WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlantic coastal zone

  1. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  2. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    OpenAIRE

    Erramli, H.; Godon, H.D.; Misdaq, M. A.; Sauvage, T.; Ramboz, Claire

    2008-01-01

    In this work PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The inf...

  3. Autumn larval fish assemblages in the northwest African Atlantic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelouahab, Hinde; Berraho, Amina; Baibai, Tarik; Agouzouk, Aziz; Makaoui, Ahmed; Errhif, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    A study on the assemblage composition and vertical distribution of larval fish was conducted in the southern area of the Moroccan Atlantic coast in Autumn 2011. A total of 1 680 fish larvae taxa were identified from 21 families. The majority of the larvae were present in the upper layers. Clupeids were the most abundant larvae taxa followed by Myctophidae, Gadidae and Sparidae, hence the larval fish assemblages (LFA) were variable in diff erent depth layers. Total fish larvae showed a preference for surface layers, and were mainly found above 75 m depth, with some exceptions. The maximum concentration of fish larvae was concentrated up to 25 m essentially above the thermocline, where chlorophyll a and mesozooplankton were abundant. Spatially, neritic families were located near the coast and at some off shore stations especially in the northern part, while oceanic families were more distributed towards off shore along the study area. Cluster analysis showed a segregation of two groups of larvae. However, a clear separation between neritic families and oceanic families was not found. Multivariate analysis highlighted the relationship between the distribution of larvae of diff erent families and environmental parameters. Temperature and salinity seem to have been the factors that acted on associations of fish larvae. Day/night vertical distributions suggest there was not a very significant vertical migration, probably due to adequate light levels for feeding.

  4. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    CERN Document Server

    Erramli, H; Misdaq, M A; Sauvage, T; Ramboz, Claire

    2008-01-01

    In this work PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of the phosphate industry wastes on the concentrations of both radioactive and non-radioactive elements of the samples studied was investigated.

  5. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements' (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of the phosphate industry wastes on the concentrations of both radioactive and non-radioactive elements of the samples studied was investigated

  6. North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Deleware, and New Jersey.

  7. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22103), and are not repeated here. Activities Pursuant to the Atlantic... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by...

  8. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Register (75 FR 9158, March 1, 2010). NMFS received one comment in response to that notice. The comment... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce...

  9. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  10. 75 FR 33242 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... the provisions of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW45 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  11. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...... place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities...

  12. Sustainability of subtropical coastal zones in southeastern Florida: Challenges for urbanized coastal environments threatened by development, pollution, water supply, and storm hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Finkl, C.W.; Charlier, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    The subtropical Atlantic coastal zone of southeastern Florida supports nearly 7 million inhabitants on a coastal plain conurbation that stretches from West Palm Beach to Miami. About a quarter of the present population originally settled on higher topography along the shore-parallel Atlantic Coastal Ridge. From about the middle 1900s, however, urbanization intensified along the shore and spread westward into freshwater marshlands. Population densities approaching 2500 persons per km-2 along s...

  13. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... year 2008 permit data were used in the assessment of economic impacts in the EA. A review of fishing... Environmental Assessment (EA), including the Regulatory Impact Review (RIR) and the Initial Regulatory... Economic Zone (EEZ) under the authority of section 803(b) of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  14. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS), including the Regulatory Impact Review (RIR) and the... measures in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the authority of section 803(b) of the Atlantic Coastal... proposed measures seek to (1) promote economic efficiency within the fishery while maintaining...

  15. Status of coastal zone management techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    Remote panchromatic imagery was applied to develop a coastal zone management atlas that provides for land cover or vegetation surveys as well as land use stereographic mapping for regional planning purposes.

  16. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  17. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  20. The wave criteria for coastal zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE COASTAL ZONE DEFINITION Coastal nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by coastal dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from coastal engineering and coastal law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the coastal substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several coastal laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common coastal features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those coastal features, present in almost all coastal laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for coastal human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for coastal administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of coastal setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for coastal administrative

  1. 75 FR 26703 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... action is authorized in the Atlantic ] Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act... Coastal Act provides that, in the absence of an approved and implemented Fishery Management Plan under the... management. Classification This proposed rule is published under the authority of the Atlantic Coastal...

  2. Integrated modelling of the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Delhez, E. J. M.; Carabin, G.

    2001-01-01

    The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems.The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This pl...

  3. Aerosol extinction in coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzola, J.; Kaloshin, G.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2004-01-01

    The performance of electro-optical systems can be substantially affected by aerosol particles that scatter and absorb electromagnetic radiation. A few years ago, an empirical model was developed describing the aerosol size distributions in the Mediterranean coastal atmosphere near Toulon (France). T

  4. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  6. Monitoring man's impact in the coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the monitoring of man's impact in the coastal zone. Color infrared photography shows destroyed or degraded wetlands or beaches, and makes possible relevant linear or aerial measurements with aerial photography. It can also categorize the environmental impacts which have accrued as the result of completion of water development projects. Aerial photography of the Texas coastal zone illustrates the nature and degree of damage likely to occur as a result of construction or maintenance projects. It is concluded that the method of assigning realistic values to unit areas of wetlands and beaches will make it feasible to incorporate the cost of estuarine damages into the cost estimates of water development schemes

  7. Applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Research activity has continued to be focused on the applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery in oceanography. A number of regional studies were completed including investigations of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations in the South Atlantic Bight, Northwest Spain, Weddell Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and in tropical Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the regional studies, much work was dedicated to developing ancillary global scale meteorological and hydrographic data sets to complement the global CZCS processing products. To accomplish this, SEAPAK's image analysis capability was complemented with an interface to GEMPAK (Severe Storm Branch's meteorological analysis software package) for the analysis and graphical display of gridded data fields. Plans are being made to develop a similar interface to SEAPAK for hydrographic data using EPIC (a hydrographic data analysis package developed by NOAA/PMEL).

  8. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  9. 76 FR 80342 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...: NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM) announces availability of the...

  10. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The...

  11. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U... Federal Approval of the Illinois Coastal Management Program (ICMP). SUMMARY: NOAA's OCRM announces...

  12. Multimedia Delivery of Coastal Zone Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes Coastal Zone Management (CZM) multimedia course modules, educational software written by the GeoData Institute at the University of Southamptom for an environmental management undergraduate course. Examines five elements that converge to create CZM multimedia teaching: course content, source material, a hardware/software delivery system,…

  13. Coastal zone: Shelf-EEZ and land sea interface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Among the few vibrant ecotopes is the coastal zone, where multifaceted interactions among air, sea and land are dynamically balanced. An area of intense clash of interest of user community, the coastal zone harbouring vast potential of renewable...

  14. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  15. Radiotracer studies for coastal zone management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coastal engineers and coastal zone managers increasingly rely on numerical models of fluid, sediment and contaminant dynamics. These are used to underpin coastal structure design and to predict environmental response to specific events such as storms or pollutant spills, and gradual changes such as sea-level rise or changes in bathymetry. Radiotracer techniques can be used to provide dynamic data on the movement of a specific patch of water, sediment or pollutant over time, which can be compared with model predictions. Two case studies are presented where radiotracer studies were used to improve confidence in numerical models of: (1) 2D hydrodynamics and sediment transport at the Port of Songkhla, Thailand; and (2) 3D hydrodynamics and algal bloom transport in Manila Bay, Philippines

  16. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods...... simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final...... article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management...

  17. Flood Insurance Coverage in the Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Craig E.; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    We explore behavior and test theory regarding the determinants of flood insurance coverage in the coastal zone using household-level data for nine southeastern counties. We use Tobit regression models to assess the importance and magnitude of insurance cost, risk factors, community characteristics, and household attributes on flood insurance purchase for residential building structures. Overall estimates indicate price inelastic demand, though subsidized policyholders are more sensitive to ...

  18. A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josianne G. Støttrup

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management.

  19. Some aspects of integrated coastal zone management in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    is concentrated in the coastal plains and estuarine deltas. Recently, the coastal zone has also experienced a rapid growth of industries and also the related problems. All these activities are not properly planned and regulated inspite of various laws available...

  20. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  1. Coastal and open ocean aerosol characteristics: investigating the representativeness of coastal aerosol sampling over the North-East Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a better understanding of the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of marine aerosol particles during transport from offshore to the coast, size distribution and chemical composition were measured concurrently in clean air masses over the open North Atlantic Ocean and at an Irish coastal site. Open ocean sampling was performed on board the oceanographic vessel Celtic Explorer sailing 100–300 km off the Irish west coast, while coastal measurements were performed at the Mace Head GAW station. The experiment took place between 11 June and 6 July 2006, during the period of phytoplankton bloom.

    The number size distribution and size-resolved chemical composition of coastal and open ocean samples were very similar, indicating homogeneous physical and chemical aerosol properties over a wide region in the marine boundary layer. The results also show that submicron chemical and physical aerosol properties measured at the coastal Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station were not unduly influenced by coastal artefacts and are thus representative of open water properties. Greater differences between the coastal site and the open ocean were observed for the aerosol supermicron sea spray components; this could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from higher local wind speeds at the coastal site over the comparison period, to differences in sampling heights and increased local surf-zone production.

    Evidence of ageing processes was observed: at the costal site the ratio between non-sea-salt sulphate and methanesulphonic acid was higher, and the aerosol water soluble organic compounds were more oxidized than in the open ocean.

  2. Improving environmental impact assessmentfor better integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwi, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    How to make use of coastal and marine resources in a sustainable manner is an increasing concern among coastal stakeholders all over the world. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a well-known concept nowadays, but its implementation is often hampered. This is also the case in Indonesia. En

  3. Australian and Chinese Scientists Discuss Coastal Zone Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2010-03-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management Workshop; Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, 11-14 November 2009; A 3-day workshop was held in Australia to discuss problems and issues facing coastal zones, including degradation of coastal ecosystems and the impacts of climate change such as sea level rise and changed weather patterns, and to formulate a collaborative research strategy to improve the coastal zone management (CZM) system to tackle these problems. The workshop, which brought together experts from University of New South Wales (UNSW) and Ocean University of China (OUC), highlighted the similarities in topics important to Australia and China. This workshop focused on science, policy, and the legal framework required to manage sustainable development of these coastal zones. Many parallels exist between the difficult issues facing CZM in both countries. Significant research into changes in coastal areas and their causes has been undertaken, but this research effort has not been fully reflected in coastal zone planning and management activities. Workshop participants reviewed current progress in understanding scientific, engineering, and socioeconomic processes in the coastal zones, brainstormed challenges in developing a multidisciplinary research framework capable of integrating science into coastal zone management, and identified a cross-institutional approach to addressing these issues.

  4. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. The Kane fracture zone in the Central Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, G.M.; Rabinowitz, P.D.; Velterop, J.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Kane fracture zone has been traced as a distinct topographic trough from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 24°N to the 80-m.y. B.P. isochron (magnetic anomaly 34) on either side of the ridge axis for a total of approximately 2800 km. Major changes in trend of the fracture zone occur at approximately 7

  6. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  7. 75 FR 34092 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    .... Such action is authorized under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). DATES: The deadline for written comments on the May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26703), proposed rule is... Federal Register (75 FR 26703) with a 30-day comment period that ended on June 11, 2010. NMFS received...

  8. 75 FR 31421 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The EFP would allow for an exemption from the Carl N. Shuster Jr... the Federal Register on June 2, 2008 (73 FR 31434), and thus are not repeated here. Data collected... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  9. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The EFP would allow for an exemption from the Reserve. Regulations... Register on September 10, 2012 (77 FR 55457), and thus are not repeated here. Data collected under previous... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC689 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  10. Geologic evaluation of waste-storage potential in selected segments of the Mesozoic aquifer system below the zone of fresh water, Atlantic Coastal Plain, North Carolina through New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip M.; Reid, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the distribution of subsurface environments in the Atlantic Coastal Plain?North Carolina through New Jersey, that are seen to have geologic potential for the storage of toxic waste. The environments described consist of layers of sand or sandstone, 20 feet or more in thickness, that are immediately overlain and underlain by layers of shale or clay, 20 feet or more in thickness, and which occur in Units F, G, and H of Mesozoic age in areas where the top of each of these units lies at a depth equal to or greater than 1,500 feet below mean sea level. Using a group of geologic parameters derived from or combining 20 categories of basic data, established from study of well cuttings and geophysical logs, a series of 18 regional maps was constructed. For each of three geologic units delineated in the subsurface, the maps illustrate the distribution of potential waste-storage reservoirs in terms of their areal extent, depth below land surface, and the thicknesses of the component reservoir and reservoir-seal rocks. The depth of burial, physical character, and extent and thickness of the reservoirs that have waste-storage potential are variable. The range in variability appears to be broad enough to satisfy the geologic requirements for different types of waste storage.

  11. 77 FR 59899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) authorized an awards program to ``implement a program to promote excellence in coastal zone management by identifying and acknowledging outstanding accomplishments... categories of awards, to recognize additional contributions to ocean and coastal resource...

  12. Concept, approaches and applications of integrated coastal zone management in planning and management of Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, M.C.; Sinha, R.; Nigam, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Kotnala, K.L.

    of coastal planning and management in India is to achieve a balance between these two. In order to regulate coastal development and to ensure minimisation of long term problems, a specific coastal legislation namely Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) was enacted...

  13. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships. PMID:22325583

  14. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  15. Economic valuation of coastal zone quality improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George

    2011-01-01

    Individuals’ decision to use a particular coastal beach is influenced by their preferences and perceptions as well as beach’s characteristics. This study examines visitors’ attributes and desired site specific characteristics in order to determine the factors affecting willingness to pay for an improvement quality (environment, water as well as recreation activities) program. A contingent valuation survey is carried out in order to evaluate the economic benefits of improving coastal quality o...

  16. Exposing the U.S. coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln; Divins, David; Butler, Tanja; Metzger, Dan; Sharman, George; Steele, Mark; Berggren, Todd; Holcombe, Troy; Ramos, Ricardo

    Overdevelopment of shores and wetlands, dwindling sites on land for the disposal of human-generated waste, contamination of estuaries and nearshore sediments, the disruption of coastal-water ecosystems by dredging, and the specter of rising sea level due to anthropogenically induced global warming are but a few of the pressures humans are exerting on coastal environments around the world. In the United States, a lot is riding on the response of its coastal environments to these pressures. The majority of the U.S. population resides in the coastal states, where the country's largest cities and most popular recreation areas are located.If the United States is to sustain the health and beauty of its coastal environments, then they must be managed, not only on the federal scale, but also on the state and local scales. One of the most fundamental types of data required to conduct this management will be detailed elevation data. On land, topography dictates the flow of water and the maximum extent of flooding. Offshore, bathymetry is a major control on shallow-water ocean currents and the dissemination of sediments eroded from the continent.

  17. 76 FR 19748 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA312 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing...-50 mm carapace length), throughout lobster management area 3 (Area 3), in an attempt to...

  18. 76 FR 41764 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA563 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing... population in management Area 3. This EFP would excuse 11 commercial fishing vessels from the...

  19. 77 FR 66585 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC304 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing... dispersal and settlement in the offshore Lobster Management Area 3 (Area 3), 11 federally permitted...

  20. Vegetation of Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of vegetation structure and composition at each of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring sites on South Atlantic Geography National Wildlife Refuges....

  1. Development of Ecological Reference Models and an Assessment Framework for Streams on the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Military installations in the Sand Hills ecoregion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain protect unique ecosystems including blackwater streams. The Department of Defense...

  2. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeologic framework was developed from a combination of the physiography and the predominant texture of surficial geologic units in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal...

  3. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents. PMID:16114636

  4. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. Shear zone reactivation during South Atlantic rifting in NW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, D.; Passchier, C. W.; Salomon, E.

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of inherited structures during rifting as well as an influence of inherited structures on the orientation of a developing rift has long been discussed (e.g. Piqué & Laville, 1996; Younes & McClay, 2002). Here, we present a qualitative and quantitative study of shear zone reactivation during the South Atlantic opening in NW Namibia. The study area comprises the Neo-Proterozoic rocks of the Kaoko Belt which was formed during the amalgamation of Gondwana. The Kaoko Belt encompasses the prominent ~500 km long ductile Purros shear zone and the Three Palms shear zone, both running sub-parallel to the present continental margin. The Kaoko Belt is partly overlain by the basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province, which with an age of ~133 Ma were emplaced just before or during the onset of the Atlantic rifting at this latitude. Combining the analysis of satellite imagery and digital elevation models with extensive field work, we identified numerous faults tracing the old shear zones along which the Etendeka basalts were down-faulted. The faults are often listric, yet we also found evidence for a regional scale basin formation. Our analysis allowed for constructing the geometry of three of these faults and we could thus estimate the vertical offsets to ~150 m, ~500 m, and ~1100 m, respectively. Our results contribute to the view that the basement inheritance plays a significant role on rifting processes and that the reactivation of shear zones can accumulate significant amounts of displacement. References: Pique, A. and E. Laville (1996). The Central Atlantic rifting: Reactivation of Paleozoic structures?. J. Geodynamics, 21, 235-255. Younes, I.A. and K. McClay (2002). Development of accommodation zones in the Gulf of Suez-Red Sea rift, Egypt. AAPG Bulletin, 86, 1003-1026.

  6. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  7. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  8. Nitrogen dynamics in the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. M.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important biomes by several things, among them, they are important reservoirs of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water (Bonan, 2008). In Brazil, at Sao Paulo State, the coastal Atlantic Forest runs along an altitudinal gradient from near seal level (Lowland Forest) up to more than 1,000m (Montane Forest). Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as well as above ground biomass are higher at the Montante Forest in relation to the Lowland Forest. In contrast, annual fluxes of N2O and riverine N output are higher lower altitudes, although. Therefore, it seems that lower temperature at higher altitude limits N transfer between different reservoirs, which in turn leads to higher N stocks. In this study we test if the litter decomposition of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves at higher altitudes also decomposes slower than at low altitudes. At the same time we also test if Fabaceae leaves decompose faster than non Fabaceae leaves due to the higher N content and lower C:N ratio of the former in comparison to the later. Preliminary results indicate that both hypothesis seems to be right.

  9. Analysis of space-borne data for coastal zone information extraction of Goa Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Space-borne data covering the coastal zone of Goa State were processed using digital and visual image-processing techniques to extract information about the coastal zone. Digital image processing of thematic data included principal component...

  10. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  11. Integrating Sustainable Tourism Development in Coastal and Marine Zone Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Mohammed Marafa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La gestion des processus touristique dans des secteurs marins et côtiers est complexe. Les pratiques touristiques et récréatives s’accompagnent d’effets positifs et négatifs sur l'environnement. Le développement de tourisme peut s’épanouir sur des environnements faiblement modifiés mais il n’est pas sans conséquence sur la modification des environnements côtiers. Une gestion intégrée s’impose pour intégrer les pratiques touristiques dans un processus de développement côtier soutenable. Le but de cet article est de proposer un cadre et une orientation pour la gestion intégrée des secteurs côtiers. Des cadres pour le développement côtier soutenable de tourisme et la gestion côtière de zone (CZM sont suggérés en tenant compte de la nature diversifiée des environnements côtiers. Bien que Hong Kong constitue destination touristique réussie, le tourisme littoral, avec des approches alternatives, est aussi un aspect à promouvoir tant autour de la diversité des habitats et que des formes de vie qui rendent le littoral d’Hong Kong uniqueTourism in marine and coastal areas is a complex phenomenon. Tourism in coastal areas brings along both positive and negative effects on the environment as a result of activities exerted upon such areas by proponents and tourists. While tourism development results in the modification of coastal environments, it can also flourish where such environments are left unmodified as the pristine nature of the environments attract visitors. Alternatively, in order for marine and coastal tourism to develop and continue to attract tourists, there is the need for an integrated approach that can be translated into a sustainable coastal tourism development.  The aim of this paper therefore, is to postulate and develop a framework and guideline to be addressed by decision-makers for coastal areas. Frameworks for sustainable coastal tourism development and coastal zone management (CZM are

  12. Marine disaster prevention and integrated coastal zone management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许富祥; 韦锋余

    2001-01-01

    Ocean is home town of wind and rain, treasury of resources. To exploit and use ocean will make great contribution to people′s existence and development. China is a great oceanic country with precinct sea area of 3,000,000 km2. The eastern coastal region with only 60 km width, 15 % area and 40% of population of China, has created about 60 % of GDP and has become the most developed region. But marine disaster in China is frequent and serious. From statistical data, economy loss made by surge.billow, sea ice, tsunami, red tide, oil spill, coast erosion, bay deposit, sea water intrusion, sea levelrise. land salinization. sea water pollution, etc. increase quickly. Economy loss per year is one billionin the 1980s, 10 billion in the 1990s, exceeded 20 billion in 1996, and 30 billion in 1997. About 80% of it happened in the coastal area. So, marine disaster at present has become obstacle of society progress and economy development in coastal area. To mitigate marine disaster has become need for the economy development, also important task of the integrated coastal zone management. In this article, we briefly introduce countermeasures for marine disaster prevention, coastal zone management, and achievements made in the past 50 years, its problems now confronted, and the main countermeasures in the 21 st century.

