WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlantic flight corridor

  1. Pollution from aircraft emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Overview on the results of the POLINAT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U.; Duerbeck, T.; Feigl, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany); Arnold, F.; Droste-Franke, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Flatoy, F. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Geophysics; Ford, I.J. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom); Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Lab. for Cloud and Aerosol Sciences; Hayman, G.D. [National Environmental Technology Centre, AEA Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); and others

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT project (phase 1) was performed 1994 to 1996 within the Environment Research Programme of the European Commission. POLINAT-2 is being performed now since April 1996. The objectives of POLINAT-1 and -2, the methods used, the measurements, and some selected results are described. Details are given on the measured background concentrations, the emission indices of several aircraft, comparisons between modelled and measured data, and the impact of the emissions within the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 21 refs.

  2. Airborne observations of large scale accumulations of air traffic emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor within a stagnant anticyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Ziereis, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ovarlez, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie; Velthoven, P. van [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical and horizontal trace gas distributions were measured west of Ireland during a 7-day period in June 1995 within an extended stagnant anticyclone located in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Four subsequent flights (21, 24, 26, 28 June) with the DLR Falcon research aircraft were performed including observations of NO, O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, and meteorological parameters. NO volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere from vertical profile measurements averaged over the corridor height range increased by 74 pptv (60%) during the observation period. Averaged NO concentrations measured along constant level flight legs at 10.7 km from 50 to 54 deg N increased by 87 pptv. Corresponding simulations with a 3-d chemistry transport model of KNMI reveal similar increases of NO{sub x} for the measuring area over the 7-day period for a model run with air traffic emissions which is not obtained for a run with no air traffic NO{sub x}. (author) 15 refs.

  3. Comparison of in situ observations of air traffic emission signatures in the North Atlantic flight corridor with simulations using a Gaussian plume model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, P.; Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Schumann, U.; Ziereis, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Hagen, D.; Whitefield, P. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Lab. for Cloud and Aerosol Science

    1997-12-31

    Focussed aircraft measurements including NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and aerosols (CN) have been carried out over the Eastern North Atlantic as part of the POLINAT (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) project to search for small and large scale signals of air traffic emissions in the corridor region. Here, the experimental data measured at cruising altitudes on November, 6, 1994 close to peak traffic hours are considered. Observed peak concentrations in small scale NO{sub x} spikes exceed background level of about 50 pptv by up to two orders of magnitude. The measured NO{sub x} concentration field is compared with simulations obtained with a plume dispersion model using collected air traffic data and wind measurements. Additionally, the measured and calculated NO/NO{sub x} ratios are considered. The comparison with the model shows that the observed (multiple-)peaks can be understood as a superposition of several aircraft plumes with ages up to 3 hours. (author) 12 refs.

  4. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  5. Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2001-01-01

    Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Method for Defining a Flight Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... method, a semi-automated method, or a fully-automated method to plot a flight corridor on maps. A source... Administration, National Ocean Service. (i) Projections for mechanical plotting method. An applicant shall use a... plotting method. An applicant shall use cylindrical, conic, or plane projections for...

  7. Capacity Dimensioning for Aeronautical Communications in North Atlantic Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Pirovano, Alain; Garcia, Fabien; Radzik, José

    2013-01-01

    http://www.kaconf.org/CD2013/papers/Ka_3/63.pdf; International audience; In the context of the Internet everywhere paradigm, aircraft passengers expect to get connectivity during flights. Several solutions based either on cellular networks in continental area or on satellite links have been designed and even deployed for some of them. But to face the increasing number of users and expected services, a migration to future satellite system such as Inmarsat's Ka band Global Xpress system have be...

  8. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Handel, C.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  9. A small mammal community in a forest fragment, vegetation corridor and coffee matrix system in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Rocha

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.

  10. A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rivera, Danielle; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-10-01

    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change.

  11. Airborne microorganisms in the African desert dust corridor over the mid-Atlantic ridge, Ocean Drilling Program, Leg 209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Gray, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance our understanding of the fate and trans-Atlantic transport of dustborne microorganisms from Northern Africa to the Caribbean and Americas, and more specifically to determine if culturable populations could be detected at a mid-ocean site, closer to the source of dust relative to land-based Caribbean sites, during the early summer months of May and June. Between the dates of 22 May and 30 June 2003, daily air samples were collected and evaluated for the presence of culturable bacterial and fungal colony-forming units (CFU). Here we report a statistically significant correlation between daily atmospheric CFU counts at a mid-ocean research site (???15??N, 45??W) and daily desert dust concentrations as determined by the U.S. Navy's Naval Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) Global Aerosol Model (Honrath et al. (2004). Journal of Geophysical Research, 109; Johnson et al. (2003). Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, 1063; Reid et al. (2004). Geophysical Research Letters, 31; Schollaert, Yoder, Westphal, & O'Reilly (2003). Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 3191). ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  12. The role of convective tracer transport for the NO{sub x} content in the North Atlantic flight corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, I.; Sausen, R. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The effect of convective tracer transport on the NO{sub x} distribution at cruising altitudes is studied by means of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM which was extended by a simplified (linear) NO{sub x} chemistry module. NO{sub x} originates from several sources including aircraft emissions. Two numerical simulations have been performed: one including convective tracer transport and one without this process. The differences in the NO{sub x} distribution of these two runs are discussed. (author) 8 refs.

  13. Upper Kenai Corridor Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai Corridor study describes and evaluates the Upper Kenai River and the land which embraces it. It also places the river corridor in its regional...

  14. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...

  15. Optimal flight altitude and flight routes with respect to environmental and economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodorp, D.; Sausen, R.; Land, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    A flight routing method is presented. In addition to conventional minimization of travel time and/or fuel consumption it also takes into account the environmental impact of the aircraft emissions on the climate system. In the process the ECHAM general circulation model is used to trace the pollutants after release, estimate their potential to cause damage and to weight this environmental relative to the economical aspect. Some case studies are presented for an Airbus A340 in the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 6 refs.

  16. Complexity Analysis of Traffic in Corridors-in-the-Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2010-01-01

    The corridors-in-the-sky concept imitates the highway system in ground transportation. The benefit expected from a corridor relies on its capability of handling high density traffic with negligible controller workload, the acceptance of extra fuel or distance, and the complexity reduction in underlying sectors. This work evaluates a selected corridor from these perspectives through simulations. To examine traffic inside the corridor, a corridor traffic simulation tool that can resolve conflicts is developed using C language. Prescribed conflict resolution maneuvers mimic corridor users behaviors and conflict resolution counts measure complexity. Different lane options and operational policies are proposed to examine their impacts on complexity. Fuel consumption is calculated and compared for corridor traffic. On the other hand, to investigate the complexity of non-corridor traffic in underlying sectors, the existing Airspace Concept Evaluation System tool is utilized along with the Automated Airspace Concept tool. The number of conflict resolutions is examined and treated as the complexity measurement. The results show heavy traffic can be managed with low complexity for a historical traffic schedule simulated with appropriate operational policies and lane options. For instance, with 608 flights and peak aircraft count of 100, only 84 actions need to be taken in a 24-hour period to resolve the conflicts for an 8-lane corridor. Compared with the fuel consumptions with great circle trajectories, the simulation of corridor traffic shows that the total extra fuel for corridor flights is 26,373 gallons, or 2.76%, which is 0.38% less than flying filed flight plans. Without taking climb and descent portions of corridor traffic, the complexity of underlying sectors is reduced by 17.71%. However the climb and descent portions will eliminate the reduction and the overall complexity of sectors is actually increased by 9.14%.

  17. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  18. Anatomy and histochemistry of flight muscles in a wing-propelled diving bird, the Atlantic puffin, Fratercula arctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, C E; Meyers, R A

    2000-05-01

    Twenty-three species within the avian family Alcidae are capable of wing-propelled flight in the air and underwater. Alcids have been viewed as Northern Hemisphere parallels to penguins, and have often been studied to see if their underwater flight comes at a cost, compromising their aerial flying ability. We examined the anatomy and histochemistry of select wing muscles (Mm. pectoralis, supracoracoideus, latissimus dorsi caudalis, coracobrachialis caudalis, triceps scapularis, and scapulohumeralis caudalis) from Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica) to assess if the muscle fiber types reveal the existence of a compromise associated with "dual-medium" flight. Pectoralis was found to be proportional in size with that of nondiving species, although the supracoracoideus was proportionally larger in puffins. Muscle fiber types were largely aerobic in both muscles, with two distinct fast-twitch types demonstrable: a smaller, aerobic, moderately glycolytic population (FOg), and a larger, moderately aerobic, glycolytic population (FoG). The presence of these two fiber types in the primary flight muscles of puffins suggests that aerial and underwater flight necessitate a largely aerobic fiber complement. We suggest that alcids do not represent an adaptive compromise, but a stable adaptation for wing-propelled locomotion both in the air and underwater.

  19. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  20. The Corridor Chronicles. Integrated perspectives on European transport corridor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to clarify the added value of an integrated perspective on corridor development in Europe. For many years, knowledge on corridors has been developed in a sectoral, technocratic manner, despite a growing call for an integrated analysis of corridor issues. The integration argume

  1. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  2. Green corridors and network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the relation between the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and the green corridor concept. First, the need is established for a corridor governance structure that enables the close cooperation among the numerous stakeholders from both the public...... and private sectors engaged in all corridor related issues ranging from network design to the provision of integrated logistical solutions. The governance scheme of the recently introduced TEN-T core network corridors seems to fulfil this requirement. Following a brief history of TEN-T development, the 2013...... major overhaul of the EU transportation infrastructure policy is outlined and the basic differences with the past are pinpointed. The provisions of the new TEN-T Guidelines are scrutinized so as to check whether the TEN-T core network corridors exhibit the characteristics of a green corridor...

  3. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  4. A Green Corridor Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green transport corridors represent trans-shipment routes with a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and long distances of transport marked by reduced environmental and climate impact. Important characteristics of green corridors are their network structures, their transnational character and their high involvement of public and private stakeholders, including political level requiring new governance models. Network-oriented controlling of green transport corridors require new concepts and instruments concentrating on multi-dimensional evaluation of collective strategies and processes in an international environment with a focus on cross-company aspects.

  5. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  6. Extensive air shower Monte Carlo modeling at the ground and aircraft flight altitude in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly and comparison with neutron measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazianotto, M. T.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Federico, C. A.; Hubert, G.; Gonçalez, O. L.; Quesada, J. M.; Carlson, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    Modeling cosmic-ray-induced particle fluxes in the atmosphere is very important for developing many applications in aeronautics, space weather and on ground experimental arrangements. There is a lack of measurements and modeling at flight altitude and on ground in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. In this work we have developed an application based on the Geant4 toolkit called gPartAt that is aimed at the analysis of extensive air shower particle spectra. Another application has been developed using the MCNPX code with the same approach in order to evaluate the models and nuclear data libraries used in each application. Moreover, measurements were performed to determine the ambient dose equivalent rate of neutrons at flight altitude in different regions and dates in the Brazilian airspace; these results were also compared with the simulations. The results from simulations of the neutron spectra at ground level were also compared to data from a neutron spectrometer in operation since February 2015 at the Pico dos Dias Observatory in Brazil, at 1864 m above sea level, as part of a collaboration between the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) and the French Aerospace Lab (ONERA). This measuring station is being operated with support from the National Astrophysics Laboratory (LNA). The modeling approaches were also compared to the AtmoRad computational platform, QARM, EXPACS codes and with measurements of the neutron spectrum taken in 2009 at the Pico dos Dias Observatory.

  7. Capitalizing on spatiality in European transport corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.; van Oort, F.G.; Wiegmans, B.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    After half a century of corridor development in Europe, the corridor concept is well-established in the academic discourse on transportation. Transport corridors have also been common practice in European transport policy since the creation of a borderless Europe in the 1990s. What is largely lackin

  8. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  9. 78 FR 77550 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... is extending the application period for the Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants... Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants. The purpose of this notice was to invite...

  10. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  11. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  12. Barchan dune corridors: Field characterization and investigation of control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelrhiti, H.; Andreotti, B.; Claudin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The structure of the barchan field located between Tarfaya and Laayoune (Atlantic Sahara, Morocco) is quantitatively investigated and compared to that in La Pampa de la Joya (Arequipa, Peru). On the basis of field measurements, we show how the volume, the velocity, and the output sand flux of a dune can be computed from the value of its body and horn widths. The dune size distribution is obtained from the analysis of aerial photographs. It shows that these fields are in a statistically homogeneous state along the wind direction and present a "corridor" structure in the transverse direction, in which the dunes have a rather well selected size. Investigating the possible external parameters controlling these corridors, we demonstrate that none among topography, granulometry, wind, and sand flux is relevant. We finally discuss the dynamical processes at work in these fields (collisions and wind fluctuations) and investigate the way they could regulate the size of the dunes. Furthermore, we show that the overall sand flux transported by a dune field is smaller than the maximum transport that could be reached in the absence of dunes, i.e., in saltation over the solid ground.

  13. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  14. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  15. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  16. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjona Ramiadantsoa

    Full Text Available In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2 in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  17. 78 FR 65751 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... States, Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO), and local governments that intend to initiate or continue Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) development with their partners, such as arterial...

  18. 76 FR 72029 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... Corridor Operations and Management Program as authorized in 23 U.S.C. 511. This notice and correction... eligible entities interested in participating in the FHWA Multistate Corridor Operations and...

  19. Corridors promote fire via connectivity and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Wagner, Stephanie A; Damschen, Ellen I

    2012-04-01

    Landscape corridors, strips of habitat that connect otherwise isolated habitat patches, are commonly employed during management of fragmented landscapes. To date, most reported effects of corridors have been positive; however, there are long-standing concerns that corridors may have unintended consequences. Here, we address concerns over whether corridors promote propagation of disturbances such as fire. We collected data during prescribed fires in the world's largest and best replicated corridor experiment (Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA), six -50-ha landscapes of open (shrubby/herbaceous) habitat within a pine plantation matrix, to test several mechanisms for how corridors might influence fire. Corridors altered patterns of fire temperature through a direct connectivity effect and an indirect edge effect. The connectivity effect was independent of fuel levels and was consistent with a hypothesized wind-driven "bellows effect." Edges, a consequence of corridor implementation, elevated leaf litter (fuel) input from matrix pine trees, which in turn increased fire temperatures. We found no evidence for corridors or edges impacting patterns of fire spread: plots across all landscape positions burned with similar probability. Impacts of edges and connectivity on fire temperature led to changes in vegetation: hotter-burning plots supported higher bunch grass cover during the field season after burning, suggesting implications for woody/herbaceous species coexistence. To our knowledge, this represents the first experimental evidence that corridors can modify landscape-scale patterns of fire intensity. Corridor impacts on fire should be carefully considered during landscape management, both in the context of how corridors connect or break distributions of fuels and the desired role of fire as a disturbance, which may range from a management tool to an agent to be suppressed. In our focal ecosystem, longleaf pine woodland, corridors might provide a previously

  20. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  1. Foraging range, habitat use and minimum flight distances of East Atlantic Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota in their spring staging areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2013-01-01

    related to differences in habitat use. Geese using a high proportion of agricultural areas flew greater distances than those avoiding this habitat. Compared to historical data on the same population, these findings indicate a significant enlargement of foraging ranges and increased use of terrestrial...... habitats. This might reflect changes in habitat availability, and is probably related to significant declines in Common Eelgrass Zostera marina in both these areas. From a historically rather sedentary lifestyle, which centred around foraging on Zostera beds in fjord habitats, this population now feeds...... habitat use is associated with increased energetic costs in the form of higher minimum flight distances....

  2. KPI Building Blocks For Successful Green Transport Corridor Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green transport corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development of integrated and sustainable transport solutions. Important properties of green corridors are their transnational character and their high involvement of large numbers of public and private stakeholders, including political level, requiring sophisticated approaches for implementation, management and governance. The current scientific discussion focusses on Key Performance Indicators (KPI for monitoring and management of green transport corridor performance emphasizing the operational aspects.

  3. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; McShea, William J; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Hao; Lu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda movements caused by

  4. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda

  5. North Atlantic IFR Route Planning Chart GEO-TIFF - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — North Atlantic Route Chart is designed for FAA Controllers to monitor transatlantic flights, this 5-color chart shows oceanic control areas, coastal navigation aids,...

  6. North Atlantic IFR Route Planning Chart PDF File - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — North Atlantic Route Chart is designed for FAA Controllers to monitor transatlantic flights, this 5-color chart shows oceanic control areas, coastal navigation aids,...

  7. HISTORICAL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS IN HEXI CORRIDOR, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nai-ang; ZHANG Chun-hui; LI Gang; CHENG Hong-yi

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 2000 years, approximately 38 ancient cities were abandoned through desertification in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Among them, 21.05% were abandonedduring the Northern and Southern Dynasties, 21.05% during the end of the Tang Dynasty andthe Five Dynasties, and 57.9% during the Ming and Qing dynas ties. At the same time, main lakes were shrinking rapidly from the 5th Century to the 6th Century and the end of the Qing Dynasty. The climate in these periods was relatively arid and cold with frequent dusts. The phase of these changes indicated that there were three periods of desertification enlargement in the northern China. They were Northern and Southern Dynasties, the end of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Ming and Qing dynasties. The macro-process of desertification in the study area was controlled mainly by the climatic changes. But from the facts that the population density in the middle of Qing Dynasty had exceeded the critical index of population pressure in arid area and the usage rate of water resources had exceeded 40% in Hexi Corridor, this paper also suggests that human activities have played an important role in desertification processes of the study area mainly during the recent 300 years.

  8. Planning of transport corridors by use of GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Grevy, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The paper adresses principles for the application of geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool in the planning of transport corridors. Specifically, the paper describes the COPE (corridor planning and evaluation) model that has been developed within the EU 4th FP Strategic Transport projects...

  9. Variable input parameter influence on river corridor prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfu, T.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the erodible river corridor, which is the area in which the main river channel is free to migrate over a period of time. Due to growing anthropogenic pressure, predicting the corridor width has become increasingly important for the planning of development along rivers. Several a

  10. Automatic construction of aerial corridor for navigation of unmanned aircraft systems in class G airspace using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dengchao; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    According to the airspace classification by the Federal Aviation Agency, Class G airspace is the airspace at 1,200 feet or less to the ground, which is beneath class E airspace and between classes B-D cylinders around towered airstrips. However, the lack of flight supervision mechanism in this airspace, unmanned aerial system (UAS) missions pose many safety issues. Collision avoidance and route planning for UASs in class G airspace is critical for broad deployment of UASs in commercial and security applications. Yet, unlike road network, there is no stationary marker in airspace to identify corridors that are available and safe for UASs to navigate. In this paper, we present an automatic LiDAR-based airspace corridor construction method for navigation in class G airspace and a method for route planning to minimize collision and intrusion. Our idea is to combine LiDAR to automatically identify ground objects that pose navigation restrictions such as airports and high-rises. Digital terrain model (DTM) is derived from LiDAR point cloud to provide an altitude-based class G airspace description. Following the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual, the ground objects that define the restricted airspaces are used together with digital surface model derived from LiDAR data to construct the aerial corridor for navigation of UASs. Preliminary results demonstrate competitive performance and the construction of aerial corridor can be automated with much great efficiency.

  11. Acoustic Telemetry, Cape Hatteras, and ocean Migratory Corridors: Defining Critical Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Rulifson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available North Carolina continental shelf waters are being targeted for development for wind farms and for oil and gas exploration. The main site for the latter is only 38 miles from Cape Hatteras, a major topographic feature that changes the dynamics of near-shore large ocean currents including the Labrador Current and Gulf Stream. The Cape constricts shelf habitat and restricts the migratory corridors of highly migratory species. The Hatteras Acoustic Array just south of the Cape indicates that this area is heavily used by species of concern year-around. Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhynchus migrate southward through Hatteras Bight in the fall and northward in the spring; some remain in the area throughout the winter months. Sandbar Sharks, Sand Tiger Sharks, and some Atlantic Sturgeon seem to migrate to Hatteras Bight and remain in the area throughout the winter, while other Atlantic sturgeon and White Sharks tend to migrate through Hatteras Bight on the way to other overwintering grounds. The period November through April seems to be the most critical period for these four species. Agencies need to expand the area of focus for these studies, as well as gather new information about resident species and marine mammals, before science-based environmental assessment can be made.

  12. National Borders and Transport corridors in Europe: Evidence of linkages in the Dublin-Belfast corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Williams, Brendan; Shahumyan, Harutyun;

    2012-01-01

    . The growth of urban areas is associated with acces-sibility to transportation routes, and has become the most important factor in landscape and land use change throughout Europe. Apart from providing links between cities, transport corridors are also exten-sions of cities' functionality which allow...... Member States (MS) where a new phase of urbanization is un-derway, dramatically changing land use patterns. The aim of the present work is to reflect on the European perspective concerning spatial development strategies, particularly cross-border transport corridors; to assess the role......Europe’s urban life focuses around a major network of cities, which exchange population, goods, and services of every kind both within regions and across borders. By their very nature, urban questions thus have a transnational dimension, and constitute a fruitful area of Euro-pean cooperation...

  13. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  14. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; White, James D [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  15. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GUANGZHOU-HONG KONG CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; CAO Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    With its rapid development in the past two decades, the Pearl River Delta has become one of the most developed regions in China. During this period, an important corridor between Hong Kong and Guangzhou has emerged and shaped the spatial structure of the region. The growth of this region has been greatly marched with the twin poles of Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and the economic and social development h. as taken place in a corridor between these two metropolises. This paper provides an analysis of the significance of this corridor in terms of its infrastructure, population, land use, and economic development. Massive infrastructure construction in the corridor has played an important role in its development. The corridor has high-frequent transport, and each transport mode has contributed in a different way to the process of development of the corridor, With high land use intensity and high population density, it is developing the characteristics of a megalopolis. As a pathway of connection between Guangzhou and Hong Kong, the corridor includes not only physical infrastructure, such as roads, railways and airports, but also logistics operations, human resources, information and capital, which plays important roles in accelerating business development. It demonstrates how this Main Street has become one of the most important factors in regional development.

  16. Maximum currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  17. 78 FR 7477 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... system management and operations. This notice seeks applications for available fiscal year (FY) 2012... Operations and Management (MCOM) programs and projects. The purpose of these investments is to...

  18. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... Operations and Management (MCOM) Program authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient... transportation challenges facing the efficient and effective operation and management of...

  19. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  20. Influência do ciclo lunar na atividade de vôo de Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia venezuelensis (Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae na Mata Atlântica, Serra do Marumbi, Morretes, Paraná, Brasil Influence of the lunar cycle on the flight activity of Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia venezuelensis (Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Marumbi Mountain, Morretes, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Luís Sant'Ana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From October 1995 to January 1996 a survey of the culicid species mentioned above was carried out in a restrict Atlantic Forest area, located in the Marumbi mountain (approximately 6,5 km from the town of Morretes. Shannon light trap was used during 48 nights, in the four lunar phases: full moon, first quarter, new moon and last quarter between evening and morning twilights. A total of 594 Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia venezuelensis (Theobald, 1912 specimens were collected and the different night flight activity in the four moon phases was observed. Regarding the hourly activity, the peak higher numbers of Coquillettidia venezuelensis were collected in the first three hours. Concerning the environmental factors, temperature was found to be the more relevant one for the flight activity of Coquillettidia venezuelensis.

  1. Road and Street Centerlines, h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor'. The...

  2. RIVER CORRIDOR BUILDINGS 324 & 327 CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.; SMITH, B.A.

    2006-02-09

    A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D&D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km{sup 2} (1 mi{sup 2})300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D&D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building.

