbono e nutrientes em florestas montanas da mata atlântica na região norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro Biomass, carbon and nutrient pools in montane atlantic forests in the north of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

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    Gláucio de Mello Cunha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre balanço de C e nutrientes em florestas naturais permitem avaliar possíveis alterações decorrentes de técnicas de manejo aplicadas e possibilitam inferir a sustentabilidade dessas florestas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o teor de nutrientes de espécies nativas e quantificar a biomassa (parte aérea + serapilheira e os estoques de C e nutrientes em fragmentos florestais montanos da Mata Atlântica (Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana na região norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de maio de 1999 a abril de 2001. Foram selecionados dois fragmentos, localizados a 900 e 600 m de altitude, na vertente atlântica do Parque Estadual do Desengano, RJ. O solo de ambos os fragmentos florestais foi classificado como Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico. O valor médio de biomassa (parte aérea + serapilheira foi de 166,8 Mg ha-1. Em consequência, a acumulação média de C na vegetação foi de 67, 2 Mg ha-1. Os estoques médios de N, P, K, Ca e Mg na vegetação foram de 1.152, 44,4, 276,5, 603,5 e 127,9 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Por outro lado, as espécies revelaram distinta capacidade de estoque de nutrientes. O balanço negativo de P, K e Ca {solo - (parte aérea + serapilheira} indica que esses elementos constituem principais fatores nutricionais limitantes ao crescimento dos fragmentos florestais montanos da Mata Atlântica na região norte-fluminense.Nutrient balance in tropical forest allows an evaluation of eventual differences due to management practices and conclusions on forest sustainability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient concentration in native species and quantify biomass production and C and nutrient balance in tropical montane Atlantic Forest fragments (Dense Montane Ombrophile Forest in the North of Rio de Janeiro State, from May 1999 to April 2001. Two sites were selected in the State Park of Desengano, at 900 and 600 m asl. The soil of both forest fragments was classified

  18. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  19. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest gives way to other land uses in Santa Catarina state

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Siminski; Alfredo Celso Fantini

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation permits (1,753) submitted to the state environmental agency (Fatma) in Santa Catarina state, Brazil, were analyzed in order to establish the profile of applicants, the reasons for request, and the methodological characteristics of forest inventory. The results show that 71% of applications were from individuals, and the economic use of land was the major reason for requisition. Reforestation with exotic species was the greatest demand (43%), representing 22 thousand hectares. Ra...

  20. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Iuri Dias; Tadeu Medeiros; Marcos Vila Nova; Mirco Solé

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species...

  1. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Iuri; Medeiros,Tadeu; Vila Nova,Marcos; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distribu...

  2. Characterization of environmental quality of forest fragments changes in Jundiaí-Mirim river basin-Brazil using the Markov Chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimoto Fengler, Felipe; Leite de Moraes, Jener Fernando; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Peche Filho, Afonso; Araujo de Medeiros, Gerson; Baldin Damame, Desirée; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil is common practice the concurrency of large urban centers water catchment in distant sites. There's no policy to preserve strategic springs in the urban territory. Thus, rural areas, located in the surrounds of municipals, usually provide water and others environment services to the population that reside on cities. The Jundiaí-Mirim river basin, located in the most urbanized state in Brazil, São Paulo, composes an interesting example of this situation. It is located in a rural area near large urban centers, with large industrial parks, near the capital of state. As result of expansion of the cities on its surrounds their lands have had a historic of monetary valorization, making its territories attractive to the housing market. Consequently, the region has an intense process of urbanization that resulted in an increasing environmental disturbance in the areas of natural vegetation. In the other hand, the watershed is the principal water supplier of Jundiaí city, and houses forest remaining of an important Biome in Brazil, the Atlantic Rain Forest. Given the need to preserve its water production capacity and the forest remnants there, this study modeled the environmental quality of forest fragments through indicators of disturbance and evaluated the changes that occur between 1972 and 2013 using the Markov Chain model. The environment quality was determined by nine indicators of environmental disturbance (distance of urban areas, roads, edge land use, size, distance of others forest fragments, land capacity of use, watershed forest cover, number of forest fragments in the watersheds, shape of the forest fragment), obtained by techniques of Geoprocessing, and integrated by Multicriteria Analysis. The Markov Chain model showed a constant tendency of deteriorating in natural vegetation environmental quality, attributed to the intense process of occupation of the river basin. The results showed a historical trend of transformation in forest fragments with

  3. Restrain of birds with bottles of polyethylene terephthalate, tested in red-browed from the Atlantic Forest

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    M.A.F. Bianchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In wild animals, containment is the moment of greatest stress caused by the investigator to the animal due to its natural resistance to the moment of capture, handling, containment and transport, attitudes frankly contrary to his nature. In birds, the restraint must meet certain criteria in order to control the animal's movements, avoiding trauma at the same time that you need to keep your breathing amplitude. The high risk of death during the restraint of these animals raised the need to design a device, from bottles of poly ethylene terephthalate (PET, for containing parrots-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha, a parrot endemic to the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and endangered with extinction, which allowed the observation of respiration, the reduction of handling time of birds for collection of biological material, and consequent reduction of stress and risk of death during the evaluation of several biological data and health of the bird. The PET bottle container can be used as a model for any bird, provided it suits the size of the animal.

  4. Candida queiroziae sp. nov., a cellobiose-fermenting yeast species isolated from rotting wood in Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata O; Cadete, Raquel M; Badotti, Fernanda; Mouro, Adriane; Wallheim, Daniela O; Gomes, Fátima C O; Stambuk, Boris U; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2011-03-01

    Eight strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood and wood-boring insects in Atlantic Rain Forest ecosystems in Brazil. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the yeast belongs to the Scheffersomyces clade and that it is related to Candida lignicola and Candida coipomoensis. The new species was isolated from rotting wood of three different localities and a wood-boring insect suggesting that these substrates are its ecological niche. This new yeast species is able to assimilate cellobiose and other compounds related to rotting wood. Strong fermentation of cellobiose in Durham tubes was observed for the strains of this new yeast. The new species produced an intracellular β-glucosidase responsible for cellobiose hydrolysis. The novel species, Candida queiroziae sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of C. queiroziae is UFMG-CLM 5.1(T) (=CBS 11853(T) = NRRL Y-48722(T)). PMID:21136162

  5. FLOWERING AND POLLINATORS OF THREE DISTYLOUS SPECIES OF Psychotria (Rubiaceae CO-OCCURRING IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST1

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    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the flowering and pollinators of the floral morphs of three co-occurring distylous species, Psychotria conjugens Müll, P. hastisepala Müll. Arg. and P. sessilis Vell., in two consecutive flowering seasons in an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. The species have diurnal, cream-colored, tubular, nectariferous flowers and their flowering occurs in the rainy season, from September to April, with little or no overlapping between species, characterizing a staggered flowering. The flowering of the long-and short-styled floral morphs of each species was synchronous, but the number of open flowers per day per morph tended to vary in each flowering season. These numbers were higher in P. sessilis and P. conjugens and, probably, resulted in higher total numbers of visits on its flowers (up to 1084 visits in P. sessilis and 756 in P. conjugens, compared to that observed in P. hastisepala (up to 71. There was a higher frequency of visits to long-styled flowers of all species. The bee Ariphanarthra palpalis was a common pollinator to all species. This bee is native to Brazil, solitary, considered relatively rare and its host plants were unknown. Other native bees (Melipona spp. also visited the flowers of the Psychotria species. The availability of flowers with similar floral features over eight months, the staggered flowering and common pollinators appear to be part of a strategy to attract floral visitors, minimizing the competition for pollinators and then favoring the legitimate pollination of these plants.