  13. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Huising, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of an observational methodology as well for structuring dynamics in land use. Land use is described in terms of the land use pattern (LUP). The LUP denotes the farming systems and land utilization types (LUTs) ...

  14. Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

  15. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  16. Water mass pathways to the North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Izquierdo, Jesús; van Sebille, Erik; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Sprintall, Janet; Mason, Evan; Llanillo, Pedro J.; Machín, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The water mass pathways to the North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (naOMZ) are traditionally sketched within the cyclonic tropical circulation via the poleward branching from the eastward flowing jets that lie south of 10°N. However, our water mass analysis of historic hydrographic observations together with numerical Lagrangian experiments consistently reveal that the potential density level of σθ = 26.8 kg m-3 (σ26.8, approximately 300 m depth) separates two distinct regimes of circulation within the Central Water (CW) stratum of the naOMZ. In the upper CW (above σ26.8), and in agreement with previous studies, the supply of water mainly comes from the south with a predominant contribution of South Atlantic CW. In the lower CW (below σ26.8), where minimal oxygen content is found, the tropical pathway is instead drastically weakened in favor of a subtropical pathway. More than two thirds of the total water supply to this lower layer takes place north of 10°N, mainly via an eastward flow at 14°N and northern recirculations from the northern subtropical gyre. The existence of these northern jets explains the greater contribution of North Atlantic CW observed in the lower CW, making up to 50% of the water mass at the naOMZ core. The equatorward transfer of mass from the well-ventilated northern subtropical gyre emerges as an essential part of the ventilation of the naOMZ.

  17. Applications of nuclear tracer techniques in coastal zone process studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques have a wide utility in coastal zone studies. Applications described in this talk include studies of the offshore dispersal of sewage, the migration of sand and sediment, and processes important to the biogeochemical cycling of elements in the marine environment. They are particularly suited to elucidation of the compartmentalisation and rates of processes, both presently occurring and in past times. Many studies are designed to contribute to the scientific basis, or development of engineering concepts, for sustainable development in coastal regions where population densities are high and there are potential conflicts in the exploitation of resources. Other studies are aimed at developing an understanding of specific interactions within coastal ecosystems and the rates at which these processes occur. These radiotracer techniques provide a mechanism of fine tuning concepts and equations (models) in order to achieve a balance between man' s activities and his impact on the environment

  18. Genetic evidence of local exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a coastal subsistence fishery in the Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Ian R.; Hamilton, Lorraine C.; Rafferty, Sara; Meerburg, David; Poole, Rebecca; Dempson, J. Brian; Robertson, Martha J.; Reddin, David G.; Bourret, Vincent; Dionne, Mélanie; Chaput, Gerald J.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; King, Tim L.; Candy, John R.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries targeting mixtures of populations risk the over utilization of minor stock constituents unless harvests are monitored and managed. We evaluated stock composition and exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a subsistence fishery in coastal Labrador, Canada using genetic mixture analysis and individual assignment with a microsatellite baseline (15 loci, 11 829 individuals, 12 regional groups) encompassing the species western Atlantic range. Bayesian and maximum likelihood mixture analyses of fishery samples over six years (2006-2011; 1 772 individuals) indicate contributions of adjacent stocks of 96-97%. Estimates of fishery associated exploitation were highest for Labrador salmon (4.2-10.6% per year) and generally exploitation and reveal complex migratory behaviours.

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Rural Poverty in Low-Elevation Coastal Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Edward B. Barbier

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion, and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the low-elevation coastal zone, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the i...

  20. Evaluation of Land Use of Tekirdag Coastal Zone by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yetim Erdinc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective use of natural resources is one of the important issues of today. GIS is recently used as an effective tool for solution of complicated problems. Land use researches in landscape planning studies can be done reliably and practically by the use of GIS. Depending on the increase of demands on coastal zones, the determination of land uses and conservation of them gets more important today. Within this context, in this study, the past and the present land uses of Tekirdağ coastal zone is pointed out. According to this, the ecological problems depending on wrong land uses all over Turkey is emphasized within the frame of Tekirdağ case the significance of ecological planning approaches are designated.

  1. A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

    2014-03-01

    Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

  2. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Ricardo P Vieira; Alexander M Cardoso; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rodolpho M Albano; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Meth...

  3. Sustainable multiple-use and management of the coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, R.H.; Charlier, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will consider both the nearshore and the onshore sector of the coastal zone but stops short of the immediate hinterland. As the 21st century dawns, pressures on the littoral fringe intensify at an accelerating pace. Demands for its use are complex and numerous, with conflict steadily increasing. They encompass expanding human occupance, industry's search for water, implantation of transformation-facilities, processing, manufacture- and manutention plants, alternative energy install...

  4. OCSLA Sec. 8(g) Revenue Zone Boundary - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Limit of '8(g) Zone' line in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The '8(g) Zone' lies between the Submerged Lands Act...

  5. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  7. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean... comment at the Web site http://www.regulations.gov . These safety zones are needed pending implementation... Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from...

  8. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  9. 77 FR 28854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... importance of U.S. coastal areas, the U.S. Congress passed the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (CZMA),...

  10. 77 FR 62494 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ...; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act Programs--State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine... Management Act of 1972, as amended (CZMA; 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) requires that state coastal management... state coastal management programs be evaluated concerning the extent to which the state has...

  11. 75 FR 7227 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 600 and 697 RIN 0648-XT83 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs) AGENCY... activities authorized under the EFP would be consistent with the goals and objectives of federal...

  12. 75 FR 38458 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX07 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing... traps in between Block and Hudson Canyons in Lobster Management Area 3 during the summer of 2010....

  13. Groundwater chemistry of shallow aquifers in the coastal zones of Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    The coastal aquifers of Kerala, India experience severe degradation of water quality due to various anthropogenic activities. An attempt is made here to study the groundwater chemistry of aquifers, which lie along the coastal zone of central Kerala...

  14. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  15. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  16. Climate Change Impacts on the Mediterranean Coastal Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the potential impacts of changes in climatic conditions and in related variables, which could affect coastal areas, as well as to identify potential response measures which could reduce the vulnerability of coastal systems and enhance their adaptability. Attention will be focused on the Mediterranean basin which is in the climate change context, a zone of great interest and of recent concern at the world scale by some features: strong ocean-atmosphere-land interactions; contrast between the small size of the sea and its significant role in the global climate system; possibility to use it at a scaled down model for the monitoring of environmental and climate evolution; critical environmental conditions of some areas and high human pressure; and strong geographical, socio-economic and climatic contrasts. The first section provides an introduction to the climate change issue, the past trends and the projections of future climate at the global scale. The second section presents the main features of the Mediterranean basin and some relevant regional projections of future climatic variables. The third section focuses on the main likely impacts on the Mediterranean coasts. Different coastal systems - such as islands, deltas, estuaries, coastal wetlands and coastal cities - and different climate change impacts - such as inundation, increased flooding, salinisation, salt water intrusion, desertification, and increased erosion - are addressed in this section. Finally the last section brings some conclusions and identify some strategies of adaptations and directions for future research aimed at improving our ability to predict and assess the local impacts of climate change in the region

  17. Use of SPOT images as a tool for coastal zone management and monitoring of environmental impacts in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Guerra, Paola

    2002-09-01

    Modern techniques such as remote sensing have been one of the main factors leading toward the achievement of serious plans regarding coastal management. A multitemporal analysis of land use in certain areas of the Colombian Caribbean Coast is described. It mainly focuses on environmental impacts caused by anthropogenic activities, such as deforestation of mangroves due to shrimp farming. Selection of sensitive areas, percentage of destroyed mangroves, possible endangered areas, etc., are some of the results of this analysis. Recommendations for a coastal management plan in the area have also resulted from this analysis. Some other consequences of the deforestation of mangroves in the coastal zone and the construction of shrimp ponds are also analyzed, such as the increase of erosion problems in these areas and water pollution, among others. The increase of erosion in these areas has also changed part of their morphology, which has been studied by the analysis of SPOT images in previous years. A serious concern exists about the future of these areas. For this reason new techniques like satellite images (SPOT) have been applied with good results, leading to more effective control and coastal management in the area. The use of SPOT images to study changes of the land use of the area is a useful technique to determine patterns of human activities and suggest solutions for severe problems in these areas.

  18. Atlantic City, New Jersey Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Effects on atmospheric diffusion of meterological processes in coastal zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorological processes in coastal zones differ from those inland because of the surface discontinuity between land and water. The difference in heating between the two surfaces gives rise to sea or lake breeze circulations which can transport pollutants in nongradient directions and recirculate them over source areas. The step change in surface characteristics at the land-water interface also causes formation of internal boundary layers having different transport velocities and diffusion rates than unmodified air upwind or above the boundary. These features require a more extensive measurement program and more versatile diffusion models than at inland sites

  20. Coastal zone management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization along Dubai Creek

    OpenAIRE

    Al Zahed, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a dynamic process in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented for the allocation of environmental, socio-cultural, and institutional resources to achieve the conservation and sustainable multiple use of the coastal zone. The present study titled “Coastal Zone Management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization” is an effort to consider critical water quality and ecological issues in the current and f...

  1. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission referred the matter to NMFS, under... out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the measures it failed to...

  2. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  3. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  4. Evaluating Sea water Quality in the Coastal Zone of North Lebanon using Telemac-2DTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean are undergoing rapid development withgrowing and conflicting demands on the natural resources. Coastal zones are often subjected to irreversible land degradation and environmental deterioration. Lebanon is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin and the integrated management of the environment in the Lebanese coastal zone must be given concern. Most of the successful decisions addressing the environment protection or the elaboration of preventive measures in the coastal zone. These decisions depend on the availability of efficient simulation tools. The existence of these tools can help protecting the environment and establishing the ground for sustainable natural resources in the coastal zones. In this paper, a simulation tool called Telemac-2D TM software was used to simulate the business as usual, pessimistic, and optimistic status of the sea water quality in the coastal zone of Tripoli (North Lebanon). The coastal zone is affected by the effluents of solid and liquid wastes from Abou-Ali river. The different quality states of the coastal zone represent the normal, high, and low flow of the effluents (plume pollutants) from Abou-Ali river. In addition, it represents the variation of different factors such as wind and sea currents speed and direction. This simulation will help the decision makers to implement pre-cautious measures before a disaster takes place by assessing the quality of the sea water near the coastal zones. (author)

  5. Coastal vulnerability assessment: a case study of Samut Sakhon coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Duriyapong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Samut Sakhon coastal zone (~41.8 km, which was selected as a study area due to its low-lying topography, hasbeen increasingly impacted by climate change and erosion processes affecting the local community. This study examined thevulnerability area in this region by combining a physical process vulnerability index (PVI and a socio-economic vulnerabilityindex (SVI. Four physical variables (coastal slope, coastal erosion rate, mean tidal range, and mean wave height and foursocio-economic variables (land use, population density, cultural heritage, and roads/railways were employed. The result wasa single vulnerability indicator of a coastal vulnerability index (CVI showing that the high vulnerability area, covering anarea of 1.3 km2 (0.45% of total study area, was located in Ban Bo, Ka Long, Bangyaprak, Bangkrajao, Khok Kham, Na Kok,and Puntainorasing. The moderate vulnerability area covered an area of 28 km2 (9.5% of total study area, the low vulnerabilityarea 180 km2 (60.56% of total study area, and the very low vulnerability area 88 km2 (29.52% of total study area.The CVI map indicated that it was highly differentiated and influenced by socio-economic indicators, rather than physicalindicators. However, comparison between the different results of the PVI and SVI can contribute to understanding the variabilityand constraints of vulnerability. The results of this investigation showed that the study area was more correlated withaspects related to socio-economic characteristics than physical parameters.

  6. Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, V L.(National Marine Fisheries Service); Adams, Nicolaus G.(National Marine Fisheries Service); Bill, Brian D.(National Marine Fisheries Service); Stehr, Carla M.(National Marine Fisheries Service); Wekell, John C.(National Marine Fisheries Service); Moeller, Peter (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Busman, Mark (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Woodruff, Dana L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-01-01

    Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near coastal headlands. Nutrient levels at these sites were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from coastal headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key coastal locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.

  7. Status and interconnections of selected environmental issues in the global coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Singh, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on assessing the state of population distribution, land cover distribution, biodiversity hotspots, and protected areas in global coastal zones. The coastal zone is defined as land within 100 km of the coastline. This study attempts to answer such questions as: how crowded are the coastal zones, what is the pattern of land cover distribution in these areas, how much of these areas are designated as protected areas, what is the state of the biodiversity hotspots, and what are the interconnections between people and coastal environment. This study uses globally consistent and comprehensive geospatial datasets based on remote sensing and other sources. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) layering methods and consistent datasets has made it possible to identify and quantify selected coastal zones environmental issues and their interconnections. It is expected that such information provide a scientific basis for global coastal zones management and assist in policy formulations at the national and international levels.

  8. Stratigraphy of Atlantic coastal margin of United States north of Cape Hatteras; brief survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W.J.; Minard, J.P.; Weed, E.G.A.; Robbins, E.I.; Rhodehamel, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis of studies of sea-floor outcrops of the sedimentary wedge beneath the northeastern United States continental shelf and slope and a reassessment of coastal plain Mesozoic stratigraphy, particularly of the coastal margin, provide insight for estimating the oil and gas potential and provide geologic control for marine seismic investigations of the Atlantic continental margin. The oldest strata known to crop out on the continental slope are late Campanian in age. The Cretaceous-Tertiary contact along the slope ranges from a water depth of 0.6 to 1.5 km south of Georges Bank to 1.8 km in Hudson Canyon. Few samples are available from Tertiary and Late Cretaceous outcrops along the slope. Sediments of the Potomac Group, chiefly of Early Cretaceous age, constitute a major deltaic sequence in the emerged coastal plain. This thick sequence lies under coastal Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, southeastern New Jersey, and the adjacent continental shelf. Marine sands associated with this deltaic sequence may be present seaward under the outer continental shelf. South of the Norfolk arch, under coastal North Carolina, carbonate rocks interfinger with Lower Cretaceous clastic strata. From all available data, Mesozoic correlations in coastal wells between coastal Virginia and Long Island have been revised. The Upper-Lower Cretaceous boundary is placed at the transition between Albian and Cenomanian floras. Potential hydrocarbon source beds are present along the coast in the subsurface sediments of Cretaceous age. Potential reservoir sandstones are abundant in this sequence.

  9. The Iceland–Lofotes pressure difference: different states of the North Atlantic low-pressure zone

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke-Bornemann, Annika; Brümmer, Burghard

    2009-01-01

    The extended North Atlantic low-pressure zone exhibits two pressure minima in the long-term winter mean: the primary one west of Iceland and the secondary one near Norwegian Lofotes Islands. Based on the ERA-40 data set and on wintertime monthly sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies at both places, the states of co- and antivariability are investigated. The covariability represents states of a strongly or weakly developed North Atlantic low-pressure zone. The difference between these two states ...

  10. You are what you get caught with : inter-individual variation in coastal Atlantic cod behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Consistent behavioural differences among individuals is a common phenomenon that has been demonstrated for a wide range of taxonomical groups. Such behavioural differences are expected to have ecological and evolutionary implications and has therefore received an increasing amount of attention during the past decade. This study applies acoustic telemetry to explore intra-population variation in coastal Atlantic cod behaviour. Specifically, I explore whether consistent differenc...

  11. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule; Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-01-01

    Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae), aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences i...

  12. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(d) stating that the proposed exploration activities described in detail...

  13. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  14. Planning and management of the coastal zone in India - A perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Desai, B.N.

    Zone Management Authority at the national level and a suitable agency in each of the maritime states for properly coordinating and implementing the coastal zone management program of the country. It is necessary to consider all major uses of the coastal...

  15. Ecosystem resilience and threshold response in the Galapagos coastal zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair W R Seddon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC provides a conservative estimate on rates of sea-level rise of 3.8 mm yr(-1 at the end of the 21(st century, which may have a detrimental effect on ecologically important mangrove ecosystems. Understanding factors influencing the long-term resilience of these communities is critical but poorly understood. We investigate ecological resilience in a coastal mangrove community from the Galápagos Islands over the last 2700 years using three research questions: What are the 'fast and slow' processes operating in the coastal zone? Is there evidence for a threshold response? How can the past inform us about the resilience of the modern system? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Palaeoecological methods (AMS radiocarbon dating, stable carbon isotopes (δ(13C were used to reconstruct sedimentation rates and ecological change over the past 2,700 years at Diablas lagoon, Isabela, Galápagos. Bulk geochemical analysis was also used to determine local environmental changes, and salinity was reconstructed using a diatom transfer function. Changes in relative sea level (RSL were estimated using a glacio-isostatic adjustment model. Non-linear behaviour was observed in the Diablas mangrove ecosystem as it responded to increased salinities following exposure to tidal inundations. A negative feedback was observed which enabled the mangrove canopy to accrete vertically, but disturbances may have opened up the canopy and contributed to an erosion of resilience over time. A combination of drier climatic conditions and a slight fall in RSL then resulted in a threshold response, from a mangrove community to a microbial mat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Palaeoecological records can provide important information on the nature of non-linear behaviour by identifying thresholds within ecological systems, and in outlining responses to 'fast' and 'slow' environmental change between alternative stable states. This study

  16. NOAA-NASA Coastal Zone Color Scanner Reanalysis Effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span more than two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NOAA-NASA) CZCS reanalysis (NCR) effort. NCR consisted of (1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved with modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms and (2) blending where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll

  17. Forecasting power plant effects on the coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field methods, data analyses, and calculations are presented exemplifying procedures for oceanic dispersion prediction as a tool for forecasting power plant effects on the coastal zone. Measurements were made of dye, drogues and temperatures near Pilgrim Station's discharge (Plymouth, Massachusetts), and of currents and other variables across Massachusetts Bay. Analysis of current data illustrates separation of tidal, wind-driven and inertial constituents and their significance for dispersion. Dye and temperature dispersion are compared with the currents study, and diffusion coefficients estimated. Current data from coastal sites (New Jersey and Massachusetts) are analyzed to determine field requirements for dispersion estimates. Methods to calculate expected precision of estimates based on brief current records are developed. Use of historical wind data to generalize current statistics from short records is shown. A procedure is recommended to synthesize current data preserving observed current statistics for model calculations and study of infrequent events. Model calculations predicting dispersion based on observed ocean currents are described. Formulae are derived to estimate the spatial distribution of impact from a discharge. A numerical model to calculate discharge dispersion in more detail is discussed and used to study time variations of discharge effects. Model predictions are compared with field observations

  18. The use of ecosystem services valuation in Australian coastal zone management

    OpenAIRE

    Marre, Jean-baptiste; Olivier THEBAUD (CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research); Pascoe, Sean; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    The use and influence of ecosystem services valuation in management decision-making, particularly as it relates to coastal zone management, remains largely unexplored in the academic literature. A recent Australia-wide survey of decision-makers involved in coastal zone management examined if, how and to what extent economic valuation of coastal and marine ecosystem services is used in, and influences, decision-making in Australia. The survey also identified a set of cases where economic valua...