  3. Temperature profile data collected by Aircraft Expendable Bathythermographs (AXBT) during hurricane reconnaissance and research flights in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean from September 8, 1997 to September 23, 2005 (NODC Accession 0006773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature profile data were collected using Aircraft Expendable Bathythermograph (AXBT) casts in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean during hurricane...

  4. Corridor X in Serbia: Approach to spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the infrastructural corridor's area, of the national importance, is predicted making spatial plans of area of special use, as the most complex instruments for the developing and arranging management of these areas. These plans should have an integrative and problem-oriented approach towards development planning and arrangement of such an area, and it is obliged to include: a complex evaluation of state and function of infrastructural system in the corridor; an analysis of infrastructural corridor influence on the development of the planning area and its surrounding; an alternative conception of long-term protection, improvement, organization and use of the planning area; a choice of the priorities and assumption of the realization phases; instructions for the implementation of the plan etc. The approach in making of this category of plans, as well as, experiences in planning, arrangement and use of multimodal corridors, have been considered on the example of Spatial plan of the infrastructural corridor E-75 section Belgrade-Nis area.

  5. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Sargent, Sarah; Haddad, Nick M.

    2005-07-01

    Levey, Douglas, J., Benjamin M. Bolker, Joshua J. Tewksbury, Sarah Sargent, and Nick M. Haddad. 2005. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science 309:146-148. Abstract: Habitat fragmentation threatens biodiversity by disrupting dispersal. The mechanisms and consequences of this disruption are controversial, primarily because most organisms are difficult to track. We examined the effect of habitat corridors on long-distance dispersal of seeds by birds, and tested whether small-scale (G20 meters) movements of birds could be scaled up to predict dispersal of seeds across hundreds of meters in eight experimentally fragmented landscapes. A simulation model accurately predicted the observed pattern of seed rain and revealed that corridors functioned through edge following behavior of birds. Our study shows how models based on easily observed behaviors can be scaled up to predict landscape-level processes.

  6. FIXED-WING MICRO AERIAL VEHICLE FOR ACCURATE CORRIDOR MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  7. TRANSPORT CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR": PROBLEMS, EVOLUTION PATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tabakov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretic and methodological questions regarding the formation of a transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Analyzed are the main factors that affect the formation of the transport infrastructure. A big effect is centered around the world-view problem, which has to do with the occupation of a human, and the effect of it on nature. Put forth is the possibility to look upon the question of the formation of ma transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar" in the frame of the forming of the Ural-West-Siberian TPK, taking into account the global transport web.

  8. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... integrated resource management plan for those lands and waters within the Corridor. The meeting will...

  9. Identifying transit corridors for elephant using a long time-series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittiglio, C.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, van H.A.M.J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    The role of corridors in mitigating the effects of landscape fragmentation on biodiversity is controversial. Recent studies have highlighted the need for new approaches in corridor design using long-term datasets. We present a method to identify transit corridors for elephant at a population scale o

  10. Impressions of Serbia: Tourists on cruises along Corridor 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragin Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with cruises along Corridor 7 and the tourist offer of Serbia. The purpose of the paper has been to establish how international tourists see our country during their travels across Serbia on cruises along Corridor 7. The research has been based on the interviews with international tourists who participated in land tours while cruising through Serbia. The interviews, together with the structured questionnaire, were conducted from March to November 2007 with the objectives to establish the following: the structure of the respondents according to the country of origin, gender and age structure, as well as the social and economic structure; what their motives are for cruising along Corridor 7; what is their perception of the value obtained through the tourist product and services during the Corridor 7 cruises and during their stay in Serbia (what they liked best in Serbia; if they were dissatisfied with anything in terms of the tourist offer of Serbia; to what extent their visit complemented or influenced their personal impressions of this country - what their impressions were before and after the visit. The importance of this paper, above all, is in broadening our knowledge about the adequacy of the tourist offer in Serbia in the tourism segment which is the subject of study of the paper.

  11. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  12. Corridors of barchan dunes: Stability and size selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersen, P.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Elbelrhiti, H.;

    2004-01-01

    Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two in...... for these instabilities to develop are derived and discussed. They turn out to be much smaller than the dune field length. As a conclusion, there should exist further, yet unknown, mechanisms regulating and selecting the size of dunes.......Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two...... instabilities take place. First, barchans receive a sand flux at their back proportional to their width while the sand escapes only from their horns. Large dunes proportionally capture more sand than they lose, while the situation is reversed for small ones: therefore, solitary dunes cannot remain in a steady...

  13. Improving Urban Corridor that Respect to Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrah, W.; Rahmadhani, N.; Nasution, A. D.; Pane, I. F.

    2017-03-01

    The urban corridor is more than just a linear space to circulation. It is a place for community activities. Since the urban area in Indonesia functionates without guidelines, it is necessary to analyze how this space being used by the community. The objective of the research is to explore the problems in utilization of public space in Dr. Mansur corridor in Medan and to propose some recommendation to improve it. The survey was started by mapping the physical situation that based on urban design aspects and the activities occur. Based on the data, the study identified the problems of the public space utilization. Next, study selected several buildings that significant in generating public life. The study interviewed the building’s owners and users/customers to get their opinion and perception about the using of urban public space utilization in the corridor in relation to their private function. The study analyzed the problems and opportunity to redesign the buildings that respect to public space. Then, the design ideas were presented to the buildings owners to get their response. The result of the observation shows that the fundamental problem in the corridor is the intervention of the private interest to the street as public space. The study indicates that the majority of the buildings owner was not aware that their buildings had distracted the urban public space. However, they gave a positive respond to the design recommendation. The design offered the solution that provided individual needs without intervention to the public realm. The study can contribute to improving urban corridor by educating the community with architecture and urban design.

  14. Louisiana Speaks Regional Vision Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the primary and secondary transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. This network accommodates a...

  15. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option C Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_c_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  16. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option B Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_b_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  17. H11649: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Mid-Atlantic Corridor, Maryland, 2007-11-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H11241: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Mid-Atlantic Corridor, New Jersey, 2004-01-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: a rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Olivieri, Anna; Angerhofer, Norman; Gandini, Francesca; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Semino, Ornella; Woodward, Scott R; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recent analyses of mitochondrial genomes from Native Americans have brought the overall number of recognized maternal founding lineages from just four to a current count of 15. However, because of their relative low frequency, almost nothing is known for some of these lineages. This leaves a considerable void in understanding the events that led to the colonization of the Americas following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this study, we identified and completely sequenced 14 mitochondrial DNAs belonging to one extremely rare Native American lineage known as haplogroup C4c. Its age and geographical distribution raise the possibility that C4c marked the Paleo-Indian group(s) that entered North America from Beringia through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The similarities in ages andgeographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians. Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America.

  20. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  1. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  2. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  3. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  4. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  5. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  6. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  7. Sacroiliac secure corridor: analysis for safe insertion of iliosacral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alves Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posterior pelvic lesions, especially of the sacral-iliac joint, have high mortality and morbidity risks. Definitive fixation is necessary for the joint stabilization, and one option is the sacral percutaneous pinning with screws. Proximity to important structures to this region brings risks to the fixation procedure; therefore, it is important to know the tridimensional anatomy of the pelvis posterior region. Deviations of the surgeon's hand of four degrees may target the screws to those structures; dimorphisms of the upper sacrum and a poor lesion reduction may redound in a screw malpositioning. This study is aimed to evaluate the dimensions of a safe surgical corridor for safe sacroiliac screw insertion and relations with age and sex of the patients. METHOD: One hundred randomly selected pelvis CTs of patients with no pelvic diseases, seen at a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Measurements were made by computer and the safest area for screw insertion was calculated by two methods. The results were expressed in mm (not in degrees, in order to be a further surgical reference. RESULTS: There was a significant size difference in the analyzed sacral vertebra, differing on a wider size in men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between vertebral size and age. By both methods, a safe area for screw insertion could be defined. CONCLUSION: Age does not influence the width of the surgical corridor. The surgeon has a safe corridor considered narrower when inserting screws in a female pelvis than when in a male one. However, as the smallest vertebra found (feminine was considered for statics, it was concluded that this corridor is 20 mm wide in any direction, taking as a reference the centrum of the vertebra.

  8. Mobile Robot Navigation in a Corridor Using Visual Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Nils Axel; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of computer vision into mobile robot localization is studied in this work. It includes the generation of localization information from raw images and its fusion with the odometric pose estimation. The technique is then implemented on a small mobile robot operating at a corridor envi...... Kalman filter as a parameter estimator is also applied to estimate odometry parameters. Experimental results are included. The robustness and the precision of the entire system is illustrated by performing simple navigation tasks....

  9. Bison phylogeography constrains dispersal and viability of the Ice Free Corridor in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Froese, Duane; Ives, John W; Soares, André E R; Zazula, Grant D; Letts, Brandon; Andrews, Thomas D; Driver, Jonathan C; Hall, Elizabeth; Hare, P Gregory; Jass, Christopher N; MacKay, Glen; Southon, John R; Stiller, Mathias; Woywitka, Robin; Suchard, Marc A; Shapiro, Beth

    2016-07-19

    The Ice Free Corridor has been invoked as a route for Pleistocene human and animal dispersals between eastern Beringia and more southerly areas of North America. Despite the significance of the corridor, there are limited data for when and how this corridor was used. Hypothetical uses of the corridor include: the first expansion of humans from Beringia into the Americas, northward postglacial expansions of fluted point technologies into Beringia, and continued use of the corridor as a contact route between the north and south. Here, we use radiocarbon dates and ancient mitochondrial DNA from late Pleistocene bison fossils to determine the chronology for when the corridor was open and viable for biotic dispersals. The corridor was closed after ∼23,000 until 13,400 calendar years ago (cal y BP), after which we find the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bison used this route to disperse from the south, and by 13,000 y from the north. Our chronology supports a habitable and traversable corridor by at least 13,000 cal y BP, just before the first appearance of Clovis technology in interior North America, and indicates that the corridor would not have been available for significantly earlier southward human dispersal. Following the opening of the corridor, multiple dispersals of human groups between Beringia and interior North America may have continued throughout the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. Our results highlight the utility of phylogeographic analyses to test hypotheses about paleoecological history and the viability of dispersal routes over time.

  10. Modeling signalized intersection safety with corridor-level spatial correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    Intersections in close spatial proximity along a corridor should be considered as correlated due to interacted traffic flows as well as similar road design and environmental characteristics. It is critical to incorporate this spatial correlation for assessing the true safety impacts of risk factors. In this paper, several Bayesian models were developed to model the crash data from 170 signalized intersections in the state of Florida. The safety impacts of risk factors such as geometric design features, traffic control, and traffic flow characteristics were evaluated. The Poisson and Negative Binomial Bayesian models with non-informative priors were fitted but the focus is to incorporate spatial correlations among intersections. Two alternative models were proposed to capture this correlation: (1) a mixed effect model in which the corridor-level correlation is incorporated through a corridor-specific random effect and (2) a conditional autoregressive model in which the magnitude of correlations is determined by spatial distances among intersections. The models were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. The results indicate that the Poisson spatial model provides the best model fitting. Analysis of the posterior distributions of model parameters indicated that the size of intersection, the traffic conditions by turning movement, and the coordination of signal phase have significant impacts on intersection safety.

  11. A Regional Monitoring and Visualization System for Decision Support and Disaster Management Applications for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC)-a network of managed and protected areas extending from Mexico to Columbia-is a crucial initiative for the Mesoamerican region, with a central development concept of integrating conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity within the framework of sustainable economic development. The MBC is of particular importance to the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), which is comprised of the environmental ministers from the seven Central American countries. Responsible for determining priority areas for action in the corridor, CCAD decision makers require current and accurate information, and access to the dynamic knowledge of the changes in the MBC such as deforestation hotspots, fires, and the effects of natural disasters. Currently this information is not integrated and in disparate locations throughout the region and the world. Leveraging NASA technology, satellite data, and capability, we propose to team with the World Bank and the CCAD to develop a regional monitoring and visualization system-with central nodes at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and at CCAD headquarters. This system will assimilate NASA spatial datasets (e.g. MODIS, Landsat, etc.), spatial data from other sources (commercial and public-domain), and ancillary data developed in each of the seven Central American countries (soils, transportation networks, biodiversity indicator maps, etc.). The system will function as a "virtual dashboard" for monitoring the MBC and provide the critical decision support tools for CCAD decision makers. The CCAD central node will also serve as a high-tech showcase for the corridor among the international community, other decision-makers, the media, and students.

  12. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  13. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her future. Donate Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A ... “To improve access to health care by providing financial assistance to low income children for commercial air ...

  14. Birds of the riparian corridors of Potchefstroom, South Africa / Rindert Wyma

    OpenAIRE

    Wyma, Rindert

    2012-01-01

    A riparian ecosystem is the area between the aquatic and terrestrial setting of a stream, and serves as a corridor and habitat for birds. Several riparian ecosystems are located in urban environments, and three main riparian corridors are located in Potchefstroom. They are the Mooi River, Wasgoed Spruit, and Spitskop Spruit, which encompass a wide range of different vegetation types and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, different habitat types for birds occur along the riparian corridors of P...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 420 - Method for Defining a Flight Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... using a linear interpolation and summation exercise, as shown below in equation B8. An applicant shall... by the cosine of the eccentric anomaly at impact (εc k). ER19OC00.080 (J) An applicant shall compute the eccentricity of the trajectory ellipse multiplied by the sine of the eccentric anomaly at...

  16. The evaluation of the development of the Danube-Morava corridor traffic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic has the primary influence on the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor as a specific natural, geographically determined and stochastic-functional territorial system. The traffic network of roads railway lines and waterways along this corridor is at the very core of the Trans-European Transport Corridor 10, representing its most dynamic, most congested and highest-traffic section. The influence, namely the creative power of traffic, largely depends on the degree of development modernization and maintenance of the network. This work presents the assessment of the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor traffic network.

  17. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  18. Trade-offs and efficiencies in optimal budget-constrained multispecies corridor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Bistra; Houtman, Rachel; Gomes, Carla P.; Montgomery, Claire A.; McKelvey, Kevin; Kendall, Katherine; Graves, Tabitha A.; Bernstein, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biologists recognize that a system of isolated protected areas will be necessary but insufficient to meet biodiversity objectives. Current approaches to connecting core conservation areas through corridors consider optimal corridor placement based on a single optimization goal: commonly, maximizing the movement for a target species across a network of protected areas. We show that designing corridors for single species based on purely ecological criteria leads to extremely expensive linkages that are suboptimal for multispecies connectivity objectives. Similarly, acquiring the least-expensive linkages leads to ecologically poor solutions. We developed algorithms for optimizing corridors for multispecies use given a specific budget. We applied our approach in western Montana to demonstrate how the solutions may be used to evaluate trade-offs in connectivity for 2 species with different habitat requirements, different core areas, and different conservation values under different budgets. We evaluated corridors that were optimal for each species individually and for both species jointly. Incorporating a budget constraint and jointly optimizing for both species resulted in corridors that were close to the individual species movement-potential optima but with substantial cost savings. Our approach produced corridors that were within 14% and 11% of the best possible corridor connectivity for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolverines (Gulo gulo), respectively, and saved 75% of the cost. Similarly, joint optimization under a combined budget resulted in improved connectivity for both species relative to splitting the budget in 2 to optimize for each species individually. Our results demonstrate economies of scale and complementarities conservation planners can achieve by optimizing corridor designs for financial costs and for multiple species connectivity jointly. We believe that our approach will facilitate corridor conservation by reducing acquisition costs

  19. Astronaut Scott Carpenter being recovered from Ocean after MA-7 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) mission, is seen being recovered from Atlantic Ocean after MA-7 flight. A diver helps Carpenter into a life raft while the capsule floats nearby.

  20. 77 FR 17219 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... risk, or the calculation of payments and charges, or that are used for validation or audit of such data... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Final Rule #0;#0...; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and...

  1. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  2. 76 FR 63346 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Administration Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and Westchester... preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor project... Port Chester, Westchester County, New York including the Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River....

  3. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... National Park Service Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... the Moose-Wilson Corridor, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. DATES: The National Park Service will...://parkplanning.nps.gov/MooseWilson , at the Grand Teton National Park Headquarters Building, 1 Teton Park...

  4. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... corridors, and risk adjustment consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  5. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  6. Predicting which species will benefit from corridors in fragmented landscapes from population growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Brian R; Haddad, Nick M

    2003-05-01

    Connecting isolated patches of habitat in fragmented landscapes with corridors is a popular conservation strategy. This strategy is also controversial in large part because of uncertainty about what characteristics of a species and its environment promote corridor use. In this article we address the question, For what types of species will populations benefit from corridors? We asked this question using a model of two logistically growing populations connected by migration in which both emigration and migration success were determined by the presence or absence of a corridor. We found that in the short run (e.g., during recovery from disaster), corridors are most effective for species with fast-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through unsuitable (matrix) habitat. We also found that emigration rates and habitat-specific mortality rates are key determinants of the effects of corridors on population size. In the long term, corridors are most likely to benefit species with slow-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through matrix habitat. Our results confirm the major conclusions from previous empirical studies of corridor benefits. However, most studies fail to consider the most appropriate questions to determine the potential benefits of habitat corridors. First, what is the time scale of the conservation goal? Corridors have positive effects on different suites of species in the short and long term. Second, is the major threat of local extinction due to sustained population decline or boom-bust cycles? Third, what is the migration rate through the matrix? Fourth, what fraction of migrants dispersing through the matrix successfully immigrate to another patch?

  7. 78 FR 43226 - Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... National Park Service Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... Environmental Impact Statement for the Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan for Glacier National Park...-to-the Sun Road (GTSR) corridor. DATES: The National Park Service will accept comments from...

  8. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  9. FLIGHT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on singaporeair.com. This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  10. Ecological and Recreational Corridor Bogotá Mountain Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Wiesner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogotá the capital of the Republic of Colombia is a tropical highland city located at 2650 m above sea level, the 25th largest city of the world and among the large, one of the highest. A proposal for integration of components of ecological networks in the Oriental Hills of Bogotá, along a gradient from wild to built nature. Name as The Bogotá Ecological and Recreational Corridor (C.E.R. is based on three strategies: first a social being the largest border agreement with 53 km, along the entire eastern limit of the city. Second the biophysical which involves restoration of ecosystem, and third the socio-spatial which includes infrastructure for making an open air museum for integration and urban limit. The ultimate aim of the approach is to contribute as a pilot proposal in biodiversity managment and cultural transformation in ecological issues for the inhabitants.

  11. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive utility corridor (CUC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The strategy established the process for which the Campus Development Office will evaluate land management issues. It is a process that uses geographical information system geospatial technology to layer critical INL mission information in a way that thorough evaluations can be conducted and strategies developed. The objective of the CUC Project was to develop a process that could be implemented to identify potential utility corridor options for consideration. The process had to take into account all the missions occurring on the INL and other land-related issues. The process for developing a CUC strategy consists of the following four basic elements using geographical information system capabilities: 1. Development of an INL base layer map; this base layer map geospatially references all stationary geographical features on INL and sitewide information. 2. Development of current and future mission land-use need maps; this involved working with each directorate to identify current mission land use needs and future land use needs that project 30 years into the future. 3. Development of restricted and potential constraint maps; this included geospatially mapping areas such as wells, contaminated areas, firing ranges, cultural areas, ecological areas, hunting areas, easement, and grazing areas. 4. Development of state highway and power line rights of way map; this included geospatially mapping rights-of-way along existing state highways and power lines running through the INL that support INL operations. It was determined after completing and evaluating the geospatial information that the area with the least impact to INL missions was around the perimeter of the INL Site. Option 1, in this document, identifies this perimeter; however, it does not mean the entire perimeter is viable. Many places along the perimeter corridor cannot

  12. The role of green corridors for wildlife conservation in urban landscape: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H. A.; Rasidi, M. H.

    2014-02-01

    Green corridors are an attempt to mitigate negative effects of the built environment of cities and towns. The corridors act as conservation for rapidly extreme intervention and development of the urban environment. Most importantly, it enables dispersal movement of animals within city areas. Issues relate to wildlife conservation in urban areas has been studied for many years and thus, the research makes a review for how the green corridors contribute to the conservation of urban wildlife. This study reviews groups of articles in disciplines of urban landscape planning and biology conservation to discuss the relationship between elements of green corridors and urban wildlife dispersal movement behaviour in Malaysian context. Accordingly, this research is purposely studied to give understanding on how green corridors contribute to the animals' ability of moving and dispersing within the built-up areas. In advance, it is found that there are three factors contribute to the capability of colonization among urban wildlife which are individual, physical and social factor. Green corridor has been defined as one of the physical factor that influence urban wildlife behaviour movement. Consequently, safety area indicating to animals species for traversing in any time such as at night can be defined as the primary potential corridor.

  13. Design of integrated and co-ordinated multimodal transport systems – North Sea – Mediterranean corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil MORTIMER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the North Sea – Mediterranean corridor, part of the Trans-European transport network. A brief discussion on the aspects of multimodality and the possible modes of transport involved in transporting inland freight is presented followed by an introduction to main IT systems that can be implemented to increase the efficiency of freight transport. Presented also is a description on the envisaged investments in freight corridors in Europe. An assessment of information flows is also offered. The study concludes that the concept of a freight corridor should be extended to a network in order for more global benefits to be experienced.

  14. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  15. A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and...

  16. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  17. Time-averaged currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  18. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of along-shelf corridor, between Madison-Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of a long thin corridor at the shelf edge near he 74-m isobath spanning from...

  19. The importance and potentials of X corridor in the European traffic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of multimodular corridors, but also in the European traffic system on the whole, corridor X has a very important role more in respect of its position and potentials and less regarding the degree of it valuation. It is particularly so since it represents a section of the intercontinental (land link between Europe and Near and Middle East. At the same time, this corridor is also a dominant axis of development in the majority of SE European countries, as well as a major component of complex spatial-functional transformations that occur within them. That, inter alias, means that the pace of overall development of these parts will depend both on the pace of the overall valuation of potentials this corridors has (and represents, as well as the strengthening of its role as a major element of intra- and inter-regional linking of this part of European continent.

  20. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  1. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  2. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  3. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  5. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 3 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  6. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  7. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  8. Sensitivity of Occupant Response Subject to Prescribed Corridors for Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Crandall

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology to study the sensitivity of impact responses to prescribed test conditions is presented. Motor vehicle impacts are used to illustrate the principles of this sensitivity technology. Impact conditions are regulated by specifying either a corridor for the acceleration time history or other test parameters such as velocity change, static crush distance, and pulse duration. By combining a time domain constrained optimization method and a multirigid body dynamics simulator, the upper and lower bounds of occupant responses subject to the regulated corridors were obtained. It was found that these prescribed corridors may be either so wide as to allow extreme variations in occupant response or so narrow that they are physically unrealizable in the laboratory test environment. A new corridor based on specifications for the test parameters of acceleration, velocity. crush distance, and duration for frontal vehicle impacts is given.

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  10. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  11. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, UtilityCorridor, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'UtilityCorridor'. Data by...