  6. Carbon emissions associated with forest fires in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Moutinho, P. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Forest fires or 'understory fires' that burn beneath forest canopies are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon causing large emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The occurrence and the damage intensity of these fire events are related to the synergetic influence of selective logging, forest fragmentation and severe droughts especially such as that associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. In addition, forest fires occurrence also depends on landscape variables and forest structure. In this chapter we review the feedbacks that increase the susceptibility of the forest to understory fires, evaluate the impact of the fire events on forest biomass, analyze the spatial relationship of these forest fires with landscape characteristics for different regions along the arc of deforestation and estimate the area affected by forest fires in El Nino and non El Nino years. The results indicate that the area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (approximately 43.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation. Our estimate of aboveground forest carbon that will eventually be released to the atmosphere through decomposition of dead trees due to understory fires in the Amazon arc of deforestation ranged from 0.024 to 0.165 Pg during the ENSO and from 0.001 to 0.011 Pg during the non ENSO years.

  7. Ecology of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  8. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

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    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  9. New species of Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Arouca, R.G.; Gomes, S.A.G.; Yamada, M.V.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aphaereta atlantica spec. nov. has been described from material collected at the Atlantic forest in Brazil. The species was present during both the dry and rainy seasons. The male and female are described and illustrated.

  10. A New Species of the Genus Scybalocanthon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) from Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernando Augusto Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    A new species of the genus Scybalocanthon Martínez 1948, Scybalocanthon korasakiae sp. nov., from Atlantic forest ecosystem, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is described based on external and genital morphology.

  11. The necessity of management in a lake of the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot: nitrogen levels connected to a persistent bloom of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

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    Cleber Cunha Figueredo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Conservational studies of the threatened Atlantic Forest biome are frequently restricted to terrestrial ecosystems. We know little about the water bodies, specially considering that this biome covers the third largest system of lakes in Brazil. Some of these lakes are located inside the protected "Rio Doce State Park", but many others are found outside this reserve. These external lakes are seldom studied, but understanding their response to human activities is essential for the conservation and the protection of the lakes inside the Park. We evaluated the effects of degradation in a lake outside the Park, which shows a constant bloom of the toxic invasive cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Phytoplankton, climate and physico-chemical variables were assessed from 2011 to 2013 to evaluate which were the major determinants of the lake dynamics. Despite the seasonal changes, the lake was always eutrophic, and cyanobacteria, transparency and nutrients were the major indicators of water characteristics. The lake seems to be nitrogen-limited and cyanobacteria were negatively correlated with nitrogen levels, since the constantly dominant C. raciborskii is a superior competitor for N. We suggest that the monitoring of nitrogen levels is fundamental to establish management strategies to avoid harmful algae blooms in this Atlantic Forest lake.

  12. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-12-06

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species.

  13. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  14. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  15. Surface contamination effects on leaf chemical composition in the Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exogenous material that adheres to the leaf surface affects the elemental composition of the plant itself, thereby constituting one of the major error sources in plant analysis. The present work investigated the surface contamination of leaves from the Atlantic Forest. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess the efficiency of leaf EDTA-washing. Chemical element concentrations were corrected using Sc (soil tracer) since resuspended soil is the main source of contamination in leaves. As a result, EDTA-washing should be used mainly for the evaluation of terrigenous elements, while the Sc-corrected concentrations are considered satisfactory for the other elements. (author)

  16. A multiscale approach indicates a severe reduction in Atlantic Forest wetlands and highlights that Sao Paulo Marsh Antwren is on the brink of extinction.

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    Glaucia Del-Rio

    Full Text Available Over the last 200 years the wetlands of the Upper Tietê and Upper Paraíba do Sul basins, in the southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, have been almost-completely transformed by urbanization, agriculture and mining. Endemic to these river basins, the São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola survived these impacts, but remained unknown to science until its discovery in 2005. Its population status was cause for immediate concern. In order to understand the factors imperiling the species, and provide guidelines for its conservation, we investigated both the species' distribution and the distribution of areas of suitable habitat using a multiscale approach encompassing species distribution modeling, fieldwork surveys and occupancy models. Of six species distribution models methods used (Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Classification Tree Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest, Random Forest showed the best fit and was utilized to guide field validation. After surveying 59 sites, our results indicated that Formicivora paludicola occurred in only 13 sites, having narrow habitat specificity, and restricted habitat availability. Additionally, historic maps, distribution models and satellite imagery showed that human occupation has resulted in a loss of more than 346 km2 of suitable habitat for this species since the early twentieth century, so that it now only occupies a severely fragmented area (area of occupancy of 1.42 km2, and it should be considered Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Furthermore, averaged occupancy models showed that marshes with lower cattail (Typha dominguensis densities have higher probabilities of being occupied. Thus, these areas should be prioritized in future conservation efforts to protect the species, and to restore a portion of Atlantic Forest wetlands, in times of unprecedented regional water supply problems.

  17. A multiscale approach indicates a severe reduction in Atlantic Forest wetlands and highlights that São Paulo Marsh Antwren is on the brink of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Rio, Glaucia; Rêgo, Marco Antonio; Silveira, Luís Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 200 years the wetlands of the Upper Tietê and Upper Paraíba do Sul basins, in the southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, have been almost-completely transformed by urbanization, agriculture and mining. Endemic to these river basins, the São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) survived these impacts, but remained unknown to science until its discovery in 2005. Its population status was cause for immediate concern. In order to understand the factors imperiling the species, and provide guidelines for its conservation, we investigated both the species' distribution and the distribution of areas of suitable habitat using a multiscale approach encompassing species distribution modeling, fieldwork surveys and occupancy models. Of six species distribution models methods used (Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Classification Tree Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest), Random Forest showed the best fit and was utilized to guide field validation. After surveying 59 sites, our results indicated that Formicivora paludicola occurred in only 13 sites, having narrow habitat specificity, and restricted habitat availability. Additionally, historic maps, distribution models and satellite imagery showed that human occupation has resulted in a loss of more than 346 km2 of suitable habitat for this species since the early twentieth century, so that it now only occupies a severely fragmented area (area of occupancy) of 1.42 km2, and it should be considered Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Furthermore, averaged occupancy models showed that marshes with lower cattail (Typha dominguensis) densities have higher probabilities of being occupied. Thus, these areas should be prioritized in future conservation efforts to protect the species, and to restore a portion of Atlantic Forest wetlands, in times of unprecedented regional water supply problems. PMID:25798608

  18. Inferring Evolution of Habitat Usage and Body Size in Endangered, Seasonal Cynopoeciline Killifishes from the South American Atlantic Forest through an Integrative Approach (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae.

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    Wilson J E M Costa

    Full Text Available Cynopoecilines comprise a diversified clade of small killifishes occurring in the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered biodiversity hotspots in the world. They are found in temporary pools of savannah-like and dense forest habitats, and most of them are highly threatened with extinction if not already extinct. The greatest gap in our knowledge of cynopoecilines stems from the absence of an integrative approach incorporating molecular phylogenetic data of species still found in their habitats with phylogenetic data taken from the rare and possibly extinct species without accessible molecular information. An integrative analysis combining 115 morphological characters with a multigene dataset of 2,108 bp comprising three nuclear loci (GLYT1, ENC1, Rho, provided a robust phylogeny of cynopoeciline killifishes, which was herein used to attain an accurate phylogenetic placement of nearly extinct species. The analysis indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the Cynopoecilini lived in open vegetation habitats of the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and was a miniature species, reaching between 25 and 28 mm of standard length. The rare cases of cynopoecilines specialized in inhabiting pools within dense forests are interpreted as derived from four independent evolutionary events. Shifts in habitat usage and biogeographic patterns are tentatively associated to Cenozoic paleogeographic events, but the evolutionary history of cynopoecilines may be partially lost by a combination of poor past sampling and recent habitat decline. A sharp evolutionary shift directed to increased body size in a clade encompassing the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus may be related to a parallel acquisition of an internally-fertilizing reproductive strategy, unique among aplocheiloid killifishes. This study reinforces the importance of adding morphological information to molecular databases as a tool to understand the biological complexity of organisms