  19. Modelling of hydrodynamic mechanisms of pollutant propagation in coastal zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of this document have to be distinguished in mathematical models applicable to small-area problems (horizontal scale comparable to depth) and models applicable to large-area phenomena (horizontal scales much greater than depth, quasi-hydrostatic approximation). In the case of the former, progress remains to be made in the simulation of turbulence and in the development of algorithms applicable under often very complex geometrical conditions. Excellent results are obtained by combining mathematical models with reduced-scale models, the former (on larger scales) providing the boundary conditions for the tank of the physical models. Large-area problems can be tackled only by means of mathematical models. These models are extremely efficient for the calculation of mesoscale circulation and transport of pollutants, but they all run into the same difficulty of simulating long-term problems and of determining drift currents. The principal difficulty faced by mesoscale or macroscale models is the determination of atmospheric conditions and of boundary conditions in the open sea. Mathematical models make it possible to determine the situation at every point of a given coastal zone and require only the conditions at the boundaries of the zone for this purpose. However, although these conditions at the boundary correspond to an experimental effort small in relation to total surveillance of the zone, they are essential to the predictions of the mathematical model, and efforts must be made to obtain the best possible boundary conditions. In addition to these experimental surveys at the boundaries, a certain number of observations within the zone are needed for the calibration of the model, i.e. for the determination of certain numerical coefficients appearing in the parametrization

  20. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... established on June 15, 2004 (70 FR 67985). The control date would apply to persons who are contemplating..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the... future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagics...

  1. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... and other entities involved in addressing coastal management issues. Any coastal state,...

  2. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 13232) that would establish four separate security zones in the Chicago Harbor and Chicago River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  3. Siting energy related facilities in Louisiana's coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this booklet is to present siting procedures for energy facilities in the coastal area that meet state and federal requirements, incorporate concepts of impact assessment, which are useful to professionals in planning and design of facilities, and that are easily understood by people at the local decision making level. The focus is on siting procedures as a part of Louisiana's overall planning process for energy facilities. The state's coastal zone program will include further articulation of its policies for managing energy facilities and their impacts, identification of how interested and affected groups may be involved, means for consideration of the national interest, and identification of legal authorities and management techniques to implement state policies and procedures. The procedure outlined requires the expertise and participation of a broad spectrum of professionals, agency personnel, and public officials. Engineers, environmental scientists, attorneys, economists, planners, the public and elected officials will all be involved at various stages. There is, therefore, a need for coordination of activities over time at many levels of government, and across several geographical jurisdictions. The lead consultant or agency for development of a particular project will be responsible for coordination of the various aspects of facility siting and design throughout the procedure outlined herein. This booklet provides the overview necessary to insure that projects are considered on a comprehensive basis and meet environmental and coordination requirements presently in force. It is flexible enough that as needs and requirements change, new concerns may be easily integrated into the overall structure of facility, environment, and institutional areas that form the conceptual basis for any siting activity

  4. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  5. Factors and Processes of Coastal Zone Development in Nigeria: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the issue of coastal zone development has been of great concern especially in the face of global climate change. This has been motivated by the polluted state of the coastal zones which have given rise to high mortality of aquatic animals, Contaminations of human lathered, impairment of human health, Loss of biodiversity in breeding grounds, Vegetation destruction and other ecological hazards, Loss of portable and industrial water resources, Reduction in fishing activities, Poverty, rural underdevelopment and bitterness within the coastal communities. The coastal zone, which is land-sea interface is one of the most complex areas of management being the home to an increasing number of activities, rights and interests, its unplanned and uncontrolled development has the real potential to damage the social, economic and environmental interests of the residents within this area, each state and territory and each region or unit of local government. The paper identified three factors and processes that needs to be considered in the development of coastal zones. The findings of this review explains that in Nigeria, no policy is in place with relation to coastal zone development and management as a sector rather coastal zone issues are imbedded in the national policy on environment arising from this, there are no specific outline on the development of the coastal zone, the policy does not specify issues and concepts that houses the coastal zone, it does not capture the need for protecting the lives of the inhabitants of the coastal communities noting the nature of the terrain, it also does not take into cognizance the problems associated with the area and it is wide open without any particular organization saddled with the responsibility of coastal zone development. It also identified that due to the limitations in the policy of Nigeria on environment which did not capture specific items that relates to coastal zone development as well as

  6. ENSO components of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and their relation to North Atlantic interannual coastal sea level anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO are known to influence coastal water levels along the east coast of the United States. By identifying empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs which coherently contribute from the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI to the AMO index (AMOI, we characterize both the expression of ENSO in the unsmoothed AMOI, and coherent relationships between these indices and interannual sea level anomalies at six stations in the Gulf of Mexico and Western North Atlantic. Within the ENSO band (2–7 yr periods the total contribution of MEI to unsmoothed AMOI variability is 79%. Cross correlation suggests that the MEI leads expression of the ENSO signature in the AMOI by six months, consistent with the mechanism of an atmospheric bridge. Within the ENSO band, essentially all of the coupling between the unsmoothed AMOI and sea level anomalies is the result of ENSO expression in the AMOI. At longer periods we find decadal components of sea level anomalies linked to the AMOI at three southern stations (Key West, Pensacola, Charleston, but not at the northern stations (Baltimore, Boston, Portland, with values of coherence ranging from 20 to 50%. The coherence of MEI to coastal sea level anomalies has a different structure and is generally weaker than that of the ENSO expressed AMOI influence, suggesting distinct physical mechanisms are influencing sea level anomalies due to a direct ENSO teleconnection when compared to teleconnections based on ENSO expression in the AMOI. It is expected that applying this analysis to extremes of sea level anomalies will reveal additional influences.

  7. Construction and implementation of multisource spatial data management system of China's coastal zone and offshore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yunyan; WANG Jinggui; WANG Zuoyong; YANG Xiaomei

    2004-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand of national spatial database infrastructureconstruction and application, a concept modelof China' s coastal zone scientific data platform is established based on the information feature analysis of a compounddataset, consisting of remote sensing data and conventional data. Based on this concept model, the detailed logicaldatabase structure and the storage strategy of remote sensing data and their metadata using ArcSDE are designed. Thecomplicated technology of multisources data combination in this research is crucial to the future coastal zone andoffshore database construction and practical nmning, which will provide intelligent information analysis andtechnological service for coastal zone and offshore investigation, research, development and management.

  8. Interactions of Aquaculture and Waste Disposal in the Coastal Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xuemei; Hawkins S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper.Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture.Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  9. Study and mapping of natural hazards in the coastal zone of Murcia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the importance and implications of coastal hazards, very few studies have been focused on their analysis and mapping on a regional scale in a systematic and integrated way. This article presents a methodology based on the detailed analysis of natural hazards affecting coastal zones: floods, erosion, sea level rise, tsunamis, landslides, etc., and the study and mapping of the factors involved (coastal geomorphology, coastal processes, historical events, human activities). These factors and hazards are evaluated and integrated to prepare maps which include the assessments of each individual hazard and the overall ones. A mapping system in strips parallel to the coast is used, allowing the recognition and interpretation of the characteristics of the coast and the associated hazards. This methodology is applied to the coastal zone of Murcia, showing its usefulness for studying and mapping coastal hazards and its applicability to other regions. (Author)

  10. Some implications of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) legislation for the coast of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    framework known as the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification in 1991. This law was meant to control and minimise impacts on sensitive ecosystems. The CRZ Notification is significantly comprehensive and clear in most respects, and can be classified...

  11. Remote-sensing applications as utilized in Florida's coastal zone management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Land use maps were developed from photomaps obtained by remote sensing in order to develop a comprehensive state plan for the protection, development, and zoning of coastal regions. Only photographic remote sensors have been used in support of the coastal council's planning/management methodology. Standard photointerpretation and cartographic application procedures for map compilation were used in preparing base maps.

  12. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including management of...

  13. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ataur Rahman; Sowmen Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme events linked to hydro-meteorological processes viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion and erosion etc. These hazards give rise to extensive damage to property and loss of lives every year. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing widespread suffering. Cyclones and tornadoes in particular damage infrastructure...

  15. Land subsidence and sea level rise on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George H.

    1987-06-01

    Land subsidence due to decline in head in confined aquifers, related to municipal and industrial water pumpage, is widespread in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although not a major engineering problem, subsidence greatly complicates adjustment of precise leveling and distorts prediction of future sea-level rise. When preconsolidation stress equivalent to about 20 m of head decline is exceeded compaction of fine-grained sediments of the aquifer system begins, and continues until a new head equilibrium is attained between fine and coarse units. The ratio subsidence/head decline is quite consistent, ranging from 0.0064 in southeastern Virginia to 0.0018 at Dover, Delaware and Atlantic City, New Jersey. Higher values are related to the occurrence of montmorillonite as the predominant clay mineral present. Review of tide gauge records indicates that gauges not affected by land subsidence or other local secular effects have been sinking relative to sea level since 1940 at rates averaging about 2.5 mm/yr, of which 0.6 mm/yr is ascribed to glacio-isostatic adjustment to unloading of North America resulting from melting of late Pleistocene glaciers, and about 0.9 mm/yr is ascribed to steric sea-level rise related to ocean warming. The residual 1 mm/yr of relative sea-level rise is not well understood, but may be related to regional tectonic subsidence of the Atlantic coast.

  16. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  17. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ataur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme events linked to hydro-meteorological processes viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion and erosion etc. These hazards give rise to extensive damage to property and loss of lives every year. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing widespread suffering. Cyclones and tornadoes in particular damage infrastructures and crops every year affecting the economy of the country negatively. Some naturally adapted plants as well as landscapes usually reduce the speed of cyclones and tornadoes and thus, protect the coastal zones. However, human activities have destroyed many of the forests and landscapes. Sundarbans and Chokoria Sundarbans mangrove forests of Bangladesh are under a great threat of extinction due to illicit logging and agricultural expansion. At least 34 plant species of tropical forest are on the verge of extinction. Many animals e.g., cats, bears, porcupines, wild boars, pythons and anteaters are in the process of being wiped out from the coastal areas. Among the marine and coastal species, Red crabs, jelly-fish, sharks, and dolphins are also rare but these were the major species prior to 1980s. This study revealed that during the recent decades there has been massive plantations and construction of embankment and polderization but these and other measures have been found to be impractical and ineffective in reducing disasters in coastal areas. There is a need for integration of traditional coping practices and wisdoms with modern approaches. Available knowledge on some of these traditional practices has been documented for establishing a sustainable policy for management of coastal zones of Bangladesh. By combining traditional and scientific management of coastal ecosystem with mangroves and other plants following triple-tier mechanism and habitat, it is

  18. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  19. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Ocean City, Maryland. (b) Definition: For purposes of enforcement of this section, Captain of the Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  20. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  1. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean;...

  2. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...) Summit, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (77 FR 13232). Although the G8 Summit is now planned to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May...

  3. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... published in 77 FR 35903. We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway;...

  4. 77 FR 35903 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway;...

  5. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  6. 77 FR 44466 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On June 15, 2012 a Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) was published in 77 FR 35906... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak...

  7. 77 FR 35906 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak...

  8. 77 FR 40513 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Southport, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic... associated with the stunts that will be performed on the river during the filming of this motion picture.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM...

  9. Divergent responses of Atlantic coastal and oceanic Synechococcus to iron limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Post, Anton F; McIlvin, Matthew R; Cutter, Gregory A; John, Seth G; Saito, Mak A

    2015-08-11

    Marine Synechococcus are some of the most diverse and ubiquitous phytoplankton, and iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient that limits productivity in many parts of the ocean. To investigate how coastal and oceanic Atlantic Synechococcus strains acclimate to Fe availability, we compared the growth, photophysiology, and quantitative proteomics of two Synechococcus strains from different Fe regimes. Synechococcus strain WH8102, from a region in the southern Sargasso Sea that receives substantial dust deposition, showed impaired growth and photophysiology as Fe declined, yet used few acclimation responses. Coastal WH8020, from the dynamic, seasonally variable New England shelf, displayed a multitiered, hierarchical cascade of acclimation responses with different Fe thresholds. The multitiered response included changes in Fe acquisition, storage, and photosynthetic proteins, substitution of flavodoxin for ferredoxin, and modified photophysiology, all while maintaining remarkably stable growth rates over a range of Fe concentrations. Modulation of two distinct ferric uptake regulator (Fur) proteins that coincided with the multitiered proteome response was found, implying the coastal strain has different regulatory threshold responses to low Fe availability. Low nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability in the open ocean may favor the loss of Fe response genes when Fe availability is consistent over time, whereas these genes are retained in dynamic environments where Fe availability fluctuates and N and P are more abundant. PMID:26216989

  10. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  11. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  12. What shapes mesoscale wind anomalies in coastal upwelling zones?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Julien [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); CNRS/CERFACS, URA 1875, Toulouse (France); Hall, Alex; Qu, Xin; Kapnick, Sarah B. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Observational studies have shown that mesoscale variations in sea surface temperature may induce mesoscale variations in wind. In eastern subtropical upwelling regions such as the California coast, this mechanism could be of great importance for the mean state and variability of the climate system. In coastal regions orography also creates mesoscale variations in wind, and the orographic effect may extend more than 100 km offshore. The respective roles of SST/wind links and coastal orography in shaping mesoscale wind variations in nearshore regions is not clear. We address this question in the context of the California Upwelling System, using a high-resolution regional numerical modeling system coupling the WRF atmospheric model to the ROMS oceanic model, as well as additional uncoupled experiments to quantify and separate the effects of SST/wind links and coastal orography on mesoscale wind variations. After taking into account potential biases in the representation of the strength of SST/wind links by the model, our results suggest that the magnitude of mesoscale wind variations arising from the orographic effects is roughly twice that of wind variations associated with mesoscale SST anomalies. This indicates that even in this region where coastal orography is complex and leaves a strong imprint on coastal winds, the role of SST/winds links in shaping coastal circulation and climate cannot be neglected. (orig.)

  13. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Alewife/Blueback Herring

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Clemon W.; Neves, Richard J.; Pardue, Garland B.

    1983-01-01

    This profile covers life history and environmental requirements of both alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), since their distribution is overlapping and their morphology, ecological role, and environmental requirements are similar. The alewife is an anadromous species found in riverine, estuarine, and Atlantic coastal habitats, depending on life cycle stage, from Newfoundland (Winters et al. 1973) to Soutn Carolina (...

  14. Development of operational system for monitoring and studying groundwater discharge and seawater intrusion in coastal zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important challenges facing coastal zone managers today is how to identify, measure and monitor coastal submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and seawater intrusion (SWI) and how to evaluate its influence on cumulative impacts of coastal land use decisions over distance and time. Several geochemical and geophysical techniques can help to solve the problem and provide direct or indirect monitoring of saltwater in coastal aquifers. We report here the results of a three dimensional (3D) geoelectrical survey carried out near the harbour in Donnalucata along the southeastern coast of Sicily. A geoelectrical survey and geo-mapping of the spatial distribution of the saltwater-freshwater interface in the coastal zone was conducted during the IAEA- SGD experiment in Sicily (IAEA SGD CRP 2001-2006). The Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) allows a subsurface sounding up to 300 m deep. This study shows the presence of two layers with various types of salt mineralization of subsurface waters in the coastal zone of Donnalucata. Geoelectrical data were taken for two subsurface layers with different types of subsurface water: resistivity = 5.37 Ω. m and with mineralization of the groundwater between 2000 - 2500 mg/L (basic water-saturated horizon from 5 to 15 m deep), and a second zone (depths from 50 to 70 m deep) with resistivity = 3.32 Ω. m and mineralization of groundwater between 4500 - 5000 mg/L. Analysis of the geoelectrical data has shown that there is a zone of maximum discharge located in the channel between two piers of the harbour. This maximum discharge reflects the existence of a known specific local karstic groundwater phenomena off the coastal zone of Donnalucata, which was confirmed with the method presented here. The geoelectromagnetic data confirmed the observations made by seepage meters and in situ measurements of 222Rn concentration and salinity, which showed at some places high seepage rates of recirculated seawater. Although overuse and

  15. Created versus natural coastal islands: Atlantic waterbird populations, habitat choices, and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Allen, D.H.; Jenkins, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nesting colonial waterbirds along the Atlantic Coast of the United States face a number of landscape-level threats including human disturbance, mammalian predator expansion, and habitat alteration. There have been changes from 1977 to the mid-1990s in use of nesting habitats and populations of a number of seabird species of concern in the region, including black skimmers Rynchops niger Linnaeaus, common terns Sterna hirundo Linnaeaus, gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica Linnaeaus, least terns Sterna antillarum Lesson, royal terns Sterna maxima Boddaert, and sandwich terns Sterna sandvicensis Cabot. These species form colonies primarily on the following habitat types: large, sandy barrier or shoal islands, natural estuarine or bay islands (mostly marsh), man-made islands of dredged deposition materials (from navigation channels), and the mainland. Significant changes in the use of the dredged material islands have occurred for these species in New Jersey and North Carolina, but not in Virginia. Population declines and changes in bird habitat use appear to be at least partially associated with the conditions and management of the existing dredged material islands, coastal policy changes associated with creating new dredged material islands, and competing demands for sand for beach augmentation by coastal communities. As these and other coastal habitats become less suitable for colonial waterbirds, other manmade sites, such as bridges and buildings have become increasingly more important. In regions with intense recreational demands, coastal wildlife managers need to take a more aggressive role in managing natural and man-made habitats areas and as stakeholders in the decision-making process involving dredged materials and beach sand allocation.

  16. An innovative approach to determine economically optimal coastal setback lines for risk informed coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, R.; Jongejan, R.B.; Callaghan, D.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Current methods used to determine Coastal setback lines have several limitations. Furthermore, the historical practice of defining setback lines based on a single deterministic estimate is also proving inadequate with the emergence of risk management style coastal planning frameworks which require p

  17. Past permafrost on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H.; Demitroff, M.; Newell, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Sand-wedge casts, soil wedges and other non-diastrophic, post-depositional sedimentary structures suggest that Late-Pleistocene permafrost and deep seasonal frost on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain extended at least as far south as southern Delaware, the Eastern Shore and southern Maryland. Heterogeneous cold-climate slope deposits mantle lower valley-side slopes in central Maryland. A widespread pre-existing fragipan is congruent with the inferred palaeo-permafrost table. The high bulk density of the fragipan was probably enhanced by either thaw consolidation when icy permafrost degraded at the active layer-permafrost interface or by liquefaction and compaction when deep seasonal frost thawed. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sustainable Governance of Coastal Zone – Apathy or Commitment: Evidence from North Cyprus (TRNC)

    OpenAIRE

    Safavi, Sarvenaz

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Coastal zones are one of the most sensitive and fragile environments around the world. As increasing numbers of world population is gravitated toward the coasts, they have become prone to numerous problems including, population pressure, recreation, tourism, urbanization, accommodation/residential development, infrastructural pressure, oil drilling and sewers. As the coastal population increases, demand for a continuing supply of clean water, waste disposal, public health, food, pr...

  19. Feasibility study of the use of digital cameras for water quality monitoring in the coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Feighery, L.; White, M.(Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia); Bowers, D; Kelly, S; O Riain, G.; Bowyer, P

    2001-01-01

    The coastal zone is characteristically a turbid region of the sea with water clarity being an indicator of coastal dynamics. Turbidity affects water quality and aesthetic value. Previous investigations into water clarity in the Irish Sea have been conducted using imagery obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Good correlations were found between light reflectance and suspended sediment concentrations from this imagery. In order to investigate suspended sediment co...

  20. The coastal regulation zone of Goa: Oceanographic, environmental and societal perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    sand mining leases had to be cancelled2. Stay orders have been imposed in several cases. Hence, timely judicial intervention40 has, to some extent at least, preserved the sanctity of the coastal zones. The future Sustainable management of human... been constituted recently. The mandate of the authority is to take measures for protecting and improving the quality of coastal environment by making specific recommendations to littoral states. The authority is required to inquire into cases...

  1. Impact of ERTS-1 images on management of New Jersey's coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, E. B.; Yunghans, R. S.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The thrust of New Jersey's ERTS investigation is development of procedures for operational use of ERTS-1 data by the Department of Environmental Protection in the management of the State's coastal zone. Four major areas of concern were investigated: detection of land use changes in the coastal zone; monitoring of offshore waste disposal; siting of ocean outfalls; and allocation of funds for shore protection. ERTS imagery was not useful for shore protection purposes; it was of limited practical value in the evaluation of offshore waste disposal and ocean outfall siting. However, ERTS imagery shows great promise for operational detection of land use changes in the coastal zone. Some constraints for practical change detection have been identified.

  2. Intertidal zones as carbon dioxide sources to coastal oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    To understand the factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)) exchanges near land-sea boundary diurnal observations have been made twice on CO sub(2) in the air and water in a coastal region. The results suggest that CO sub(2) enrichment...