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  13. Corridor connecting giant panda habitats from north to south in the Min Mountains, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaipu; Xie, Yan; Wu, Ning

    2006-12-01

    The giant panda faces severe threats from habitat fragmentation and isolation. Currently, giant panda populations have been fragmented into 30 habitat patches. The disappearance of isolated small populations and studies on the genetic diversity of various populations have shown that small isolated panda populations are at a high risk of dying out completely. Habitat fragmentation has seriously impaired the ability of the giant panda to resist climate changes and other natural disasters, such as large-scale, synchronous bamboo blooming. The Min Mountains have the largest population of pandas in China, numbering 581 individuals and accounting for 52% of the total (1114) in China. Geographic isolation means that giant pandas in the Min Mountains are divided into two populations (population A in the north and population B in the south). Population B, which had only 42 individuals in 1989, is severely threatened by high-density human populations and the loss of genetic diversity. However, we have identified an important corridor connecting the two populations. This paper explains the importance and the feasibility of reestablishing this corridor. Due to the special geographic locations of these two populations (two rivers block the migration of giant pandas between south and north), the corridor is the only passage for giant pandas in the region. Recent studies have also shown an increase of giant panda activity in the area of the corridor. However, vegetation in the corridor has been severely degraded. Bamboo forest must be restored in this area to provide food for the pandas during migration. The effects of human activities must be reduced in order to maintain panda habitat. We believe that a restored corridor will be of great benefit to the survival of giant pandas in the Min Mountains, especially for population B. Successful re-establishment of a corridor will be a valuable model for corridor construction in the future.

  14. Rise of Regional Logistics Hubs in Global Trade : Role of Arctic Corridor in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Buyle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of the Finnish transport network into national, regional, European and global supply chains. The author was interested in studying the role of new transport corridors in trade reactivity and changes in market trends. The main target of the thesis is to understand the role of the Arctic Corridor on the implementation of Finnish development strategies. The mineral industry in Finnish Lapland and the extraction of natural resources in the Barent...

  15. A Simultaneous Confidence Corridor for Varying Coefficient Regression with Sparse Functional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Lijie; Li WANG; Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Yang, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a varying coefficient regression model for sparse functional data, with time varying response variable depending linearly on some time independent covariates with coefficients as functions of time dependent covariates. Based on spline smoothing, we propose data driven simultaneous confidence corridors for the coefficient functions with asymptotically correct confidence level. Such confidence corridors are useful benchmarks for statistical inference on the global shapes of coeffici...

  16. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  17. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  18. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  19. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  20. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-03-13

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled.

  1. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... western Atlantic Ocean, white marlin and blue marlin from the North Atlantic Ocean, and longbill spearfish from the entire Atlantic Ocean; described objectives for the Atlantic billfish fishery; and established... Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). Currently, Atlantic billfish managed by NMFS include Atlantic...

  2. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  3. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  4. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A biomimetic vision-based hovercraft accounts for bees' complex behaviour in various corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubieu, Frédéric L; Serres, Julien R; Colonnier, Fabien; Franceschini, Nicolas; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck

    2014-09-01

    Here we present the first systematic comparison between the visual guidance behaviour of a biomimetic robot and those of honeybees flying in similar environments. We built a miniature hovercraft which can travel safely along corridors with various configurations. For the first time, we implemented on a real physical robot the 'lateral optic flow regulation autopilot', which we previously studied computer simulations. This autopilot inspired by the results of experiments on various species of hymenoptera consists of two intertwined feedback loops, the speed and lateral control loops, each of which has its own optic flow (OF) set-point. A heading-lock system makes the robot move straight ahead as fast as 69 cm s(-1) with a clearance from one wall as small as 31 cm, giving an unusually high translational OF value (125° s(-1)). Our biomimetic robot was found to navigate safely along straight, tapered and bent corridors, and to react appropriately to perturbations such as the lack of texture on one wall, the presence of a tapering or non-stationary section of the corridor and even a sloping terrain equivalent to a wind disturbance. The front end of the visual system consists of only two local motion sensors (LMS), one on each side. This minimalistic visual system measuring the lateral OF suffices to control both the robot's forward speed and its clearance from the walls without ever measuring any speeds or distances. We added two additional LMSs oriented at +/-45° to improve the robot's performances in stiffly tapered corridors. The simple control system accounts for worker bees' ability to navigate safely in six challenging environments: straight corridors, single walls, tapered corridors, straight corridors with part of one wall moving or missing, as well as in the presence of wind.

  6. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  7. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  8. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Taylor, David; Hunt, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Consideration of a range of evidence from geomorphology, palynology, biogeography and vegetation/climate modelling suggests that a north-south 'savanna corridor' did exist through the continent of Sundaland (modern insular Indonesia and Malaysia) through the Last Glacial Period (LGP) at times of lowered sea-level, as originally proposed by Heaney [1991. Climatic Change 19, 53-61]. A minimal interpretation of the size of this corridor requires a narrow but continuous zone of open 'savanna' vegetation 50-150 km wide, running along the sand-covered divide between the modern South China and Java Seas. This area formed a land bridge between the Malaysian Peninsula and the major islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. The savanna corridor connected similar open vegetation types north and south of the equator, and served as a barrier to the dispersal of rainforest-dependent species between Sumatra and Borneo. A maximal interpretation of the available evidence is compatible with the existence of a broad savanna corridor, with forest restricted to refugia primarily in Sumatra, Borneo and the continental shelf beneath the modern South China Sea. This savanna corridor may have provided a convenient route for the rapid early dispersal of modern humans through the region and on into Australasia.

  9. Engineering monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical hazards along linear transportation corridors are challenging to identify and often require constant monitoring. Inspecting corridors using traditional, manual methods requires the engineer to be unnecessarily exposed to the hazard. It also requires closure of the corridor to ensure safety of the worker from passing vehicles. This paper identifies the use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data as a compliment to traditional field methods. Mobile terrestrial LiDAR is an emerging remote data collection technique capable of generating accurate fully three-dimensional virtual models while driving at speeds up to 100 km/h. Data is collected from a truck that causes no delays to active traffic nor does it impede corridor use. These resultant georeferenced data can be used for geomechanical structural feature identification and kinematic analysis, rockfall path identification and differential monitoring of rock movement or failure over time. Comparisons between mobile terrestrial and static LiDAR data collection and analysis are presented. As well, detailed discussions on workflow procedures for possible implementation are discussed. Future use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data for corridor analysis will focus on repeated surveys and developing dynamic four-dimensional models, higher resolution data collection. As well, computationally advanced, spatially accurate, geomechanically controlled three-dimensional rockfall simulations should be investigated.

  10. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  11. Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormann, Urs; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja; Klein, Nadja; Larbig, Manuel; Valente, Jonathon J; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2016-01-27

    Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in more than 94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world's leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated pollinator availability in fragments by 14.3 times compared with unconnected equivalents, increasing overall pollination success. Plants in patches without corridors showed pollination rates equal to bagged control flowers, indicating pollination failure in isolated fragments. This indicates, for the first time, that corridors benefit tropical forest ecosystems beyond boosting local species richness, by functionally connecting mutualistic network partners. We conclude that small-scale adjustments to landscape configuration safeguard native pollinators and associated pollination services in tropical forest landscapes.

  12. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  13. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  14. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  15. The design and realisation of the IXV Mission Analysis and Flight Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo; Blanco, Gonzalo; Pontijas, Irene; Bonetti, Davide; Freixa, Jordi; Parigini, Cristina; Bassano, Edmondo; Carducci, Riccardo; Sudars, Martins; Denaro, Angelo; Angelini, Roberto; Mancuso, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is a suborbital re-entry demonstrator successfully launched in February 2015 focusing on the in-flight demonstration of a lifting body system with active aerodynamic control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the Mission Analysis and Flight Mechanics of the IXV vehicle, which comprises computation of the End-to-End (launch to splashdown) design trajectories, characterisation of the Entry Corridor, assessment of the Mission Performances through Monte Carlo campaigns, contribution to the aerodynamic database, analysis of the Visibility and link budget from Ground Stations and GPS, support to safety analyses (off nominal footprints), specification of the Centre of Gravity box, selection of the Angle of Attack trim line to be flown and characterisation of the Flying Qualities performances. An initial analysis and comparison with the raw flight data obtained during the flight will be discussed and first lessons learned derived.

  16. H11455: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Mid Atlantic Corridor-Coast of New Jersey, New Jersey, 2005-10-19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  18. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  19. "FluvialCorridor": A new ArcGIS toolbox package for multiscale riverscape exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Clément; Alber, Adrien; Bertrand, Mélanie; Vaudor, Lise; Piégay, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Both for scientists and river basin managers, development of automated geographic information system (GIS) tools is essential today to characterize riverscapes and explore biogeomorphologic processes over large channel networks. Since the 1990s, GIS toolboxes and add-in programs have been used to characterize catchments. However, there is currently no equivalent to a planimetric and longitudinal characterization of fluvial corridor networks at multiple scales. This paper describes FluvialCorridor, a new GIS toolbox. This package allows the user: (i) to extract a large set of riverscape features such as the main components of fluvial corridors from DEM and vector layers (e.g. stream network or valley bottom), and (ii) to aggregate spatial features into homogeneous segments and metrics characterizing each of them. The methodological frameworks involved have been previously described by Alber and Piégay (2011), Leviandier et al. (2012) and Bertrand et al. (2013) and this contribution focuses on the GIS tools allowing the user to automatically operate them. A case study on the Drôme River (France) is provided to illustrate the potential of the package both for geomorphologic understanding and target management actions. FluvialCorridor has been developed for ArcGIS with the related native Python library named ArcPy and tested on ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1. Obviously, each component of the package can be used separately; however, it also provides a complete workflow for fluvial corridor characterization, even as the toolbox is continually under development and revision. Case study database, FluvialCorridor package and guidelines are available online at http://umrevs-isig.fr.

  20. Territoriality by conservation in the Selous-Niassa corridor in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades of consecut......In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades...

  1. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  2. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  3. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National... hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region, and blacknose sharks and non-blacknose SCS in the Atlantic...

  4. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  5. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  6. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  7. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  8. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  9. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  10. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  11. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...

  12. Working on rail freigt corridors : a trade union manual anticipate - take action - work together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Torre, W. van der; Verbiest, S.

    2013-01-01

    The European Transport Workers Federation (ETF) put in place in 2013 the project “WOC – Working On Rail Freight Corridors” with the objective to on the one hand raise awareness among ETF affiliates about the developments of the European freight corridors and on the other hand to give the tools to an

  13. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  14. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony.

  15. Lessons Learned during Creation of the I-65 Biofuels Corridor (White Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    A team of Clean Cities coalitions and state agencies worked together to create a biofuels corridor along I-65 between Indiana and Alabama. The team built relationships with stakeholders and learned the value of strong partnerships, good communication, marketing, and preparation.

  16. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wild

  17. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc., Questron Technology, Inc. (n/k/a Quti... securities of Corridor Communications Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period... current and accurate information concerning the securities of International Cosmetics Marketing...

  18. Strategic Mobility 21: Smart and Secure E Corridor Stakeholder Evaluation - Savannah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Global Business Center Mr. Bill Dobbs, GA Dept. of Economic Development Executable Smart Corridor ‘Use Cases’ Information Domain Physical Domain...Investment: Recent Research Trends and Emerging Issues Kent Hindes, Cushman Wakefield Presentation Georgia: A Global Business Center Mr. Bill

  19. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  20. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  1. White flight or flight from poverty?

    CERN Document Server

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  2. Mixed-stock analysis in green turtles Chelonia mydas: mtDNA decipher current connections among west Atlantic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Jordao, Juliana; Bondioli, Ana Cristina Vigliar; Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti de; Bilo, Karin; Berzins, Rachel; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien; de Thoisy, Benoit

    2017-03-01

    The green turtle Chelonia mydas undertakes wide-ranging migrations between feeding and nesting sites, resulting in mixing and isolation of genetic stocks. We used mtDNA control region to characterize the genetic composition, population structure, and natal origins of C. mydas in the West Atlantic Ocean, at one feeding ground (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and three Caribbean nesting grounds (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Suriname). The feeding ground presented considerable frequency of common haplotypes from the South Atlantic, whereas the nesting sites presented a major contribution of the most common haplotype from the Caribbean. MSA revealed multiple origins of individuals at the feeding ground, notably from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau, and French Guiana. This study enables a better understanding of the dispersion patterns and highlights the importance of connecting both nesting and feeding areas. Effective conservation initiatives need to encompass these ecologically and geographically distinct sites as well as those corridors connecting them.

  3. Buccal Corridors: A Fact or a Myth in the Eyes of Laymen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiny, Omnia A.; Harhash, Asmaa Y.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate laymen knowledge of the existence of the buccal corridor and whether it was an important factor for them in judging smile attractiveness and the effect of introducing the knowledge to them on their further judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine subjects were randomly selected with variable buccal corridor percentages. They were coached to smile in a posed fashion and full face smile photographs were taken from a standardised distance. The photographs were randomly arranged in a power point presentation and displayed to a panel of thirty-nine randomly selected laymen judges. The judges made their beauty judgment on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and filled a questionnaire. After their education about the buccal corridor, they were asked to make a second judgment on a second sheet with VAS and with a different random sequence of the photographs. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation agreement for all the judges between the first and second scores was 0.713. The Spearman’s rho Correlation coefficient indicated a positive correlation for all the photos. For the male judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.839, and the correlation was positive for all the photos. For the female judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.510, and the correlation was positive for all the photographs. Hundred percent of the judges were not familiar with the buccal corridor. Eighty percent of the female judges and 44.4% of the male judges mentioned that it would affect their further judgment. CONCLUSION: Laymen build their esthetic judgments on what we teach them, and modifying treatment plans to include corrections of buccal corridors for esthetic reasons only is a myth. PMID:28028418

  4. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    Full Text Available The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1 to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2 to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs, 3 to design corridors among priority areas, and 4 to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU. Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1 as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7 desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  5. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  6. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  7. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  8. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  9. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  10. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  11. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  12. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  13. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  14. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  15. 75 FR 59323 - Early Scoping for the Alternatives Analysis of the North Corridor Transit Project in Metropolitan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... defined transportation corridor, and for determining which particular investment strategy should be... maintenance costing, and environmental and land use analyses. Finally, costs, benefits, and impacts of each alternative are developed and evaluated, funding strategies are analyzed, and a locally preferred...

  16. Flight Standards Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  17. Valuation of travel time savings for intercity travel: The Madrid-Barcelona corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Concepcion; Carlos Martin, Juan; Espino, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    We derive values of travel time savings (VOT) for the Madrid-Barcelona corridor, linking the two largest cities in Spain, based on the estimation of discrete choice models among the main public transport services in the corridor: air transport, high speed rail (HSR) and bus. The new HSR alternative...... (which started to operate in February 2008) competes directly with one of the densest airline domestic markets in the world, and its introduction produced substantial improvements in level of service, achieving reductions in travel time of more than 50% over the conventional train. A specifically...... to provide useful information to quantify users' benefits during the lifespan of a given project. We found, as expected, that HSR and air transport users exhibit substantially higher values for saving travel time than bus travellers. Also as expected, savings of waiting time are more valued than savings...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  19. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  20. Geometric Context and Orientation Map Combination for Indoor Corridor Modeling Using a Single Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligh Jahromi, Ali; Sohn, Gunho

    2016-06-01

    Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected and converted to a 3D

  1. Road-corridor planning in the EIA procedure in Spain. A review of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loro, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.loro@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arce, Rosa M., E-mail: rosa.arce.ruiz@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortega, Emilio, E-mail: e.ortega@upm.es [Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Construction and Rural Roads, Forestry Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-01-15

    The assessment of different alternatives in road-corridor planning must be based on a number of well-defined territorial variables that serve as decision making criteria, and this requires a high-quality preliminary environmental assessment study. In Spain the formal specifications for the technical requirements stipulate the constraints that must be considered in the early stages of defining road corridors, but not how they should be analyzed and ranked. As part of the feasibility study of a new road definition, the most common methodology is to establish different levels of Territorial Carrying Capacity (TCC) in the study area in order to summarize the territorial variables on thematic maps and to ease the tracing process of road-corridor layout alternatives. This paper explores the variables used in 22 road-construction projects conducted by the Ministry of Public Works that were subject to the Spanish EIA regulation and published between 2006 and 2008. The aim was to evaluate the quality of the methods applied and the homogeneity and suitability of the variables used for defining the TCC. The variables were clustered into physical, environmental, land-use and cultural constraints for the purpose of comparing the TCC values assigned in the studies reviewed. We found the average quality of the studies to be generally acceptable in terms of the justification of the methodology, the weighting and classification of the variables, and the creation of a synthesis map. Nevertheless, the methods for assessing the TCC are not sufficiently standardized; there is a lack of uniformity in the cartographic information sources and methodologies for the TCC valuation. -- Highlights: • We explore 22 road-corridor planning studies subjected to the Spanish EIA regulation. • We analyze the variables selected for defining territorial carrying capacity. • The quality of the studies is acceptable (methodology, variable weighting, mapping). • There is heterogeneity in the

  2. Walk the line: station context, corridor type and bus rapid transit walk access in Jinan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Mehndiratta, Shomik; Zegras, P. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines BRT station walk access patterns in rapidly urbanizing China and the relationship between bus rapid transit (BRT) station context and corridor type and the distance people will walk to access the system (i.e., catchment area). We hypothesize that certain contextual built environment features and station and right-of-way configurations will increase the walk-access catchment area; that is, that urban design influences users’ willingness to walk to BRT. We base our analysis ...

  3. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  4. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  5. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  6. ON THE FORMATION OF «ECONOMIC CORRIDOR SILK ROAD»: STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid K. Alimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the status and prospect of Tajik-Chinese relations in the context of the initiative of the President of the PRC on establishing of an economic corridor the Silk Road. A detailed characteristic of expected challenges and benefits for countries of Central Asia and China is given. Special attention is spent on the possibilities of developing of relations between Tajikistan and China, that have risen to the level of strategic partnership.

  7. 78 FR 64199 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: (800) 445-8667 or (843) 308- 9330. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council,...

  8. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine Fisheries... Atlantic shark fisheries. NMFS published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on September...

  9. Study on the oasis corridor landscape in the arid regions based on RS and GIS methods--application of Jinta Oasis, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study on the oasis corridor landscape is a new hotspot in the ecological environment research in the arid regions.In oasis, maincorridor landscape types include river, ditch, shelterbelt and road.This paper introduces the basic ecological effects of the corridor landscapeon the transporting mass and energy and obstructing desert landscape expansion and incursion.Using Geographic Information System(GIS), wehave researched the corridor distribution and its spatial relationship with other landscape types in the Jinta Oasis.Based on the dynamicallymonitoring on the landscape pattern change of the Jinta Oasis during the latter 10 years by using Remote Sensing(RS) and GIS, the drivingfunctions of the corridors on this change have been analyzed in detail.The analysis results showed that all kinds of corridors' characteristics canbe quantified by the indexes such as length and width, ratio of perimeter and area, density and non-heterogeneity.The total corridor length ofJinta Oasis is 1838.5 km and its density is 2.1 km/km2 .The corridor density of the irrigation land, forest and resident area is maximal, whichshows that affection degree of the oasis corridors on them is the most.The improvement of the corridors quality is one of the important drivingfactors on the irrigation land and so on.The organic combination of the RS and GIS technologies and landscape research methods would be aneffective means for the corridor landscape research on arid region oasis.

  10. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.

  11. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Graham S; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with participants involved in this land-use planning process, and our involvement with the issue from 1990 through 2002. Conservation biology had a major influence on the outcome of the land-use planning process for this moraine. The landform was identified as an area of value by the environmental movement within the context of a number of ongoing government studies that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Conservation biologists and planners in government, the environmental movement, and the private sector carried out work related to conservation biology, including inventories and the development and application of criteria for the delineation of core areas and conservation corridors. Once the political timing was favorable (2001-2002), decision makers linked the science of conservation biology to planning policies and law in Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine land-use planning process was precedent setting in Canada, and possibly internationally. To our knowledge this is the first time long, wide conservation corridors on private lands were regulated through land-use-planning legislation and led to restrictions on urban development and aggregate resource extraction.

  12. Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Ruter, Anthony; Schweger, Charles; Friebe, Harvey; Staff, Richard A.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Mendoza, Marie L. Z.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Zutter, Cynthia; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Potter, Ben A.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Rainville, Rebecca A.; Orlando, Ludovic; Meltzer, David J.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-09-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr BP), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear when plants and animals colonized this corridor and it became biologically viable for human migration. We obtained radiocarbon dates, pollen, macrofossils and metagenomic DNA from lake sediment cores in a bottleneck portion of the corridor. We find evidence of steppe vegetation, bison and mammoth by approximately 12.6 cal. kyr BP, followed by open forest, with evidence of moose and elk at about 11.5 cal. kyr BP, and boreal forest approximately 10 cal. kyr BP. Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north-south passageway.

  13. Integrated HS and ALS Remote Sensing Data Sources to Develop Green Corridors in Sopron Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The green corridors are part of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase in size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century. This effect radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. One ecological problem with the remaining forests is the partial missing of the network connecting the parts with ecological green corridors. Another economical problem is the verifiability for the payment system of agroforestry. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise monitoring the arable lands, plantations, natural reserve areas, as well as to help for the European Union payment system. Nowadays the airborne hyperspectral (HS and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging; ALS remote sensing technologies are becoming of more widespread use. They can be applied especially in spatial decision support system (SDSS, used in decisions about for nature, environment, forests, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring, as well as for monitoring of biomass production. Our site selection model was the first step towards planning an agroforestry plantation which uses these integrated technologies to connect the parts with green corridors.

  14. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Krink, T.; Vollrath, F.

    2005-04-01

    Understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. Using state-of-the-art global positioning system (GPS) technology we tracked 11 focal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. Our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. The actual ranges of the tracked elephants are smaller than usually represented. Moreover, the ranges in our sample were complex and not confined to officially designated protected areas, except where fenced. All the unfenced elephants in our sample had distinct `home sectors' linked by `travel' corridors. Within each home sector the elephants concentrated in favourite `core zones'. Such core zones tended to lie in protected areas whereas corridors typically crossed unprotected range. Elephants moved significantly faster along corridors than elsewhere in their range, which suggests awareness of danger outside the protected area. We conclude that understanding the complex use of an animal's range is crucial for conservation planning aiming to balance animal interests with those of human beings that co-habit in their range.

  15. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  16. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  17. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors.

  18. Role of the future creative universities in the triple helix of science and technology corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The science and technology corridor is a complex cluster containing universities, science parks, research centers, high-tech companies, venture capital, institutional and physical infrastructures, and human capital in a defined geography with its unique management and legal structure in association with the business space and knowledge-based products. In fact, the science and technology corridor reflects the concept of development based on the knowledge region (the especial region for science and technology. The knowledge region is clearly a triple helix phenomenon par excellence: universities, governments and businesses combine their efforts to construct a common advantage which they would not be able to offer on their own. The future creative universities in connection with the knowledge city-regions not only will deal with innovation and entrepreneurial training but also produce a competitive, vibrant environment with high indices for quality of life and full of green technologies. In this article, we will present functional interactions of the creative universities in the triple helix, particularly the missions for the Iranian universities of medical sciences. As a theoretical model, the complex interactions of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and Health Services with Bushehr Science and Technology Corridor will be discussed.

  19. An editorial approach: Mike Nelson’s corridors and The Deliverance and The Patience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay contrasts the contemporary British artist Mike Nelson’s approach to constructing his large, multi-room installations with his approach to editing the numerous artist books that he has produced since 2000. This comparison reveals several compositional symmetries between the two, namely pertaining to narrative non-linearity and meta-fictionality. The logic of montage is shown to similarly underscore both the books and the installations. This essay argues that the corridors connecting the different rooms of Nelson’s installations function in a similar way to the logic of montage: they play an integral role as the support that binds the structure of the installation (its multiple rooms together as a whole. This essay argues that the corridor is the primary viewing framework of the installation for the viewer, and that this vantage point is significant because the necessarily partial vision of the installation from the space of the corridor demonstrates the logic of installation art more broadly. I conclude by mapping the key compositional elements of Nelson’s artist books onto his installations, taking the 2001 work The Deliverance and The Patience as a case study, to show that the books do not exemplify the artwork as with traditional exhibition catalogues, but rather parallel it. That is, a structural continuity is established between these two facets of his work.