  19. Soil-leaf transfer of chemical elements for the Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil analysis could improve environmental studies since soil is the main source of chemical elements for plants. In this study, soil samples collected at 0-10 cm depth under tree crown projection were analyzed by INAA. Using the chemical composition of the leaf previously determined, the leaf-soil transfer factors of chemical elements could be estimated for the Atlantic Forest. Despite the variability of the intra-species, the transfer factors were specific for some plant species due to their element accumulation in the leaves. Similar Br-Zn combined transfer factors were obtained for the species grouped according to habitats in relation to their position (understory or dominant species) in the forest canopy. (author)

  20. Análise do NDVI/NOAA em cana-de-açúcar e Mata Atlântica no litoral norte de Pernambuco, Brasil Analysis of NDVI/NOAA in sugar cane and Atlantic Forest in the north of Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Abdoral de A. Lucas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se realizou a análise espaço-temporal do NDVI (Índice de Vegetação da Diferença Normalizada na cultura da cana-de-açúcar, considerando-se a idade fenológica e a influência da precipitação pluvial dos meses atual e anterior relativos à safra 2003/2004. A metodologia foi aplicada em três áreas, ou seja, duas com cana-de-açúcar e uma de Mata Atlântica; cada área representa um pixel do satélite NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Os pontos amostrais P1 e P2 indicam áreas com plantio de cana e o ponto P3, um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, todos localizados na Usina São José, no Litoral Norte de Pernambuco. O estádio fenológico da cana-de-açúcar foi relacionado com o NDVI e com a precipitação referente a 6 épocas do ciclo da cultura. Aplicou-se, para a análise espaço-temporal, o índice de vegetação da diferença normalizada, utilizando-se imagens do sensor AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometric/NOAa-16. Os resultados mostraram maior influência da precipitação do mês anterior no comportamento do NDVI. Em relação ao ciclo da cultura, o estádio de desenvolvimento acompanha a evolução do NDVI, ou seja, na medida em que ocorre um ganho de biomassa, aumenta o valor do NDVI e ele começa, então, a decair quando se inicia o estádio de maturação, a partir do sétimo mês após o corte.This paper accomplished a space-temporal analysis of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in sugar cane crop, considering the phenological stage and the influence of pluvial precipitation of the current and previous month of 2003/2004 harvest. The methodology was applied in three areas, two with sugar cane and one of Atlantic Forest. Each area represents a pixel of the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite. Points P1 and P2 represent areas with sugar cane and point P3 a fragment of Atlantic Forest, all located at the Usina São José, in North of Pernambuco

  1. Considerações sobre Coprophanaeus ensifer (Germar (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Notes about Coprophanaeus ensifer (Germar (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Ana Aline Endres

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos da família Scarabaeidae se alimentam da matéria orgânica em decomposição, participando ativamente da ciclagem de nutrientes. C. ensifer é um necrófago de grande porte que ocorre em áreas de florestas tropicais. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer o padrão sazonal da espécie neste ambiente e avaliar a atratividade das iscas utilizadas. Foram realizadas 13 coletas entre os meses de Dezembro/98 e Dezembro/99 na Mata do Buraquinho, um remanescente de Mata Atlântica em João Pessoa, PB. Foram coletados 71 espécimes usando armadilhas com quatro tipos de isca: 35 em carne de porco, 22 em rim bovino e 14 indivíduos em carne bovina, não havendo diferenças significativas entre as iscas em relação a sua atratividade para com os insetos. Não foi coletado nenhum espécime em fígado bovino. A abundância mensal esteve diretamente correlacionada com a precipitação (r s=0,65; pInsects of the family Scarabaeidae feed on organic matter in decomposition, participating actively in biogeocycling of nutrients. C. ensifer is a large-sized necrophagous beette that occurs in tropical forests. In the present work we aimed to record some ecological characteristics of this species regarding the seasonality and bait attractivity. Thirteen samples were performed between December/1998 and December/1999 in the Mata do Buraquinho, a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in João Pessoa, PB. Seventy-one specimens were captured in four baited pitfall traps: 35 on pork meat, 22 on kidney, and 14 on bovine meat. There was no significant difference among the baits with respect to their stimuli for attracting the insects. No specimens of C. ensifer were trapped on baits of liver. The monthly abundance of insects is positively correlated the precipitation (r s=0,65; p<0,05 and humidity (r s=0,55; p<0,05 and inversely with temperature (r s=-0,70; p<0,01. The specimens were collected only from April to September, within the rainy period, an aspect that

  2. Hepáticas (Marchantiophyta de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica na Serra da Jibóia, Município de Santa Teresinha, BA, Brasil Hepatics (Marchantiophyta from a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Serra da Jibóia, in the Municipality of Santa Teresinha, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados do levantamento das hepáticas de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, no Município de Santa Teresinha, Bahia. Foram registradas 70 espécies pertencentes a 41 gêneros e 14 famílias: Aneuraceae (2, Bryopteridaceae (2, Calypogeiaceae (1, Cephaloziaceae (2, Geocalycaceae (2, Herbertaceae (1, Jubulaceae (4, Lejeuneaceae (37, Lepidoziaceae (4, Metzgeriaceae (2, Pallaviciniaceae (2, Plagiochilaceae (8, Radulaceae (2, Trichocoleaceae (1. A família Lejeuneaceae é representada por 53% das espécies. A comunidade corticícola apresentou a maior riqueza específica (67%, seguida pelas epífila (33% e epíxila (14%. Cinco tipos de formas de crescimento foram reconhecidas: trama (69%, talosa (9%, tapete (19%, pendente (3% e tufo (1%. Os táxons registrados para a Serra da Jibóia correspondem àqueles mais característicos de florestas tropicais baixo montana e submontana.This paper provid the results of the survey of hepatics at Serra da Jibóia, remaining Atlantic Forest, Santa Teresinha Municipality, Bahia. Seventy especies were recorded belonging to 41 genera and 14 families: Aneuraceae (2, Bryopteridaceae (2, Calypogeiaceae (1, Cephaloziaceae (2, Geocalycaceae (2, Herbertaceae (1, Jubulaceae (4, Lejeuneaceae (37, Lepidoziaceae (4, Metzgeriaceae (2, Pallaviciniaceae (2, Plagiochilaceae (8, Radulaceae (2, Trichocoleaceae (1. The family Lejeuneaceae were represents for 52,9% of the species. Three substrates were colonized: living trunks (67%, trunks in decomposition (14% and leaves (33%. Five growth-forms were found: mat (69%, thallose (9%, carpet (19%, pendent (3% and turf (1%. The results are similar to these found in tropical rainforest lower montane and submontane.