  3. Fish Scale Evidence for Rapid Post Glacial Colonization of an Atlantic Coastal Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. A.; Peteet, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    Fish scales from the sediment of Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey, USA, indicate that fishes were present in the pond within 400 years of the time of the first deposition of organic material, at approximately 12,600 yrs BP. The earliest of the scales, from a white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, appears in sediment dated 12,260 +/- 220 yrs BP. Presence of scales in sediment deposited before I 0,000 yrs BP indicates that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, sunfish, Lepomis sp., and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, also were early inhabitants of the pond. The timing of the arrival of each of these fishes suggests that they migrated out from Atlantic coastal refugia. A minnow scale, referred to Phoxininae, was also retrieved; it could not be matched to any cyprinid currently found in northeastern North America. The species present historically in this pond are from five families found currently in ponds throughout the Northeast and sugoest that the lentic palaeo-enviromnent was similar to present mid-elevation or high-latitude lentic systems.

  4. Cross-Border Clusters in Coastal Zones: Factors and Characteristics of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A.G.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the current issues of coastal zones’ development through the prism of the cluster approach. Coastal zone is viewed to be the area with high potential of cluster formation, including cross-border clustering. Based on the modeling of inter-organizational interactions within the cluster, the research identifies the main factors and conditions, as well as the specifics of the formation of cross-border clusters in coastal zones. The classification of cross-border clusters, based on territorial, market and other factors of their life is given. Cross-aquatorial cluster is identified to be an independent typological unit. Its characteristics and the conditions of formation and development are viewed within the framework of contemporary globalization trends. The main cross-border clusters, forming and existing in the regions of Russia and abroad are reviewed. The specificity of cross-aquatory clusters and the large number of species are predetermined by the conditions of the development of international cooperation in coastal zones, as well as the logistical specifics of port facilities as key points of contact economic counterparties belonging to different jurisdictions. The relevance of the identification and cultivation of observation of cross-border clusters in the sustainable development of coastal zones and the building of a multi-vector foreign economic interactions steadily increases, including for Russia.

  5. EIA modelling for coastal zone management. Part 2

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  6. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  7. Understanding the visitor – a prerequisite for coastal zone planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ankre, Rosemarie

    2007-01-01

    Planning for tourism and outdoor recreation in Swedish coastal areas could be improved with knowledge of visitors’ attitudes, experiences, activities and geographical dispersion. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the knowledge of visitors in planning for tourism and outdoor recreation. The Luleå archipelago in Northern Sweden is used as a case study. Supervisors: Professor Lars Emmelin, Blekinge Institute of Technology/ETOUR Dr Peter Fredman, ETOUR. The Department of Spatial Planning, ...

  8. Extents of the aquifer and confining units of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina aquifer system (pp1773_extents)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set pp1773_extents contains polygon datasets that represent the areal extents of each of the 16 hydrogeologic units of the of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of...

  9. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  10. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  11. Temperature data from thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida by from 01 January 2000 to 31 December 2003 (NODC Accession 0002518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using SBE 39 thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003 as part...

  12. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(c) stating that the proposed development and production...

  13. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, L.G.; Ziegler, A.D.; van Oevelen, D.; Cathalot, C.; Herman, P.; Wolters, J.W.; Bouma , T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological

  14. Habitat use of the coastal zone of the German North Sea by surface-feeding seabirds

    OpenAIRE

    Schwemmer, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to diving species, foraging skills of surface-feeding seabirds (such as gulls and terns) are limited, as this group is only able to exploit the uppermost zone of the water column. On the other hand, the coastal zone of the German North Sea coast provides a rich habitat mosaic for opportunistic species. A combination of analysis of distribution patterns, behaviour and diet choice revealed that species adjusted their distribution and behaviour to match the temporally varying food ab...

  15. Aquaculture as a use of the Coastal Zone: Environmental and Economic Aspects, Giant Clam Farming as a Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1989-01-01

    There is increasing competition for the use of the coastal zone as economic development proceeds. This has resulted in the recent release of a Green Paper by the Queensland Premier's Department on coastal zone management. Economic development and conservation appear rarely, if ever, to be completely compatible, and the use of the coastal area for the development of aquaculture can have some adverse environmental effects. In Australia, aquaculture is relatively underdeveloped and the McKinnon ...

  16. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahla A Morad; M H Masoud; S M Abdel Moghith

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  17. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  18. Remote sensing techniques for support of coastal zone resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Description of remote sensing studies carried out for the purpose of developing and/or demonstrating techniques which can be employed for land use inventory, marsh vegetation classification, and water characteristics surveys. Attention is given to results obtained with (1) photo interpretation techniques and procedures for the development of land use information from high-altitude aircraft and satellite imagery, (2) computer based pattern recognition techniques utilizing multispectral scanner data for marsh vegetation classification, and (3) infrared and microwave techniques for the monitoring and surveying of coastal water temperature and salinity characteristics.

  19. Shoreline changes and its impact on activities in the coastal zone in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Bendixen, M.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all coastal environments in Greenland are developed in high-relief areas, along fjords, or hard-rock cliffs. The sedimentary shores often fringe these areas and a large number of small deltas (areal delta surface temperatures, ice and snow. There is a seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and frozen rivers in winter. The coastal processes by waves and tides are thus often limited to summer and early fall. Nowadays, global climate changes induce many changes along the arctic coasts. Global sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses, while ice coverage of the coastal waters decreases and the open water periods in summer extend. However, it is still unknown if the extra input of fluvial sediments can cope with increased erosion rates at the shores. Besides, the rate of actual sea-level rise in West Greenland is probably less than the local rate of isostatic uplift, leading to local relative sea level fall.The focus in this presentation is on shoreline changes and its impact on two coastal environments in Greenland: the Young Sound area (fjord environment in North-East Greenland), and the southern shore of Disko Island (open sea embayment in West Greenland). These coastal environments exhibit a wide variety of coastal landforms like deltas, spits, barriers, etc. The coastal landforms were mapped and aerial images, orthogonal photos, and satellite images were used to digitize successive shorelines. The shoreline changes were estimated using the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) of the USGS. The spatial variability of accumulation and erosion patterns was detected and shows a surprising thread for ancient settlements and present-day activities in the coastal zone. The same patterns are finally discussed in terms of coastal risk assessment.

  20. Modeling Black Sea circulation with high resolution in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesnyi, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Agoshkov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a numerical model of Black Sea circulation based on primitive equations with improved spatial resolution in the coastal zone. The model equations are formulated in a two-pole orthogonal coordinate system with arbitrary locations of the poles and a vertical σ coordinate. Increased horizontal resolution is gained by displacing the pole into the vicinity of the separated subdomain. The problem is solved over a grid with a variable step. The northern coordinate pole is displaced to the vicinity of Gelendzhik; the grid step varies from 150 m in the coastal zone to 4.6 km in the main basin. We simulated the fields of currents, sea level, temperature, and salinity under the given atmospheric forcing in 2007. The model is capable of reproducing the large-scale Black Sea circulation and submesoscale variations in the coastal currents.

  1. Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner - Comparisons with surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.; Hovis, W. A.; Mueller, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms are developed for removing aerosol effects in visual data from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The corrected imagery reveals eddy-like ocean circulation patterns. Pigment concentrations from CZCS are compared with surface determinations. CZCS imagery estimates pigment concentration to within 0.5 log C, where C is the sum of the concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigments a

  2. An analysis of coastal zone management in England and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal zone is an area of crucial economic and ecological significance, which has increasingly been recognised in land-use planning. Within the coastal zone, integrating land-use planning and environmental management is recognised as one way to minimise trade-offs of interest between economic development and environmental objectives. Many governments are currently discussing the potential role of integrated coastal zone management (CZM) within their planning systems, while some international organisations promote CZM as a means to counter the loss of coastal resources due to human occupation of the coast. This thesis examines how the coastal zone in the United Kingdom is perceived and how effectively CZM is being promoted as a planning model to secure sustainable coastal development through the integration of planning policies. Policy integration is not a quixotic quest, but a model suggesting appropriate methods to manage and reduce conflicts. Any planning model can be traceable to varying assumptions and propositions from political thought, which in turn arises from different political practices. Each CZM plan thus reflects the planning and policy culture of its national system. In order to provide a context within which to assess the UK approach, the development of CZM in the Netherlands is also examined. Both national planning systems have comprehensive statutory land-use planning systems, while marine issues are controlled sectorally by central government. Neither administration has a national CZM policy framework. This thesis therefore includes a comparison of two management plans: the Wash Estuary Management Plan and Integraal Beleidsplan Voordelta. By comparing the organisational structures, policy development and implementation, the case studies provide an insight into the national CZM planning strategy currently being followed in the UK. Finally, the thesis concludes by identifying ways in which CZM might be further improved in the UK and also

  3. The application of environmental economics in marine functional zoning and coastal city conceptual planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are a lot of functions of marine resources.The various and competing conflicts between different users and different sectors in th euse of marine resources will cause the disorderly development of marine resources,and even destroy the marine ecosystem.Marine functional zoning is an effective tool to solve the conflicts.However,there are some shortcomings in the current understanding on marine functional zoning and its practice.In this paper,a case study on the resource-oriented marine functional zoning of Xiangshan Port is introduced.By the prmeiples of resource-oriented and public participation,Xiangshan Pon is divided into seven zones.and the main function of the whole port and seven zones are determined by the environmental economics analysis.A case study of Xiamen is also introduced for how to integrate marine functional zoning into a coastal city conceptual planning.Under the conservation prmciple,resources-oriented principle and so on,the advantages and disadvantages of natural ecosystem,social ecosystem and econnomic ecosystem are holistically analyzed,the urban orientation of Xiamen is determined as a regional international tourism ciif,and the whole city is divided into five function zones according to its leading industry-tourism.Resource-oriented marine functional zoning has a long-term guidance for sustainable use of marine resources and development strategy of a coastal city.And environmental economics analysis is an effective tool for resource-orientation.

  4. Distribution of gamma emitter radionuclides in coastal sediments near the Venezuelan Atlantic front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aspect of interest in studies about river deltas is the origin or source of marine sediments. Natural erosion and human activities can condition particular radionuclide redistribution and accumulation in marine sediments when radioactive elements are transported fundamentally from earth to sea through rivers and atmosphere. The differentiated accumulation of radioactive elements in marine sediments can be the result of its transport from near areas. In this work the concentration of natural and anthropogenic radioactive elements in superficial samples of marine sediments are presented. The samples were collected near the Venezuelan Atlantic Front coast, where the influence of the Orinoco and Amazons rivers should be reflected due to the Northeast direction of marine currents (see figure). Surface samples (from depth up to 20 cm) of sediments from 50 stations distributed in the study area (along five transepts perpendicular to the coast), were recollected and measured by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a HpGe detector of approximately 2 KeV resolution for the 1,33 MeV 60Co peak and efficiency higher than 20% (supplied under the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project VEN-9-005). In order to determine correlations between the different radionuclide concentrations and carry out inferences on the causes of founded distributions, different statistical procedures were applied. This coastal sediment characterization of the Venezuelan Atlantic Front allowed us to obtain a map of radionuclide concentrations in this area, which will serve as reference for future investigations. IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services supplied reference sample for this study

  5. Faulting in Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments at the Savannah River Site, SC: Interpretations from seismic reflection time maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-structure, isochron, and reflection amplitude maps were constructed from 270 km of reprocessed seismic reflection data recorded at the Savannah river Site (SRS), South Carolina. These maps indicate the presence of three major basement blocks bounded by northeast trending faults that penetrate upward from basement into the Atlantic coastal Plain sediments. Most of these faults appear to be Paleozoic and Mesozoic structures reactivated in compression. The northernmost fault block is bounded on the southeast by the Upper Tree Runs fault (UTRF), a high-angle southeast dipping reverse fault, which appears to be a reactivated splay from a major decollement (Augusta fault?) at 5 km depth. The Pen Branch fault (PBF) is the main throughgoing fault in a 3 km wide, 25 km long, fault zone consisting of subparallel fault segments that are commonly down-to-the-northwest north of PBF and down-to-the-southeast south of PBF. The offset of time horizons by PBF increases to the northeast and the shallowest resolvable time horizons appear to be deformed across its length. The Steel Creek fault, an antithetic fault to PBF, controls the drainage of Pen Branch, a tributary stream to the Savannah River. The third fault block is bounded by the Pen Branch fault on the northwest. The southeast boundary of this southernmost block is unknown, but could be defined by the Martin fault, a down-to-the-southeast fault located south of SRS that appears to be a major structure. Interpretation of isochron maps and analysis of trend surfaces fitted to reflection time horizons suggest that faulting was ongoing through the Late Cretaceous and was accompanied by tilting of the fault blocks, possibly associated with the transfer of strain from the UTRF to the PBF

  6. 3-Dimentional Mapping Coastal Zone using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imageries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metropolitan coastal zone mapping is critical for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal sustainable development and planning. The results of geometric processing of a Shanghai coastal zone from 0.7-m-resolution QuickBird Geo stereo images are presented firstly. The geo-positioning accuracy of ground point determination with vendor-provided rigorous physical model (RPM) parameters is evaluated and systematic errors are found when compared with ground control points surveyed by GPS real-time kinematic (GPS-RTK) with 5cm accuracy. A bias-compensation process in image space that applies a RPM bundle adjustment to the RPM-calculated 3D ground points to correct the systematic errors is used to improve the geo-positioning accuracy. And then, a area-based matching (ABM) method is used to generated the densely corresponding points of left and right QuickBird images. With the densely matching points, the 3-dimentinal coordinates of ground points can be calculated by using the refined geometric relationship between image and ground points. At last step, digital surface model (DSM) can be achieved automatically using interpolation method. Accuracies of the DSM as assessed from independent checkpoints (ICPs) are approximately 1.2 m in height

  7. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  8. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  9. Quantizing and analyzing the feature information of coastal zone based on high-resolution remote sensing image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaomei; LAN Rongqin; LUO Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of realization of beach information and its differentiating of high-resolution remote sensing image on coastal zone, extracting objects are carried through RS multi-scale diagnostic analysis, and fast information extraction methods and key technologies are put forward . Meanwhile image segmentation methods are set forth for objects of coastal zone. And through the application of Otsu2D to the segmentation of water area and dock and the applying of Gabor filter to the separation and extraction of construction, some typical applications of high-resolution RS image are presented in the field of coastal zone surface objects' recognition. Quantizing high-resolution RS information on the coastal zone proved to be of great scientific and practical significance for coastal development and management.

  10. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: The coastal zone in an Era of globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Human pressure has changed the physical and ecological characteristics of coastal zones for centuries. 'Boom and bust' development of coastal zones is a historically recurrent problem. For nearly 40 years, there have been concerted efforts to improve management of the diverse human pressures that have led to deterioration of coastal environments. Since 1992, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been a dominant policy paradigm for bringing together relevant sectors of society to overcome conflicts of resource use and to pursue sustainable development. There is growing evidence that, with some exceptions, these efforts have not reversed environmental degradation. A major reason for this is that the economic and social changes leading to this decline operate increasingly at temporal and spatial scales greater than the scope of management regimes established through ICZM. Alternative approaches such as Adaptive Management are needed to deal with this mismatch of scales. Cross-scale tools including information technology and social networking may also provide vehicles for innovation. As part of a broader range of tools, ICZM helps respond to locally driven problems and adapt to global change. Effective future management must work across scales and benefit from the 'long view' of how coupled social and ecological systems operate.

  11. Phosphorus 32 cycling in the root-litter mat of Pernambuco atlantic coastal forest, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a compartmental model to describe P cycling in the root-litter mat and surface mineral soil of an Atlantic coastal forest. Considerable amounts of P accumulate in this root-litter mat, relative to available P in the underlying mineral soil. We studied the mechanisms responsible for P retention five days after addition of sup(32)P on the surface of the 02 horizon. Total sup(31)P and sup(32)P were determined in leaves, humus, mineral soil and roots. In addition, we determined sup(31)P and sup(32)P in the solution and microbial biomass of the humus material. Fluxes of sup(31)P were obtained from published data and from experimental results of sup(32)P distribution among compartments. The main fluxes taking P out from the soils solution were uptake by the microbial biomass and sorption by the humus (12.9 e 5.2 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1), respectively), while the mean flux into the roots was 3.1 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1). The main compartment responsible for P accumulation was the humus+fragments, which had the highest P content (61% of total P in the forest floor) and the longest turnover time (15.5 months). (author)

  12. The Coastal Zone of Islands: Comparative Reflections from the North and South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Farran

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islanders tend to develop rules and methods for regulating the use of the marine environment and its accessible resources. Where islands have been subject to the influence or domination of external political forces, and such resources have become the subject of increased demand, then differences of approach, of understanding and of patterns of use can come into conflict. This is especially so where there is increased emphasis on coastal development, pressures to privatize and register coastal land and to regulate the commercial exploitation of marine resources. This article considers the Shetland & Orkney Islands from the north and Fiji, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands from the south, drawing out similarities and differences of legal approaches to key issues relevant to the foreshore and the coastal zone.

  13. Temperature, salinity, and other measurements from bottle casts from the GEORGY USHAKOV and the ERNEST KRENKEL in the North Atlantic and Coastal N Atlantic by the Ukrainian Scientific Centre of the Ecology of Sea from 08 July 1972 to 25 December 1972 (NODC Accession 0000487)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle and other data were collected from the North Atlantic and Coastal North Atlantic from the GEORGY USHAKOV and ERNEST KRENKEL from 08 July 1972 to 25 December...

  14. Groundwater-ocean interaction and its effects on coastal ecological processes - are there groundwater-dependant ecosystems in the coastal zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, T. C.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrological land-ocean connectivity is an important driver of coastal ecosystems. Rivers are obvious and visible pathways for terrestrial runoff. The critical role of surface water discharge from rivers to coastal ecosystems has been well documented. Hidden from view, 'downstream' effects of coastal (supra-tidal, intertidal and submarine) groundwater discharge are far less well understood. Whilst hydrological and geochemical processes associated with coastal groundwater discharge have received an increasing amount of scientific attention over the past decade or so, the effects of groundwater flow on productivity, composition, diversity and functioning of coastal ecosystems along the world's shorelines have received little attention to date. Coastal groundwater discharge includes both terrestrial (fresh) groundwater fluxes and the recirculation of seawater through sediments, analogous to hyporheic flow in rivers. I will present an overview over relevant coastal hydrological processes, and will illustrate their ecological effects on examples from diverse tropical coastal ecosystems, e.g. (1) perennial fresh groundwater discharge from coastal sand dune systems permitting growth of freshwater-dependent vegetation in the intertidal zone of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), (2) recirculation of seawater through mangrove forest floors directly affecting tree health and providing a pathway for carbon export from these ecosystems, (3) the local hydrology of groundwater-fed coastal inlets on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula affecting the movement behaviour of and habitat use by the queen conch Strombus gigas, an economically important species in the Caribbean region. These examples for hydrological-ecological coupling in the coastal zone invite the question if we should not consider these coastal ecosystems to be groundwater-dependent, in analogy to groundwater-dependency in freshwater aquatic systems.