  20. Ray-Based Statistical Propagation Modeling for Indoor Corridor Scenarios at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands for fifth-generation (5G communication systems, high frequency bands (above 6 GHz need to be adopted to provide additional spectrum. This paper investigates the characteristics of indoor corridor channels at 15 GHz. Channel measurements with a vector network analyzer in two corridors were conducted. Based on a ray-optical approach, a deterministic channel model covering both antenna and propagation characteristic is presented. The channel model is evaluated by comparing simulated results of received power and root mean square delay spread with the corresponding measurements. By removing the impact of directional antennas from the transmitter and receiver, a path loss model as well as small-scale fading properties for typical corridors is presented based on the generated samples from the deterministic model. Results show that the standard deviation of path loss variation is related to the Tx height, and placing the Tx closer to the ceiling leads to a smaller fluctuation of path loss.

  1. New evidence of shared dinosaur across Upper Jurassic Proto-North Atlantic: Stegosaurus from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaso, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Dantas, Pedro; Malafaia, Elisabete; Pimentel, Nuno L.; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Sanz, José Luis; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, María Carla; Barriga, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    More than one century after its original description by Marsh in 1877, we report in this paper the first uncontroversial evidence of a member of the genus Stegosaurus out of North America. The specimen consists of a partial skeleton from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal, herein considered as Stegosaurus cf. ungulatus. The presence of this plated dinosaur in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Tithonian Portuguese record and synchronic levels of the Morrison Formation of North America reinforces previous hypothesis of a close relationship between these two areas during the Late Jurassic. This relationship is also supported by geotectonic evidences indicating high probability of an episodic corridor between the Newfoundland and Iberian landmasses. Together, Portuguese Stegosaurus discovery and geotectonic inferences could provide a scenario with episodical faunal contact among North Atlantic landmasses during the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian (ca. 148-153 Ma ago).

  2. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  3. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  4. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  5. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  6. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  7. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  8. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  9. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  10. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  11. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  13. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  14. Measurements of dimethyl sulfide and H2S over the western North Atlantic and the tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, T. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Bingemer, H. G.; Leck, C.

    1993-01-01

    Airborne measurements of DMS and H2S were made off the east coast of the United States and over the tropical Atlantic off Brazil. Samples were collected through a fluorinated ethylene propylene Teflon inlet manifold. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was preconcentrated onto gold wool and analyzed by gas chromatography/flame photometric detection. H2S was collected on AgNO3-impregnated filters and determined by fluorescence quenching. Use of a new scrubber material (cotton) to remove negative interference on DMS measurements was investigated. Comparison with a Na2CO3/Anakrom scrubber gave good overall agreement. Only under extreme conditions, e.g., on flight 9 (continental air mass, low humidity, high O3, and low DMS values) did Na2CO3 show noticeable loss of DMS compared to cotton. On most flights, especially in marine air masses with high humidity and relatively low O3, the results from both scrubbers agreed well with each other and with other instruments used during the intercalibration. Off the U.S. East Coast, DMS levels showed strong dependence on air mass origin with high values (up to 83 ppt) in marine tropical air masses and low values (10-20 ppt) in continental and polar air. Over the tropical Atlantic, DMS ranged over 20-100 ppt in the mixed layer. Nighttime values were a factor of 1.6-2.3 higher than daytime levels. DMS decreased with altitude to less than 1 ppt at 4000 m. H2S in the mixed layer off the U.S. East Coast ranged from 10 to 200 ppt. Significant influence from terrestrial and pollution sources was evident. H2S in air masses originating over the eastern seaboard was much higher than in continental polar air or over the remote tropical continents. In contrast, over the tropical Atlantic, concentrations were very low (5-10 ppt), typical of truly marine air. Night/day ratios were about 1.4. No significant geographical variability was seen in H2S levels over the tropical Atlantic. The correlation of atmospheric Rn-222 and H2S was significant, with both

  15. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  16. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally,...

  17. Studi Hubungan Budaya dengan Aglomerasi Ekonomi (North-South Corridor Di Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Kresna Sakti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   There are two things that commonly identify economic activitivities spacially such as concentration and imbalance.  East Java has two concentration poles of Java economic activities spacially. One of the concentration areas in East Java is in Surabaya, and that concentration activity is called North-South Corridor which is close to temple/ archeological site in East Java. Based on the fact, this research answers some questions like (1 Is there any interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension? (2 How does culture dimension interacts with economic dimension? The aims of the research are (a To know the interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension partially and cumulatively, so there will be North-South Corridor in East Java; (b To know the flow of mechanism from the detail of culture dimension interacting with economic dimension. The research was done outside North-South Corridor  area in East Java. The result of the research shows (1 there is a relationship between culture and economic dimension. It can be showed from the difference of each economic subject both inside and outside North-South Corridor in facing Hofstede Culture; (2 the difference of culture is formed by the environment of area inside and outside North-South Corridor.   Keywords: North-South Corridor, culture, economic concentration   ABSTRAKS   Terdapat dua hal yang seringkali menjadi ciri menonjol dari kegiatan perekonomian secara spasial, yaitu adanya konsentrasi dan ketimpangan. Di Pulau Jawa Terdapat dua kutub konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Jawa secara spasial. Salah satunya wilayah konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Surabaya Jawa Timur. Konsentrasi kegiatan tersebut dikenal dengan koridor utara – selatan. Menariknya koridor Utara-Selatan berhimpit dengan letak situs purbakala/candi di Jawa Timur.  Berpijak pada kesenjangan realita tersebut, penelitan ini berusaha menjawab pertanyaan berikut, (1 apakah

  18. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  19. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  20. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  1. Bidirectional recovery patterns of Mojave Desert vegetation in an aqueduct pipeline corridor after 36 years: I. Perennial shrubs and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Weigand, James F.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Mack, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    We studied recovery of 21 perennial plant species along a severely disturbed aqueduct corridor in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa plant alliance in the Mojave Desert 36 years after construction. The 97-m wide corridor contained a central dirt road and buried aqueduct pipeline. We established transects at 0 m (road verge), 20 m and 40 m into the disturbance corridor, and at 100 m in undisturbed habitat (the control). Although total numbers of shrubs per transect did not vary significantly with distance from the verge, canopy cover of shrubs, species richness, and species diversity were higher in the control than at the verge and other distances. Canopy cover of common shrubs (Ericameria nauseosa, Ambrosia salsola, A. dumosa, L. tridentata, Grayia spinosa) and perennial grasses (Elymus elymoides, Poa secunda) also varied significantly by location. Discriminant analysis clearly separated the four distances based on plant composition. Patterns of recovery were bidirectional: secondary succession from the control into the disturbance corridor and inhibition from the verge in the direction of the control. Time estimated for species composition to resemble the control is dependent on location within the disturbance corridor and could be centuries at the road verge. Our findings have applications to other deserts.

  2. Simulation approach to define sustainable balance between automobile traffic and bus rapid transit (BRT) in urban corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, A.J.; Khan, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    One of the key challenges facing Central Business Districts (CBD) of medium size urban areas in North America is how to minimize the dependence on automobiles while providing efficient transit service. Underground facilities, exclusive bus/rail corridor or elevated roadways may not be practical due to high cost, aesthetics, noise and adverse land use effects. Because of its compatibility with land use and infrastructure, bus rapid transit (BRT) is receiving more attention. Existing roadway infrastructure, when used as a shared facility, may support rapid transit service besides providing a sustainable level of automobile traffic. A microscopic simulation approach is required in order to assess design changes and throughput levels of shared corridors. The purpose of this paper was to advance the concept of a sustainable balance between public transit and automobile traffic in the CBD, and demonstrate the role of microsimulation as a tool to analyze policies and designs. Limitations of the existing planning methodology were explained and a description of how microscopic simulation approach could be used to overcome methodological gaps was presented. In addition, selected results of a research study conducted using microscopic simulation approach for BRT corridors in Ottawa were shown. It was concluded that BRT operations under favourable conditions in downtown corridors can potentially serve over 28,000 passengers per hour and that removing on-street parking from bus transit corridor expedites bus movement. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Identifying Potential Conservation Corridors Along the Mongolia-Russia Border Using Resource Selection Functions: A Case Study on Argali Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyanaa Chimeddorj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The disruption of animal movements is known to affect wildlife populations, particularly large bodied, free-ranging mammals that require large geographic ranges to survive. Corridors commonly connect fragmented wildlife populations and their habitats, yet identifying corridors rarely uses data on habitat selection and movements of target species. New technologies and analytical tools make it possible to better integrate landscape patterns with spatial behavioral data. We show how resource selection functions can describe habitat suitability using continuous and multivariate metrics to determine potential wildlife movement corridors. During 2005–2010, we studied movements of argali sheep ( Ovis ammon near the Mongolia-Russia border using radio-telemetry and modeled their spatial distribution in relation to landscape features to create a spatially explicit habitat suitability surface to identify potential transboundary conservation corridors. Argali sheep habitat selection in western Mongolia positively correlated with elevation, ruggedness index, and distance to border. In other words, argali were tended use areas with higher elevation, rugged topography, and distances farther from the international border. We suggest that these spatial modeling approaches offer ways to design and identify wildlife corridors more objectively and holistically, and can be applied to many other target species.

  4. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  5. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  6. Plant community characteristics and their relationships with climate in the Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peixi SU; Hongbin CHEN; Qiaodi YAN

    2008-01-01

    Species, coverage, density, appearance, important values and above ground biomass of desert plant communities in the Hexi Corridor region in north-western China were investigated. Data on the meteoro-logical factors at the investigation sites were collected. Their relationships were statistically analyzed. The results show that the composition of plant species and total den-sity in the Hexi Corridor region are positively correlated with elevation and longitude, but negatively with latitude. The relation decreases from the southeast to the northwest in this region. In the desert regions with an accumulated temperature of >10℃ greater than 3200℃, the shrubs, including semi-shrubs, occupy dominant positions in the communities. Their importance values reach 100. When the accumulated temperature is about 3000℃, the com-munities are often in some type of transition, either with herbage being the dominant species, with some semi-shrubs or shrubs as companion species, or the dominant species being semi-shrubs with some perennial herbage as companion species. In desert communities with an annual precipitation of over 110 mm, the main life forms of plants are semi-shrubs or perennial herbs. When precip-itation is less than 110 mm, the main life forms of the vegetation are dwarf shrub or annual herbs. In the extreme arid regions with annual precipitation of around 50 mm in the northwestern part of the Hexi Corridor, barely some annual herbage come to life during the rainy season. Desert ecosystems consist of sparse vegetation with small biomass. They change with climate factors and are especially sensitive to precipitation, which is par-ticularly important for their conservation.

  7. Normalizing and scaling of data to derive human response corridors from impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that variability is inherent in any biological experiment. Human cadavers (Post-Mortem Human Subjects, PMHS) are routinely used to determine responses to impact loading for crashworthiness applications including civilian (motor vehicle) and military environments. It is important to transform measured variables from PMHS tests (accelerations, forces and deflections) to a standard or reference population, termed normalization. The transformation process should account for inter-specimen variations with some underlying assumptions used during normalization. Scaling is a process by which normalized responses are converted from one standard to another (example, mid-size adult male to large-male and small-size female adults, and to pediatric populations). These responses are used to derive corridors to assess the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (crash dummies) used to predict injury in impact environments and design injury mitigating devices. This survey examines the pros and cons of different approaches for obtaining normalized and scaled responses and corridors used in biomechanical studies for over four decades. Specifically, the equal-stress equal-velocity and impulse-momentum methods along with their variations are discussed in this review. Methods ranging from subjective to quasi-static loading to different approaches are discussed for deriving temporal mean and plus minus one standard deviation human corridors of time-varying fundamental responses and cross variables (e.g., force-deflection). The survey offers some insights into the potential efficacy of these approaches with examples from recent impact tests and concludes with recommendations for future studies. The importance of considering various parameters during the experimental design of human impact tests is stressed.

  8. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  9. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  10. Tectonic inversion of compressional structures in the Southern portion of the Paramirim Corridor, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cerqueira Pereira Cruz

    Full Text Available The Paramirim Corridor represents the maximum inversion zone of the Paramirim Aulacogen. Reverse-to-reverse dextral shear zones and various types of folds dominate such corridor. These structures reflect a stress field that is WSW-ENE oriented, developed in units of Aulacogen basement, as well as in the Lagoa Real Intrusive Suite, of Statherian age, in Espinhaço and São Francisco supergroups, of Statherian-Tonian and Cryogenian ages, respectively, and in the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre Group, of Tonian age at the most. A rich collection of extensional structures truncate compressional structures of the Paramirim Corridor, characterized by normal shear zones and foliation, which is sometimes mylonitic, down-dip stretching lineation, drag folds, traction fractures and S/C structures. In these shear zones, quartz occurs truncated by the foliation, while feldspars are fractured and altered to white mica. Distribution of the quartz c-axes is at a maximum of 14° from the Z-axis. Thus, it suggests that the deformation activated mainly the basal glide planes in the direction. The paleostress study using the Win-Tensor software demonstrated that the regimen ranged between radial and pure distention. The S1 direction oscillated around a vertical trend, while s3 was sub-horizontal, with a predominant N230-050° direction. Ar-Ar ages in biotite obtained from the extensional shear zones ranged from 480 and 490 Ma. Together, data obtained for the structures associated with the late extensional regimen described in the present study suggest that its nucleation is associated with distal and brittle-ductile sectors of the gravitational collapse zone of Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen.

  11. A preliminary study on designing ecological corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve with 3S techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the fieldwork in Xishuang-banna Natioanl Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province of China. GPS data of Asian elephants were collected and analyzed with the remote sensing satellite photos of the region to estimate the landform physiognomy of different colors. We also analyzed a series of ecological factors includ-ing altitude, landform, relief, villages and roads which affected the distribution and movement of Asian elephants. The results suggested the possibility of designing and estab-lishing corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve to protect the population of wild elephants in the region.

  12. GEOMETRIC CONTEXT AND ORIENTATION MAP COMBINATION FOR INDOOR CORRIDOR MODELING USING A SINGLE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Jahromi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected

  13. Robust analysis of an underwater navigational strategy in electrically heterogeneous corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimble, Kedar D; Ranganathan, Badri N; Keshavan, Jishnu; Humbert, J Sean

    2016-08-01

    Obstacles and other global stimuli provide relevant navigational cues to a weakly electric fish. In this work, robust analysis of a control strategy based on electrolocation for performing obstacle avoidance in electrically heterogeneous corridors is presented and validated. Static output feedback control is shown to achieve the desired goal of reflexive obstacle avoidance in such environments in simulation and experimentation. The proposed approach is computationally inexpensive and readily implementable on a small scale underwater vehicle, making underwater autonomous navigation feasible in real-time.

  14. Modeling of optimal control for urban freeway corridor under incident conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhu ZHENG; Decun DONG

    2006-01-01

    Traffic control and management are effective measures to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The optimal control model for freeway corridor is developed under incident conditions, which is in the form of minimization of the sum of the square of the difference between traffic demand and capacity at each intersection and on the freeway bottleneck section. The model optimizes control parameters of phase splits at arterial intersections, off-ramp diversion rates at upstream off-ramps and on-ramp diversion rates at downstream on ramps. Finally, the objective function is discussed and it is showed that the optimal control model is simple and practical.

  15. Comparative use of riparian corridors and oases by migrating birds in southeast Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Melcher, C.P.; Howe, W.H.; Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of cottonwood-willow riparian corridors and isolated oases to land birds migrating across southeastern Arizona was evaluated during four spring migrations, 1989 to 1994, based on patterns of species richness, relative abundance, density, and body condition of birds. We surveyed birds in 13 study sites ranging in size and connectivity from small isolated patches to extensive riparian forest, sampled vegetation and insects, and captured birds in mistnets. The continuous band of riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River does not appear to be functioning as a corridor for many migrating species, although it may for a few, namely Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), Summer Tanagers (Piranga rubra), and Northern Rough-winged Swallows (Steldigopteryx serripennis), which account for fewer than 10% of the individuals migrating through the area. Small, isolated oases hosted more avian species than the corridor sites, and the relative abundances of most migrating birds did not differ between sites relative to size-connectivity. There were few differences in between-year variability in the relative abundances of migrating birds between corridor and oasis sites. Between-year variability decreased with overall abundance of species and was greater for species with breeding ranges that centered north of 50??N latitude. Body condition of birds did not differ relative to the size-connectivity of the capture site, but individuals of species with more northerly breeding ranges had more body fat than species that breed nearby. Peak migration densities of several bird species far exceeded breeding densities reported for the San Pedro River, suggesting that large components of these species were en route migrants. Peak densities of Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) reached 48.0 birds/ha, of Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) 33.7 birds/ha, and of Yellow-rumped Warblers (D. coronata) 30.1 birds/ha. Riparian vegetation is limited in extent in the

  16. Comparison of serial and parallel simulations of a corridor fire using FDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, L.

    2015-09-01

    Current fire simulators allow to model the course of fire in large areas and its impact on structure and equipment. This paper deals with a comparison of serial and parallel calculations of simulation of a corridor fire by the FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) system. In parallel case, the whole computational domain is divided into several computational meshes, the computation on each mesh is considered as a single MPI (Message Passing Interface) process realised on one computational core and communication between MPI processes is provided by MPI. The aim of this paper is to determine the size of error caused by parallelization of computation, which occurs at touches of computational meshes.

  17. Corridor of existence of thermodynamically consistent solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, V S; Martynov, G A

    2007-07-14

    We obtain the exact equation for a correction to the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation based on the assumption of the uniqueness of thermodynamical functions. We show that this equation is reduced to a differential equation with one arbitrary parameter for the hard sphere model. The compressibility factor within narrow limits of this parameter variation can either coincide with one of the formulas obtained on the basis of analytical solutions of the OZ equation or assume all intermediate values lying in a corridor between these solutions. In particular, we find the value of this parameter when the thermodynamically consistent compressibility factor corresponds to the Carnahan-Stirling formula.

  18. Potential economic corridors between Vietnam and Lao PDR: Roles played by Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    The Third Thai-Lao Friendship over the Mekong officially opened on 11th November 2011 facilitates the cross-border trade along Asian Highway 15 and Asian Highway 131 between Northeast Thailand, Central Lao PDR and North Central Vietnam. Since the establishment of East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) which based on the Asian Highway 16, the cross-border trade among countries in Greater Mekong Sub-region has been much facilitated. The success of EWEC encourages local governments in the region to...

  19. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  20. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  1. The age of formation of the mirabilite and sand wedges in the Hexi Corridor and their paleoclimatic interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nai'ang; ZHANG Jianming; CHENG Hongyi; GUO Jianying; ZHAO Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Sand wedges in the Hexi Corridor mainly formed in an alluvial gravel stratum of the late Pleistocene and the radiocarbon ages of the eolian sand infilling wedge prove that they were a product of the last ice age. During their period of formation, the mean annual air temperature in the Hexi Corridor was about -5.3℃, i. e. about 13℃ lower than that of the present. This estimated value iscoincident with the decrease in air temperature predicated from mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) sedimentary layer in study area, and also agrees with research on theestimated amplitude of air temperature lowering in middle and high latitudes ofthe Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial period. The annual precipitation in the Western Hexi Corridor at that time was probably about 100-200 mm, i.e.about 100 mm more than at present.

  2. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  3. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  4. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Naira N; Bradley, James E; Otter, Ken A

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  5. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N Johnston

    Full Text Available Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011, one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string. Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level. Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  6. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  7. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  8. Typology of building shading elements on Jalan Sudirman corridor in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, G.; Aldy, P.

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, temperature in Pekanbaru was between 22.60°C and 34.6°C with humidity 79.14 percent. This condition has increase the concern of energy utilization to building comfort. Buildings have the biggest energy consuming due to the use of air conditioner in Pekanbaru. One effort to reduced energy is shading devices application. Application of air conditioner need huge energy, replaced natural circulation with architecture elements to reduced building thermal. This research study about system and building shading devices types that influence building thermal in Pekanbaru so that knowing characteristics and elements form. This study aims to determine and identify of systems and building elements types in Pekanbaru, which the element forms to conquer in climate condition. Qualitative method with rationalistic-paradigm has used to identify typology of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman corridor. The research orientation on typology theory, thermal theory, and building shading device to identification of building shading device types on Jalan Sudirman corridor. Based on the survey result, there are 2 type of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman Pekanbaru which is based on forms and quantity of shading. The types are building shading devices based on shading quantity and building shading devices based on shading forms.

  9. REDUCING SURFACE TEMPERATURES OF NORTH-SOUTH BUSINESS CORRIDORS IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasasto SATWIKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat island has made the warm-humid climate city of Yogyakarta thermally more uncomfortable, which induces its people to depend more on energy consuming air conditioners. Business corridors are constructed from building walls and roofs, pedestrian paths, the streets and the vegetation, which convert solar radiation into heat. Infrared mappings of the four north-south axis business corridors of Yogyakarta found that streets and vehicles have their temperatures higher than the air temperature. Exception is at Gejayan St., where the street’s temperature is close to the air temperature. This street has rows of trees on its median, which effectively shades the street. Further study on Gejayan St. using a computer simulation method confirms that columnar and spreading form trees can reduce incident solar radiation on the street surface by, respectively, 13.35% and 22.02%. Putting creeping plants on pergolas reduce incident solar radiation on the west and the east walls by, respectively, 37.05% and 37.45%.

  10. EIA BASED COMPARATIVE URBAN TRAFFIC NOISE ANALYSIS BETWEEN OPERATIONAL AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION PHASE PUBLIC TRANSPORT CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Mishra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Delhi has a population of 16.75 million and is increasing at a rapid rate. This increase in population has enhanced the need for public transport. In Delhi, this need for public transport is served mainly by buses, auto rickshaws, a rapid transit system, taxis and suburban railways. Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and the Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. By the application of various data and public response, the paper accentuates the qualitative discussion on impacts of mass rapid transit system (MRTS corridor on land use and social aspects of lives of residents and road users. It also proposes certain mitigating measures for that meticulous condition. The analysis and survey outcome explain about the exceeded level of noise level as compared to CPCB standards. The share of public transport in total noise pollution is smaller than private but still exceeds the standards. Such problem demands the design of noise barrier along the corridor to curb the noise pollution.

  11. Noise monitoring and modeling on four lanning of national highways corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, P Shiyamala; Rosaline, G Vimala

    2012-10-01

    Noise emitted from traffic contributes to about 55% of total noise pollution in India. This paper is an effort of a research conducted to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along the Salem-Namakkal NH 7 corridor with an ultimate objective of setting up a traffic noise model based on the traffic noise conditions of Indian cities. Noise levels and other variables have been measured in 15 locations to develop a statistical regression model based on A-weighted equivalent noise level for Indian road conditions. The ambient noise levels recorded represent the higher noise levels prevailing along the NH 7 corridor. The Receptor Oriented Technique adopted proves to be helpful in characterizing the ambient noise levels along the study area. The newly developed road traffic noise model can be effectively used as a decision support tool for predicting equivalent noise levels in the cities of India. The present analysis also reveals that the magnitude of noise levels has an increasing trend due to the increased traffic flow and presents the attention needed for minimization. The mitigation measures and the future evaluations are discussed.