  3. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  4. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  5. Chemical Characteristics of Continental Outflow Over the Tropical South Atlantic Ocean from Brazil and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Smyth, S.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E.; Heikes, B. G.; Anderson, B. E.; Gregory, G. L.; Singh, H. B.; Lefer, B. L.; Bachmeier, A. S.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical characteristics of air parcels over the tropical South Atlantic during September - October 1992 are summarized by analysis of aged marine and continental outflow classifications. Positive correlations between CO and CH3CL and minimal enhancements of C2CL40, and various ChloroFluoroCarbon (CFC) species in air parcels recently advected over the South Atlantic basin strongly suggest an impact on tropospheric chemistry from biomass burning on adjacent continental areas of Brazil and Africa. Comparison of the composition of aged Pacific air with aged marine air over the South Atlantic basin from 0.3 to 12.5 km altitude indicates potential accumulation of long-lived species during the local dry season. This may amount to enhancements of up to two-fold for C2H6, 30% for CO, and 10% for CH3Cl. Nitric oxide and NO(x) were significantly enhanced (up to approx. 1 part per billion by volume (ppbv)) above 10 km altitude and poorly correlated with CO and CH3Cl. In addition, median mixing ratios of NO and NO(x) were essentially identical in aged marine and continental outflow air masses. It appears that in addition to biomass burning, lightning or recycled reactive nitrogen may be an important source of NO(x) to the upper troposphere. Methane exhibited a monotonic increase with altitude from approx. 1690 to 1720 ppbv in both aged marine and continental outflow air masses. The largest mixing ratios in the upper troposphere were often anticorrelated with CO, CH3Cl, and CO2, suggesting CH, contributions from natural sources. We also argue, based on CH4/CO ratios and relationships with various hydrocarbon and CFC species, that inputs from biomass burning and the northern hemisphere are unlikely to be the dominant sources of CO, CH4 and C2H6 in aged marine air. Emissions from urban areas would seem to be necessary to account for the distribution of at least CH4 and C2H6. Over the African and South American continents an efficient mechanism of convective vertical transport

  6. Soil profile, relief features and their relation to structure and distribution of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest trees

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme; Tiago Osório Ferreira; Marco Antonio Assis; Pablo Vidal Torrado; Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato

    2012-01-01

    In tropical forests, the environmental heterogeneity can provide niche partitioning at local scales and determine the diversity and plant species distribution. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the variations of tree species structure and distribution in response to relief and soil profile features in a portion of the largest remnant of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. All trees ³ 5 cm diameter at breast height were recorded in two 0.99 ha plots. Topographic survey and a soil characterizat...

  7. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  8. Moist forest restoration in Brazil: a locally based project of CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection in Corumbatai River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfrinato, W.; Azevedo, T. [Imaflora (Brazil); Viana, V. [University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-08-01

    This project is a multidisciplinary effort to restore gallery forests in a most degraded Atlantic Moist Forest, recovering the forest fragments in the river basin will (i) establish a pilot project for carbon sequestration, targeting a zero balance for carbon emissions in the region; (ii) improve the watershed quality, thereby decreasing costs of water treatment; (ii) link forest fragments in order to increase biodiversity in the entire basin; (iv) create community involvement with local implementation of environmental education programs. The project is funded by FUNBIO (Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity) and by each participating organization, and is coordinated by Imaflora (Institute for Forest and Agriculture Management and Certification). The Corumbatai Project will be significant as it establishes a new collaborative effort with the alcohol industry which is known to be a promising alternative to fossil fuel. It has the potential to revert a process of many centuries of environmental degradation. It is also a landmark in the process of environmental restoration using a multidisciplinary approach, combining CO{sub 2} sequestration, biodiversity conservation and watershed protection. This experience, in a heavily populated area of Brazil, will generate important information on potential solutions to the problems of Global Change in local initiatives. (author)

  9. Abelhas Euglossini (Apidae) de áreas de Mata Atlântica: abundância, riqueza e aspectos biológicos Euglossine bees (Apidae) from Atlantic Forest sites: abundance, richness, and biological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Carlos Peruquetti; Lúcio Antonio de Oliveira Campos; Claudia Diniz Pinto Coelho; Célio Vicente Machado Abrantes; Luciane Cristina de Oliveira Lisboa

    1999-01-01

    Collection data of Euglossinae males from Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD) and Viçosa, both areas with remnants of Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil are presented. Comparisons made among three fragments with different sizes and states of disturbance from Viçosa showed differences in abundance of most common species and apparently, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletir, 1841 can be an useful indicator of disturbed sites. Some populations of euglossine bees seems to be r...

  10. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny indicates close relationships between populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the rain-forest regions of Amazônia and northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, E A; Ready, P D; de Souza, A A; Day, J C; Rangel, E F; Davies, C R; Shaw, J J

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past) a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. PMID:10419383

  11. A Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny Indicates Close Relationships between Populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from the Rain-forest Regions of Amazônia and Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa EAY

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia. These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil.

  12. Forest transition or just deforestation? Evidence from Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertsen, Catrin

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is emerging as one of the greatest global challenges in the twenty first century, and is the result of increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Deforestation is the third greatest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, and there is a growing consensus that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) should be included in a post-Kyoto agreement. This thesis examines forest cover change in the Brazilian Am...

  13. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in a pool system in Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil=Dieta de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae em um sistema de poções na Floresta Atlântica do Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the feeding habits of Lontra longicaudis in a pool system within the Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN Usina Maurício, located in Paraíba do Sul river basin, Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais State. The diet composition was determined based on the identification of items present in 212 scats sampled between July 2008 and October 2009 in a 4.1 km stretch of the pool system. The found items and its respective percentages of occurrence were: mollusks (0.5%, insects (16.5%, spiders (1.4%, crustaceans (3.3%, fish (96.7%, amphibians (0.9%, snakes (3.8%, birds (2.8%, mammals (8.5% and fruits (0.5%. Among fish, the identified families and respective percentages of occurrence were: Loricariidae (65.4%, Pimelodidae (42.9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7.3%, Erythrinidae (3.9%, Synbranchidae (2.4%, Anostomidae (2%. Therefore fish make up the most consumed item in the study area, with the predominance of benthic siluriformes (families Loricariidae and Pimelodidae. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os hábitos alimentares de Lontra longicaudis em um sistema de poções na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural – RPPN Usina Maurício, localizada na bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul, Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Estado de Minas Gerais. A composição da dieta foi determinada com base na identificação de itens presentes em 212 amostras de fezes coletadas entre julho de 2008 e outubro de 2009 em um trecho de 4,1 km de um sistema de poções. Os itens alimentares encontrados e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: moluscos (0,5%, insetos (16,5%, aranhas (1,4%, crustáceos (3,3%, peixes (96,7%, anfíbios (0,9%, serpentes (3,8%, aves (2,8%, mamíferos (8,5%, frutos (0,5%. Dentre os peixes, famílias identificadas e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: Loricariidae (65,4%, Pimelodidae (42,9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7,3%, Erythrinidae (3,9%, Synbranchidae (2

  14. Biogeographic distribution patterns and their correlates in the diverse frog fauna of the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago S Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Anurans are a highly diverse group in the Atlantic Forest hotspot (AF, yet distribution patterns and species richness gradients are not randomly distributed throughout the biome. Thus, we explore how anuran species are distributed in this complex and biodiverse hotspot, and hypothesize that this group can be distinguished by different cohesive regions. We used range maps of 497 species to obtain a presence/absence data grid, resolved to 50×50 km grain size, which was submitted to k-means clustering with v-fold cross-validation to determine the biogeographic regions. We also explored the extent to which current environmental variables, topography, and floristic structure of the AF are expected to identify the cluster patterns recognized by the k-means clustering. The biogeographic patterns found for amphibians are broadly congruent with ecoregions identified in the AF, but their edges, and sometimes the whole extent of some clusters, present much less resolved pattern compared to previous classification. We also identified that climate, topography, and vegetation structure of the AF explained a high percentage of variance of the cluster patterns identified, but the magnitude of the regression coefficients shifted regarding their importance in explaining the variance for each cluster. Specifically, we propose that the anuran fauna of the AF can be split into four biogeographic regions: a less diverse and widely-ranged species that predominantly occur in the inland semideciduous forests; b northern small-ranged species that presumably evolved within the Pleistocene forest refugia; c highly diverse and small-ranged species from the southeastern Brazilian mountain chain and its adjacent semideciduous forest; and d southern species from the Araucaria forest. Finally, the high congruence among the cluster patterns and previous eco-regions identified for the AF suggests that preserving the underlying habitat structure helps to preserve the historical