  15. Mesoscale eddies in the coastal upwelling region of the tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Florian; Brandt, Peter; Karstensen, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The mesoscale variability in the tropical northeast Atlantic (between 12°N - 22°N and 15°W - 26°W) is examined and characterised. We applied two automated methods for eddy identification to 16 years of satellite altimetry measurements: the geometrical method, based on closed streamlines around eddy cores, and the Okubo-Weiß method, based on the relationship between vorticity and the strain tensors. In general, both methods agree well. On average about 125 (±11) eddies per year were identified, separating in 52% cyclones and 48% anticylones. We found an average radius of about 50 (±20) km, a westward propagation speed of about 2.8 (±1.2) km/d and an average lifetime of about 40 days. Several eddies (more anticylones than cyclones) were detectable up to 300 days. Three main eddy formation regions in the coastal upwelling region that can be associated with headlands of the coast are detectable. This suggests that dynamic instability of the along-shore current is an important generation mechanism. We identified that cyclones are produced predominantly during boreal winter, especially in January, whereas anticyclones are generated predominantly during boreal summer. From the three eddy generation areas, almost all eddies propagate westward along distinct corridors with a small polarity depending meridional deflection (anticyclones - equatorward, cyclones - poleward). Considering occupied area and number of eddies, about 17% of the tropical northeast Atlantic region under investigation was occupied by eddies in every moment in time. About 30 (±5) eddies per year originate from the upwelling region off Senegal and Mauretania. Considering in-situ temperature and salinity observations (Argo, ship, mooring data) within and outside of eddies detected by the algorithms the mean vertical structure of the mesoscale eddies were determined. From together 2191 Profiles, 106 (144) profiles were within anticyclonic (cyclonic) mesoscale eddies. On average the maximum

  16. Coastline Zones Identification and 3D Coastal Mapping Using UAV Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papakonstantinou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and coastal zones for scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. The availability of very high-resolution digital surface models (DSMs and orthophoto maps is of increasing interest to all scientists, especially those monitoring small variations in the earth’s surface, such as coastline morphology. In this article, we present a methodology to acquire and process high resolution data for coastal zones acquired by a vertical take off and landing (VTOL unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV attached to a small commercial camera. The proposed methodology integrated computer vision algorithms for 3D representation with image processing techniques for analysis. The computer vision algorithms used the structure from motion (SfM approach while the image processing techniques used the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA with fuzzy classification. The SfM pipeline was used to construct the DSMs and orthophotos with a measurement precision in the order of centimeters. Consequently, GEOBIA was used to create objects by grouping pixels that had the same spectral characteristics together and extracting statistical features from them. The objects produced were classified by fuzzy classification using the statistical features as input. The classification output classes included beach composition (sand, rubble, and rocks and sub-surface classes (seagrass, sand, algae, and rocks. The methodology was applied to two case studies of coastal areas with different compositions: a sandy beach with a large face and a rubble beach with a small face. Both are threatened by beach erosion and have been degraded by the action of sea storms. Results show that the coastline, which is the low limit of the swash zone, was detected successfully by both the 3D representations and the image classifications. Furthermore, several traces representing previous sea states were

  17. A Dynamic GIS as an Efficient Tool for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Gourmelon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses both the role of geographical information in participatory research of coastal zones, and its potential to bridge the gap between research and coastal zone management. Over a one year period, heterogeneous data (spatial, temporal, qualitative and quantitative were obtained which included the process of interviews, storing in a spatio-temporal database. The GIS (Geographic Information System produced temporal snapshots of daily human activity patterns allowing it to map, identify and quantify potential space-time conflicts between activities. It was furthermore used to facilitate the exchange of ideas and knowledge at various levels: by mapping, simulation, GIS analysis and data collection. Results indicated that both captured data and the participatory workshop added real value to management and therefore it was deemed well managed by stakeholders. To incorporate a dynamic GIS would enhance pro-active integrated management by opening the path for better discussions whilst permitting management simulated scenarios.

  18. Classifying risk zones by the impacts of oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2013-05-15

    Risk zones that could be subject to the impacts of oil spills were identified at a national scale across the 23 coastal provinces of Thailand based on the average percentage risk of critical variables, including frequency of oil spill incidents, number of ports, number of local boats, number of foreign boats, and presence of important resources (i.e., protection area, conservation area, marine park, mangrove, aquaculture, coral reef, seagrass, seagull, seabird, sea turtle, dugong, dolphin, whale, guitar fish, and shark). Risks at the local scale were determined based on the frequency of simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources. Four zones with varied risk magnitudes (low, moderate, high, and very high) were mapped to guide the preparation of effective plans to minimize oil spill incidents and impacts in coastal waters. Risk maps with sufficient information could be used to improve regulations related to shipping and vessel navigation in local and regional seas. PMID:23518446

  19. Aragonite saturation state dynamics in a coastal upwelling zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine E.; Degrandpre, Michael D.; Hales, Burke

    2013-06-01

    upwelling zones may be at enhanced risk from ocean acidification as upwelling brings low aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) waters to the surface that are further suppressed by anthropogenic CO2. ΩAr was calculated with pH, pCO2, and salinity-derived alkalinity time series data from autonomous pH and pCO2 instruments moored on the Oregon shelf and shelf break during different seasons from 2007 to 2011. Surface ΩAr values ranged between 0.66 ± 0.04 and 3.9 ± 0.04 compared to an estimated pre-industrial range of 1.0 ± 0.1 to 4.7 ± 0.1. Upwelling of high-CO2 water and subsequent removal of CO2 by phytoplankton imparts a dynamic range to ΩAr from ~1.0 to ~4.0 between spring and autumn. Freshwater input also suppresses saturation states during the spring. Winter ΩAr is less variable than during other seasons and is controlled primarily by mixing of the water column.

  20. Radioactive monitoring at Jakarta Bay and Muria Coastal Zone in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary objectives of radioactive monitoring at coastal environmental in Indonesia are covering three aspects. First aspect is assessment of adequacy of controls on the release of radioactive material. Second aspect is assessment of actual potential exposures of man to radiation or to radioactive materials present in environmental matrices in normal situation. Third aspect is assessment of magnitude and extent of possible radiation hazards to public in the even of an emergency for the purpose taking appropriate counter measures. The radioactive monitoring has been implementing at Jakarta Coastal and Muria Peninculla. The goal of monitoring activities at Jakarta bay is ultimately to provide some information of impact operational nuclear facilities and application nuclear techniques in industries. In other hand at Muria Peninculla are to provide the base line data before operational of fossil fuel power plant. The monitoring was covering for six stations at coastal and offshore zone. Three kind of samples was taking from each station are sediment, water and local biotas. Dose rate and Gross alpha/beta analysis were taken to find early information aba out radioactivity conditions. Gamma analysis were taken to to find radioactive contamination. The result of monitoring are shown that condition of coastal and offshore zone at Jakarta bay and Muria peninculla was lower than Indonesia regulation standard. (author)

  1. Integrated coastal zone management plan for Udupi Coast using RS, GIS and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Vinay, S. A.; Dinakar, S. M.; Jagadeesha, Pai. B.; Mahaganesha, K.; Natesan, Usha

    2007-10-01

    Coastal areas are under great pressure due to increase in human population and industrialization/commercialization and hence these areas are vulnerable to environmental degradation, resource reduction and user conflicts. In the present study an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Udupi Coast in Karnataka, along West Coast of India. The various data products used in the present study includes IRS-1C LISS-III + PAN and IRS-P6 LISS III remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Charts and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets, in addition to ground truth data. Thematic maps such as land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map, critical erosion area map were prepared. A Coastal Vulnerability Index has also been calculated for the study area to know the resistance of study area to sea level rise and is demarcated into four categories; Very high, High, Moderate and Low vulnerability, and a vulnerability map has been prepared. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; about 50% study area is prone to erosion, river mouths along study area show shifting tendency towards south, and the beaches along the Udupi Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V.B.6.0 using results of various data analysis.

  2. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  3. Ecomorphological patterns of the fishes inhabiting the tide pools of the Amazonian Coastal Zone, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Eleres Soares; Tiago Octavio Begot Ruffeil; Luciano Fogaça de Assis Montag

    2013-01-01

    The present study was based on the identification of the ecomorphological patterns that characterize the fish species found in tide pools in the Amazonian Coastal Zone (ACZ) in the Pará State, Brazil. Representatives of 19 species were collected during two field campaigns in 2011. The dominance, residence status, and trophic guild of each species were established, and morphometric data were obtained for up to 10 specimens of each species. A total of 23 ecomorphological attributes related to l...

  4. Numerical modeling of dispersion of pollutant in the coastal zone of the Western Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years in NIMH numerical models were used for forecasting the sea state in the Western Black Sea. The recent developments in this field include a numerical model for computation the dispersion of pollutants in the coastal zone first of all the adaptation of the operational oil-spill model of Meteo-France for the hydrological conditions of the Black Sea and under verification is numerical model for transportation of radionuclides as specific conservative tracers

  5. Measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity in the California coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Hegg, D.A.; Covert, D. S.; H. H. Jonsson

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft-based measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity, both in the form of size-resolved, diameter growth factors and in the dependence of particle light scattering on relative humidity, are presented for the marine boundary layer of the southern California coastal zone. The chemical composition of the aerosol is collated with the hygroscopicity data, both to examine the mechanism for the increase in aerosol hygroscopicity with altitude and as input for receptor type modeling. The data sugges...

  6. 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in the Baltic Sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the 137Cs and 90Sr concentration measurements in the Baltic Sea coastal zone (near the settlement of Juodkrante) are presented. The concentration variation range is from 0.3 to 1.2 nCi/m3. The maximum 137Cs concentration is observed in autumn and the minimum one - in summer. 137Cs/90Sr concentration ratio in summer and autumn of 1977 was over 1, and that of April 1976 was less than 0.5

  7. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  8. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  9. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  10. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, P.; Falkowska, L.; Urba, A.

    2009-10-01

    In the following periods: November 2005-June 2006 and October 2007-January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg) and Hg(II) were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic - the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L-1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants). During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m-2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  11. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siudek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following periods: November 2005–June 2006 and October 2007–January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg and Hg(II were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic – the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L−1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants. During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m−2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  12. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  13. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  14. Shapefile for Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, 2009 (CZMP_counties_2009.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shapefile for 492 Coastal Zone Management Program (CZMP) counties and county equivalents, 2009, extracted from the U.S. Census Bureau's MAF/TIGER database of U.S....

  15. Interannual Variability in Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopic Signatures of Size-Fractionated POM from the South Florida Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S. L.; Anderson, W. T.; Jochem, F. J.; Fourqurean, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Environmental conditions in South Florida coastal waters have been of local and national concern over the past 15 years. Attention has focused on the ecosystem impacts of salinity increases, seagrass die-off, increased algal bloom frequency, waste water influence, groundwater discharge, and exchange between Florida Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Changes in water quality and productivity levels may be reflected in the isotopic signatures of coastal zone primary producers. Recent work with seagrasses in South Florida has demonstrated high seasonal and spatial variability in C and N isotopic signatures and decoupling between the two isotopic systems as they vary. To better understand the sources of seasonal and spatial fluctuation, size fractionated POM (particulate organic matter) samples have been collected on a quarterly basis since Sept. 2002. Fractions collected include >150μ m, 50-150μ m, and 0.1-50μ m using Nitex mesh sieves and a portable pump system deployed from a small boat at 10 sites around the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. It was hypothesized that planktonic groups respond more quickly to changes in water quality then seagrasses, and thus variations may be more clearly attributed to environmental parameters. Significant spatial and temporal variability is evident both within site between size fractions and between sites. Seasonal oscillations of up to 4‰ were observed in N isotopic values and 6‰ in C isotopic values of the 50-150μ m size fraction, which is dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates. δ 13C values are depleted in the late winter/early spring sampling period possibly reflecting decreased productivity stress on available C pools. 13C depletion is generally coincident with δ 15N enrichment in the late winter/early spring, possibly demonstrating changes in DIN pools (NO3- and NH4+ concentrations) or changes in decomposition or denitrification rates. Broad groupings appear to separate Atlantic coral reef sites

  16. Tsunami potential assessment based on rupture zones, focal mechanisms and repeat times of strong earthquakes in the major Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agalos, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Kijko, Andrzej; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Smit, Ansie; Triantafyllou, Ioanna

    2016-04-01

    In the major Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone, extended from Azores islands in the west to the easternmost Mediterranean Sea in the east, including the Marmara and Black Seas, a number of 22 tsunamigenic zones have been determined from historical and instrumental tsunami documentation. Although some tsunamis were produced by volcanic activity or landslides, the majority of them was generated by strong earthquakes. Since the generation of seismic tsunamis depends on several factors, like the earthquake size, focal depth and focal mechanism, the study of such parameters is of particular importance for the assessment of the potential for the generation of future tsunamis. However, one may not rule out the possibility for tsunami generation in areas outside of the 22 zones determined so far. For the Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone we have compiled a catalogue of strong, potentially tsunamigenic (focal depth less than 100 km) historical earthquakes from various data bases and other sources. The lateral areas of rupture zones of these earthquakes were determined. Rupture zone is the area where the strain after the earthquake has dropped substantially with respect the strain before the earthquake. Aftershock areas were assumed to determine areas of rupture zones for instrumental earthquakes. For historical earthquakes macroseismic criteria were used such as spots of higher-degree seismic intensity and of important ground failures. For the period of instrumental seismicity, focal mechanism solutions from CMT, EMMA and other data bases were selected for strong earthquakes. From the geographical distribution of seismic rupture zones and the corresponding focal mechanisms in the entire Atlantic-Mediterranean seismic fracture zone we determined potentially tsunamigenic zones regardless they are known to have produced seismic tsunamis in the past or not. An attempt has been made to calculate in each one of such zones the repeat times of strong

  17. Short-term Holocene climate variability in coastal mid-Norway - the terrestrial response to the North Atlantic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, M.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Rubensdotter, L.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal areas are known to be susceptible to maritime climate variations, especially where prevailing wind directions provide humidity and latent heat to the land masses. Temperature reconstructions from the eastern North Atlantic, and from northern and western Norway show simultaneous changes on millennial to centennial scales during the Holocene. However also latitudinal climatic differences occur during the Holocene. These indicate a more complex system along the Norwegian coast with regional temperature variations depending on more than only North Atlantic's climate. Climate sensitive archives such as lake sediments in coastal mid-Norway provide the opportunity to study the influence of and the terrestrial response to climate variations mediated by the North Atlantic and allow the extension of our knowledge about regional peculiarities along the Norwegian coast. Lake Blomstertjønna, a small lake outside Trondheim at 427 m a.s.l., enables a detailed study of climatic and environmental variations during the Holocene. The entire succession is 590 cm long and is composed of minerogenic sediments at the bottom and dominating biogenic sediments in the upper 495 cm. Radiocarbon dating of macrofossils aided by tephra identification reveal a lake history that started after deglaciation at about 12 kyr BP and shifted to a biogenic productive lake with overall uniform sedimentation rates at about 11 kyr BP. Biogeochemical proxies like total organic carbon and total sulphur and geophysical parameters show a weak, i.e. more even response to climatic variations in the gyttja-rich section and indicate that temperature was not a limiting factor for the lake productivity. In contrast, geochemical elemental ratios from XRF scanning reveal a pronounced long- and short-term variability of elemental composition. The long-term trend of selected elemental ratios reflects the general Holocene temperature evolution with higher values during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and a

  18. Mid-cretaceous crustal shortening: evidence from a regional-scale ductile shear zone in the Coastal Range of central Chile (32° S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Gloria

    2004-11-01

    In the Coastal Range of central Chile, widespread Early Cretaceous volcanism associated with extensional volcanosedimetary intra- or back-arc basins and subsequent basin closures, uplift, and increased erosion/exhumation rates during the mid-Cretaceous suggests a major change from a mainly extensional tectonic regime to a relatively contractional regime and resultant crustal shortening. The author documents the contractional Silla del Gobernador shear zone (SGSZ), which developed at the western boundary of the Coastal Range in central Chile (32° S). This structure corresponds to a high-strain ductile and cataclastic shear zone that developed under low-grade (greenschist facies) metamorphic and fluid-present conditions, which indicates EW-NWW crustal shortening in a compressional (transpressional) regime. UVLAMP 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of neoformed white mica during mylonitic deformation suggests a maximum age for the reverse ductile shearing of 109±11 Ma. An inverse isochron age of 97.8±1.5 Ma from biotite samples of a mylonitized granodiorite suggests the minimum age of deformation. These ages constrain the ductile deformation age to approximately 100 Ma (mid-Cretaceous), coeval with high exhumation/erosion rates that appear to represent uplift of the Coastal Range. The uplift and crustal shortening of the Coastal Range of central Chile has been associated with high spreading rates from the SE Pacific and southern Atlantic convergence during a change from an extensional regime developed during the Early Cretaceous to a more compressional regime that started during the mid-Cretaceous. In this sense, the SGSZ records this tectonic regime change.

  19. Dependence of waterbirds and shorebirds on shallow-water habitats in the Mid-Atlantic coastal region: An ecological profile and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Waterbirds (waterfowl, colonially nesting wading and seabirds, ospreys [Pandion haliaetus], and bald eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) and shorebirds (sandpipers, plovers, and relatives) may constitute a large fraction of the top level carnivore trophic component in many shallow-water areas of the mid-Atlantic region. The large biomass of many species (>1 kg body mass for the two raptors and some waterfowl) and enormous populations (e.g., >1 million shorebirds in late May in parts of Delaware Bay) reveal the importance of waterbirds as consumers and as linkages in nutrient flux in many shallow-water habitats. Salt and brackish marsh shallow-water habitats, including marsh pannes and tidal pools and creeks as well as constructed impoundments, are used intensively during most months of the year; in fall and winter, mostly by dabbling ducks, in spring and summer by migrant shorebirds and breeding colonial wading birds and seabirds. In adjacent estuaries, the intertidal flats and littoral zones of shallow embayments are heavily used by shorebirds, raptors, and colonial waterbirds in the May to September periods, with use by duck and geese heaviest from October to March. With the regional degradation of estuarine habitats and population declines of many species of waterbirds in the past 20 yr, some management recommendations relevant to shallow waters include: better protection, enhancement, and creation of small bay islands (small and isolated to preclude most mammalian predators) for nesting and brooding birds, especially colonial species; establishment of sanctuaries from human disturbance (e.g., boating, hunting) both in open water (waterfowl) and on land, better allocation of sandy dredged materials to augment islands or stabilize eroding islands; improvement in water management of existing impoundments to ensure good feeding, resting, and nesting opportunities for all the waterbirds, support for policies to preclude point and nonpoint source runoff of chemicals

  20. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  1. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Abilhoa; Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule; Hugo Bornatowski; Fagner Breda de Lara; Glauco Ubiratan Kohler; Luciana Festti; Wanessa Priscila David do Carmo; Igor Kintopp Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae), aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellida...

  2. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  3. Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from 1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2ω6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time point

  4. Seasonal and long-term changes in pH in the Dutch coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Provoost

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that biogeochemical changes can mask atmospheric CO2-induced pH decreases. Data collected by the Dutch monitoring authorities in different coastal systems (North Sea, Wadden Sea, Ems-Dollard, Eastern Scheldt and Scheldt estuary since 1975 provide an excellent opportunity to test whether this is the case in the Dutch coastal zone. The time-series were analysed using Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA which resulted in the identification of system-dependent patterns on both seasonal and intra-annual time scales. The observed rates of pH change greatly exceed those expected from enhanced CO2 uptake, thus suggesting that other biogeochemical processes, possibly related to changes in nutrient loading, can play a dominant role in ocean acidification.

  5. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  6. Larval fish distribution in shallow coastal waters off North Western Iberia (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Bacelar-Nicolau, Leonor; Resende, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Mário Jorge

    2006-09-01

    Monthly sampling for ichthyoplankton was conducted at three stations very near to the coast (near to shore shallow stations before the surf zone in direction to the shoreline) of Atlantic northwestern Portugal within contrasting localities: rocky shore, in front of a sandy beach receiving an estuary and a fishing port with heavy anthropogenic impact. Sampling was conducted from August 2002 to October 2003, always at full moon, at low tide and high tide in daylight hours, at the water column using a 48 cm diameter plankton net with 335 μm mesh. Analysis of the physico-chemical parameters pointed out the spatial (horizontal) homogeneity of the sampling area. Fish larvae from 41 taxa belonging to 17 families were identified; Blenniidae, Labridae, Ammodytidae, Clupeidae, Gobiidae, Soleidae and Gobiesocidae were the most representative during the study period. Parablennius gattorugine, Ammodytes tobianus, Symphodus melops, Sardina pilchardus, Lipophrys pholis and Coryphoblennius galerita were the most representative species (percentage contribution to total abundance). Peak abundance of fish eggs occurred during May, June and August 2003 and fish larvae occurred during May and July 2003 and August 2002 and 2003; there was a pronounced winter/early spring (March 2003) peak in larval abundance dominated by the small sandeel A. tobianus. This study identifies the occurrence of a conspicuous assemblage of larval fishes at very nearshore shallow environments of a variety of species with different adult habitats: the fish larvae assemblage was dominated by intertidal species. The present study has shown that temporal and spatial variations in the larval fish assemblage are related to environmental conditions and biological dynamics: the results suggest that abiotic conditions mediate biotic parameters, and that both abiotic and biotic characteristics regulated the larval fishes at very nearshore shallow environments.