  12. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  13. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  14. Characterizing corridor-level travel time distributions based on stochastic flows and segment capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trip travel time reliability is an important measure of transportation system performance and a key factor affecting travelers’ choices. This paper explores a method for estimating travel time distributions for corridors that contain multiple bottlenecks. A set of analytical equations are used to calculate the number of queued vehicles ahead of a probe vehicle and further capture many important factors affecting travel times: the prevailing congestion level, queue discharge rates at the bottlenecks, and flow rates associated with merges and diverges. Based on multiple random scenarios and a vector of arrival times, the lane-by-lane delay at each bottleneck along the corridor is recursively estimated to produce a route-level travel time distribution. The model incorporates stochastic variations of bottleneck capacity and demand and explains the travel time correlations between sequential links. Its data needs are the entering and exiting flow rates and a sense of the lane-by-lane distribution of traffic at each bottleneck. A detailed vehicle trajectory data-set from the Next Generation SIMulation (NGSIM project has been used to verify that the estimated distributions are valid, and the sources of estimation error are examined.

  15. Earthquake scenario and probabilistic ground-shaking hazard maps for the Albuquerque-Belen-Santa Fe, New Mexico, corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I.; Olig, S.; Dober, M.; Silva, W.; Wright, D.; Thomas, P.; Gregor, N.; Sanford, A.; Lin, K.-W.; Love, D.

    2004-01-01

    New Mexico's population is concentrated along the corridor that extends from Belen in the south to Española in the north and includes Albuquerque and Santa Fe. The Rio Grande rift, which encompasses the corridor, is a major tectonically, volcanically, and seismically active continental rift in the western U.S. Although only one large earthquake (moment magnitude (M) ≥ 6) has possibly occurred in the New Mexico portion of the rift since 1849, paleoseismic data indicate that prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes of M 6.5 and greater have occurred on aver- age every 400 yrs on many faults throughout the Rio Grande rift.

  16. Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the central da Mata Atlântica in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. D Rocha

    Full Text Available Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species, and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espírito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Trancoso, BA, and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi. The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espírito Santo and Bahia.

  17. Flight Dynamics Laboratory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Thaddeus

    1986-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FDL) is one of four Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) and part of the Aeronautical Systems Division located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The FDL is responsible for the planning and execution of research and development programs in the areas of structures and dynamics, flight controls, vehicle equipment/subsystems, and aeromechanics. Some of the areas being researched in the four FDL divisions are as follows: large space structures (LSS) materials and controls; advanced cockpit designs; bird-strike-tolerant windshields; and hypersonic interceptor system studies. Two of the FDL divisions are actively involved in programs that deal directly with LSS control/structures interaction: the Flight Controls Division and the Structures and Dynamics Division.

  18. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  19. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  20. Distribution patterns in Atlantic hydroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medel, M.D.; López-González, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The present study is a first attempt to comparing the hydroid faunas of the various Zoogeographie areas of the Atlantic Ocean. We restricted ourselves to species of the orders Antho- and Leptomedusae, of which 1050 species were taken into account. The classification of zoogeographic areas used follo

  1. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  2. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  3. Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bergès, Philip Roche and Catherine Avon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological corridors are a fundamental element in the National ecological network approved by the Grenelle environmental agreement in order to reduce ecosystem damage caused by fragmentation of the natural habitat zones of species. How can their effectiveness be evaluated? This article sums up current knowledge on their pros and cons.Fragmentation of natural habitats is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One of the proposed solutions to limit the effects of fragmentation is to restore ecological connectivity by creating ecological corridors between zones containing natural habitats. The concept remains controversial among scientists, but now serves as the basis for one of the operational projects of the Grenelle environmental agreements in the form of the National ecological network. After examining the ecological concepts justifying the political goal and presenting the various ecological roles of corridors, we briefly discuss their overall advantages and disadvantages. Then, we look closely at the methodological difficulties in detecting a corridor effect. Finally, we recommend a close partnership between research and policy to design biodiversity monitoring and evaluation systems in the different land-management plans.

  4. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke;

    2008-01-01

    30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  5. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  6. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  7. Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Menzie, W.D.; Hyun, H.

    2004-01-01

    Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available substitutes for natural aggregate in many areas. This paper presents an overview of factors that affect recycled aggregate cost, availability, and engineering performance, and the results of a survey of business practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. For RAP, processing costs are less than those for virgin natural aggregate. Use of efficient asphalt pavement stripping technology, on-site reclamation, and linked two-way transport of asphalt debris and processed asphalt paving mix between asphalt mix plants and paving sites has led to extensive recycling of asphalt pavement in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Most of the sites that recycle asphalt pavement (RAP) are located in or near urban areas close to important transportation corridors. RPCC is a viable aggregate source in urban settings where unit costs for processed aggregate from RPCC and natural aggregate are comparable. Disposal fees charged at RPCC recycling sites help defray processing costs and the significantly lower tipping fees at recycling sites versus landfill disposal sites encourage recycling of construction debris as aggregate. Construction contractors and construction debris recycling centers, many of which have the ability to crush and process concrete debris at the job site, produce most RPCC. Production of RPCC aggregate from construction debris that is processed on site using portable equipment moved to the construction site eliminates transportation costs for aggregate and provides an economic incentive for RPCC use. Processing costs, quality and performance issues, and lack of large quantities where needed limit RPCC use. Most RPCC suppliers in the Mid-Atlantic area are located in counties with population densities greater than 400 people/km2 (1036 people/mile2) and that have high unit-value costs and limited local availability of natural aggregate. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Molecular Corridor Based Approach for Description of Evolution of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y., Sr.; Poeschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and its major component is secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Formation and evolution of SOA is a complex process involving coupled chemical reactions and mass transport in the gas and particle phases (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Current air quality models do not embody the full spectrum of reaction and transport processes, nor do they identify the dominant rate-limiting steps in SOA formation, resulting in the significant underprediction of observed SOA concentrations, which precludes reliable quantitative predictions of aerosols and their environmental impacts. Recently, it has been suggested that the SOA chemical evolution can be represented well by "molecular corridor" with a tight inverse correlation between molar mass and volatility of SOA oxidation products (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Here we further analyzed the structure, molar mass and volatility of 31,000 unique organic compounds. These compounds include oxygenated organic compounds as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics such as amines, organonitrates, and organosulfates. Results show that most of those compounds fall into this two-dimensional (2-D) space, which is constrained by two boundary lines corresponding to the volatility of n -alkanes CnH2n+2 and sugar alcohols CnH2n+2On. A method to predict the volatility of nitrogen- and sulfur- containing compounds is developed based on those 31,000 organic compounds. It is shown that the volatility can be well predicted as a function of chemical composition numbers, providing a way to apply this 2-D space to organic compounds observed in real atmosphere. A comprehensive set of observation data from laboratory experiments, field campaigns and indoor measurements is mapped to the molecular corridor. This 2-D space can successfully grasp the properties of organic compounds formed in different atmospheric conditions. The molecular corridor represents a new framework in which chemical and physical properties as

  9. Dynamique institutionnelle des transferts de gestion dans le corridor Fandriana-Vondrozo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Ganomanana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten years after their creation, the operation of the community-based natural resource management policy named ‘transfert de gestion’ – the 1996 GELOSE law (applied to any kind of natural resources, and the 2001 GCF decree (only applied to forests – remains little understood. The forest corridor linking Ranomafana and Andringitra National Parks has been extended south, and since 2006 the Fandriana-Vondrozo Corridor has been established as a new protected area within the Madagascar Protected Area System. Eighty-two sites of transfert de gestion have been created since 2001 in the Fandriana-Vondrozo Corridor and Randriamahaleo III are managed by local community associations named COBA. Management is determined by law but is locally adapted to each site. We analyze the dynamic of the community forest management system using six variables and 19 modes: year of creation (five modes, legal form of management (two modes, locality (two modes, principal NGO partners (five modes, management objective (two modes, and surface area of the transferred site (three modes. There are four institutions in charge of forest management: local community associations (COBA, which manage the forest in their territory; the Forest Service (Eaux et Forêt representing the State, which controls this management; the commune, the smallest decentralized unit of the State, which manages the whole communal territory including forests; and NGOs, which facilitate the process. In order to investigate institutional tendencies, the sites of transfert de gestion are analyzed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. The sites are distributed in the first two factorial plans with percentage variance of 18.5 % and 15.8 % according to their objectives: 1 pure conservation, and 2 economic development. Three types of NGO are distinguished by the form and duration of their support to COBA. The NGOs with greatest weight in the process are those which support the transfert de gestion

  10. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... in the future as continued growth in population, employment, and tourism activity is expected to... infrastructure that is significantly undersized for the volumes it currently accommodates, much less future... fully booked during peak travel periods. Aging Rail Infrastructure--Investment in corridor rail...

  11. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of...'s (Commission) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associations of vascular plants confined to river valleys: towards understanding the river corridor plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Zubek, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    The group of river corridor plants (RCP) includes vascular plant species which grow mainly or exclusively in the valleys of large rivers. Despite the long recognized fact that some plant species display a corridor-like distribution pattern in Central Europe, there is still no exhaustive explanation of the mechanisms generating this peculiar distribution. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fungal root endophytes influence the RCP distribution. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) were observed in 19 out of 33 studied RCP. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) and Olpidium spp. were recorded with low abundance in 15 and 10 plant species, respectively. The spores of AMF were found only in 32% of trap cultures established from the soils collected in the river corridor habitats. In total, six widespread AMF species were identified. Because the percentage of non-mycorrhizal species in the group of RCP is significant and the sites in river corridors are characterized by low AMF species diversity, RCP can be outcompeted outside river valleys by the widespread species that are able to benefit from AM associations in more stable plant-AMF communities in non-river habitats.

  13. Causes of Sandstorm Disaster and Strategies against Desertification——A Case Study of Hexi Corridor in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This case study outlines the problems faced by the peoples of the Hexi Corridor. These problems are serious and urgent, and are representative of those faced by other communities right across western China. The root causes are outlined and some remedies are suggested. The practical measures proposed under China's National Action Plan to Combat Desertification are described and discussed.

  14. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany - Workshop Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  15. Examining the effect of speed, roadside features, and roadway geometry on crash experience along a rural corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald C.Watson Jr.; Ahmed Al-Kaisy; Nathan D.Anderson

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a current investigation into crash experience along a 15.7-mile rural corridor in southwest Montana with the aim of better understanding crash causal factors along the corridor. The study utilized ten years of crash data, geometric data, and observed free-flow speed data along the corridor. A systematic approach was used where every tenth of a mile was described in term of the crash experience, speed, alignment, and roadside features. Using bivariate and multivariate statistical anal-yses, the study investigated the crash experience along the corridor as well as some of the underlying relationships which could explain some of the crash causal factors. Results show a strong association between crash rates and horizontal curvatures even for flat curves that can be negotiated at speeds above the posted speed limit, per the highway design equations. Higher crash rates were also found to be associated with the difference between the observed free-flow speeds and the speed dictated by the curve radius or sight distance as per the design equations. Further, results strongly support the safety benefits of guardrails as evidenced by the lower crash rates and severities. The presence of fixed objects and the steepness of side slopes were also found to have an effect on crash rates and severities.

  16. Conflict Resolution for Wind-Optimal Aircraft Trajectories in North Atlantic Oceanic Airspace with Wind Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.

    2016-01-01

    Air traffic in the North Atlantic oceanic airspace (NAT) experiences very strong winds caused by jet streams. Flying wind-optimal trajectories increases individual flight efficiency, which is advantageous when operating in the NAT. However, as the NAT is highly congested during peak hours, a large number of potential conflicts between flights are detected for the sets of wind-optimal trajectories. Conflict resolution performed at the strategic level of flight planning can significantly reduce the airspace congestion. However, being completed far in advance, strategic planning can only use predicted environmental conditions that may significantly differ from the real conditions experienced further by aircraft. The forecast uncertainties result in uncertainties in conflict prediction, and thus, conflict resolution becomes less efficient. This work considers wind uncertainties in order to improve the robustness of conflict resolution in the NAT. First, the influence of wind uncertainties on conflict prediction is investigated. Then, conflict resolution methods accounting for wind uncertainties are proposed.

  17. From Migration Corridors to Clusters: The Value of Google+ Data for Migration Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Messias, Johnnatan; Weber, Ingmar; Zagheni, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there have been considerable efforts to use online data to investigate international migration. These efforts show that Web data are valuable for estimating migration rates and are relatively easy to obtain. However, existing studies have only investigated flows of people along migration corridors, i.e. between pairs of countries. In our work, we use data about "places lived" from millions of Google+ users in order to study migration "clusters", i.e. groups of countries in which individuals have lived. For the first time, we consider information about more than two countries people have lived in. We argue that these data are very valuable because this type of information is not available in traditional demographic sources which record country-to-country migration flows independent of each other. We show that migration clusters of country triads cannot be identified using information about bilateral flows alone. To demonstrate the additional insights that can be gained by using data about migration c...

  18. Mediating factors of land use change among coffee farmers in a biological corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand

    2012-01-01

    Trees in agricultural landscapes are important for the provision of environmental services. This study assesses the loss of shade coffee during a 9 year period in a biological corridor in Costa Rica, and investigates the mediating factors of land use change. Following a conceptual framework...... that presents how household and farm characteristics mediate the interplay between underlying and proximate causes of land use change, the effect of the mediating factors is determined by applying an ordered probit model to household and land use data for 2000 and 2009 from 217 former and present coffee farmers....... Additional 224 telephone interviews supplement the data on land use change. Results show a 50% reduction in the coffee area and a corresponding loss of trees. Family labor, age of household head, coffee prices, and use of shade tree products significantly reduce the probability of converting the coffee field...

  19. From the CERN web: The Art of Science, Theory corridor, DAMPE and more

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This section highlights articles, blog posts and press releases published in the CERN web environment over the past weeks. This way, you won’t miss a thing...     "Move over Mr Einstein!" A scientific experiment ignites creativity and dialogue 26 February – CMS Collaboration The inspiration for the latest art exhibition at the Cité du Temps came from a scientific experiment the height of a six-floor building, built to the precision of the thickness of a human hair. “CMS – The Art of Science”, by Michael Hoch, running from 27 February to 10 April 2016, delivers a dynamic dialogue between art and science. A combination of photography, collage and installations, it pays tribute to the thousands of people who constructed the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva. Continue to read…   One of CERN’s Theory corridors &ndas...

  20. Telemedicine and medical informatics in the multimedia super corridor: the Malaysian vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, S S; Goh, A; Yusoff, Z

    1998-01-01

    The practice of medicine, with its wide range of environmental conditions and complex dependencies, has long been used as a test bed for various advanced technologies. Telemedicine, as conceptualised within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) context, is seen as the application of several relatively mature technologiesartificial intelligence (AI), multimedia communication and information systems (IS) amongst othersso as to benefit a large cross-section of the Malaysian population. We will discuss in general terms the Malaysian vision on the comprehensive MSC telemedicine solution, its functionality and associated operational conditions. In particular, this paper focuses on the conceptualisation of one key telemedical component i.e. the Lifetime Health Plan (LHP) system, which is eventually intended to be a distributed multi-module application for the periodic monitoring and generation of health-care advisories for upwards of 20 million Malaysians.

  1. Controlling inclination in rotary mode in tight TVD corridors using a 2-dimensional steerable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasheed, W. [Andergauge Ltd., Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2000-11-01

    The use of a 2D rotary steerable system to control the inclination of true vertical depth (TVD) and horizontal wells was discussed. The system was introduced in 1986 and has since been used successfully in more than 4,500 sections and 500 horizontal wells worldwide. Directional corrections are unlikely with the use of this system. The system can often drill to total depth in a single bit run. As well bore inclination increases, bit walk becomes less significant. It was concluded that the 2D rotary steerable system is capable of drilling horizontal sections effectively and efficiently. It can meet tight TVD corridor objectives with an accuracy of {+-}2 feet. It also has other benefits regarding hole quality. 11 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Green corridors and their possible impact on the European supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Holte, Even Ambros

    2015-01-01

    employed in Europe, and describes the performance monitoring methodology developed by SuperGreen. The deep sea service linking China to Europe is compared to the trans-Siberian rail link between Beijing and Duisburg as an example. Finally, the new transport infrastructure policy of the European Union...... objective of the SuperGreen project has been to support the development of sustainable transport networks by fulfilling requirements covering environmental, technical, economic, social and spatial planning aspects. The chapter deals only with surface freight transport, including maritime transport, noting...... however that the quality of transport and logistics services is also affected by passenger transport competing for route capacity. Aviation is outside the scope of our analysis, as is the use of pipelines for liquid cargoes. In addition, the chapter provides examples of the corridor development approaches...

  3. The woody vegetation communities of the Hluhluwe-Corridor- Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Whateley

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Land units for the 900 km- Hluhluwe-Corridor-Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex in north eastern Natal were identified on aerial photographs. The physiognomy, dominants and description of the woody vegetation for each unit were identified during ground inspections and. where necessary, the point-centred quarter method was applied. Two forest, two riverine forest, ten woodland and two thicket communities were recognized. These communities are described according to their distribution, height and percentage frequency of the components in the different canopy strata. A map at a scale of 1:25 000 was also compiled. Some of these communities are compared with other similar woodlands previously described for Natal. In some communities the frequency of certain dominant canopy species in the under tree strata was extremely low and autecological research has been suggested.

  4. A water balance model to estimate flow through the Old and Middle River corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Stephen W.; Gross, Edward S.; Hutton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a water balance model to predict tidally averaged (subtidal) flows through the Old River and Middle River corridor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We reviewed the dynamics that govern subtidal flows and water levels and adopted a simplified representation. In this water balance approach, we estimated ungaged flows as linear functions of known (or specified) flows. We assumed that subtidal storage within the control volume varies because of fortnightly variation in subtidal water level, Delta inflow, and barometric pressure. The water balance model effectively predicts subtidal flows and approaches the accuracy of a 1–D Delta hydrodynamic model. We explore the potential to improve the approach by representing more complex dynamics and identify possible future improvements.

  5. 78 FR 48653 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC). SUMMARY: The SAFMC will... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, N. Charleston, SC...

  6. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the newer exercise

  7. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael B.; Harrison, Lee R.; Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  8. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  9. Aggregate supply and demand modeling using GIS methods for the front range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ahmet; Turner, Keith

    2004-07-01

    The combined use of allocation modeling and geographical information system (GIS) technologies for providing quantitative assessments of aggregate supply and demand is evaluated using representative data for the Front Range Urban Corridor (FRUC) in Colorado. The FRUC extends from the Colorado-Wyoming border to south of Colorado Springs, and includes Denver and the major urban growth regions of Colorado. In this area, aggregate demand is high and is increasing in response to population growth. Neighborhood opposition to the establishment of new pits and quarries and the depletion of many deposits are limiting aggregate supplies. Many sources are already covered by urban development or eliminated from production by zoning. Transport of aggregate by rail from distant resources may be required in the future. Two allocation-modeling procedures are tested in this study. Network analysis procedures provided within the ARC/INFO software, are unsatisfactory. Further aggregate allocation modeling used a model specifically designed for this task; a modified version of an existing Colorado School of Mines allocation model allows for more realistic market analyses. This study evaluated four scenarios. The entire region was evaluated with a scenario reflecting the current market and by a second scenario in which some existing suppliers were closed down and new potential suppliers were activated. The conditions within the Denver metropolitan area were studied before and after the introduction of three possible rail-to-truck aggregate distribution centers. GIS techniques are helpful in developing the required database to describe the Front Range Urban Corridor aggregate market conditions. GIS methods allow the digital representation of the regional road network, and the development of a distance matrix relating all suppliers and purchasers.

  10. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael; Harrison, Lee; Donovan, Patrick; Blum, Joel; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity is often affected by dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, flow history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this process within a Northern California river system that has a legacy of industrial-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. In the first known application of this methodology, we combine hydraulic modeling, measurements of Hg species in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations to assess the role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), which accumulates in local and migratory biota. We identify areas that represent 'hot spots' (frequently inundated areas of floodplains) and 'hot moments' (floodplain areas inundated for consecutive long periods). We show that the probability of MMHg production in each sector of the river system is dependent on the spatial patterns of overbank flow and drainage, which affect its long-term redox history. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn, and there appears to be no end to MMHg production under a regime of increasingly common large floods with extended duration. These findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the historical hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is the primary driver of MMHg production in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed in terms of magnitude and frequency of inundation in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation based on corrected TRMM data around the Hexi Corridor, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; YuanQing He; Jian Ma; Juan Pang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate rainfall distribution is difficult to acquire based on limited meteorological stations, especially in remote areas like high mountains and deserts. The Hexi Corridor and its adjacent regions (including the Qilian Mountains and the Alxa Plateau) are typical districts where there are only 30 available rain gauges. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data provide a possible solution. After precision analysis of monthly 0.25 degree resolution TRMM 3B43 data from 1998 to 2012, we find that the correlations between TRMM 3B43 estimates and rain gauge precipitation are significant overall and in each station around the Hexi Corridor;however, the biases of annual precipitation differ in different stations and are seriously overestimated in most of the sites. Thus, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation method was used to rectify TRMM data based on the difference between TRMM 3B43 estimates and rain gauge observations. The results show that rectified TRMM data present more details than rain gauges in remote areas where there are few stations, alt-hough they show high coherence of distribution. Precipitation decreases from southeast to northwest on an annual and seasonal scale. There are three rainfall centers (>500 mm) including Menyuan, Qilian and Toson Lake, and two low rain-fall centers (5 mm/a), Badain Jaran Desert (>2 mm/a), Toson Lake (>20 mm/a) and Qingtu Lake (>20 mm/a) which shows a significant increasing trend, while precipitation in Hala Lake (<-2 mm/a) and Tengger Desert (<-3 mm/a) demonstrates a decreasing trend.

  12. Consequences of Environmental Service Payments for Forest Retention and Recruitment in a Costa Rican Biological Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Hollenhorst

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Compensation to landowners for forest-derived environmental services has gained international recognition as a mechanism to combat forest loss and fragmentation. This approach is widely promoted, although there is little evidence demonstrating that environmental service payments encourage forest stewardship and conservation. Costa Rica provides a unique case study in which a 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited forest conversion to other land uses. We examined these novel policies to determine their influence on landowner decisions that affect forest change, carbon services, and connectivity in a 2425 km² biological corridor. We used Landsat images to compare land-cover changes before and after 1996, and linked these data to landowner surveys investigating land-use decisions. Carbon stocks and storage in secondary forests were also examined. Forest change observations were corroborated by landowner survey data, indicating that the 1996 Forestry Law and environmental service payments contributed positively to forest retention and recruitment. Socioeconomic conditions also favored forest protection. Rates of natural forest loss declined from -1.43% to -0.10%/yr after 1996. Forest cover and connectivity were maintained through tree plantations and secondary forest recruitment, although forest heterogeneity increased as these forest types sometimes replaced natural forest. Carbon storage in secondary forest approached levels in primary forest after 25–30 yr of succession, although few landowners retained natural regeneration. Secondary forests will persist as minor landscape components without legal or financial incentives. The Costa Rican experience provides evidence that environmental service payments can be effective in retaining natural forest and recruiting tree cover within biological corridors.