  15. Partitioning of seed dispersal services between birds and bats in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Sarmento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-level network studies suggest that seed dispersal networks may share some universal properties with other complex systems. However, most of the datasets used so far in those studies have been strongly biased towards temperate birds, including not only dispersers, but also seed predators. Recent evidence from multi-taxon networks suggests that seed dispersal networks are not all alike and may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we used network theory to evaluate seed dispersal in a strongly impacted Atlantic Forest fragment in northeastern Brazil, where bats and birds are the only extant dispersers. We hypothesized that the seed dispersal network should be more modular then nested, and that the dispersers should segregate their services according to dispersal syndromes. Furthermore, we predicted that bat and bird species that are more specialized in frugivory would be more important for maintaining the network structure. The mixed network contained 56 plant species, 12 bat species, and eight bird species, and its structure was more modular (M = 0.58 then nested (NODF = 0.21 compared with another multi-taxon network and 21 single-taxon networks (with either bats or birds. All dispersed fruits had seeds smaller than 9 mm. Bats dispersed mainly green fruits, whereas birds dispersed fruits of various colors. The network contained eight modules: five with birds only, two with bats only, and one mixed. Most dispersers were peripheral, and only specialized frugivores acted as hubs or connectors. Our results strongly support recent studies, suggesting that seed dispersal networks are complex mosaics, where different taxa form separate modules with different properties, which in turn play complementary roles in the maintenance of the associated ecosystem functions and services.

  16. Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Medeiros de Almeida

    2000-12-01

    Psychotria são importantes recursos para espécies de aves de Floresta Atlântica.We compared two sympatric species of Psychotria (P. brasiliensis and P. nuda, regarding phenology and spatial distribution. The phenological events were associated with abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod and biotic factors (pollinators and frugivores. We carried out the study between August/1998 and July/1999 in an undisturbed area of the Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. We made phenological observations and also recorded the species visiting the flowers and eating the fruits of both plant species. The production of new leaves occurred from November/1998 to May/1999 for both species. There was a positive correlation between photoperiod, rainfall and temperature (climatological means and leafing period. The flowering period was between March and June for P. nuda and, April and July for P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda was visited mainly by males of an species of hummingbird, Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae (47,2%; n=682, while P. brasiliensis was visited by females (85,1%; n=1869 of this hummingbird species. Both species flowered in the same period, used the same pollinator, but may not compete for this resource, thus we rejected the "shared-pollinator" hypothesis. The fruiting period ocurred all year round for P. nuda and P. brasiliensis. Lipaugus lanioides, was the most frequent frugivore in P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis had clumped distribution, apparently due to vegetative reproduction, mostly by P. nuda. This study suggests that both species of Psychotria are important resources for Atlantic Rain Forest bird species.

  17. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  18. Development of Microsatellites for Verbenoxylum reitzii (Verbenaceae, a Tree Endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Verônica A. Thode

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Verbenoxylum reitzii (Verbenaceae, a tree endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, to investigate their usefulness in population genetic studies. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in the related genera Recordia and Duranta. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from an enriched library of V. reitzii and characterized. The primers were tested on 60 individuals from three populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 11, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 1.0 and from 0.088 to 0.758, respectively. Ten loci successfully amplified in R. boliviana and all failed in D. vestita. Conclusions: Our results suggest the usefulness of the microsatellite loci developed here to access genetic variability for phylogeographic and population genetic studies in V. reitzii, which are important for the conservation of this rare species.

  19. Education and Training in Natural Forest Management. Training Discussion Paper No. 88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Alceu Natal

    A program for natural forest management in developing countries consists of several integrated projects. Although aimed at establishing norms and criteria for natural forest management in Mata Atlantica (Atlantic Forest) in southern Brazil, the norms also apply to other types of tropical vegetation in order to ensure continuous economic…

  20. Mapping and monitoring forest remnants: A multi-scale analysis of spatio-temporal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, de L.M.T.

    2001-01-01

    KEYWORDS : Landsat, time series, machine learning, semideciduous Atlantic forest, Brazil, wavelet transforms, classification, change detectionForests play a major role in important global matters such as carbon cycle, climate change, and biodiversity. Besides, forests also influence soil and water d

  1. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos

    Full Text Available The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL, trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites

  2. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  3. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  4. ESTIMATE OF LITTER FALL IN SEASONAL DECIDUOUS FOREST IN ITAARA, RS, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel; Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Peter Trüby; Elisabete Vuaden

    2010-01-01

    This work was carried out in the farm of the Military Brigade in the city of Itaara, RS, Brazil. The present work has as main objective to evaluate the estimate of litter fall in Seasonal Deciduous Forest. For the litter collection, six  plots of 25 m x 17 m had been demarcated, placed in the forest. In each plot, five litter traps had been distributed, totalizing 30 traps. The litter collections had been carried out monthly, during a period of 2 years (December of 2002 to November of 2004). ...

  5. Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso-Moura, E N; Oporto, L T; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of species has become an important problem for biodiversity and natural ecosystem conservation. The lake system of the middle Rio Doce (MG, Brazil) comprises c. 200 lakes at various conservation states, of which 50 are located within the Rio Doce State Park (PERD). Previous studies had verified several of these lakes suffered non-native fishes introductions and the presence of these species needs for the implementation of actions aiming at not only their control but also the preservation of the native species. This study discusses the effects of non-native fish species in the largest conservation unit of Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, southeast of Brazil, using data from 1983 to 2010 distributed as follow: data prior to 2006 were obtained from previous studies, and data from September 2006 to July 2010 were obtained in Lake Carioca at four sampling stations using gillnets, seine nets and sieve. A total of 17 fish species was collected (2006-2010) of which five were introduced species. Among the small to medium size native species (30 to 2000 mm standard length) seven had disappeared, two are new records and one was recaptured. The non-native species Cichla kelberi (peacock bass) and Pygocentrus nattereri (red piranha) are within the most abundant captured species. Integrated with other actions, such as those preventing new introductions, a selective fishing schedule is proposed as an alternative approach to improve the conservation management actions and the local and regional biodiversity maintenance. PMID:26909619

  6. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  7. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Felipe C; Damasceno, Elaine R; Sylvestre, Lana S

    2014-03-01

    A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  8. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE C. NETTESHEIM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  9. Fenologia, morfologia floral e visitantes de Psychotria brachypoda (Müll. Arg. Britton (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica, Sudeste do Brasil Phenology, floral morphology and visitors of Psychotria brachypoda (Müll. Arg. Britton (Rubiaceae in Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil

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    Lorena Coutinho Nery Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram descritos o padrão fenológico, biologia floral, visitantes florais mais freqüentes e taxa de formação de frutos de Psychotria brachypoda, em uma área de Floresta Atlântica. O padrão de floração foi anual e intermediário, ocorrendo entre agosto e janeiro. A produção de frutos maduros ocorreu de março a julho/2004 e de fevereiro a maio/2005. O comprimento e o diâmetro da corola das flores brevistilas foram maiores que das longistilas. Apesar de não ter havido hercogamia recíproca exata, houve sobreposição entre as alturas dos estigmas das flores longistilas com os estames das brevistilas e vice-versa. O néctar apresentou maior concentração média de açúcares às 06:30 h (33% e menor às 14:30 h (26%. Flores cujo néctar foi coletado ao longo do dia produziram em média três vezes mais néctar que as flores que tiveram o néctar coletado apenas no final do dia. Foram encontrados 24 indivíduos brevistilos e 25 longistilos, indicando que a população é isoplética. Os principais visitantes florais foram machos e fêmeas do beija-flor Thalurania glaucopis, abelhas da tribo Trigonini e do gênero Euglossa, três espécies de lepidópteros, um díptero e um coleóptero. Houve formação de frutos verdes em 13,3% do total de flores marcadas e a taxa de produção de frutos foi similar entre os morfotipos florais. É provável que o principal polinizador de P. brachypoda seja o beija-flor T. glaucopis porque ele visita com freqüência muitas flores de diferentes indivíduos, provavelmente transferindo pólen entre eles.In this paper, the phenological pattern, floral biology, most frequent floral visitors and fruit set of Psychotria brachypoda are described. This study was carried out in Atlantic forest from October 2003 to September 2005. Flowering was annual and intermediate, occurring from August to January. Mature fruit production occurred from March to July 2004 and from February to June 2005

  10. Challenges for Low-Carbon Agriculture and Forest Conservation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Britaldo Soares Filho; Letícia Lima; Maria Bowman; Letícia Viana

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the feedbacks between climate change, deforestation, and agricultural expansion and presents scenarios of agricultural demand and forest conservation and restoration policies in Brazil. In addition, it discusses the implications of these scenarios for food and befoul supply, the provision of ecosystem services, and climate change mitigation. Modeling these scenarios provides an integrated assessment of plausible pathways for achieving the goals of the National Climate Cha...