  7. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from coastal environment of Cantabria (northern Spain) and evaluation of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sonia; Gorri, Daniel; Irabien, Angel

    2011-05-01

    This paper documents levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in coastal surface sediments from selected reference sites on the northern Atlantic Spanish coast. One hundred eight samples covering three estuaries in the Cantabrian Coast were sampled in 2006 and analyzed in the finer fraction (<63 μm) for 19 OCs by gas chromatography with electron capture detector after confirmation by mass spectrometry. Detected organochlorine pesticides were endosulfan α, endosulfan β, endosulfan sulfate, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, dieldrin, methoxychlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDD). Total OCs concentrations ranged from 1.8 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) to 3.9 ng g(-1) dw, showing a uniform distribution along the studied area, and being consistent with recorded levels in the literature for coastal sediments in other reference sites with low levels of pollution by OCs along the Atlantic Ocean. Endosulfan, 4,4'-DDD, HCB, aldrin, and dieldrin seemed to be ubiquitous as the legacy of past uses and deposition. OCs concentrations were significantly correlated to organic matter content and particle size distribution. No adverse biological effects derived from these pollutants are expected to take place as it can be concluded from the comparison with the existent marine sediment quality guidelines. PMID:20617459

  8. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68°-72° N) Coastal Zone, 2nd revised edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Mosbech, Anders;

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area ...

  9. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the Northern West Greenland (72°-75° N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael; Boertmann, David; Mosbech, Anders;

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 72º N and 75º N. The coastal zone is divided into 118 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 3 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area ...

  10. Modeling Soft Institutional Change and the Improvement of Freshwater Governance in the Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Vernier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of soft institutional change to improve freshwater governance in the coastal zone will be examined. Freshwater management seeks to reduce losses due to overexploitation of the common-pool resources provided by river catchments and their associated ecosystems. Due to the complexity of the governance system, improving the performance of one coastal social-ecological system means searching for the appropriate "soft" institutional change. In the Pertuis Charentais region, increasing scarcity of freshwater in summer threatens the health of the coastal ecosystem and the sustainability of human activities, which depend on the use of natural resources. The allocation of freshwater among competing uses or concerns is a core issue for integrated coastal zone management. To address this issue, we have constructed an analytical framework that combines the ecosystem services approach with the institutional analysis of common-pool resources, and have developed an integrated simulation tool based on the system dynamic modeling approach. Freshwater scarcity generates three kinds of user conflict: (1 conflict between two extractive uses of freshwater (irrigation and drinking water, (2 conflicts between extractive uses (provisioning services and other services (support, regulatory, and cultural provided by freshwater, and (3 competition within a given activity sector (agriculture or shellfish farming. Participation by local managers led to the identification of realistic soft institutional changes that might mitigate conflicts and improve the governance system. These possible institutional changes were then integrated as fixed exogenous parameters in the simulation model. The simulated scenarios suggest that innovative collective arrangements involving farmers could be an alternative to other more restrictive top-down measures. This participatory experiment also illustrates the potential of social-ecological modeling for exploring acceptable new

  11. Criteria for Incorporating the Guidelines of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM in Territorial Land Use Planning: Study Case for the Colombian Pacific Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela López Rodrí­guez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM has been implemented through the “National Environmental Policy of the Oceanic Spaces and Coastal and Insular Areas of Colombia-PNAOCI” (Acronyms in Spanish, whose guidelines have considered the need to include marine and coastal ecosystems in land use planning. ICZM, as a special planning approach, can contribute to territorial land use planning of the municipalities located in coastal areas, because it can provide guidelines for the conservation and use of ecosystems in these areas. In this work, the Colombian Pacific coastal area municipalities, which are part of the “Tropical Eastern Pacific Region” and are located between the 01°30´ and the 07°10´ latitude North and between the 77°40´ and the 82°00´ longitude West were taken as a study case. The review of their territorial land use plans was made for each one of the municipalities by means of the descriptive analysis of the biophysical, socio-economical and institutional components, seeking to explain, through the different criteria and particular and critical parameters of the coastal-marine areas, the aspects these municipalities must consider and adjust in their territorial land use planning. The criteria selected are related with aspects such as: existence of the territorial land use plan, demarcation of the coastal area, diagnosis (those aspects such as the identification of strategic marine and coastal ecosystems, high impact natural phenomenon i.e. Tsunamis, coastal erosion, oceanographic process, uses, conflicts, risk and governability aspects, zoning and prospecting. The analysis concludes that the ICZM´s principles incorporated to the territorial land use planning processes in the Colombian Pacific could be the opportunity to minimize impacts from land to sea, and generate space.

  12. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles, Costa Rica.

  13. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  14. The evolving role of radiotracing in integrated coastal zone management investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the off-shore radiotracing program at ANSTO. Special reference is made to the impact that sophisticated numerical modelling is making to the design of tracer studies underpinning engineering and environmental investigations in the coastal zone. Much of the research is designed to reduce the freedom modellers have in setting parameter values. Emphasis being placed on studying of the fate and behaviour of particulates and cohesive sediments, on measuring the impact of wind fields on transport and on obtaining field measurements of model parameters such as hydrodynamic shear stress. (author)

  15. Radiocaesium-137 in some marine species in coastal zone of Libya (Sirt Gulf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of artificial radionuclides in the Mediterranean sea have been the testing of nuclear weapons and the discharge of nuclear power stations. 137Cs is a very abundant, fission product, with a half-life of about 30 years. Its production in nuclear weapons detonations has resulted in world distribution through the biosphere and its mobility and physiological properties have led to detectable activity concentrations in essentially all organisms. 137Cs is potentially significant contributor to the radiation dose to man. In this article we present our measurements on the fish, sponge, sea weeds, sea grass and sea water activity concentration of 137Cs in coastal zone of Libya (Sirt gulf)

  16. Air pollution transport studies in a coastal zone using kinematic diagnostic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from a mesoscale wind analysis of a vigorous lake/land breeze circulation on 4 September 1974 along the western shoreline of Lake Michigan are available. A computer program takes subjectively analyzed observed and estimated u and v components of the wind for a 24 h period, calculates vertical motions, and then estimates the trajectory of any particle(s) released within the coastal zone. The computed three-dimensional trajectories are presented using computer graphics displays. They reveal highly complex transport processes for aerosols released from typical line and multistack point sources. Aerosol recirculation and size sorting can be found with the lake breeze cell

  17. Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias A. Houekpoheha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made ​​by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.

  18. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  19. Hydrology and chemistry of groundwater and seasonal ponds in the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Shedlock, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of small seasonal ponds was investigated by studying relations between ground-water and surface water in a forested Coastal Plain drainage basin. Observation of changes in the water table in a series of wells equipped with automatic water-level recorders showed that the relation between water-table configuration and basin topography changes seasonally, and particularly in response to spring recharge. Furthermore, in this study area the water table is not a subdued expression of the land surface topography, as is commonly assumed. During the summer and fall months, a water-table trough underlies sandy ridges separating the seasonal ponds, and maximum water-table altitudes prevail in the sediments beneath the dry pond bottoms. As the ponds fill with water during the winter, maximum water-table altitudes shift to the upland-margin zone adjacent to the seasonal ponds. Increases in pond stage are associated with the development of transient water-table mounds at the upland-margin wells during the spring. The importance of small local-flow systems adjacent to the seasonal ponds also is shown by the similarities in the chemistry of the shallow groundwater in the upland margin and water in the seasonal ponds. The upland margin and surface water samples have low pH (generally less than 5.0), and contain large concentrations of dissolved aluminum (generally more than 100 μg 1 -1), and low bicarbonate concentrations (2 mg l 4 or less). In contrast, the parts of the surficial aquifer that do not experience transient mounding have higher pH and larger concentrations of bicarbonate. These results suggest that an understanding of the hydrochemistry of seasonally ponded wetlands requires intensive study of the adjacent shallow groundwater-flow system.

  20. Sustainable Coastal Development through Integrated Planning and Management: Efforts by the Government of Kenya in Coastal Zone Management.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mohamed; Kinyanjui, D.

    1997-01-01

    The government of Kenya attaches great importance to the coastal environment which contributes significantly to the national economy. The marine and coastal environments comprise highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystems which are in need of protection due as much to their intrinsic value as to their economic value. Coastal ecosystems including coral reefs, mangroves, seagrasses, and estuarine environments provide the economic and cultural basis for many of the coastal communities...

  1. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the South Greenland Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.; Olsvig, S.; von Platen, F.; Buch, E.; Hansen, K. Q.; Rasch, M.; Nielsen, N.; Møller, H. S.; Potter, S.; Andreasen, C.; Berglund, J.; Myrup, M.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of South Greenland between 56º30' N and 62º N. The coastal zone is divided into 220 areas and the offshore zone into 6 areas. For each area a sensitivity index value is calculated, and each area is subsequently ranked...... according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller sites are especially selected as: they are of particular significance, they are particularly vulnerable to oil spill and because effective oil spill response may be performed. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are...... for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. Web site: environmental-atlas.dmu.dk/...

  2. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Mid-Atlantic Coast (version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data sets contain information on the probabilities of hurricane-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 1-km section of the Mid-Atlantic...

  3. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  4. Estimating Pesticide Retention Efficacy for Edge of Field Buffers Using the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) in Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain croplands are vulnerable to runoff; thus agricultural pesticide use may adversely impact surface water quality. Our research group has collected data over the past 5 years indicating that this is not the case in Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) located in co...

  5. The dependence study between extreme rainfall and storm surge in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feifei; Westra, Seth; Sisson, Scott

    2013-04-01

    During flood events in coastal catchments, extreme rainfall can occur during periods of extreme storm surge as these two processes are often driven by the common meteorological forcings, such as cyclonic systems. The flood magnitude for such a joint event is normally larger than the case when flooding is caused by only an extreme rainfall or an extreme storm surge event in isolation, so that it is necessary to understand the dependence between these two variables in order to evaluate the probability of flooding for the coastal zone. Given that coastal catchments are also likely to be affected by sea level rise as a result of anthropogenic climate change, understanding the interaction of these two processes will become increasingly important in the future if we are to understand future flood risk in the coastal zone. This research quantifies the dependence strength between the extreme rainfall and extreme surge by using the most comprehensive record of storm surge collected along the Australian coastline to-date. A bivariate logistic threshold-excess model is used to conduct the dependence analysis in this study. A map of dependence values along the Australian coastline is generated and the temporal and spatial variation of the dependence strength is also examined. Based on results, the following observations can be made: 1. The dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australian coastline is generally statistically significant, although spatial variation of the dependence strength is also observed. It was shown that the probability of an extreme storm surge event occurring during an extreme rainfall event (or vice versa) can be up to eight times greater than the situation under which there is no dependence, suggesting that failure to account for these interactions can result in a substantial underestimation of flood risk for coastal catchments. 2. The dependence decreases as the spatial distance between the rainfall gauge and tide gauge

  6. Attribution and impacts of warm SST biases over the eastern coastal Pacific and Atlantic in the coupled model SINTEX-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, T.; Richter, I.; Sasaki, W.; Luo, J.; Behera, S. K.; Masumoto, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model of SINTEX-F (a basis of our seasonal prediction system), attribution and impacts of warm SST biases over the eastern coastal Pacific and Atlantic has been investigated. SINTEX-F has warm biases for annual mean SST in the eastern tropical Pacific and Atlantic, which is ubiquitous in other climate models (e.g. IPCC-CMIP3 and CMIP5 models). The warm SST biases could be due to the weak bias of southerly winds along the eastern coastal regions associated with the excessive southward migration bias of the ITCZ. We have to improve these biases, because they could contaminate the seasonal prediction skill over not only local regions, but also global climate. For further understanding and improving the SST biases, we explored impacts of warm SST biases in the eastern coastal Pacific and Atlantic by conducting two sensitivity experiments with SINTEX-F model; "Rest_EP run" and "Rest_EA run". In Rest_EP run, the simulated SST in the eastern coastal Pacific (90-70W, 20S-5N) is strongly restored to the observational monthly climatology, while Rest_EA run is same as Rest_EP run, but for restoring to the eastern coastal Atlantic (0-15E, 20S-5N). By comparison Rest_EP run with Control run, we found that the improvement of warm SST bias in the eastern coastal Pacific can cool global tropical SST, and fix 30% of the warm SST bias in the eastern tropical Atlantic relative to the Control run. On the other hands, the improvement of warm SST bias in the eastern coastal Atlantic warms the northern tropical Atlantic and the eastern equatorial Pacific, and does not much influence on the warm SST bias in the eastern tropical Pacific..Those responses of the improvement of the warm SST biases in the two eastern tropical regions are closely coupled with the ITCZ meridional migration and the zonal Walker circulation, which have strong impacts on the Amazonian rainfall.

  7. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR

  8. From Regulation to Management and Back Again: Exploring Governance Shifts in India′s Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent struggles over coastal zone policy in India make it a fertile site within which to map the actors, institutions, and knowledges involved in contemporary ecological governance. In 2007, the government drafted a coastal zone policy that marked a shift from the previous regulation approach based on hard boundaries and prohibitions, to a management framework using Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA studies and new scientific technologies to draw up flexible localised plans. The new policy suffered a reversal, however, when a concerted civil society campaign of opposition forced its withdrawal and a return to the earlier regulatory approach, albeit with numerous modifications. This paper argues that the power of the campaign was not just political, but also informational. It traces the multiple and intersecting trajectories through which knowledges are developed, transmitted, and employed. In particular, what emerges is the role of an important ′straddling′ or ′interface′ layer of non-governmental organisations (NGOs and technical ′experts,′ and the role of new information technologies and technologies of governance in enabling a cross-cutting circulation of knowledges. Interests, actors, and knowledges/technologies do not always map neatly on to each other, challenging binaries such as ′traditional′ and ′modern,′ or ′local′ and ′global,′ and rendering unpredictable the outcome of contestations over policy and governance.

  9. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  10. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to manage freshwater resources in the subsurface are evaluated using groundwater modelling and validation at field-scale: (1) ASR-coastal to store freshwater surpluses in confined brackish-saline aqu...

  11. Godunov-Based Model of Swash Zone Dynamics to Advance Coastal Flood Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanized lowlands in southern California are defended against coastal flooding by sandy beaches that dynamically adjust to changes in water level and wave conditions, particularly during storm events. Recent research has shown that coastal flood impacts are scaled by the volume of beach overtopping flows, and an improved characterization of dynamic overtopping rates is needed to improve coastal flood forecasting (Gallien et al. 2012). However, uncertainty in the beach slope and height makes it difficult to predict the onset of overtopping and the magnitude of resulting flooding. That is, beaches may evolve significantly over a storm event. Sallenger (Sallenger, 2000) describes Impact Levels to distinguish different impact regimes (swash, collision, overwash and inundation) on dunes and barrier islands. Our goal is to model processes in different regimes as was described by him. Godunov-based models adopt a depth-integrated, two-phase approach and the shallow-water hypothesis to resolve flow and sediment transport in a tightly coupled manner that resolves shocks in the air/fluid and fluid/sediment interface. These models are best known in the context of debris flow modeling where the ability to predict the flow of highly concentrated sediment/fluid mixtures is required. Here, the approach is directed at the swash zone. Existing Godunov-based models are reviewed and shown to have drawbacks relative to wetting and drying and "avalanching"—important processes in the swash zone. This nonphysical erosion can be described as the natural tendency of the schemes to smear out steep bed slopes. To denote and reduce these numerical errors, new numerical methods are presented to address these limitations and the resulting model is applied to a set of laboratory-scale test problems. The shallow-water hypothesis limits the applicability of the model to the swash zone, so it is forced by a time series of water level and cross-shore velocity that accounts for surf zone wave

  12. The South Sandwich "Forgotten" Subduction Zone and Tsunami Hazard in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Hartnady, C. J. H.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2009-04-01

    While no large interplate thrust earthquakes are know at the "forgotten" South Sandwich subduction zone, historical catalogues include a number of events with reported magnitudes 7 or more. A detailed seismological study of the largest event (27 June 1929; M (G&R) = 8.3) is presented. The earthquake relocates 80 km North of the Northwestern corner of the arc and its mechanism, inverted using the PDFM method, features normal faulting on a steeply dipping fault plane (phi, delta, lambda = 71, 70, 272 deg. respectively). The seismic moment of 1.7*10**28 dyn*cm supports Gutenberg and Richter's estimate, and is 28 times the largest shallow CMT in the region. This event is interpreted as representing a lateral tear in the South Atlantic plate, comparable to similar earthquakes in Samoa and Loyalty, deemed "STEP faults" by Gover and Wortel [2005]. Hydrodynamic simulations were performed using the MOST method [Titov and Synolakis, 1997]. Computed deep-water tsunami amplitudes of 30cm and 20cm were found off the coast of Brazil and along the Gulf of Guinea (Ivory Coast, Ghana) respectively. The 1929 moment was assigned to the geometries of other know earthquakes in the region, namely outer-rise normal faulting events at the center of the arc and its southern extremity, and an interplate thrust fault at the Southern corner, where the youngest lithosphere is subducted. Tsunami hydrodynamic simulation of these scenarios revealed strong focusing of tsunami wave energy by the SAR, the SWIOR and the Agulhas Rise, in Ghana, Southern Mozambique and certain parts of the coast of South Africa. This study documents the potential tsunami hazard to South Atlantic shorelines from earthquakes in this region, principally normal faulting events.

  13. South Sandwich: The Forgotten Subduction Zone and Tsunami Hazard in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Hartnady, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    While no large interplate thrust earthquakes are known at the South Sandwich subduction zone, historical catalogues include a number of earthquakes with reported magnitudes of 7 or more. We present a detailed seismological study of the largest one (27 June 1929; M (G&R) = 8.3). The earthquake relocates 80 km North of the Northwestern corner of the arc. Its mechanism, inverted using the PDFM method, features normal faulting on a steeply dipping fault plane (phi, delta, lambda = 71, 70, 272 deg.). The seismic moment, 1.7 10**28 dyn*cm, supports Gutenberg and Richter's estimate, and is 28 times the largest shallow CMT in the region. The 1929 event is interpreted as representing a lateral tear in the South Atlantic plate, comparable to similar earthquakes in Samoa and Loyalty, deemed "STEP faults" by Gover and Wortel [2005]. Hydrodynamic simulations using the MOST method [Titov and Synolakis, 1997] suggest deep-water tsunami amplitudes reaching 30 cm off the coast of Brazil, where it should have had observable run-up, and 20 cm along the Gulf of Guinea (Ivory Coast, Ghana). We also simulate a number of potential sources obtained by assigning the 1929 moment to the geometries of other known earthquakes in the region, namely outer-rise normal faulting events at the center of the arc and its southern extremity, and an interplate thrust fault at the Southern corner, where the youngest lithosphere is subducted. A common feature of these models is the strong focusing of tsunami waves by the SAR, the SWIOR, and the Agulhas Rise, resulting in amplitudes always enhanced in Ghana, Southern Mozambique and certain parts of the coast of South Africa. This study documents the potential tsunami hazard to South Atlantic shorelines from earthquakes in this region, principally normal faulting events.

  14. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  15. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  16. Monitoring of thermal regime of permafrost in the coastal zone of Western Yamal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A.