  13. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  14. Methodological Issues and Values Arising from the Construction of a Heritage Corridor Along Chinese Eastern Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Fei; Shao; Long

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Eastern Railway(CER),which was designed by Russia in 1898 and constructed later by China,is a typical industrial cultural landscape of the 20 th century that enjoys a high uniqueness and representativeness due to its integrality and systematicness.It sits on a historic site with various kinds of resources,including architecture,railways,and other facilities.As there has been few changes with CER’s route,its resources are,in fact,still serviceable to the current railway system and people living along the route.However,considering the problems,such as lack of maintenance,ignorance of the society,inappropriate renovations,etc.,attention should be paid to CER’s value assessment before any reconstruction decisions are made.Although value assessment plays a very important role in the decision-making and investment-planning process,there is almost no related research on the construction of a heritage corridor along CER.Seeing that value assessment is part of the CER Heritage Corridor construction project and the values act as a reference in understanding CER as a heritage site,this paper aims to put forward a methodological guidance to identify CER’s values,so that its resources will be assessed by using what we call "value typology." In addition,it also tries to promote the tools that can help to evaluate CER’s values.On the basis of a methodological analysis,it finally puts forward some advices to integrating the value assessment into the decision-making process.

  15. River corridor science: Hydrologic exchange and ecological consequences from bedforms to basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jud; Gooseff, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Previously regarded as the passive drains of watersheds, over the past 50 years, rivers have progressively been recognized as being actively connected with off-channel environments. These connections prolong physical storage and enhance reactive processing to alter water chemistry and downstream transport of materials and energy. Here we propose river corridor science as a concept that integrates downstream transport with lateral and vertical exchange across interfaces. Thus, the river corridor, rather than the wetted river channel itself, is an increasingly common unit of study. Main channel exchange with recirculating marginal waters, hyporheic exchange, bank storage, and overbank flow onto floodplains are all included under a broad continuum of interactions known as "hydrologic exchange flows." Hydrologists, geomorphologists, geochemists, and aquatic and terrestrial ecologists are cooperating in studies that reveal the dynamic interactions among hydrologic exchange flows and consequences for water quality improvement, modulation of river metabolism, habitat provision for vegetation, fish, and wildlife, and other valued ecosystem services. The need for better integration of science and management is keenly felt, from testing effectiveness of stream restoration and riparian buffers all the way to reevaluating the definition of the waters of the United States to clarify the regulatory authority under the Clean Water Act. A major challenge for scientists is linking the small-scale physical drivers with their larger-scale fluvial and geomorphic context and ecological consequences. Although the fine scales of field and laboratory studies are best suited to identifying the fundamental physical and biological processes, that understanding must be successfully linked to cumulative effects at watershed to regional and continental scales.

  16. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied.The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion.The primary findings are as the following.The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one(or two)unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion.At hovering to medium flight speed[flight speed ue=(0-3.5)m s-1;advance ratio J=0-0.44],the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable;at high speed(ue=4.5 m s-1;J=0.57),the flight becomes strongly unstable(initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  17. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R.; Paladino, J.D.; Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  18. Ordos Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's vast hinterland has long conjured up images of rugged mountains and countrysides dotted by villages all but untouched by the hands of time. But after a recent one-hour flight west from Beijing,Anna Chennault,Chair of the Council for International Cooperation (CIC),a Washington,D.C.-based non-profit organization that helps promote development in China,found something altogether different-a city called Ordos.

  19. Spontaneous Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    As shown in an earlier work [Vandenberghe, et. al. JFM, Vol 506, 147, 2004], a vertically flapping wing can spontaneously move horizontally as a result of symmetry breaking. In the current experimental study, we investigate the dependence of resultant velocity on flapping amplitude. We also describe the forward thrust generation and how the system dynamically selects a Strouhal number by balancing fluid and body forces. We further compare our model system with examples of biological locomotion, such as bird flight and fish swimming.

  20. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  1. 78 FR 59916 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...; fax: (843) 744- 4472. Council address: South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 4055 Faber...

  2. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting...

  3. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  4. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark...

  5. 77 FR 3393 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas were adjusted based on over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition,...

  6. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  7. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  8. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  9. Corridor effect of the spatial changes of landscape patterns in arid areas: A case study of the river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huarong; XIAO Duning; ZHOU Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are dominated by the traditional green corridors along the river section from the Qara Reservoir in Yuli County to the Taitema Lake in Ruoqiang County, which plays an important role in the social and economic development in the Tarim River Watershed with a extremely significant ecological functions. The buffer zones perpendicular to the watercourse were defined along both riversides at a 5-km interval beginning from the watercourse (10 km wider) using the method of the buffer zone analysis. The landscape pattern indexes of each buffer zone were calculated, and the indexes of the main landscape patterns were analyzed so as to reveal the radiative effect and the characteristics of the river corridors on landscape and patch levels.The results show that the radiative width is generally 30 km in the study area, and can be up to 50-70 km in sub- region FG1 because the study area is located in two drainage basins, with an ecological interstitial zone between them. The landscapes of woodlands and wetlands are generally distributed within the 10km buffer zone (it means that the buffer zone is 5 km away from the watercourse; the same hereafter)along both riversides. Moreover, the closer the buffer zone is to the watercourse, the higher the patch density and the largest patch index are. In the ecological and environmental regeneration for the study area,the extent of ecological effect of the river corridors 82must be fully considered, and the projects must be scientifically and rationally planned and designed.

  10. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  11. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  12. In-Flight System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed and studied whereby the system identification cycle consisting of experiment design and data analysis can be repeatedly implemented aboard a test aircraft in real time. This adaptive in-flight system identification scheme has many advantages, including increased flight test efficiency, adaptability to dynamic characteristics that are imperfectly known a priori, in-flight improvement of data quality through iterative input design, and immediate feedback of the quality of flight test results. The technique uses equation error in the frequency domain with a recursive Fourier transform for the real time data analysis, and simple design methods employing square wave input forms to design the test inputs in flight. Simulation examples are used to demonstrate that the technique produces increasingly accurate model parameter estimates resulting from sequentially designed and implemented flight test maneuvers. The method has reasonable computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  13. Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado; urbanization, aggregate mining and reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda; Knepper, Daniel H.; Melick, Roger A.; Hickman, John

    2002-01-01

    Prime agricultural land along the Clear Creek floodplain, Colorado, attracted settlement in the 1850's but the demand for sand and gravel for 1900's construction initiated a sequence of events that exceeded previous interests and created the modified landscape and urban ecosystem that exists today. The Clear Creek valley corridor offers a landscape filled with a persistent visible and hidden reminder of it's past use. The map sheets illustrate the Clear Creek landscape as a series of compositions, both at the macro view (in the spatial context of urban structure and highways from aerial photographs) and micro view (from the civic scale where landscape features like trees, buildings, and sidewalks are included). The large-scale topographic features, such as mountains and terraces, appear 'changeless' (they do change over geologic time), while Clear Creek has changed from a wide braided stream to a narrow confined stream. Transportation networks (streets and highways) and spiraling population growth in adjacent cities (from approximately 38,000 people in 1880 to over a million in 1999) form two dominant landscape patterns. Mining and wetland/riparian occupy the smallest amount of land use acres compared to urban, transportation, or water reservoir activities in the Clear Creek aggregate reserve study area. Four types of reclaimed pits along Clear Creek were determined: water storage facilities, wildlife/greenbelt space, multiple-purpose reservoirs, and 'hidden scenery.' The latter involves infilling gravel pits (with earth backfill, concrete rubble, or sanitary landfill) and covering the site with light industry or residential housing making the landform hard to detect as a past mine site. Easier to recognize are the strong-edged, rectilinear water reservoirs, reclaimed from off-channel sand and gravel pits that reflect the land survey grid and property boundaries. The general public may not realize softly contoured linear wildlife corridors connecting urban

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  15. Tick communities at the expanding wildlife / cattle interface in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for Corridor disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Smith

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corridor disease, transmitted by the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is one of Africa's most pathogenic tick-borne diseases for cattle. With a focus on this species, we investigated the community parameters (richness, diversity and abundance of ticks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and how this may be linked to the increasing wildlife / cattle interface in the region. There were significantly more ticks of a greater diversity and richness at sites positioned at the wildlife / cattle interface ('treatment sites' compared to sites where wildlife was absent (controls. Significantly, R. appendiculatus was only found at the treatment sites. Therefore, it is believed that the wildlife / cattle interface may be playing a crucial role in increasing the occurrence, abundance and distribution of R. appendiculatus in the Eastern Cape. The implications of a Corridor disease outbreak in the region are discussed.

  16. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    transport flows through specific transport networks of own interest. Most transport firms are mobile in their activities by nature, but are in reality confined in their day-to-day operations to different forms of relative fixed network structure - e.g. railway lines, ferry routes and ports, cost......This paper presents empirical findings and results from a study conducted as a part of an INTERREG IIIB project on intermodal transport solutions and corridors in the North Sea Region (SUTRANET - Sustainable Transport Research & Development Network in the North Sea Region (Hansen et.al., 2007......; Kristiansen et.al., 2005 and http://www.sutranet.org/ ). The aim of the study has been to explore possibilities and barriers for the development of intermodal transport solutions in selected corridors in the North Sea Region. The North Sea Region is one among several regions appointed by the EU...

  17. [Identification of ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope and assessment of their human disturbances in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Lin, Dan-qi; Li, Xiao-wen

    2015-08-01

    The alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides the largest habitats for those endangered ungulates (e.g., Tibetan antelope, Tibetan Kiang and wild yak) on the earth. However, human disturbance especially infrastructure constructions (e.g., railway & highway) has increasingly fragmented the habitats of those endangered ungulates by disturbing and interrupting their ecological corridors for their seasonal migration. Aiming at identifying the potential ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope, a GIS-based model-Linkage Mapper was used to model and detect the potential ecological corridors of Tibetan antelope based on the principle of least cost path. Three categories of ecological corridors, i. e., closed (inside reserves), linking (linking the reserves) and open (starting from reserve but ending outside) corridors were distinguished by their spatial interactions with existing major national nature reserves (i.e., Altun, Kekexili and Qiangtang NNRs) in the alpine desert of QTP, and their spatial patterns, conservation status associated with human disturbance were also examined. Although our research indicated a general ecological integration of both habitats and ecological corridors in the alpine desert ecosystem, increasing human disturbance should not be ignored, which particularly partially undermined the functioning of those ecological corridors linking the nature reserves. Considering disadvantages of prevailing separate administrative structure of nature reserve on the effective conservation of ecological corridors for those endangered ungulates, a coordinative conservation network among these major national nature reserves should be established to ensure the unified trans-boundary conservation efforts and to enhance its overall conservation efficacy by sharing information, knowledge and optimizing conservation resources.

  18. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  19. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  20. Regional Studies:External Cognition and Emphasizing Subjectiveness:Taking the Tibetan-Qiang-Yi Corridor as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xi

    2015-01-01

    The“Tibetan -Yi corridor”is a concept constructed by FeiXiaotong and empha-sized by him during the late 1970s and 1980s. In 2011 ,it was replaced with“Tibetan-Qiang-Yi corridor”,a concept which is regarded to conform more to the historical reality. Actually,the earliest research on ethnic corridors largely relied on the earlier research of foreign missionaries who preached their religion in the western part of Si-chuan. It could be said that the missionaries’ re-search on the Qiang opened up the research of the ethnic corridor ,and gradually expanded it to the entire area of western China. Due to the efforts of the missionaries,who received the western formal academic training,there was research that went beyond the study of the feudal dynasties of China to the ethnic minority areas. Since the 1930s,follow-ing the research trends of“the frontier science”( bianjiangxue)and“the frontier political studies”( bianzhengxue),and with China’s local intellectu-al elites’ following up,and especially with the in-vestigations and research findings of the scholars from West China Union University and the Frontier Research Society,the external contours and the knowledge on the internal society,history,cul-ture,and language of the“Tibetan -Qiang -Yi corridor”deepened. These concepts and research results all came from outside the corridor while the society and culture from inside the corridor only provided research data.

  1. Planning Landscape Corridors in Ecological Infrastructure Using Least-Cost Path Methods Based on the Value of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung A Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service values have rarely been incorporated in the process of planning ecological infrastructure for urban areas. Urban ecological infrastructure is a network system of natural lands and waters that provides ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to design landscape corridors that maximize the value of ecosystem services in ecological infrastructure planning. We explored the optimal corridors to enhance the connectivity among landscape elements to design an ecological infrastructure for the city of Gwacheon, South Korea, as an example of a small urban area. We calculated the value of ecosystem services using standardized estimation indices based on an intensive review of the relevant literature and employed the least-cost path method to optimize the connectivity of landscape structural elements. The land use type in the city with the highest estimated value of ecosystem services was the riparian zone (i.e., 2011 US$7,312.16/ha. Given areal coverage of all land use types, the estimated value of developed area open spaces was 2011 US$899,803.25, corresponding to the highest contribution to the total value of ecosystem services. Therefore, the optimal configured dispersal corridors for wildlife were found from the riparian zones (source area to the developed area open spaces (destination area in the city. Several challenges remain for improving the estimation of the value of ecosystem services and incorporating these ecosystems in ecological infrastructure planning. Nonetheless, the approaches taken to estimate the value of ecosystem services and design landscape corridors in this study may be of value to future efforts in urban ecological infrastructure planning.

  2. Evaluation of Spatial Development Initiatives: Case studies of the Maputo Development Corridor and the West Coast Investment Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    David Bek; Ian Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) form an integral part of the South African government strategy to attract investment. SDIs are claimed to be short-term and targeted undertakings to foster economic growth. This working paper reviews two SDI projects, namely the Maputo Development Corridor (MDC) and the West Coast Investment Initiative (WCII). The paper outlines many strengths within the MDC and WCII and draws out lessons to be learned that could improve the delivery of ongoing and futur...

  3. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Paramesha Mallegowda; Ganesan Rengaian; Jayalakshmi Krishnan; Madhura Niphadkar

    2015-01-01

    Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT) is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat ...

  4. Diet composition of common leopards in Bardia National Park and the adjacent buffer zones and habitat corridor in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Deo, Rima

    2014-01-01

    The common Leopard (Panthera pardus) is the most widely distributed species among the large felids. It is a great challenge to manage their depredation on livestock at global level. In this study, I examined spatiotemporal patterns of leopard diet composition in Bardia National Park, Nepal, the buffer zones surrounding the park and a recently established habitat corridor that extends towards a protected area in India. Based on analyses of leopard scat contents, I investigated how the proporti...

  5. Acidic Deposition along the Appalachian Trail Corridor and its Effects on Acid-Sensitive Terrestrial and Aquatic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Sullivan, T. J.; Burns, D. A.; Bailey, S. W.; Cosby, B. J., Jr.; Dovciak, M.; Ewing, H. A.; McDonnell, T. C.; Riemann, R.; Quant, J.; Rice, K. C.; Siemion, J.; Weathers, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) spans 3,500 km from Georgia to Maine. Over its length, the trail passes through a corridor with wide variations in climate, bedrock type, soils, and stream water quality. These factors create a diverse range of ecosystems. The health of these ecosystems is a cause for concern because the AT passes through the heavily populated eastern U.S. with its many sources of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions that produce acidic deposition. To address concerns about the health of the AT, a study was designed to evaluate the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition. Collections of stream water (265 sites), soil (60 sites), tree cores (15 sites) and atmospheric deposition samples (4 sites) were made along with understory and overstory vegetation measurements (30 sites) over the full trail length within a 40 km-wide corridor. Existing data on atmospheric deposition, geology, vegetation, stream chemistry, and soil chemistry were also used in the analysis. Mean acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was lowest in the streams in the North section, intermediate in the Central section and highest the South section, despite the South having the highest acid rain levels. At least 40% of the study streams exhibited pH and/or Ali measurements that indicated potential harm to biota. Approximately 70% of the soil sites had values of base saturation under 20%, the threshold below which acidic deposition can mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali), the form harmful to terrestrial and aquatic life. Compositional similarity of understory and canopy species was positively correlated with acidic deposition, suggesting that during past decades, species poorly adapted to acidic deposition were replaced with tolerant species. Target loads modeling indicated that exceedance of sulfur target loads to achieve stream ANC = 50 μeq/L by the year 2100occurred throughout the trail corridor.

  6. Water vapour measurements during POLINAT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovarlez, J.; Ovarlez, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor)1 experiment has been performed within the framework of the Environment Programme of the Commission of the European Community. It was devoted to the study of the pollution from aircraft in the North Atlantic flight corridor, in order to investigate the impact of pollutants emitted by aircraft on the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. For that experiment the water vapour content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board of the DLR Falcon research aircraft. This instrument is described, and some selected results are given. (author) 19 refs.

  7. [Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of typical organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Yuan; Mao, Xiao-Xuan; Ma, Zi-Long; Tian, Hui; Guo, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Gao, Hong; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-04-01

    Air samples were seasonally collected in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou, Gansu province, using polyurethane foam (PUF) based passive air samplers for a year and determined hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Atmospheric concentrations of sigma HCHs (alpha-HCH +beta-HCH +gamma-HCH +delta-HCH) and sigma DDTs (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD) were 86.22 pg x m(-3) and 34.06 pg x m(-3) in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou with background concentrations of 54.41 pg x m(-3) and 21.56 pg x m(-3), respectively, which were lower than previously reported values elsewhere. In general, the seasonal pollution characteristics of sigma HCHs and sigma DDTs exhibited higher levels with the average concentrations of 127.4 pg x m(-3) and 47.06 pg x m(-3) in autumn, respectively. Furthermore, relatively higher residual concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were found in Jiuquan, Anxi and Zhangye, relating to their more arable lands and more intensively historical usage. Source apportionment indicated HCHs were mainly originated from historical technical-HCHs residues and recent Lindane usage. Recently introduced technical-DDTs was highly responsible for DDTs contamination, whereas the higher concentrations of o,p'-DDT observed in Jiuquan and Anxi may be attributed to dicofol usage. In addition, human exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou via inhalation could be relatively low.

  8. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  9. Inventory of Invasive Plant Species along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in November 2013 to inventory invasive plant species present along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park exploratively. Result showed that there were 11 plant species found abundantly along the corridor. Typical native species were dominated by Cyathea contaminans, Casuarina junghuhniana and Vaccinium varingiaefolium. Three species were determined as invasive alien species i.e. Chromolaena odorata, Acacia decurrens and Blumea lacera whereas five species were determined as native species but potential invaders i.e. Rubus moluccanus, Melastoma malabatrichum, Polygonum barbatum, Debregeasia longifolia and Pteridium aquilinum. In term of tourism particularly on nature-based destinations enable moving in and out of invasive alien species due to opening the access of some natural protected areas. The environmental impact of an alien species whether it becomes invasive at its destination depends on its biological key point,  what ecological role the species may play, and on additional factors such as its tolerance of the gross features of the environment in the new range. Keyword: invasive plants, corridor, Kawah Ijen, Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi

  10. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramesha Mallegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat and their migration. Aim of this work is to create detailed NDVI based land change maps and to use them to identify time-series trends in greening and browning in forest corridors in the study area and to identify the drivers that are influencing the observed changes. Over the four decades in BRT, NDVI increased in the core area of the forest and reduced in the fringe areas. The change analysis between 1973 and 2014 shows significant changes; browning due to anthropogenic activities as well as natural processes and greening due to Lantana spread. This indicates that the change processes are complex, involving multiple driving factors, such as socio-economic changes, high population growth, historical forest management practices and policies. Our study suggests that the use of updated and accurate change detection maps will be useful in taking appropriate site specific action-oriented conservation decisions to restore and manage the degraded critical wildlife corridors in human-dominated landscape.

  11. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  12. Comparison between three implementations of automatic identification algorithms for the quantification and characterization of mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. A. C. Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three methods for automatic detection of mesoscale coherent structures are applied to Sea Level Anomaly (SLA fields in the South Atlantic. The first method is based on the wavelet packet decomposition of the SLA data, the second on the estimation of the Okubo-Weiss parameter and the third on a geometric criterion using the winding-angle approach. The results provide a comprehensive picture of the mesoscale eddies over the South Atlantic Ocean, emphasizing their main characteristics: amplitude, diameter, duration and propagation velocity. Five areas of particular eddy dynamics were selected: the Brazil Current, the Agulhas eddies propagation corridor, the Agulhas Current retroflexion, the Brazil-Malvinas confluence zone and the northern branch of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. For these areas, mean propagation velocities and amplitudes were calculated. Two regions with long duration eddies were observed, corresponding to the propagation of Agulhas and ACC eddies. Through the comparison between the identification methods, their main advantages and shortcomings were detailed. The geometric criterion presents a better performance, mainly in terms of number of detections, duration of the eddies and propagation velocities. The results are particularly good for the Agulhas Rings, that presented the longest lifetimes of all South Atlantic eddies.

  13. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  14. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  15. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  16. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  17. [Root architecture of two desert plants in central Hexi Corridor of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Li-Shan; Li, Yi; Ren, Wei; Su, Shi-Ping; Dong, Qiu-Lian; Geng, Dong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the root systems of desert plant species Reaumuria soongorica and Nitraria tangutorum in the central Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were excavated by shovel, and the characteristics of the plant root architecture were analyzed by using topology and fractal theory. The root topological indices of the two desert plants were small, and the root branching patterns were herringbone-like. The roots of the two desert plants had obvious fractal characteristics, with the fractal dimension of R. soongorica and N. tangutorum being (1.18 +/- 0.04) and (1.36 +/- 0.06), respectively. The root fractal dimension and fractal abundance were significantly positively correlated with the root average link length. The root average link lengths of the two plants were long, which enlarged the plants' effective nutrition space, and thus, made the plants adapt to the dry and infertile soil environment. The sums of the root cross-sectional areas before and after the root bifurcation of the two desert plants were equal, which verified the principle of Leonardo da Vinci. A total of 17 parameters of root architecture were analyzed by the principal component analysis. The parameters of root topological structure, numbers of root links, stepwise branching ratio, and root diameter could well present the root architecture characteristics of the two desert plants.

  18. Melampyrum Cristatum L. – A Rare River Corridor Plant in Wielkopolska and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachnowicz Wojciech

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampyrum cristatum is an extremely rare, native, hemi-parasitic, vascular plant, recently considered to be extinct in Poland. The article presents data concerning new localities of the species recorded in 2007-2012 in the valley of the River Warta (Wielkopolska, Poland. Local distribution of M. cristatum in the Natura 2000 sites: PLH300012 - Rogalińska Dolina Warty (ca. 147.5 sq. km and PLH300053 - Lasy Żerkowsko-Czeszewskie (ca. 71.6 sq. km, as well as its updated regional (in Wielkopolska and national (Poland ranges are shown on maps and interpreted on the background of the geomorphic diversity of occupied habitats. The results suggest that in Poland the species is distributed mainly along valleys of large, lowland rivers, which corresponds with its ‘River Corridor Plant’ status in Central Europe. The species rarity is discussed considering its outline phytocoenological scale (comprising various plant communities within 6 syntaxonomical classes, the riverine distribution pattern and chosen biological features. Natural habitat heterogeneity along with changeable water regime in floodplains, as well as potential limitations of myrmecochoric seed dispersal, may constitute potential reasons for the species low frequency

  19. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  20. Quantifying forest vertical structure to determine bird habitat quality in the Greenbelt Corridor, Denton, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Shiho

    This study presents the integration of light detection and range (LiDAR) and hyperspectral remote sensing to create a three-dimensional bird habitat map in the Greenbelt Corridor of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River. This map permits to examine the relationship between forest stand structure, landscape heterogeneity, and bird community composition. A biannual bird census was conducted at this site during the breeding seasons of 2009 and 2010. Census data combined with the three-dimensional map suggest that local breeding bird abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution patterns are highly influenced by vertical heterogeneity of vegetation surface. For local breeding birds, vertical heterogeneity of canopy surface within stands, connectivity to adjacent forest patches, largest forest patch index, and habitat (vegetation) types proved to be the most influential factors to determine bird community assemblages. Results also highlight the critical role of secondary forests to increase functional connectivity of forest patches. Overall, three-dimensional habitat descriptions derived from integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral data serve as a powerful bird conservation tool that shows how the distribution of bird species relates to forest composition and structure at various scales.