  11. Reproductive phenology, pollination, and fructification of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City

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    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of phenology and reproductive biology of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. in border and interior areas of an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, are apresented. Four plots of 10x10m were delineated, two on the edge and two inside the forest, and individuals of H. spathocircinata were monitored from June 2009 to June 2010. The observations were carried out from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. once a week on December and January, and fortnightly the rest of flowering. Heliconia spathocircinata bloomeds between November and March and the fruits were ripe two months after pollination, and there was no significant difference between edge and interior with regard to the period of flowering and fruiting. The fruit-flower ratio averaged 66.6% in the interior and 27% within the forestedge, a considerable difference. The male hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, and to a lesser extent, female birds of this species, were the most frequent pollinators in the area evaluated, both edge and interior. Other species were identified as pollinators: Phaethornis ruber L., Ramphodon naevius Dumont, Eupetomena macroura Gmelin, and Amazilia fimbriata Gmelin. Of these, only P. ruber was found in both environments.

  12. Systematics of spiny predatory katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest based on morphology and molecular data.

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    Verônica Saraiva Fialho

    Full Text Available Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition.

  13. Are Nontimber Forest Products the Antidote to Rainforest Degradation? Brazil Nut Extraction in Madre De Dios, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Aldana, U.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and Amazonian forest management by Brazil nut harvesters in southeastern Peru. Although the poor rely more upon natural resource-based income than the rich, wealthier households use more forest wood and land than poorer ones. Contrary to the belie

  14. Spatial distribution of water erosion risk in a watershed with eucalyptus and Atlantic Forest

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    Junior Cesar Avanzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of water erosion occurs in watersheds throughout the world and it is strongly affected by anthropogenic influences. Thus, the knowledge of these processes is extremely necessary for planning of conservation efforts. This study was performed in an experimental forested watershed in order to predict the average potential annual soil loss by water erosion using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and a Geographic Information System (GIS, and then compared with soil loss tolerance. All the USLE factors were generated in a distributed approach employing a GIS tool. The layers were multiplied in the GIS framework in order to predict soil erosion rates. Results showed that the average soil loss was 6.2 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Relative to soil loss tolerance, 83% of the area had an erosion rate lesser than the tolerable value. According to soil loss classes, 49% of the watershed had erosion less than 2.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1. However, about 8.7% of the watershed had erosion rates greater than 15 Mg ha-1 yr-1, being mainly related to Plinthosol soil class and roads, thus requiring special attention for the improvement of sustainable management practices for such areas. Eucalyptus cultivation was found to have soil loss greater than Atlantic Forest. Thus, an effort should be made to bring the erosion rates closer to the native forest. Implementation of the USLE model in a GIS framework was found to be a simple and useful tool for predicting the spatial variation of soil erosion risk and identifying critical areas for conservation efforts.

  15. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

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    Luciana Coe Girão

    Full Text Available Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots. As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated. The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores for pollination systems (-30.3%, floral types (-23.6%, and floral sizes (-20.8% in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and

  16. TREE DIAMETER GROWTH FOLLOWING SILVICULTURAL TREATMENTS IN A SEMI-DECIDUOUS SECONDARY FOREST IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

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    Fábio Venturoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Cerrado biome of Brazil, savannas and dry forests are intimately linked and form mosaics. These forests are composed of species of high commercial value, well accepted in the timber market, which causes intensive deforestation on the remaining vegetation. Thus, the management of these forests is an important alternative to reduce deforestation in the remaining vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of tree species in relation to silvicultural treatments of competition and liana cutting in a semi-deciduous forest in Central Brazil. The results showed that community basal area increased 24% over 4.8 years and the median periodic annual increment in diameter was about 20% higher in plots with silvicultural treatments: 2.9 mm.yr-1 in the control compared to 3.2 mm.yr-1 to 3.6 mm.yr-1 between treatments. This study demonstrated that it is possible to increase the rates of radial growth through silvicultural techniques.

  17. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  18. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia (Proteobacteria) species from the Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, A C; Santos, H R M; Gross, E; Corrêa, R X

    2013-03-11

    The genus Burkholderia (β-Proteobacteria) currently comprises more than 60 species, including parasites, symbionts and free-living organisms. Several new species of Burkholderia have recently been described showing a great diversity of phenotypes. We examined the diversity of Burkholderia spp in environmental samples collected from Caatinga and Atlantic rainforest biomes of Bahia, Brazil. Legume nodules were collected from five locations, and 16S rDNA and recA genes of the isolated microorganisms were analyzed. Thirty-three contigs of 16S rRNA genes and four contigs of the recA gene related to the genus Burkholderia were obtained. The genetic dissimilarity of the strains ranged from 0 to 2.5% based on 16S rDNA analysis, indicating two main branches: one distinct branch of the dendrogram for the B. cepacia complex and another branch that rendered three major groups, partially reflecting host plants and locations. A dendrogram designed with sequences of this research and those designed with sequences of Burkholderia-type strains and the first hit BLAST had similar topologies. A dendrogram similar to that constructed by analysis of 16S rDNA was obtained using sequences of the fragment of the recA gene. The 16S rDNA sequences enabled sufficient identification of relevant similarities and groupings amongst isolates and the sequences that we obtained. Only 6 of the 33 isolates analyzed via 16S rDNA sequencing showed high similarity with the B. cepacia complex. Thus, over 3/4 of the isolates have potential for biotechnological applications.

  19. Feeding habits of the atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis, in southeastern Brazil

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    Xênia Moreira Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents new information on the feeding habits of the Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, in the Western South Atlantic. Nine stomach contents of S. frontalis incidentally caught in fishing operations conducted by the gillnet fleet based on main harbour of Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed. These specimens were captured between 2005 and 2007. A total of 1 422 cephalopod beaks, 147 otoliths and three crustaceans were recovered from the stomach contents. The dolphins assessed preyed on at least eight different fish species of the families Trichiuridae, Carangidae, Sparidae, Merluccidae, Engraulidae, Sciaenidae, Congridae and Scombridae, five cephalopod species of the families Loliginidae, Sepiolidae, Tremoctopodidae and Thysanoteuthidae, and one shrimp species of the Penaeidae family. Based on the analysis of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI, the Atlantic cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, was the most important fish species represented. Of the cephalopods, the squid Doryteuthis plei was by far the most representative species. Several items were reported for the first time as prey of the S. frontalis: Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Tremoctopus violaceus, Semirossia tenera, Merluccius hubbsi, Pagrus pagrus and Paralonchurus brasiliensis. S. frontalis presented teuthophagous and ichthyofagous feeding habits, with apparent predominance of the first, and preyed mainly on pelagic and demersal items.O presente estudo apresenta novas informações sobre os hábitos alimentares de golfinhos-pintados-do-Atlântico, Stenella frontalis, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados nove conteúdos estomacais de S. frontalis acidentalmente capturados em operações de pesca entre 2005 e 2007 pela frota pesqueira do município de Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, sudeste do Brasil. Foram recuperados dos conteúdos estomacais 1 422 bicos de cefalópodes, 147 otólitos e três camarões. Dos itens analisados, foram