    2009-04-01

    Data on thermal regime of permafrost are required for estimation of the climate change influence on permafrost dynamics. Monitoring of thermal regime of permafrost was arranged in the area of weather station "Marre-Sale", western Yamal. In terms of geomorphology, the area of our observations belongs to the second and third marine terraces; the surface of these terraces has been partly modified by recent cryogenic processes. The elevation varies from 10 to 30 m a.s.l. Marine clays lie at the base of the geological section of the coastal deposits. Their upper part was eroded and uneven surface of marine sediments is overlain by continental sandy sediments. Marine clays are saline. In the southern part of study area, low accumulative islands are forming. Their heights above sea level do not exceed 0.5 meters, and during high tides their surface is covered by sea water. The sediments accumulating at these islands are saline silty clays. Western Yamal region is located within continuous permafrost zone with thickness of 150 to 200 meters. Study of thermal regime in the on-shore zone has been performed since 1979 using the 10-12-m-deep boreholes. In 2007, five boreholes were included in the work program of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) project developed as a part of IPY scientific activities. According to TSP program, temperature sensors were installed at depths 2, 3, 5, and 10 meters; measurements have been performed every six hours. In this presentation, results of our observations related to climate change are discussed. For different terrain units, increase of mean annual permafrost temperature during the last 30 years has reached 0.6 to 1.5 deg. C. In the transit zone, monitoring of thermal regime have been performed since 2006. Sensors were installed at depths 0, 0.25, 0.6, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25 meters. The active layer depth here reaches 1.9 meters, thus the 2.25-m-sensor is located within permafrost. Monitoring data show the sharp increase in mean

  17. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  18. The flow field of the upper hypoxic eastern tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramma, L.; Czeschel, R.; Tanhua, T.; Brandt, P.; Visbeck, M.; Giese, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    A subsurface low oxygen zone is located in the eastern tropical North Atlantic Ocean (ETNA) in the upper ocean with the core of the hypoxic (O2 ≦60 µmol kg-1) oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at 400 to 500 m depth. The subsurface circulation in the OMZ region is derived from observations and data assimilation results. Measurements in the ETNA of velocity, oxygen and of a tracer (CF3SF5) that was released in April 2008 at ˜ 8° N, 23° W (at ˜ 330 m depth) in November-December 2008, in November-December 2009 and October-November 2010 show the circulation in the upper part of the OMZ with spreading to the east in the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) region and northwestward around the Guinea Dome. Three floats equipped with oxygen sensors deployed at ˜ 8° N, 23° W with parking depths at 330, 350 and 400 m depths were used to estimate velocity along the float trajectory at the surface and at the parking depth. At the 350 m park depth north of 9° N a cyclonic northwestward flow across the OMZ was observed. The northward drift of a float into the upper OMZ and a stronger cyclonic flow around the Guinea Dome seem to be connected to a strong Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) event in 2009. A near-surface cyclonic circulation cell east of the Cape Verde Islands reaches down into the OMZ layer. The circulation of the upper OMZ mirrors the near-surface circulation. Oxygen measurements from the cruises used here, as well as from other recent cruises up to the year 2014, confirm the continuous deoxygenation trend in the upper OMZ since the 1960s near the Guinea Dome. The three floats deployed with the tracer show spreading paths consistent with the overall observed tracer spreading. Oxygen sensors on the floats remained well calibrated for more than 20 months, and so the oxygen profiles can be used to investigate mesoscale eddy signatures. Mesoscale eddies may modify the oxygen distribution in OMZs. However, in general eddies are less energetic in the ETNA south of the

  19. Coevolution between Contracaecum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) and Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae) host-parasite complex from SW Atlantic coastal basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cecilia; García, Graciela

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, molecular studies in host-parasite interactions in terms of coevolution have become important. Larvae (L3) of two species of Contracaecum were found parasitizing species of Rivulidae in the Atlantic coastal basins from Uruguay. The aim of this study is to determine the patterns of differentiation of this host-parasite complex in order to clarify possible coevolutionary events in such interaction throughout phylogeographic approach using both nuclear and mitochondrial molecular markers (internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1)). Based on both markers, intraspecific variation in Contracaecum species was lower than 2 %, while interspecific variation was greater than 10 %. Both species of Contracaecum constitute monophyletic groups. Contracaecum resulted in a paraphyletic genus when incorporating other Contracaecum species and closely related nematode sequences from GenBank. ITS regions showed that Contracaecum sp. 1 is more closely related to other species of the same genus than with their counterparts from Atlantic coastal basins in Uruguay. Haplotype network for both markers corroborate the existence of two distinct taxa. While ITS pairwise FST comparisons and the indirect estimate of gene flow confirm the existence of two distinct Contracaecum species, mitochondrial gene detected low levels of migrants between some of the populations from both species. Our results suggest that coevolution in this host-parasite complex species is plausible. Parasite cladogenetic events occur almost simultaneously with the separation of the hypothetical ancestors of each species complex of Austrolebias during Pliocene. Additionally, the two lineages of Contracaecum colonize differently the species within each of the Austrolebias complexes. PMID:25544701

  20. Variability in the mean latitude of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone as recorded by riverine input of sediments to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Peterson; Haug, G.H.;  

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the strength and position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) are an important component of climate variability in the tropical Atlantic. The Cariaco Basin, located on the northern margin of Venezuela, is sensitive to tropical Atlantic climate change and its sediments provide a record of past ITCZ behavior. Today, the Cariaco Basin experiences two distinct seasons that reflect the annual migration of the Atlantic ITCZ. Between January and March, when the ITCZ lies south of...

  1. Demography of coastal Atlantic cod in relation to the establishment of a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Jan-Harald

    2012-01-01

    Use a mark-recapture approach to study the demography of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a small (1 km2) marine protected area (MPA) on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. A total of 9713 Atlantic cod where tagged during 2005-2010. Inside the MPA, only hook and line fishing is allowed. Data are partly live capture-recaptures from the research fishing activity, and partly dead recoveries from commercial and recreational fishers. A high-reward system was applied to quantify the tag reporting rate fro...

  2. Paleoliquefaction investigations along the Atlantic seaboard with emphasis on the prehistoric earthquake chronology of coastal South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest historical earthquake along the Atlantic seaboard occurred near Charleston, South Carolina in August of 1886. The cause of this enigmatic event has yet to be resolved and there remains considerable debate regarding the frequency of large earthquakes in the Charleston area and the potential for similar events to occur elsewhere in the region. Strong ground shaking associated with this event resulted in the formation of numerous seismically-induced liquefaction features in the near surface sediments. Previous studies have shown that older paleoliquefaction features, interpreted to be the result of prehistoric earthquakes, are also represented in the geologic record. The radiocarbon ages of these paleoliquefaction features suggest that during the 5,000 to 6,000 years prior to the 1886 earthquake, at least five other liquefaction episodes occurred near Charleston. With the exception of the 1886 event, no moderate to large historical earthquakes have occurred along the Atlantic seaboard. However in many coastal areas extending from New Jersey to Florida, local geologic and hydrologic conditions are suitable for the generation and preservation of paleoliquefaction features. To obtain a prehistoric seismic record for this region, the authors have conducted a systematic search for evidence of prehistoric earthquake activity outside the Charleston area. Investigations have been completed at over 1,000 potential liquefaction sites, extending from Charleston southward to the Georgia/Florida state line, and northward to Cape May, New Jersey

  3. GIS, Geoscience, Multi-criteria Analysis and Integrated Management of the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimi, Y.; Barich, A.

    2011-12-01

    In this 3rd millennium, geology can be considered as a science of decision that intervenes in all the society domains. It has passed its academic dimension to spread toward some domains that until now were out of reach. Combining different Geoscience sub-disciplines emanates from a strong will to demonstrate the contribution of this science and its impact on the daily life, especially by making it applicable to various innovative projects. Geophysics, geochemistry and structural geology are complementary disciplines that can be applied in perfect symbiosis in many domains like construction, mining prospection, impact assessment, environment, etc. This can be proved by using collected data from these studies and integrate them into Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in order to make a multi-criteria analysis, which gives generally very impressive results. From this point, it is easy to set mining, eco-geotouristic and risk assessment models in order to establish land use projects but also in the case of integrated management of the coastal zone (IMCZ). Touristic projects in Morocco focus on its coast which represents at least 3500 km ; the management of this zone for building marinas or touristic infrastructures requires a deep and detailed study of marine currents on the coast, for example, by creating surveillance models and a coastal hazards map. An innovative project that will include geophysical, geochemical and structural geology studies associated to a multi-criteria analysis. The data will be integrated into a GIS to establish a coastal map that will highlight low-risk erosion zones and thus will facilitate implementation of ports and other construction projects. YES Morocco is a chapter of the International YES Network that aims to promote Geoscience in the service of society and professional development of Young and Early Career Geoscientists. Our commitment for such project will be of qualitative aspect into an associative framework that will involve

  4. Process studies of the carbonate system in coastal and ocean environments of the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salt, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in anthropogenic, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been largely mitigated by ocean uptake since the start of the Industrial Revolution, with the Atlantic Ocean providing the largest store of anthropogenic carbon. The thesis of Lesley Salt examines how the uptake of CO2 varies in dif

  5. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  6. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  7. Investigation of durability of silica fume concretes in coastal structures within tidal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decade use of silica fume has been become greater in coastal concrete structures in the persona gulf, to increase durability of those establishments. In this research the durability of cement passers and concrete cubes with use of 7 and 10 percent of silica fume as a cement replacement have been investigated in three curing conditions (fresh water, coast of sea and simulation bonds) by measuring compressive strengths and capillary absorption. Silica fume specimens under wetting and drying condition showed more strength loss after 180 days compare to samples without silica fume or cured in the fresh water. In addition the greater silica fume amount in specimens cured within tidal zone and under wetting and drying simulation, the more water absorption by capillary. According to the results, good correspondence between simulated condition and real site exposure was obtained

  8. The impact of climate change on future land-use in a coastal zone planning context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    is an urgent need for local and regional spatial planners to include climate change in their planning efforts. Using modelling and simulation, we can increase our understanding of the future land-use system under influence of a changing climate and accordingly reduce uncertainty concerning decisions......Climate change has received much attention during the last decennium and especially various mitigation and adaptation strategies. Particularly the coastal zone will feel the consequences of climate change and the associated effects like sea level rise, increased storminess and flooding. Thus there....... The current paper describes how land-use simulations combined with climate change scenarios can facilitate the definition of adaptation strategies to counteract the consequences of potential climate changes....

  9. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68º-72º N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.; Olsvig, S.; von Platen, F.; Buch, E.; Hansen, K. Q.; Rasch, M.; Nielsen, N.; Møller, H. S.; Potter, S.; Andreasen, C.; Berglund, J.; Myrup, M.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenlandbetween 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into nearly 200 areas and the offshorezone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each area, and each area issubsequently ranked...... according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking anumber of smaller areas are especially selected because they are of particular significance, theyare particularly vulnerable to oil spill and, an effective oil spill response can be performed. Theshoreline sensitivity ranking is shown...... season. Based on all the information,appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. Web site environmental-atlas.dmu.dk/...

  10. Measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity in the California coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Hegg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft-based measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity, both in the form of size-resolved, diameter growth factors and in the dependence of particle light scattering on relative humidity, are presented for the marine boundary layer of the southern California coastal zone. The chemical composition of the aerosol is collated with the hygroscopicity data, both to examine the mechanism for the increase in aerosol hygroscopicity with altitude and as input for receptor type modeling. The data suggest an increase in aerosol hygroscopicity with altitude, possibly associated with oxidation of organic films. The receptor modeling suggests three distinct aerosol types/sources for this venue: marine, biomass burning and pollution. Model output is used in regression analyses to derive a prognostic mixing rule for the hygroscopicity of aerosol with these three sources. The mixing rule demonstrated substantial prognostic power for submicron hygroscopicity but essentially none for supermicron.

  11. Measurements of size-resolved hygroscopicity in the California coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Hegg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft – based measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity, both in the form of size-resolved, diameter growth factors and in the dependence of particle light scattering on relative humidity, are presented for the marine boundary layer of the southern California coastal zone. The chemical composition of the aerosol is collated with the hygroscopicity data, both to examine the nature of aerosol aging and as input for receptor type modeling. The data suggest an increase in aerosol hygroscopicity with altitude, possibly associated with oxidation of organic films. The receptor modeling suggests three distinct aerosol types/sources for this venue: marine, biomass burning and pollution. Model output is used in regression analyses to derive a prognostic mixing rule for the hygroscopicity of aerosol with these three sources.

  12. Spatial distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in tidal flat sediments of Shanghai coastal zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振楼; 刘培芳; 许世远; 柳林; 余佳; 俞立中

    2001-01-01

    Surface and core sediments from the high, middle and low tidal flats of Shanghai coastal zone were analyzed for heavy metal (e.g. Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn) concentrations. Besides Cd, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb are 2-5 times higher than their background values and show serious pollution trend due to the direct discharge of industrial and municipal sewage along the Shanghai tidal flat, as well as the wet and dry depositions of industrial dusts. It seems that heavy metals prefer to accumulate and be enriched in the sediments near large sewage outlets, high flats, and the subsurface layer at the depth of 10-30 cm. Several main factors, which include the direct sewage discharge along the tidal flat, tidal hydrodynamic action, large engineering activity, early diagenesis and windstorm tide, are considered to be responsible for influencing spatial distribution patterns of heavy metals in the Shanghai tidal flat.

  13. Forecasting power plant effects on the coastal zone. EG and G final report number B-4441

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    Field methods, data analyses, and calculation are presented exemplifying procedures for oceanic dispersion prediction as a tool for forecasting power plant effects on the coastal zone. Measurements were made of dye, drogues and temperatures near Pilgrim Station's discharge (Plymouth, Massachusetts), and of currents and other variables across Massachusetts Bay. Analysis of current data illustrates separation of tidal, wind-driven and inertial constituents and their significance for dispersion. Dye and temperature dispersion are compared with the currents study, and diffusion coefficients estimated. Current data from coastal sites (New Jersey and Massachusetts) are analyzed to determine field requirements for dispersion estimates. Methods to calculate expected precision of estimates based on brief current records are developed. Model calculations predicting dispersion based on observed ocean currents are described. Formulae are derived to estimate the spatial distribution of impact from a discharge. A numerical model to calculate discharge dispersion in more detail is discussed and used to study time variations of discharge effects. Model predictions are compared with field observations.

  14. An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haille N. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism and coastal communities that mangroves support and protect. To determine the most effective form of mangrove management, this review examines management guidelines, particularly those associated with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Five case studies were reviewed to further explore the fundamentals of mangrove management. The management methodologies of two developed nations as well as three developing nations were assessed to encompass comprehensive influences on mangrove management, such as socioeconomics, politics, and land-use regulations. Based on this review, successful mangrove management will require a blend of forestry, wetland, and ICZM programs in addition to the cooperation of all levels of government. Legally binding policies, particularly at the international level, will be essential to successful mangrove management, which must include the preservation of existing mangrove habitat and restoration of damaged mangroves.

  15. Roles of coastal laboratories in the implementation of the nation`s emerging priorities for research in the coastal zone: Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, T.C. [ed.] [Maryland Univ., Cambridge, MD (United States). Horn Point Environmental Labs.; Brooks, A.S. [ed.] [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Center for Great Lakes Studies; Clegg, J.S. [ed.] [California Univ., Bodega Bay, CA (United States). Bodega Marine Lab.] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Rapid growth in the human population and related increases in consumption, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation are serious concerns for the quality of life and national security. Global change, biological diversity, and sustainable ecosystems were identified as priority areas of research based on their importance for the advance of the fundamental knowledge needed to manage for a sustainable biosphere. Demographic trends, global climate change, and patterns of contaminant release and transport suggest that the effects of human activity on the environment and on natural resources will be especially pronounced in the coastal zone. This report presents the results of a workshop organized by the National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) to evaluate the changing roles of coastal laboratories and to recommend mechanisms by which the community of coastal scientists can more effectively work together and with government agencies in defining priorities and implementing research programs that are responsive to national needs. The workshop is part of an ongoing effort to facilitate more integrated approaches to environmental research and the use of scientific information for the purposes of education and environmental management in the coastal zone.

  16. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the coastal forests of southern Brazil: diversity, efficiency of sampling methods and comparison with other Atlantic forest surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa C. Mattozo; Luiz R. R. Faria; Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of orchid bees at the Brazilian Atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. For this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at Atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of São Paulo (Sete Barras, Faz. Morro do Capim: SP3) and state of Paraná (Antonina, Reserva Natural do Rio Cachoeira: PR3), in southern Brazil. In PR3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for...

  17. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  18. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  19. Photovoltaic performance and LCoE comparison at the coastal zone of the Atacama Desert, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two PV technologies installed at the coastal zone of Atacama Desert were studied. • The energy yield improved up to 16% after cleaning. • The monthly performance ratio was determined and analyzed for a 21 month period. • The dust accumulated on modules produced a fall of the monthly performance ratio. • The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) was calculated for a dirty and clean condition. - Abstract: Two photovoltaic technologies are compared with regard to the energy yield, performance ratio and their levelized cost of energy. Plants based on amorphous/microcrystalline silicon tandem thin films and multicrystalline silicon solar cells installed at the coastal zone of the Atacama Desert, Chile, were monitored for 21 months. This region can be one of the most suitable places for the use of solar energy due to the high solar radiation levels. However, the coastal desert climate may influence the performance of photovoltaic systems. The global tilted solar irradiation reached mean values of 8.6 kW h/m2 day in summer and 6 kW h/m2 day in winter demonstrating the high irradiation available. It came out that the performance ratio is influenced by the dust accumulation and the temperature associated to this place. The performance ratio of thin films decreased due to the dust accumulation at a rate from −4.2 to −3.7%/month for decreasing temperature and from −4.8 to −4.4%/month for increasing temperature. For multicrystalline silicon modules, the degradation rates were −2.4 to −1.8%/month for decreasing temperature, and −6.2 to −3.7%/month for increasing temperature. It was concluded that the electricity costs were 14.48 cents€/kW h and 15.65 cents€/kW h for thin film and mc-Si, respectively. Thus, the thin films had more benefit after cleaning than multicrystalline modules

  20. A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, P.; Gypens, N.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Rousseau, V.; Callens, J.; Parent, J.-Y.; Lancelot, C.

    2013-12-01

    The OSPAR convention signed in 1992 by 15 European states including Belgium and France pledged to reduce the nutrient (nitrogen N and phosphorus P) loads from land-based sources to the Channel and the North Sea to half of what they were in 1985. In this paper, we use a river basin-coastal sea chain model to describe the evolution of nutrient loads to the Belgian Costal Zone originating from the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds from 1984 to 2007 in order to assess the N and P reduction with respect to the OSPAR goals and the resulting effect on coastal eutrophication, especially Phaeocystis blooms. Since the early 1990s, most nutrient reduction actions have been devoted to domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, resulting in a sharp P decrease between 1984 and 2007: from 260 to 90 kgP km- 2 for the Seine River and from 215 to 110 kgP km- 2 for the Scheldt River. In spite of improved N treatment of wastewater, there is no clear decrease of N loads, which mostly originate from leaching intensively cultivated arable lands. N fluxes at the outlet of the Seine and Scheldt rivers were, respectively, 1990 and 2210 kgN km- 2 in 1984 and 1830 and 1390 kgN km- 2 in 2007. However, this relatively low decrease appears to be more influenced by hydrological conditions than by better efficiency of N use in agriculture. We conclude from this analysis that the OSPAR objectives for P have been achieved, whereas for N radical changes in agricultural practices are still required. The P reduction achieved allows, for the period of concern, a 50% decrease of Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Belgian Coastal Zone, both in magnitude and duration. However, the simulated decrease, of maximum abundance, i.e., from 60 · 106 in 1984 to 30 · 106 cells l- 1 in 2007, is still insufficient when compared to the ecological-quality indicator of 4 · 106 cells l- 1. A further decrease of nutrients is still necessary to decrease undesirable blooms more satisfactorily.

  1. Floral Resources Used by Euglossini Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Coastal Ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha-Filho, L. C.; Krug, C; C. I. Silva; C. A. Garófalo

    2012-01-01

    In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of...

  2. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry: Application to the Coastal Zone and Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, David; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Cancet, Mathilde; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Martin, Francisco; Cipollini, Paolo; Benveniste, Jérôme; Restano, Marco; Ambrósio, Américo

    2016-04-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, EnviSat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  3. Aqua-planet simulations of the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ferreira, Rosana; Chao, Winston C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Amazon Basin convection and cold fronts on the formation and maintenance of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is studied using aqua-planet simulations with a general circulation model. In the model, a circular patch of warm sea-surface temperature (SST) is used to mimic the effect of the Amazon Basin on South American monsoon convection. The aqua-planet simulations were designed to study the effect of the strength and latitude of Amazon Basin convection on the formation of the SACZ. The simulations indicate that the strength of the SACZ increases as the Amazon convection intensifies and is moved away from the equator. Of the two controls studied here, the latitude of the Amazon convection exerts the strongest effect on the strength of the SACZ. An analysis of the synoptic-scale variability in the simulations shows the importance of frontal systems in the formation of the aqua-planet SACZ. Composite time series of frontal systems that occurred in the simulations show that a robust SACZ occurs when fronts penetrate into the subtropics and become stationary there as they cross eastward of the longitude of the Amazon Basin. Moisture convergence associated with these frontal systems produces rainfall not along the model SACZ region and along a large portion of the northern model Amazon Basin. Simulations in which the warm SST patch was too weak or too close to the equator did not produce frontal systems that extended into the tropics and became stationary, and did not form a SACZ. In the model, the SACZ forms as Amazon Basin convection strengthens and migrates far enough southward to allow frontal systems to penetrate into the tropics and stall over South America. This result is in agreement with observations that the SACZ tends to form after the onset of the monsoon season in the Amazon Basin.