  1. Telecouplings in the East–West Economic Corridor within Borders and Across

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Leisz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the concepts of teleconnections and telecoupling have been introduced into land-use and land-cover change literature as frameworks that seek to explain connections between areas that are not in close physical proximity to each other. The conceptual frameworks of teleconnections and telecoupling seek to explicitly link land changes in one place, or in a number of places, to distant, usually non-physically connected locations. These conceptual frameworks are offered as new ways of understanding land changes; rather than viewing land-use and land-cover change through discrete land classifications that have been based on the idea of land-use as seen through rural–urban dichotomies, path dependencies and sequential land transitions, and place-based relationships. Focusing on the land-use and land-cover changes taking place along the East–West Economic Corridor that runs from Dong Ha City in Quang Tri, Vietnam, through Sepon District, Savannakhet, Lao PDR, into Thailand this paper makes use of data gathered from fieldwork and remote sensing analysis to examine telecouplings between sending, receiving and spill-over systems on both sides of the Vietnam-Lao PDR border. Findings are that the telecouplings are driving changes in rural village and urban systems on both sides of the border, and are enabled by a policy environment that has sought to facilitate the cross-border transportation of goods within the region.

  2. Fogwater Chemistry and Air Quality in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, R. R.; Raja, S.; Ravikrishna, R.; Murugesan, K.; Collett, J. L.; Valsaraj, K.

    2007-05-01

    The presence of fog water in polluted atmosphere can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The study of interactions between fog water and atmospheric gases and aerosols are very important in understanding the atmospheric fate of the pollutants. In this Study several air samples and fogwater samples were collected in the heavily industrialized area of Gulf Coast corridor( Houston, TX and Baton Rouge, LA). A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected, comprising of nine fog events in Baton Rouge (Nov 2004 to Feb 2005) and two fog events in Houston (Feb, 2006), during the fog sampling campaigns. These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved carbon, major inorganic ions, organic acids, and aromatics, aldehydes, VOCs, and linear alkanes organic compounds. Fogwater samples collected in Houston show clear influence of marine and anthropogenic environment, while Baton Rouge samples reveal a relatively less polluted environment. Also, a time series observation of air samples indicated that fog event at the monitoring site impacted the air concentrations of the pollutants. This is attributed to presence of surface active organic matter in fog water.

  3. Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Erzurum-Rize expressway corridor using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, Murat; Karahan, Faris [Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kopar, Ibrahim [Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Literature, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, topographical and climatical conditions are prescinded all along Erzurum-Rize expressway corridors to appoint the areas which have bioclimatic comfort in summer season (June, July, August). For this purpose, the climate data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) from nine different stations was entered in the digital data base. By dint of ArcGIS 9.1 software, climatic data were analysed and numerological maps were produced by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. As a method, bioclimatically comfortable areas consists of: relative humidity between 30 and 65%, temperature between 15 and 20 C, and wind speed up to 5 m/s. The maps were scored as 0 for uncomfortable and 1 for comfortable and superposed, and bioclimatic comfort area (temperature: 1-relative humidity: 1-wind speed: 1) were determined. Besides, topographic factors were appreciated. As a result of this study, it is concerned that the area (452749 ha. % 63); beginning from south of the Mountains Mescit which is started by Black Sea coastline to Mountain Mescit (3230 m) is out of bioclimatic comfort region; the Erzurum depression (1758 m) beginning from the Mountains Mescit has been determined that area has bioclimatic comfort conditions. As a consequence, it is confirmed that one of the ideal area which has bioclimatic comfort is the Erzurum depression area in Turkey. (author)

  4. The effect of perception anisotropy on particle systems describing pedestrian flows in corridors

    CERN Document Server

    Gulikers, Lennart; Muntean, Adrian; Lyulin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We consider a microscopic model (a system of self-propelled particles) to study the behaviour of a large group of pedestrians walking in a corridor. Our point of interest is the effect of anisotropic interactions on the global behaviour of the crowd. The anisotropy we have in mind reflects the fact that people do not perceive (i.e. see, hear, feel or smell) their environment equally well in all directions. The dynamics of the individuals in our model follow from a system of Newton-like equations in the overdamped limit. The instantaneous velocity is modelled in such a way that it accounts for the angle under which an individual perceives another individual. We investigate the effects of this perception anisotropy by means of extensive simulations, very much in the spirit of molecular dynamics. We define a number of characteristic quantifiers (including the polarization index and Morisita index) that serve as measures for e.g. organization and clustering, and we use these to investigate the influence of anisot...

  5. Three Different Approaches for Localization in a Corridor Environment by Means of an Ultrasonic Wide Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Spedicato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present three methods to detect the position and orientation of an observer, such as a mobile robot, with respect to a corridor wall. They use an inexpensive sensor to spread a wide ultrasonic beam. The sensor is rotated by means of an accurate servomotor in order to propagate ultrasonic waves towards a regular wall. Whatever the wall material may be the scanning surface appears to be an acoustic reflector as a consequence of low air impedance. The realized device is able to give distance information in each motor position and thus permits the derivation of a set of points as a ray trace‐scanner. The dataset contains points lying on a circular arc and relating to strong returns. Three different approaches are herein considered to estimate both the slope of the wall and its minimum distance from the sensor. Slope and perpendicular distance are the parameters of a target plane, which may be calculated in each observer’s position to predict its new location. Experimental tests and simulations are shown and discussed by scanning from different stationary locations. They allow the appreciation of the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  6. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  7. Travel modal choice analysis for traffic corridors based on decision-theoretic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 张毅; 尤佳轩; 胡坚明; 裴欣

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of multimodal transportation system prompts travellers to choose multiple transportation modes, such as private vehicles or taxi, transit (subways or buses), or park-and-ride combinations for urban trips. Traffic corridor is a major scenario that supports travellers to commute from suburban residential areas to central working areas. Studying their modal choice behaviour is receiving more and more interests. On one hand, it will guide the travellers to rationally choose their most economic and beneficial mode for urban trips. On the other hand, it will help traffic operators to make more appropriate policies to enhance the share of public transit in order to alleviate the traffic congestion and produce more economic and social benefits. To analyze the travel modal choice, a generalized cost model for three typical modes is first established to evaluate each different travel alternative. Then, random utility theory (RUT) and decision field theory (DFT) are introduced to describe the decision-making process how travellers make their mode choices. Further, some important factors that may influence the modal choice behaviour are discussed as well. To test the feasibility of the proposed model, a field test in Beijing was conducted to collect the real-time data and estimate the model parameters. The improvements in the test results and analysis show new advances in the development of travel mode choice on multimodal transportation networks.

  8. Extension of an iterative closest point algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping in corridor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Haosong; Chen, Weihai; Wu, Xingming; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a crucial technique for intelligent robots to navigate autonomously and execute complex tasks. It can also be applied to shape measurement, reverse engineering, and many other scientific or engineering fields. A widespread SLAM algorithm, named KinectFusion, performs well in environments with complex shapes. However, it cannot handle translation uncertainties well in highly structured scenes. This paper improves the KinectFusion algorithm and makes it competent in both structured and unstructured environments. 3-D line features are first extracted according to both color and depth data captured by Kinect sensor. Then the lines in the current data frame are matched with the lines extracted from the entire constructed world model. Finally, we fuse the distance errors of these line-pairs into the standard KinectFusion framework and estimate sensor poses using an iterative closest point-based algorithm. Comparative experiments with the KinectFusion algorithm and one state-of-the-art method in a corridor scene have been done. The experimental results demonstrate that after our improvement, the KinectFusion algorithm can also be applied to structured environments and has higher accuracy. Experiments on two open access datasets further validated our improvements.

  9. An ecological basis for future fish habitat restoration efforts in the Huron-Erie Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective describes the major natural and anthropogenic forces driving change in the abundance and quality of fish habitats in the Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), the Great Lakes connecting channel comprised of the St. Clair River, the Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. Channels connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes discharge large volumes of water equal to or greater than most other large rivers in the world that is of consistent high quality and volume, all year. Owing to creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway through the Great Lakes, the connecting channels have been modified by dredging over 200 km of deep-draft shipping lanes with a maintained depth of no less than 8.2 m. Combined with modification of their shorelines for housing and industries, use of the connecting channels for discharges of industrial and municipal wastes and shipping has resulted in numerous beneficial use impairments, such as restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, and losses of fish and wildlife habitat. Various options for remediation of native fish populations and their habitats in the Great Lakes connecting channels, including construction of spawning habitat for threatened and high-value food fishes, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), have been implemented successfully in two of the channels, and form the basis for further recommended research described in this article.

  10. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  11. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  12. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  13. Riparian vegetation dynamics and evapotranspiration in the riparian corridor in the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L; Glenn, Edward P; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Zamora, Francisco; Howard, Keith

    2008-09-01

    Like other great desert rivers, the Colorado River in the United States and Mexico is highly regulated to provide water for human use. No water is officially allotted to support the natural ecosystems in the delta of the river in Mexico. However, precipitation is inherently variable in this watershed, and from 1981-2004, 15% of the mean annual flow of the Lower Colorado River has entered the riparian corridor below the last diversion point for water in Mexico. These flows include flood releases from US dams and much smaller administrative spills released back to the river from irrigators in the US and Mexico. These flows have germinated new cohorts of native cottonwood and willow trees and have established an active aquatic ecosystem in the riparian corridor in Mexico. We used ground and remote-sensing methods to determine the composition and fractional cover of the vegetation in the riparian corridor, its annual water consumption, and the sources of water that support the ecosystem. The study covered the period 2000-2004, a flood year followed by 4 dry years. The riparian corridor occupies 30,000 ha between flood control levees in Mexico. Annual evapotranspiration (ET), estimated by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite imagery calibrated against moisture flux tower data, was about 1.1 m yr(-1) and was fairly constant throughout the study period despite a paucity of surface flows 2001-2004. Total ET averaged 3.4 x 10(8)m(3)yr(-1), about 15% of Colorado River water entering Mexico from the US Surface flows could have played only a small part in supporting these high ET losses. We conclude that the riparian ET is supported mainly by the shallow regional aquifer, derived from agricultural return flows, that approaches the surface in the riparian zone. Nevertheless, surface flows are important in germinating cohorts of native trees, in washing salts from the soil and aquifer, and in providing aquatic habitat, thereby enriching the habitat value of

  14. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school...

  15. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  16. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  17. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  18. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red..., the NMFS Assistant Administrator has determined that this rule is consistent with the Atlantic...

  19. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... (TAC) and corresponding fleet days-at-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery... the implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep- Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan...

  20. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications... Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea (DAS) allocation. The implementing regulations for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab...

  1. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In... finalized 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable... Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) allow NMFS to make an in-season adjustment to...

  2. Occurrence and characteristics of mesoscale eddies in the tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schütte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coherent mesoscale features (referred to here as eddies in the tropical northeast Atlantic (between 12–22° N and 15–26° W are examined and characterised. The eddies' surface signatures are investigated using 19 years of satellite derived sea level anomaly (SLA data. Two automated detection methods are applied, the geometrical method based on closed streamlines around eddy cores, and the Okubo–Weiß method based on the relation between vorticity and strain. Both methods give similar results. Mean eddy surface signatures of SLA, sea surface temperature (SST and salinity (SSS are obtained from composites of all snapshots around identified eddy cores. Anticyclones/cyclones are associated with elevation/depression of SLA and enhanced/reduced SST and SSS patterns. However, about 20 % of all detected anticyclones show reduced SST and reduced SSS instead. These kind of eddies are classified as anticyclonic mode-water eddies (ACMEs. About 146 ± 4 eddies per year are identified (52 % cyclones, 39 % anticylones, 9 % ACMEs with rather similar mean radii of about 56 ± 12 km. Based on concurrent in-situ temperature and salinity profile data (from Argo float, shipboard and mooring data inside of the three eddy types, their distinct differences in vertical structure is determined. Most eddies are generated preferentially in boreal summer and along the West African coast at three distinct coastal headland region and carry South Atlantic Central Water that originates from the northward transport within the Mauretania coastal current system. Westward eddy propagation (on average about 3.00 ± 2.15 km d−1 is confined to distinct corridors with a small meridional deflection dependent on the eddy type (anticyclones – equatorward, cyclones – poleward, ACMEs – no deflection. Heat and salt flux out of the coastal region and across the Cap Verde Frontal Zone, which separates the shadow zone from the ventilated gyre, are calculated.

  3. Occurrence and characteristics of mesoscale eddies in the tropical northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Florian; Brandt, Peter; Karstensen, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Coherent mesoscale features (referred to here as eddies) in the tropical northeastern Atlantic Ocean (between 12-22° N and 15-26° W) are examined and characterized. The eddies' surface signatures are investigated using 19 years of satellite-derived sea level anomaly (SLA) data. Two automated detection methods are applied, the geometrical method based on closed streamlines around eddy cores, and the Okubo-Weiß method based on the relation between vorticity and strain. Both methods give similar results. Mean eddy surface signatures of SLA, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) anomalies are obtained from composites of all snapshots around identified eddy cores. Anticyclones/cyclones are identified by an elevation/depression of SLA and enhanced/reduced SST and SSS in their cores. However, about 20 % of all anticyclonically rotating eddies show reduced SST and reduced SSS instead. These kind of eddies are classified as anticyclonic mode-water eddies (ACMEs). About 146 ± 4 eddies per year with a minimum lifetime of 7 days are identified (52 % cyclones, 39 % anticyclones, 9 % ACMEs) with rather similar mean radii of about 56 ± 12 km. Based on concurrent in situ temperature and salinity profiles (from Argo float, shipboard, and mooring data) taken inside of eddies, distinct mean vertical structures of the three eddy types are determined. Most eddies are generated preferentially in boreal summer and along the West African coast at three distinct coastal headland regions and carry South Atlantic Central Water supplied by the northward flow within the Mauretanian coastal current system. Westward eddy propagation (on average about 3.00 ± 2.15 km d-1) is confined to distinct zonal corridors with a small meridional deflection dependent on the eddy type (anticyclones - equatorward, cyclones - poleward, ACMEs - no deflection). Heat and salt fluxes out of the coastal region and across the Cape Verde Frontal Zone, which separates the shadow zone from

  4. North Atlantic Oscillation and moisture transport towards the Iberian Peninsula during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of interannual variability in winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Recent works have identified the most important sources of moisture that supply the IP during different seasons of the year, including the nearby western Mediterranean and the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the IP, and the IP itself (Gimeno et al., 2010). However, although rainfall is directly related to the moisture supply, the relationship between the water vapor transported towards IP and the NAO phase remains unclear. In this work the moisture transport towards IP was analyzed using a Lagrangian diagnosis method, which relies on the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. This methodology computes budgets of evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) by evaluating changes in the specific humidity along back-trajectories. Here we have computed (for each day) the evolution of moisture of the particles bound for Iberia up to 10 days prior to their arrival. The analysis was constrained to the winter (DJF) season, responsible for the largest fraction of precipitation, for the 20 years of ECMWF Reanalyses ERA40 dataset from 1980 to 2000. The contribution of the NAO phase on the water budgets is examined using composites of the obtained (E - P) fields for the 5 most extreme positive and negative NAO years of the study period. Results confirm that the IP is dominated by positive (negative) E-P anomalies during positive (negative) NAO phase. Additionally an anomalous water vapor sink (source) region located approximately over the Gulf Stream is found during positive (negative) NAO phase. Gimeno L., Nieto R., Trigo R.M. , Vicente-Serrano S.M, Lopes-Moreno J.I., (2010) "Where does the Iberian Peninsula moisture come from? An answer based on a Lagrangian approach". J. Hydrometeorology, 11, 421-436 DOI: 10.1175/2009JHM1182.1.

  5. X-1 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  6. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet.Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies.Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion.Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:499–504.

  7. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight onc

  8. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  9. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  10. Life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, John; Haedrich, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Popular articles about the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) usually state that ‘the Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species’, e.g. publications by the Atlantic Salmon Federation (North America), Atlantic Salmon Trust (UK), and WWF (World Wildlife Fund), and the life history is depicted as migration of juveniles from fresh water to the marine environment, with a return to where the fish were born as spawning adults. This article reviews the life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland...

  11. The feasibility of laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation in microgravity during parabolic flight: A comparison of two techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groemer, Gernot E.; Brimacombe, Joseph; Haas, Thorsten;

    2005-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation (LG-TI) in microgravity obtained during parabolic flight and tested the hypothesis that LG-TI is similarly successful in the free-floating condition, with the patient's head gripped between the anesthesiologist's knees....... The parabolic flights, which took place in an Airbus 300 over the Atlantic Ocean, provided 23 s of microgravity. During this time, the investigator opened a box with airway equipment, performed LG-TI, and attached and held onto a self-inflating bag. The efficacy of ventilation was assessed during level flight...... by the inability to insert the tracheal tube within 23 s. There were no differences in performance among investigators. We conclude that LG-TI is feasible in microgravity obtained during parabolic flight, but the success rate is infrequent because of severe time restrictions. There were no differences in success...

  12. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The multipurpose crew vehicle, Orion, is being designed and built for NASA to handle the rigors of crew launch, sustainment and return from scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. In this role, the Orion vehicle is meant to operate in the space environments like the naturally occurring meteoroid and the artificial orbital debris environments (MMOD) with successful atmospheric reentry at the conclusion of the flight. As a result, Orion's reentry module uses durable porous, ceramic tiles on almost thirty square meters of exposed surfaces to accomplish both of these functions. These durable, non-ablative surfaces maintain their surface profile through atmospheric reentry; thus, they preserve any surface imperfections that occur prior to atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, Orion's launch abort system includes a shroud that protects the thermal protection system while awaiting launch and during ascent. The combination of these design features and a careful pre-flight inspection to identify any manufacturing imperfections results in a high confidence that damage to the thermal protection system identified post-flight is due to the in-flight solid particle environments. These favorable design features of Orion along with the unique flight profile of the first exploration flight test of Orion (EFT-1) have yielded solid particle environment measurements that have never been obtained before this flight.

  13. First steps toward automatic patterns recognition from sequences of a restored river corridor photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouta, S.; Perona, P.; Schneider, P.; Wombacher, A.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Obtaining information about river morphology and riparian vegetation patterns by means of photographic techniques is a challenging task with promising applications in the field of river hydraulic engineering and restoration. For instance, such a tool would speed up the post- processing phase of aerial images that is needed to calibrate both hydraulics and ecosystem models. Recognizing patterns automatically is relatively easy in the presence of well-defined objects and contrasting background colors, but this operation becomes rather difficult for open air or environmental photographs (e.g. of river corridors) where a multitude of colors, shadows, reflections and changing light conditions typically characterize the images. In this work an attempt is made in this direction and we begin with the already challenging task of recognizing water and non-water classes from digital photographs under changing light and surface albedo. Such conditions are typically due to either diurnal variability or bad weather conditions (e.g., like fog or snow). We use aerial photographs of the restored corridor of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Switzerland), which is currently monitored with high-resolution digital cameras as a task of the research project RECORD. Images of the river reach are taken from the top of two observation towers installed on the river levee and shots are frequency-dependent on current flow conditions. The approach we present here consists of masking the images by ignoring the irrelevant parts like mountains and sky, for instance. Next, features are defined which describe properties of the image or the image content, like e.g. color values, gradients of neighboring pixels, or application specific information like a probability distribution of a pixel being water derived from the digital elevation model. The investigated features can be classified according to two orthogonal dimensions: i) Pixel based features and features derived from a group of pixels and ii) Time

  14. Water Scarcity in the Northeast Corridor During the Nineteenth Century and its Correlation to Infrastructure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Arrigo, J. S.; Adams, L. E.; Bain, D. J.; Bray, E. N.; Green, M. B.; Huang, M.; Wilson, J.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water is an essential component in the successful development and economic growth within a region. Throughout recorded history, civilizations have been modifying and controlling local environments in the pursuit of maximizing water benefits. These efforts include the creation of large waterworks to reduce the uncertainties caused by adverse climatic circumstances such as droughts or floodings as well as supporting local economies. In this study, we contend that the development of water infrastructure in the Northeastern Corridor of the United States was a direct result of the degree of water scarcity within that particular region. In order to test this hypothesis, we have applied various water scarcity metrics to local historical data for cities including Boston, Philadelphia, and New York in order to characterize interactions between water scarcity and water infrastructure development. These metrics are based upon the ratio of consumer water demand to water supply. Our preliminary results show that a correlation does exist. Additionally, we explore how the water footprint of these cities evolved through time and how they impacted the demand for water. We expect that technological advancement allowed the ‘water footprint’ to expand into the Midwest U.S. and eventually the entire globe, allowing the Eastern Seaboard megalopolis to thrive. The history and development of water related infrastructure in this region could serve as an example allowing us to understand the relationship between humans and hydrologic systems. We contend that sustainability lessons from the past can be applied to developing countries or developing urban areas with the expectation of minimizing or avoiding the variety of mistakes that occurred in already developed regions, thus reducing the negative effects on populations and the environment.

  15. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  16. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems, leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Up to now a lot of effort has therefore been dedicated worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming our deficiencies. At the same time very few attentions focused on illustrating the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by discussing the experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we study the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reaches of River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe and motivate the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations ranging from surface water to groundwater, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  17. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  18. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Linde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-potentials (SP are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  19. Health Risk Assessment for Transport Corridors in Delhi through Vehicular Air Polluting Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are recognized as one of the major sources of air pollution. Delhi having  a very large number of vehicles produces a lot of air pollution. There is an utter need to ascertain the concentration of the pollutants and their impact on the health of the people of the concerned region. This paper makes an attempt towards such an examination. The method employed here is based on Epidemiology. The assessment of health risks due to increased levels of various pollutants on people represented in this paper is based on the spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri–MAP. This paper presents the findings of the study that evaluates the Impact of increasing air pollution on human health, especially vehicular pollution, in the monitored region, i.e., National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT Delhi during the year 2015 by choosing fifteen study sites from different parts of the capital city. The findings are in terms of  excess number of cases of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity for all fifteen transport corridors. Among others, Noida link road recorded highest excess number of cases of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and respiratory Morbidity. In case of respiratory mortality, Wazirabad road recorded maximum excess number of cases. With respect to least excess number of cases, it was Connaught Place (Outer circle. The excess number of cases are directly proportional to the population density of the respective region. Also, the regions showing smaller excess number of cases are the planned, less crowded and posh regions of the national capital territory of Delhi.

  20. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure of Common Eiders (Somateria Mollissima) breeding along a migratory corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Scribner, K.T.; McCracken, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Documentation of spatial genetic discordance among breeding populations of Arctic-nesting avian species is important, because anthropogenic change is altering environmental linkages at micro- and macrogeographic scales. We estimated levels of population subdivision within Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding on 12 barrier islands in the western Beaufort Sea, Alaska, using molecular markers and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data. Common Eider populations were genetically structured on a microgeographic scale. Regional comparisons between populations breeding on island groups separated by 90 km (Mikkelsen Bay and Simpson Lagoon) revealed structuring at 14 microsatellite loci (FST = 0.004, P < 0.01), a nuclear intron (FST = 0.022, P = 0.02), and mitochondrial DNA (??ST = 0.082, P < 0.05). The CMR data (n = 34) did not indicate female dispersal between island groups. Concordance between genetic and CMR data indicates that females breeding in the western Beaufort Sea are strongly philopatric to island groups rather than to a particular island. Despite the apparent high site fidelity of females, coalescence-based models of gene flow suggest that asymmetrical western dispersal occurs between island groups and is likely mediated by Mikkelsen Bay females stopping early on spring migration at Simpson Lagoon to breed. Alternatively, late-arriving females may be predisposed to nest in Simpson Lagoon because of the greater availability and wider distribution of nesting habitat. Our results indicate that genetic discontinuities, mediated by female philopatry, can exist at microgeographic scales along established migratory corridors. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2009.