  20. Mitochondrial DNA of Euglossa iopoecila (Apidae, Euglossini) reveals two distinct lineages for this orchid bee species endemic to the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Penha, Rafael E. S.; Gaglianone, Maria C.; Fernanda S. de Almeida; Boff, Samuel V.; Silvia H. Sofia

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThis study analysed the population genetic structure of Euglossa iopoecila, an orchid bee species endemic to the Atlantic Forest which shows a variation in the colour of its metallic integument across its distribution. Our analyses were based on microsatellite and mitochondrial markers. From ten microsatellite loci surveyed, six are described herein for the first time. Mitochondrial markers were obtained by sequencing 651 bp of Cytb gene. Bees were collected from six Atlantic Forest r...

  1. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Catão, Elisa C. P.; Lopes, Fabyano A. C.; Janaína F. Araújo; Alinne P. de Castro; Barreto, Cristine C.; Mercedes M.C. Bustamante; Betania F. Quirino; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial ...

  2. Changes in plant community of Seasonally Semideciduous Forest after invasion by Schizolobium parahyba at southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rodolfo Cesar Real de; Santos, Francisco Ferreira de Miranda; Durigan, Giselda

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of a species as invasive is generally accepted when it comes from another continent or even from another country, but requires strong evidences of negative impacts to support control actions when the invasive species comes from another region in the same country. Schyzolobium parahyba - the 'guapuruvu', is a Brazilian tree native from the evergreen type of the Atlantic Forest, which has been recorded as invader in a number of remnants of the Seasonally Semideciduous Forest - SSF. We hypothesized that this giant and fast growing invasive tree changes the structure and composition of the understory, thus impairing the forest dynamics. We assessed the invasive population in the whole fragment, and, within the portion invaded, we sampled the regenerating plant community 1) under the largest alien trees, 2) under a native species with similar ecology (Peltophorum dubium), and 3) randomly in the forest. Density, basal area and richness under S. parahyba were remarkably lower than under the equivalent native species or in the understory as a whole. Floristic composition of the plant community was also distinct under S. parahyba, possibly due to increased competition for soil water. Even though the alien species has occupied, as yet, a small proportion of the forest fragment, it dominates the overstory and threatens the regeneration processes under its canopy. In view of our findings, we recommend extirpation of the species from SSF, as well as avoiding cultivation of the species away from its native range.

  3. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

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    J. Lebamba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical evergreen to semi-evergreen forest (TRFO biome is well identified from semi-deciduous forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map must be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  4. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluate...

  5. Chemical and biological study of essential oils from Eugenia pruniformis cambess., an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Ricardo D.D.G.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Caio P. Fernandes; Couteiro, Pedro P.; Eiriz, Débora N.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Silva Filho, Moacélio V.; Gutemberg G. Alves; Bachinski, Róber; Rocha, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia pruniformis Cambess. is an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Essential oils from leaves and fruits from this species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/CG-FID. In all, 25 compounds were identified, with predominance of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in both plant parts. The major compounds were β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D, δ- cadinene and α-copaene. Antioxidant activity was performed for essential oil from leaves using ORAC method, s...

  6. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew L. Clark; Andrea E. Izquierdo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan) to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield) in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protecte...

  7. The macrofungal diversity and community of Atlantic oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur forests in Ireland

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    Harrington, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The oak species Quercus petraea and Q. Robur are dominant canopy tree species of native deciduous forests in Ireland and coastal regions of Western Europe. These forests are typically plant species-rich, and can also have a rich fungal flora. This survey examined macrofungi found in five native oak sites across Ireland over three years. Overall, 94 macrofungal species belonging to 39 genera were discovered with Mycena, Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius the most species-rich genera. The species accumulation curve did not show signs of levelling off, indicating that more sampling would reveal more new species. Species richness estimation using the Chao2 estimator indicated that up to 135 species may be present across all of our plots, with individual plots receiving estimates from 19 to 61 species per plot. Sampled-based rarefaction analysis showed no significant differences in macrofungal species richness between our plots. The five most common species were Laccaria amethystina, L. laccata, Stereum hirsutum, Armillaria mellea and Cortinarius flexipes. Comparisons of the results with results from oak forests in similar regions found that the communities in Great Britain were most similar to those found in Ireland. There were some key oak forest distinguishing fungal species from the family Boletaceae lacking from Irish oak forests. It is hypothesised that the historic deforestation of Ireland, caused a reduction of suitable habitats for Irish oak associated macrofungi, leading to the unspecific mycota found in the oak forests of this study. The threats to Atlantic oak forests in Ireland are briefly discussed.Las especies de Quercus petraea y Q. Robur se encuentran en bosques de Irlanda y regiones de influencia atlántica de Europa Occidental. Estos bosques, típicamente ricos en especies de plantas, presentan una abundante micobiota. Este estudio examina la diversidad de macromicetes en cinco bosques naturales de roble en Irlanda durante un

  8. Thirty Years of Human Demography and Land-Use Change in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina: an Evaluation of the Forest Transition Model

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    Carlos D. De Angelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years, tropical and subtropical forests have been deforested for agriculture, grazing, and timber extraction. Nevertheless in the last decade, several publications have suggested that some regions of Latin America are showing a process of forest transition. Forest transition theory predicts that industrialization and urbanization will lead to the abandonment of marginal agriculture lands and the recovery of natural systems such as forests. However, there are many ecological, economic, and social factors that could act as barriers to ecosystem recovery. To evaluate this hypothesis, we analyzed the socioeconomic and land-use changes during the last 30 years at the provincial and departmental level in the province of Misiones, Argentina. We described the changes in the distribution of urban and rural populations based on national population censuses from 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2001. Land-use change was based on a supervised analysis of four mosaics of Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper satellite images from 1973, 1979, 1987/1989, and 2006. Although the change in the rural population varied greatly among the departments, there has been a dramatic increase in the urban population at the provincial level. The major land-use changes between 1973 and 2006 were an increase in monospecific plantations of mainly Pinus and Eucalyptus of 2702 km² and a loss of 4689 km² of natural forest. Misiones possesses the largest remnant of continuous Atlantic Forest, which is famous for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, but much of this forest now comprises monospecific plantations. Although demographic changes in Misiones are similar to those that have occurred other regions (i.e., rural–urban migration, and the increase in forest plantations helps to maintain forest cover, this cover has much lower ecological value than that of natural forest. To ensure the conservation of the high-diversity Atlantic Forest in Misiones requires a

  9. Relação entre a presença de vegetação herbácea e a regeneração natural de espécies lenhosas em pastagens abandonadas na Floresta Ombrófila Densa do Sul do Brasil Relationship between herbaceous vegetation and regeneration of woody species in abandoned pastures in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Southern Brazil

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    Kwok Chiu Cheung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A conversão de áreas florestais em pastagens constitui uma das atividades que mais degradam a Floresta Ombrófila Densa. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se áreas de pastagens abandonadas há oito, 14, 48, 50 e 96 meses, em Antonina (Estado do Paraná, 25º19'15'' S e 45º24'24'' W, com o objetivo de verificar se a presença da cobertura herbácea diminui a regeneração natural das espécies arbóreas. Foram identificadas as espécies e avaliada a biomassa de espécies herbáceas (em 24 parcelas de 1 m² e volume das espécies lenhosas (altura igual ou superior a 1 m; 24 parcelas de 25 m². Nas cinco áreas estudadas foram amostradas 59 espécies herbáceas (1.062 indivíduos, das quais, a maioria (95% era exótica (incluindo Brachiaria decumbens e B. humidicola. Para a comunidade de hábito arbustivo-arbóreo, foram amostradas 104 espécies (2.234 indivíduos. Houve significativa modificação florística e estrutural da vegetação nos primeiros quatro anos após o abandono das pastagens. O desenvolvimento da vegetação lenhosa foi inversamente relacionado à presença de espécies herbáceas, o que sugere que a cobertura vegetal promovida pelas ervas, principalmente B. decumbens, seja um dos fatores que influenciam negativamente a regeneração natural. Estes resultados sugerem que práticas de manejo que incluam a remoção ou redução dos efeitos de Brachiaria spp sejam necessárias na restauração de pastagens abandonadas.Deforestation and conversion of forests to pasture is one of the most degrading activities impacting the Atlantic Rain Forest. We analyzed pastures abandoned for 8, 14, 48, 50 and 96 months in Antonina (Paraná state; 25º19'15'' S; 45º24'24'' W to verify if herb cover reduces the natural regeneration of the Atlantic forest. We identified species and assessed shoot biomass of herbaceous species (in 24 1 m² plots, and calculated the volume of all woody species (height > 1m; in 24 25 m² plots. We collected 59 herbaceous

  10. Sandfly fauna in a military training area endemic for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Atlantic Rain Forest region of Pernambuco, Brazil Fauna de flebotomíneos em área de treinamento militar endêmica para leishmaniose tegumentar americana, na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Sandra Andrade; Hélio França Valença; Amilton Lopes da Silva; Francisco de Assis Almeida; Ericka Lima Almeida; Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito; Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the sandfly fauna in a military training area situated in the "Zona da Mata" region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where human cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) had been observed, caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The occurrence of 16 sandfly species in the Marshall Newton Cavalcanti Military Training Camp (CIMNC) indicates an important diversity of sandfly species in this study area. Lutzomyia complexa was the most common spe...

  11. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

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    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  12. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

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    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year-1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximumnumber of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha-1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year-1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  13. Phytosociology of a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, Municipality of Pelotas, RS, Brazil

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    Tiago Schuch Lemos Venzke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Floristic composition and structure of the tree component were analyzed in a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, located in the southern region of Lagoa dos Patos (31º43’39”S e 52º12’04”W. The phytosociological sampling was conducted on a sample area of 0.1 ha. All trees with DBH ≥ 4.8 cm were included. The species richness found was equivalent to 23 species distributed in 20 genera and 15 families. Two endangered species were sampled. The total tree density estimated for one hectare was equivalent to 3,480 trees. The most important species in the forest structure were Ocotea sp., Myrcia multiflora, Psidium cattleyanum, Ocotea pulchella, Myrsine lorentziana, Citharexyllum myrianthum, Ilex dumosa, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Guapira opposita and Sebastiania brasiliensis. The species diversity estimated by the Shannon index was 2,174 nats.ind.-1 and evenness (J was 0.684. The forest structure, number of taxa and diversity are similar to other surveys carried out in swamp forests of southern and southeastern Brazil. These parameters must be considered in the environmental licensing and ecological restoration projects of this forest type.

  14. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a forest- pasture chronosequence from Paragominas, Para (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples from sites, 4, 10 and 15 year-old pastures and one reference native forest, from Paragominas - Para (Brazil), were used to determine the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and the natural abundance of 13C isotope, with the objective of quantifying the C and N budgets during replacement of the forest by pastures. With pasture establishment C and N contents were increased. After 4 and 15 years of pasture, the C content increased to 0.28 kg.m-2 and 0.86 kg.m-2 respectively in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The 10 year pasture remained stable (0.02 kg.m-2 decreased) in relation to the natural forest, but decreased by 0.15 kg.m-2 in the 0-10 cm layer. In the 0-30 cm layer, organic matter in the natural forest site was 2.6 kg.m-2 stable C and 2.1 kg.m-2 biodegradable C. After 10 and 15 years under pasture, biodegradable C represented 1.3 kg.m-2 and 1.0 kg.m-2, corresponding to 27.7% and 21.3% of the original forest C, while the stable C represented 2.6 kg.m-2. (author)

  15. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

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    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de

  16. Macroinvertebrates associated with bryophyta in a first-order Atlantic Forest stream

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    Beatriz F. J. V. Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the composition and structure of the benthic community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream, located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. During three months of the dry season of 2007 and three months of the rainy season of 2008, samples of bryophytes attached to stones were collected randomly, along a 100 m stream reach. The structure of the community was analyzed through the mean density of individuals, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness, family richness, dominance index, and the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (% EPT. Chironomidae larvae were dominant in the two periods of study, followed by Ceratopogonidae in the rainy season, and Naididae in the dry season. The orders EPT contributed 14 families. The results showed that bryophytes constitute suitable habitat which is able to shelter an abundant and diversified benthic fauna in a small extension of the stream. This habitat provides refuge during spates, and thus minimizes downstream transport of the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  17. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  18. Identification of a new lipase family in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoro, Helisson; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Souza, Emanuel M; Rigo, Liu U; Cruz, Leonardo M; Monteiro, Rose A; Pedrosa, Fábio O

    2011-12-01

    Lipases are the most investigated class of enzymes in metagenomics. Phylogenetic classification of bacterial lipases comprises eight families. Here we describe the construction and screening of three metagenomic libraries from Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil and identification of a new lipase family. The metagenomic libraries, MAF1, MAF2 and MAF3, contained 34 560, 29 280 and 36 288 clones respectively. Lipase screening on triolein-rhodamine B plates resulted in one positive clone, Lip018. The DNA insert of Lip018 was fully sequenced and 20 ORFs were identified by comparison against the GenBank. Transposon mutagenesis revealed that ORF15, similar to serine peptidases, and ORF16, a hypothetical protein, were both required for lipase activity. ORF16 has a typical lipase conserved pentapeptide G-X-S-X-G and the comparison against the Pfam database showed that ORF16 belongs to family 5 of αβ-hydrolase. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that ORF16, together with other related proteins, may be a member of a new lipase family, named LipAP, activated by a putative serine protease. Partial characterization of ORF16 lipase showed that the enzyme has activity against a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters, but only after activation by the predicted peptidase ORF15. PMID:23761366

  19. Atlantic forest bird communities provide different but not fewer functions after habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-07-22

    Habitat loss often reduces the number of species as well as functional diversity. Dramatic effects to species composition have also been shown, but changes to functional composition have so far been poorly documented, partly owing to a lack of appropriate indices. We here develop three new community indices (i.e. functional integrity, community integrity of ecological groups and community specialization) to investigate how habitat loss affects the diversity and composition of functional traits and species. We used data from more than 5000 individuals of 137 bird species captured in 57 sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a highly endangered biodiversity hotspot.Results indicate that habitat loss leads to a decrease in functional integrity while measures of functional diversity remain unchanged or are even positively affected. Changes to functional integrity were caused by (i) a decrease in the provisioning of some functions, and an increase in others; (ii) strong within-guild species turnover; and (iii) a replacement of specialists by generalists. Hence, communities from more deforested sites seem to provide different but not fewer functions. We show the importance of investigating changes to both diversity and composition of functional traits and species, as the effects of habitat loss on ecosystem functioning may be more complex than previously thought. Crucially, when only functional diversity is assessed, important changes to ecological functions may remain undetected and negative effects of habitat loss underestimated, thereby imperiling the application of effective conservation actions.

  20. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

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    DANIELLE O. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605. We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590 to George Marcgrave (1610-1644. We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.