  1. Integrated modelling for Sustainability Appraisal of urban river corridors: going beyond compartmentalised thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Rouquette, J R; Lerner, David N

    2013-12-15

    Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is a complex task that involves integration of social, environmental and economic considerations and often requires trade-offs between multiple stakeholders that may not easily be brought to consensus. Classical SA, often compartmentalised in the rigid boundary of disciplines, can facilitate discussion, but can only partially inform decision makers as many important aspects of sustainability remain abstract and not interlinked. A fully integrated model can overcome compartmentality in the assessment process and provides opportunity for a better integrative exploratory planning process. The objective of this paper is to explore the benefit of an integrated modelling approach to SA and how a structured integrated model can be used to provide a coherent, consistent and deliberative platform to assess policy or planning proposals. The paper discusses a participative and integrative modelling approach to urban river corridor development, incorporating the principal of sustainability. The paper uses a case study site in Sheffield, UK, with three alternative development scenarios, incorporating a number of possible riverside design features. An integrated SA model is used to develop better design by optimising different design elements and delivering a more sustainable (re)-development plan. We conclude that participatory integrated modelling has strong potential for supporting the SA processes. A high degree of integration provides the opportunity for more inclusive and informed decision-making regarding issues of urban development. It also provides the opportunity to reflect on their long-term dynamics, and to gain insights on the interrelationships underlying persistent sustainability problems. Thus the ability to address economic, social and environmental interdependencies within policies, plans, and legislations is enhanced.

  2. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  3. Crevasse-squeeze ridge corridors: Diagnostic features of late-stage palaeo-ice stream activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David J. A.; Storrar, Robert D.; Rea, Brice R.

    2016-04-01

    A 200-km-long and 10-km-wide linear assemblage of till-filled geometrical ridges on the bed of the Maskwa palaeo-ice stream of the late Wisconsinan southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet are interpreted as crevasse-squeeze ridges (CSR) developed during internal flow unit reorganization, immediately prior to ice stream shutdown. Ridge orientations are predominantly orientated WNW-ESE, with a subordinate WSW-ENE alignment, both indicative of ice fracture development transverse to former ice stream flow, as indicated by NNE-SSW aligned MSGL. Subglacial till injection into basal and/or full depth, mode I and II crevasses occurred at the approximate centreline of the ice stream, in response to extension and fracturing. Landform preservation indicates that this took place during the final stages of ice streaming, immediately prior to ice stream shutdown. This linear zone of ice fracturing therefore likely represents the narrowing of the fast-flowing trunk, similar to the plug flow identified in some surging valley glaciers. Lateral drag between the final active flow unit and the slower moving ice on either side is likely recorded by the up-ice bending of the CSR limbs. The resulting CSR corridor, here related to an individual ice stream flow unit, constitutes a previously unreported style of crevasse infilling and contrasts with two existing CSR patterns: (1) wide arcuate zones of CSRs related to widespread fracturing within glacier surge lobes; and (2) narrow concentric arcs of CSRs and recessional push moraines related to submarginal till deformation at active temperate glacier lobes.

  4. EDGE BASED 3D INDOOR CORRIDOR MODELING USING A SINGLE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baligh Jahromi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of spatial layout of indoor scenes from a single image is inherently an ambiguous problem. However, indoor scenes are usually comprised of orthogonal planes. The regularity of planar configuration (scene layout is often recognizable, which provides valuable information for understanding the indoor scenes. Most of the current methods define the scene layout as a single cubic primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is often not valid in many indoors where multiple corridors are linked each other. In this paper, we aim to address this problem by hypothesizing-verifying multiple cubic primitives representing the indoor scene layout. This method utilizes middle-level perceptual organization, and relies on finding the ground-wall and ceiling-wall boundaries using detected line segments and the orthogonal vanishing points. A comprehensive interpretation of these edge relations is often hindered due to shadows and occlusions. To handle this problem, the proposed method introduces virtual rays which aid in the creation of a physically valid cubic structure by using orthogonal vanishing points. The straight line segments are extracted from the single image and the orthogonal vanishing points are estimated by employing the RANSAC approach. Many scene layout hypotheses are created through intersecting random line segments and virtual rays of vanishing points. The created hypotheses are evaluated by a geometric reasoning-based objective function to find the best fitting hypothesis to the image. The best model hypothesis offered with the highest score is then converted to a 3D model. The proposed method is fully automatic and no human intervention is necessary to obtain an approximate 3D reconstruction.

  5. From mountains to the ocean: quantifying connectivity along the river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers are the landscape's arteries; they convey water, solutes, energy, and living organisms from the hillslopes, floodplains, aquifers, and atmosphere to the oceans. As water moves along this complex circulatory system, it is continuously exchanged with the surrounding alluvial aquifer, termed hyporheic exchange, which strongly conditions and constrains the biogeochemical evolution of water at the local scale with basin-scale consequences. Over the last two decades, considerable efforts have focused on the use of detailed mathematical models to explore the hydrodynamics and biogeochemical effect of hyporheic exchange at the scale of individual channel morphologies. While these efforts are essential to gain mechanistic understanding, their computational demand makes them impractical for basin applications. In this talk, a parsimonious but physically based model of hyporheic flow for application in large river basins is presented: Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS). At the core of NEXSS are the up-scaling of detailed mathematical models and a characterization of the channel geometry, geomorphic features, and related hydraulic drivers based on scaling equations from the literature and readily accessible information such as river discharge, width, grain size, sinuosity, channel slope, and regional groundwater gradients. As a proof-of-concept, we use NEXSS to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of hyporheic exchange and denitrification potential along the Mississippi River basin. This modeling approach allows us to map the location of critical hot spots for biogeochemical transformation, their geomorphic drivers, and cumulative effect. Finally, we discuss new avenues to incorporate exchange with floodplains and ponded waters, which also play a key role in water quality along the river corridor. This new modeling approach is critical to transition from purely empirical continental models of water quality to hybrid approaches that

  6. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  7. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K.; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M.; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  8. CORRIDORS AT CROSSROADS: LINEAR DEVELOPMENT-INDUCED ECOLOGICAL TRIAGE AS A CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Habib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transportation infrastructure of a nation forms the backbone of its economic growth and social development, and, as a developing country, India is no exception. However, with imperatives to improve connectivity for economic and social growth, ecological costs are often at stake. Roads, old and new, cut through protected forests and connecting habitats, resulting in a plethora of ecological effects. These may include the severing of natural corridors thereby compromising the role of landscapes as conservation units especially for landscape-dependent wild animal species. Consequent loss of biodiversity and ecosystems and decline in innumerable ecosystem services emanating from these natural reserves are other serious impacts. As India aspires for better, modern roads, the ecological concerns regarding many road upgradation projects have recently been the cause of disputes between the transportation sector and the conservation community. Delayed consideration of ecological concerns into linear development project planning leads to inadequate appropriation of funds needed for mitigating impacts of such developments. It is in these circumstances that the question of prioritizing areas and strategies for mitigation given limited mitigation funds arises. We examine the different facets to the debate of triage vis-à-vis conservation, development and mitigation planning in the transportation sector in a developing country context. We suggest that it is important and possible to secure investment towards conservation in areas outside the purview of legal protection through project mitigation costs and other mechanisms. We also make suggestions to avoid the ‘laissez-faire’ approach to linear development projects that is prevalent in India.

  9. Magnetotelluric investigations for imaging electrical structure of Garhwal Himalayan corridor, Uttarakhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Israil; D K Tyagi; P K Gupta; Sri Niwas

    2008-06-01

    Magnetotelluric investigations have been carried out in the Garhwal Himalayan corridor to delineate the electrical structure of the crust along a profile extending from Indo-Gangetic Plain to Higher Himalayan region in Uttarakhand,India.The profile passing through major Himalayan thrusts:Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFF),Main Boundary Thrust (MBT)and Main Central Thrust (MCT),is nearly perpendicular to the regional geological strike.Data processing and impedance analysis indicate that out of 44 stations MT data recorded,only 27 stations data show in general,the validity of 2D assumption.The average geoelectric strike, N70°W, was estimated for the profile using tensor decomposition.2D smooth geoelectrical model has been presented,which provides the electrical image of the shallow and deeper crustal structure.The major features of the model are (i)a low resistivity (> 50 m),shallow feature interpreted as sediments of Siwalik and Indo-Gangetic Plain,(ii)highly resistive (< 1000 m)zone below the sediments at a depth of 6 km,interpreted as the top surface of the Indian plate,(iii)a low resistivity (> 10 m) below the depth of 6 km near MCT zone coincides with the intense micro-seismic activity in the region. The zone is interpreted as the partial melting or fluid phase at mid crustal depth.Sensitivity test indicates that the major features of the geoelectrical model are relevant and desired by the MT data.

  10. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  11. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  12. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  13. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  14. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  15. Decadal cyclone variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksch, U.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Raible, C.C. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Inst., Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The unstable midlatitude ocean-atmosphere coupling motivates the definition of two decadal regimes with distinct implications for the North Atlantic cyclone variability. Phases with low (high) decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which are connected with an annular (sectoral) spatial scale of the geopotential height teleconnection pattern, are identified as a hemispheric (regional) regime. In the hemispheric regime during a positive El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (warm event), the North Atlantic cyclones and the regions of enhanced precipitation shift southward while over northern Europe the cyclone activity and the rainfall are reduced. During the regional regime this impact of ENSO on the Atlantic storm track is extremely small and a clear interpretation over Europe is inhibited. (orig.)

  16. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  17. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  18. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  19. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  20. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  1. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  2. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  3. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  4. Bumblebee flight in heavy turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, T; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F -O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  5. The influence of sacral morphology on the existence of secure S1 and S2 transverse bone corridors for iliosacroiliac screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, T; Noser, H; Kuervers, J; Goehre, F; Hofmann, G O; Radetzki, F

    2013-12-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) screw fixation for unstable pelvic fractures stands out as the only minimally invasive method among all other ORIF procedures. A strictly transverse screw trajectory is needed for central or bilateral fracture patterns up to a complete iliosacroiliac fixation. However, secure screw insertion is aggravated by a narrow sacroiliac bone stock. This study investigates the influence of a highly variable sacral morphology to the existence of S1 and S2 transverse corridors. The analysis contained in this study is based on 125 CT datasets of intact human pelvises. First, sacral dysplasia was identified using the "lateral sacral triangle" method in a lateral 3-D semi-transparent pelvic view. Second, 3-D corridors for a 7.3mm screw in the upper two sacral levels were visualised using a proprietary IT workflow of custom-made programme scripts based on the Amira(®)-software. Shape-describing measurement variables were calculated as output variables. The results show a significant linear correlation between ratioT and the screw-limiting S1 isthmus height (Pearson coefficient of 0.84). A boundary ratio of 1.5 represented a positive predictive value of 96% for the existence of a transverse S1-corridor for at least one 7.3mm screw. In 100 out of 125 pelvises (80%), a sufficient S1 corridor existed, whereas in 124 specimens (99%), an S2 corridor was found. Statistics revealed significantly larger S1 and S2 corridors in males compared to females (pS1 and 1 screw in S2. The expanse of the S1 corridor is highly influenced by the dimensions of the dysplastic elevated upper sacrum, whereas the S2 corridor is not affected. Hence, in dysplastic pelvises, sacroiliac screw insertion should be recommended into the 2nd sacral segment. Our IT workflow for the automatic computation of 3-D corridors may assist in surgical pre-operative planning. Furthermore, the workflow could be implemented in computer-assisted surgery applications involving pelvic trauma.

  6. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  7. Variation of palaeostress patterns along the Oriente transform wrench corridor, Cuba: significance for Neogene Quaternary tectonics of the Caribbean realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Handler, R.; Garcia-Delgado, D. E.; Friedl, G.; Delgado-Damas, R.

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we address the late Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Wrench Corridor in the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many features of brittle deformation in late Miocene to Pleistocene reef and other shallow water deposits as well as in pre-Neogene, late Cretaceous to Eocene basement rocks. These late Miocene to Quaternary rocks are faulted, fractured, and contain calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal palaeostress vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the south-eastern Cuban margin. Initial N-S extension is correlated with a transtensional regime associated with the fault, later reactivated by sinistral and/or dextral shear, mainly along E-W-oriented strike-slip faults. Sinistral shear predominated and recorded similar kinematics as historical earthquakes in the Santiago region. We correlate palaeostress changes with the kinematic evolution along the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Three different tectonic regimes were distinguished for the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC): compression from late Eocene-Oligocene, transtension from late Oligocene to Miocene (?) (D 1), and transpression from Pliocene to Present (D 2-D 4), when this fault became a transform system. Furthermore, present-day structures vary along strike of the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC) on the south-eastern Cuban coast, with dominantly transpressional/compressional and strike-slip structures in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with the dominant ENE-WSW transpressional structures found on land.

  8. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-10-08

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = -0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = -0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  9. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  10. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-12-06

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species.

  11. Flight Data For Tail 661

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 674

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 667

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 669

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 657

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 681

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 672

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight Data For Tail 662

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Flight Data For Tail 676

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 665

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 660

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 671

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 658

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 668

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 653

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 659

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 680

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 666

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 682

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 664

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 654

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 684

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 678

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 686

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 675

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 685

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 652

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight Data For Tail 655

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Dynamic stall in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana; Tropea, Cameron

    2007-11-01

    We report on experiments concerning unsteady effects in flapping flight, conducted in the low-speed wind tunnel of the TU Darmstadt using a mechanical flapping-wing model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis parallel and perpendicular to the flow field. A sensitivity analysis of the main flight parameters has been performed, with specific attention to the flight envelope of 26,500 dynamic stall effect could be verified by the direct force measurement as well as the flow visualization. The observation of the leading-edge vortex for typical bird flight reduced frequencies shows that this flow cannot be approximated as being quasi- steady. This in effect proves that adaptive wings are necessary to fully control these unsteady flow features, such as dynamic stall.

  20. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 687

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 673

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 677

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  5. NASA_Airborne_Lidar_Flights

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon beginning in July 1982 and continuing to January 1984. Data in ASCII...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 670

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 663

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 656

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 683

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to South Atlantic sources of buoyancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Sterl, A.; Drijfhout, S.

    2002-01-01

    The heat and salt input from the Indian to Atlantic Oceans by Agulhas Leakage is found to influence the Atlantic overturning circulation in a low-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. The model used is the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model, which is forced by mixed boundary condition

  11. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... management alternatives available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and...

  12. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries (sandbar sharks, non-sandbar large coastal sharks, blue sharks, porbeagle sharks, and pelagic sharks (other than porbeagle and blue sharks), non-blacknose small...

  13. 76 FR 53652 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus...-427-8503 or by fax: 301-713-1917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Atlantic shark fisheries...

  14. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery...

  15. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on any..., fishing opportunities for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. The proposed measures...

  16. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with the findings...

  17. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. The quota adjustments are based on over- and/or... for commercial shark fishermen in all regions and areas. These actions could affect...

  18. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark... adjustments, and applies to commercial Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer...

  19. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks...

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE RAIL ROAD CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.

  1. A First Preliminary Look: Are Corridor Charging Stations Used to Extend the Range of Electric Vehicles in The EV Project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of data from The EV Project was performed to begin answering the question: are corridor charging stations used to extend the range of electric vehicles? Data analyzed were collected from Blink brand electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units based in California, Washington, and Oregon. Analysis was performed on data logged between October 1, 2012 and January 1, 2013. It should be noted that as additional AC Level 2 EVSE and DC fast chargers are deployed, and as drivers become more familiar with the use of public charging infrastructure, future analysis may have dissimilar conclusions.

  2. An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India

    OpenAIRE

    Biba Jasmine; Dipankar Ghose; Sanjay Keshari Das

    2015-01-01

    This study entails an attitude assessment of the local people living at Mankanthpur Village, one of the bottlenecks in the Bailparao-Kotabagh corridor, Terai West Forest Division, on the issue of elephant conservation, human-(wildlife) elephant conflict, and the measures to mitigate it.  Data was collected through a questionnaire survey and several group discussions among the villagers.  The frequency of crop raids and group size of elephants were calculated.  Sixty-two crop raids took place ...

  3. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ablation of the all Böhm’s bristle fields caused the antenna to be improperly positioned during flight. Second, ablation of only the scapal Böhm’s bristle...fields also caused the antenna to be improperly positioned during flight. Third, the effect of ablation of pedicellar bristles appeared to be...Research,GKVK Campus, Bellary Rd,Bangalore 560 065,India,NA,NA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  4. Identification of an assembly site for migratory and tropical seabirds in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. John Hughes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds are good indicators of wider biodiversity and where they assemble in large numbers signifies sites important to many marine faunal species. Few such large assemblage sites have been identified and none in pelagic waters has been identified in the tropical Atlantic Ocean despite their importance for resident seabirds and those ‘on passage’ during migration. Here, we identify the likely location of just such an assembly site and provide preliminary information about the distribution of pelagic seabirds around Ascension Island in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean using a combination of trans-equatorial seabird migrant tracking data, records of at-sea surveys and land counts of seabirds returning from foraging trips. We found that waters north–north-west of Ascension Island are used more often by seabirds than those south and east of the island. Three-fifths of the species recorded in the assembly site breed at mid- or high-latitudes and some of these migratory seabirds stopover possibly to wait for favourable winds that facilitate onward flight. Our findings are important because to the best of our knowledge no seabird assembly sites have previously been identified in tropical Atlantic Ocean pelagic waters. We provide evidence to support the aspirations of the Marine Reserves Coalition that waters in the vicinity of Ascension Island should be recognised as a sanctuary for marine wildlife and we highlight an area that is worthy of further targeted investigation.

  5. The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a

  6. Africa's Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torin Schaafsma

    Full Text Available The aetiology of Africa's easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies.Across Africa we assessed associations between a country's oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean national dietary supplies of 7 nutrients: calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, iodine (I, magnesium (Mg, selenium (Se and zinc (Zn. We included 32 countries which had estimates of dietary nutrient supplies and of better-quality GLOBCAN 2012 cancer incidence rates. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson lognormal models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with each nutrient, adjusted for age, gender, energy intake, phytate, smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as their 95% posterior credible intervals (CI. Adult dietary deficiencies were quantified using an estimated average requirements (EAR cut-point approach.Adjusted incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with a doubling of mean nutrient supply were: for Fe 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29-0.82; Mg 0.58 (0.31-1.08; Se 0.40 (0.18-0.90; and Zn 0.29 (0.11-0.74. There were no associations with Ca, Cu and I. Mean national nutrient supplies exceeded adult EARs for Mg and Fe in most countries. For Se, mean supplies were less than EARs (both sexes in 7 of the 10 highest oesophageal cancer ranking countries, compared to 23% of remaining countries. For Zn, mean supplies were less than the male EARs in 8 of these 10 highest ranking countries compared to in 36% of other countries.Ecological associations are consistent with the potential role of Se and/or Zn deficiencies in squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Africa. Individual-level analytical studies are needed to elucidate their causal role in this

  7. Africa’s Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Torin; Wakefield, Jon; Hanisch, Rachel; Bray, Freddie; Schüz, Joachim; Joy, Edward J. M.; Watts, Michael J.; McCormack, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Background The aetiology of Africa’s easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies. Methods Across Africa we assessed associations between a country’s oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean national dietary supplies of 7 nutrients: calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). We included 32 countries which had estimates of dietary nutrient supplies and of better-quality GLOBCAN 2012 cancer incidence rates. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson lognormal models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with each nutrient, adjusted for age, gender, energy intake, phytate, smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as their 95% posterior credible intervals (CI). Adult dietary deficiencies were quantified using an estimated average requirements (EAR) cut-point approach. Results Adjusted incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with a doubling of mean nutrient supply were: for Fe 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29–0.82); Mg 0.58 (0.31–1.08); Se 0.40 (0.18–0.90); and Zn 0.29 (0.11–0.74). There were no associations with Ca, Cu and I. Mean national nutrient supplies exceeded adult EARs for Mg and Fe in most countries. For Se, mean supplies were less than EARs (both sexes) in 7 of the 10 highest oesophageal cancer ranking countries, compared to 23% of remaining countries. For Zn, mean supplies were less than the male EARs in 8 of these 10 highest ranking countries compared to in 36% of other countries. Conclusions Ecological associations are consistent with the potential role of Se and/or Zn deficiencies in squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Africa. Individual-level analytical studies are

  8. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  9. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  10. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  11. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's safety review document must describe each analysis method employed to meet the flight safety...

  12. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  13. Esthetic effect of the buccal corridor size and amount of tooth-gingival display on smile attractiveness in two student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3- Dentist   Background and Aims: An attractive, well-balanced smile is a paramount treatment objective of the modern orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the buccal corridor size and tooth-gingival display on the smile esthetics as perceived by two groups of the students.   Materials and Methods: A colored image of a woman frontal posed smile was selected. The image was altered digitally to produce different buccal corridor sizes (6%, 12.5% and 20% and different tooth-gingival displays (maxillary central incisors and 2 mm of gingival, maxillary central incisors and dental papilla and 80% of the maxillary central incisors. The different buccal corridor sizes and tooth-gingival displays were combined to produce 9 images. These altered images were rated by 120 medical and dental students using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, Pairwise comparison LSD test, Repeated measure MANOVA and ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient.   Results: The smile which had the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and complete incisor display without gingival display received the highest rates among the nine smile images in the dental students group. But in the medical students group the smile with the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and 2 mm gingival display, received the highest rates among the nine smile images. There was no significant difference in judging between the male and female raters for the both groups (P>0.05. The dental students were more critical about the increasing of the gingival display.   Conclusion: In the treatment procedure that may lead to the combination of wide buccal corridor and more tooth-gingival show, more caution should be considered.

  14. A preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor for protecting potential Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) habitat in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Eduardo; Fuller, Trevon L; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Ramírez-Mejía, Diana; Smith, Thomas B

    2013-03-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is one of the most emblematic mammals of Mesoamerica, but like other large-bodied animals, it is facing an increasing risk of extinction due primarily to habitat loss. Mexico's 'ortion of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC-M) is located in one of the main strongholds for Bairds tapir. To assess the MBC-M's effectiveness for tapir conservation, we estimated the distribution of the species' potential habitat by applying 2 modelling approaches (random forest and Maxent) to a set of uncorrelated environmental variables and a 157-point presence dataset. We calculated the extent of tapir habitat in within the MBC-M and modelled new corridors and conservation areas, which we compared to the MBC-M. Moreover, we assessed deforestation patterns in the region. Twenty-seven percent of highly suitable tapir habitat occurred in protected areas, 15% in corridors and 58.3% was outside the MBC-M and associated reserves. The spatial configuration of the MBC-M was partially concordant with the modelled set of conservation areas and corridors. The main dissimilarity was that the modelled corridors traversed forests in Belize and Guatemala to connect conservation areas. Analyses of deforestation since 1993 and human population density in the vicinity of the MBC-M indicated that future conservation efforts should give particular attention to the Montes Azules-El Triunfo Corridor due to greater habitat threat. The MBC-M has a great potential to play a prominent role in the conservation of tapir habitat but there is an urgent need to implement management plans that reinforce and complement this conservation initiative.

  15. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  16. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  17. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  18. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  19. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which...

  20. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...