  4. Diapycnal oxygen supply to the tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The replenishment of consumed oxygen in the open ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ off West Africa in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean is studied, with a focus on oxygen transport across density surfaces (diapycnal flux. The latter is obtained from a large observational set of oxygen profiles and diapycnal mixing data from years 2008 to 2010. Diapycnal mixing is inferred from different sources: a large scale tracer release experiment, microstructure profiles, and shipboard acoustic current measurements plus density profiles. The average diapycnal diffusivity in the study area is 1 × 10−5 m2 s−1. No significant vertical gradient of average diapycnal diffusivities exists in the depth interval from 150 to 500 m. The diapycnal flux is found to contribute substantially to the oxygen supply of the OMZ. Within the OMZ core, 1.5 µmol kg−1 a−1 of oxygen is supplied via diapycnal mixing, contributing about a third of the total demand. The oxygen that is contributed via diapycnal mixing originates from oxygen that has been laterally supplied within the overlying Central Water layer by advective and eddy fluxes. Due to the existence of a separate shallow oxygen minimum at about 100 m depth throughout most of the study area, there is no direct net vertical oxygen flux from the surface layer of the study area into the Central Water layer. Thus all oxygen supply of the OMZ is associated with remote pathways.

  5. Oxygen variability and meridional oxygen supply in the tropical North East Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Johannes; Brandt, Peter; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Krahmann, Gerd; Körtzinger, Arne

    2013-04-01

    The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical North East Atlantic (TNEA) is located between the oxygen-rich equatorial region and the Cape Verde Frontal Zone at about 20°N in a depth range of 300 - 700 m. Its horizontal extent is predominantly defined by the North Equatorial Current and by the equatorial zonal current system ventilating the region to the north and south of the OMZ, respectively. The interior of the OMZ is characterized by a sluggish flow regime, where mesoscale eddies play a major role in the ventilation. In this study we focus on the oxygen variability in the TNEA as well as the eddy driven lateral ventilation of the TNEA OMZ across its southern boundary. During recent years an intense measurement program was executed along 23°W cutting meridionally through the TNEA OMZ. Hydrographic and velocity data has been acquired from ship sections and moorings, together covering the latitude range between 6°S and 14°N with particularly high meridional resolution of shipboard and high temporal resolution of moored observations. Based on shipboard data we derived a meridional section of oxygen variance, which reveals numerous local maxima of oxygen variability. Exemplary, strong oxygen variability is observed at the upper (300m, 5° - 12°N) and the southern boundary (400m - 700m, 5°N - 8°N) of the OMZ, whereas the interior of the OMZ is characterized by weak variability. An application of the extended Osborn-Cox model shows that the strong oxygen variability at the southern boundary is mainly generated by mesoscale eddies. The strong variability at the upper boundary is generated by mesoscale eddies as well as microscale turbulence. We apply two methods to estimate the meridional oxygen flux: 1) a flux gradient parameterization and 2) a correlation of oxygen and velocity mooring time series. From the analysis of the 5°N mooring data we find a northward oxygen flux directed towards the OMZ at its core depth, that is mainly due to variability of

  6. Development 3D model of adaptation of the Azerbaijan coastal zone at the various levels of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Ramiz

    2013-04-01

    The most characteristic feature of the Caspian Sea which difference it on relation other seas is its periodical fluctuating in its level. In many coastal regions of the world the problem of influence of change of a sea level on activities of the human is a problem of the long-term future, but in region of Caspian Sea, especially in its Azerbaijan sector, it is already actual. Also experience accumulated here, can be use at the decision of problems of optimization of wildlife management in conditions of significant change of a sea level as model of potential consequences of warming of a climate. Changeableness of the level of the Caspian sea over many years can be observed better on the basis of natural observations, a systematic basis of which has been put by the academician E. Lents in 1830 year in Baku coastal line. According these data in 1882 the average level has reached its level -25.2 m. the highest point over the observations, i.e. by 1.8 m. higher than today's level. The average level over 1830-1930 was about -25.83 m. In 1960 some stabilization in the level, about 28,4 meters, in 1970 was a sharp drop, in 1977 - sharp drop reached -29.00 rn. The drop over the whole period of observations totaled 3.8 m within diapason -25.2 -29.0 m. In 1978 the level of the sea began to increase and in 1995 its average yearly mark reach -26,62 rn. Intensiveness of the rise of the level ever that period totaled in average about 14 cm per year. As a result of this rise of a sea level about 800 km2 of a coastal zone it has been flooded, the ecological situation has worsened, and there were ecological refugees. The damage to a coastal zone of Azerbaijan was 2 billion USA dollars. Caspian sea also has within-year (seasonal) variability equal 32 sm and sleeve and pileup change of level. Its estimate in Azerbaijan coastal zone is 0.8-1.0 m. In the coastal zone also necessary take into height of the wave which in these coasts can be 3.0 m height. All these means that in the

  7. Remarkably low genetic diversity and strong population structure in common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from coastal waters of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Fruet, P.F.; Secchi, E.R.; Daura-Jorge, F.; Vermeulen, E.; Flores, P.A.C.; Simões-Lopes, P. C.; Genoves, R.C.; Laporta, P.; Di Tullio, J.; Freitas, T. R. O.; Dalla Rosa, L.; Valiati, V.H.; Beheregaray, L.; Möller, L M

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the ecology of bottlenose dolphins in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean is scarce. Increased by-catch rates over the last decade in coastal waters of southern Brazil have raised concerns about the decline in abundance of local dolphin communities. Lack of relevant data, including information on population structure and connectivity, have hampered an assessment of the conservation status of bottlenose dolphin communities in this region. Here we combined analyses of 16 microsatell...

  8. Gas bubble disease mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, at a coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, occurred in the discharge channel and discharge plume area of the Boston Edison Company's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 during the period April 8 through April 24, 1973. Gas bubble disease was implicated as the cause of their death. Measurements of dissolved gas concentration of the station's intake and discharge water during this fish mortality are presented. Observations on the behavior and results of the pathological examination of menhaden afflicted with gas embolism are discussed

  9. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.; Smedbol, R.K.; Cook, D.; Goddard, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  10. Uranium-series coral ages from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain-the "80 ka problem" revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Simmons, K.R.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Martin-McNaughton, J.; York, L.L.; Krantz, D.E.; Shen, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium series coral ages for emergent units from the passive continental margin US Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) suggest sea level above present levels at the end of marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5, contradicting age-elevation relations based on marine isotopic or coral reef models of ice equivalent sea level. We have reexamined this problem by obtaining high precision 230Th/238U and 231Pa/235U thermal ionization mass spectrometric ages for recently collected and carefully cleaned ACP corals, many in situ. We recognize samples that show no evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance. Combining new and earlier data, among those ages close to or within the age range of MIS 5, over 85% cluster between 65 and 85 ka BP. Of the corals that we have analyzed, those that show the least evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance have ages between 80 and 85 ka BP, consistent with a MIS 5a correlation. The units from which these samples have been collected are all emergent and have elevations within ???3-5m of those few units where early stage 5 (???125,000 ka BP) coral ages have been obtained. The ACP appears to record an unusual history of relative sea level throughout MIS 5, a history that is also apparent in the dated coral record for Bermuda. We speculate that this history is related to the regional (near-to intermediate-field) effects of ancestral Laurentide Ice sheets on last interglacial shorelines of the western North Atlantic. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  11. The analysis of dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F.; Westra, S.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding in coastal catchments can be caused by runoff generated by an extreme rainfall event, elevated sea levels due to an extreme storm surge event, or the combination of both processes occurring simultaneously or in close succession. Dependence in extreme rainfall and storm surge arises because common meteorological forcings often drive both variables; for example, cyclonic systems may produce extreme rainfall, strong onshore winds and an inverse barometric effect simultaneously, which the former factor influencing catchment discharge and the latter two factors influencing storm surge. Nevertheless there is also the possibility that only one of the variables is extreme at any given time, so that the dependence between rainfall and storm surge is not perfect. Quantification of the strength of dependence between these processes is critical in evaluating the magnitude of flood risk in the coastal zone. This may become more important in the future as the majority of the coastal areas are threatened by the sea level rise due to the climate change. This research uses the most comprehensive record of rainfall and storm surge along the coastline of Australia collected to-date to investigate the strength of dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline. A bivariate logistic threshold-excess model was employed to this end to carry out the dependence analysis. The strength of the estimated dependence is then evaluated as a function of several factors including: the distance between the tidal gauge and the rain gauge; the lag between the extreme precipitation event and extreme surge event; and the duration of the maximum storm burst. The results show that the dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline is statistically significant, although some locations clearly exhibit stronger dependence than others. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of large-scale meteorological effects as

  12. DNA Barcoding Assessment of Green Macroalgae in Coastal Zone Around Qingdao,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Guoying; WU Feifei; MAO Yunxiang; GUO Shenghua; XUE Hongfan; BI Guiqi

    2014-01-01

    An assessment with assistance of DNA barcoding was conducted on green macroalgae in coastal zone around Qingdao, China, during the period of April-December, 2011. Three markers were applied in molecular discrimination, including the plastid elongation factor tufA gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal cistron and rubisco large subunit gene 3’ regions (rbcL-3P). DNA barcoding discriminated 8 species, excluding species of genus Cladophora and Bryopsis due to failures in amplification. We ascertained and corrected 4 species identified by morphological methods for effectively assisting the classification. The gene tufA presented more advantages as an appropriate DNA marker with the strongest amplification success rate and species discrimination power than the other two genes. The poorest sequencing success largely handicapped the application of ITS. Samples identified by tufA and rbcL as Ulva flexuosa were clustered into the clade of U. prolifera by ITS in the neighbor-joining tree. Confu-sion with discrimination of the complex of U. linza, U. procera and U. prolifera (as the LPP complex) still existed for the three DNA markers. Based on our results, rbcL is recommended as a preferred marker for assisting tufA to discriminate green macroalgae. In distinguishing green-tide-forming Ulva species, the free-floating sample collected from the green tide in 2011 was proved to be iden-tical with U. prolifera in Yellow Sea for ITS and rbcL genes. This study presents a preliminary survey of green macroalgae distrib-uted in the coastal area around Qingdao, and proves that DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for taxonomy of green macroalgae.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. PMID:27266522

  14. Nutrient and physical profile data from four Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruises collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern Atlantic Ocean from February 17, 1985 to September 7, 1986 (NODC Accession 8800324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruise data collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern...

  15. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  16. Variability of suspended particulate matter concentrations and organic compounds in frontal zones of the Atlantic and Southern oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Kravchishina, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate forms of the organic compounds (hydrocarbons, lipids, and chlorophyll a) were determined in the surface water layers of the Atlantic and Southern oceans during February to May of 2012 and 2014. It was found that the distribution of concentrations of the studied components is mainly affected by the location of frontal zones. When ice cover forms in the Southern Ocean, the changes in water temperature and phytoplankton development at the ice-water interface result in an increase of the concentrations of SPM, chlorophyll a, and, to a lesser extent, of lipids and hydrocarbons in the surface water layer. The occasional sharp increase of hydrocarbon concentrations caused by anthropogenic pollution was registered at local parts of water areas in the east of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as in the North and Baltic seas.

  17. Extreme N2O accumulation in the coastal oxygen minimum zone off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, A.; Arévalo-Martínez, D. L.; Löscher, C. R.; Bange, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    Depth profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured during six cruises to the upwelling area and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru in 2009 and 2012/2013, covering both the coastal shelf region and the adjacent open ocean. N2O profiles displayed a strong sensitivity towards oxygen concentrations. Open ocean profiles with distances to the shelf break larger than the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation showed a transition from a broad maximum close to the Equator to a double-peak structure south of 5° S where the oxygen minimum was more pronounced. Maximum N2O concentrations in the open ocean were about 80 nM. A linear relationship between ΔN2O and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) could be found for measurements within the upper oxycline, with a slope similar to studies in other oceanic regions. In contrast, N2O profiles close to the shelf revealed a much higher variability, and N2O concentrations higher than 100 nM were often observed. The highest N2O concentration measured at the shelf was ˜ 850 nM. Due to the extremely sharp oxygen gradients at the shelf, N2O maxima occurred in very shallow water depths of less than 50 m. In the coastal area, a linear relationship between ΔN2O and AOU could not be observed as extremely high ΔN2O values were scattered over the full range of oxygen concentrations. The data points that showed the strongest deviation from a linear ΔN2O / AOU relationship also showed signals of intense nitrogen loss. These results indicate that the coastal upwelling at the Peruvian coast and the subsequent strong remineralization in the water column causes conditions that lead to extreme N2O accumulation, most likely due to the interplay of intense mixing and high rates of remineralization which lead to a rapid switching of the OMZ waters between anoxic and oxic conditions. This, in turn, could trigger incomplete denitrification or pulses of increased nitrification with extreme N2O production.

  18. The Effect of Dissolved Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Microzooplankton Growth Rates in the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Lavrentyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is wide spread among marine phytoplankton, including diatoms, which can produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA. Most studies on diatom-produced PUA have been dedicated to their inhibitory effects on reproduction and development of marine invertebrates. However, little information exists on their impact on key herbivores in the ocean, microzooplankton. This study examined the effects of dissolved 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal on the growth rates of natural ciliate and dinoflagellate populations in the Chesapeake Bay and the coastal Atlantic waters. The overall effect of PUA on microzooplankton growth was negative, especially at the higher concentrations, but there were pronounced differences in response among common planktonic species. For example, the growth of Codonella sp., Leegaardiella sol, Prorodon sp., and Gyrodinium spirale was impaired at 2 nM, whereas Strombidium conicum, Cyclotrichium gigas, and Gymnodinium sp. were not affected even at 20 nM. These results indicate that PUA can induce changes in microzooplankton dynamics and species composition.

  19. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do caracídeo Hollandichthys multifasciatus. Amostras foram obtidas entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005, em dois riachos de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. A dieta, avaliada por métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, inclui insetos aquáticos e terrestres, decápodes, oligoquetos aquáticos, plantas e aranhas. Os maiores indivíduos alimentaram-se principalmente de plantas, insetos terrestres e aranhas, enquanto que os menores indivíduos alimentaram-se basicamente de plantas e oligoquetos aquáticos. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar onívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por material autóctone (principalmente oligoquetos aquáticos e alóctone (plantas e insetos terrestres.

  20. Cold-climate slope deposits and landscape modifications of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, W.L.; Dejong, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene cold-climate geomorphology are distributed across the weathered and eroded Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain uplands from the Wisconsinan terminal moraine south to Tidewater Virginia. Cold-climate deposits and landscape modifications are superimposed on antecedent landscapes of old, weathered Neogene upland gravels and Pleistocene marine terraces that had been built during warm periods and sea-level highstands. In New Jersey, sequences of surficial deposits define a long history of repeating climate change events. To the south across the Delmarva Peninsula and southern Maryland, most antecedent topography has been obscured by Late Pleistocene surficial deposits. These are spatially variable and are collectively described as a cold-climate alloformation. The cold-climate alloformation includes time-transgressive details of climate deterioration from at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 through the end of MIS 2. Some deposits and landforms within the alloformation may be as young as the Younger Dryas. Southwards along the trend of the Potomac River, these deposits and their climatic affinities become diffused. In Virginia, a continuum of erosion and surficial deposits appears to be the product of ‘normal’ temperate, climate-forced processes. The cold-climate alloformation and more temperate deposits in Virginia are being partly covered by Holocene alluvium and bay mud.

  1. The effect of dissolved polyunsaturated aldehydes on microzooplankton growth rates in the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Peter J; Franzè, Gayantonia; Pierson, James J; Stoecker, Diane K

    2015-05-01

    Allelopathy is wide spread among marine phytoplankton, including diatoms, which can produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA). Most studies on diatom-produced PUA have been dedicated to their inhibitory effects on reproduction and development of marine invertebrates. However, little information exists on their impact on key herbivores in the ocean, microzooplankton. This study examined the effects of dissolved 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal on the growth rates of natural ciliate and dinoflagellate populations in the Chesapeake Bay and the coastal Atlantic waters. The overall effect of PUA on microzooplankton growth was negative, especially at the higher concentrations, but there were pronounced differences in response among common planktonic species. For example, the growth of Codonella sp., Leegaardiella sol, Prorodon sp., and Gyrodinium spirale was impaired at 2 nM, whereas Strombidium conicum, Cyclotrichium gigas, and Gymnodinium sp. were not affected even at 20 nM. These results indicate that PUA can induce changes in microzooplankton dynamics and species composition. PMID:25955757

  2. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Black sea bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, L.P.

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The black sea bass, Centropristis striata, is an abundant species associated with the inshore sponge-coral habitat in the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (each individual is first a female and then a male) that spawns from January to June on the Continental shelf. Juveniles utilize estuaries, as well as offshore areas, for nurseries. It is a slow growing species with a life span of about 10 years. Juveniles and adults are bottom-feeding carnivores. Adults have been collected at temperatures as low as 6 /degree/C but are most abundant at temperatures of 8 to 10 /degree/C and above. Juveniles tolerate lower temperatures and greater salinity ranges than adults. Black sea bass are primarily harvested by the recreational hook and line fishery and the commercial trap fishery. Yield-per-recruit analyses indicate that the harvest of black sea bass is less than the maximum possible due to a combination of high fishing pressure and harvest of small fish. 58 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Assessment of risk factors in radionuclides pollution of coastal zone and river basins by numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. For this aim the special deterministic models on the basis of passive admixture's turbulence diffusion equation is used. For numerical calculations Mc Kormack's predictor-corrector two steps scheme is used. The scheme is disintegrated, second order in space and time. Such scheme is established because the turbulent velocities very differ in horizontal and vertical directions and model allows implementing singular independent steps in different directions. Grid step for the model is 26.88 km in horizontal direction and 20 m m in vertical until 200 m. Time step is equal to 4 hours and computational time period - 4 months. Number of grid points is equal to 4983 for all calculation areas. Computations are carried out separately for big rivers basins as well as for Black and Caspian Seas water areas. The model calculations are made for cases with various locations of pollutant sources including accidental throws. For different realistic scenarios are calculated the concentrations of admixtures. The directions of their propagation are also determined. The risks are calculated in comparison with the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of the pollutants according to achieved results. That gives possibility to define the most vulnerable areas in coastal zones. Realized methodology is verified by means of various

  4. 77 FR 32420 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... fishing year. ADDRESSES: Copies of the American Lobster Environmental Assessment/ Regulatory Impact Review... Federal lobster fishery management measures in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the authority of... Federal Register (74 FR 67) to notify the public that any further investment in the Area 1 trap...

  5. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. P.; Donnelly, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Kemp, A.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2012-12-01

    Future inundation of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon both sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. In this proposal, we will employ new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea-level rise along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts has increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic distribution. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. Here, we produce new high resolution proxy data of sea-level and temperature to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset will span the alternation between the "Medieval Climate Anomaly" and "Little Ice Age". Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from six study areas (Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Georgia and Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, in the future, the resultant

  6. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  7. Development and Climate Change in Uruguay. Focus on Coastal Zones, Agriculture and Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [OECD Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Van Aalst, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smith, J.; Hagenstad, M. [Stratus Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Baethgen, W.E.; Martino, D.L. [Carbosur Consulting, Montevideo (Uruguay); Lorenzo, E. [Instituto de Mecanica de los Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental IMFIA, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2004-07-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. This report presents the integrated case study for Uruguay carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Uruguay are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for adaptation in coastal zones as well as for mainstreaming carbonsequestration within the agriculture and forestry sectors.

  8. Remote sensing of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water. [coastal zone color scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A technique was devised which uses remotely sensed spectral radiances from the sea to assess the optical diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (lambda) of near-surface ocean water. With spectral image data from a sensor such as the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) carried on NIMBUS-7, it is possible to rapidly compute the K (lambda) fields for large ocean areas and obtain K "images" which show synoptic, spatial distribution of this attenuation coefficient. The technique utilizes a relationship that has been determined between the value of K and the ratio of the upwelling radiances leaving the sea surface at two wavelengths. The relationship was developed to provide an algorithm for inferring K from the radiance images obtained by the CZCS, thus the wavelengths were selected from those used by this sensor, viz., 443, 520, 550 and 670 nm. The majority of the radiance arriving at the spacecraft is the result of scattering in the atmospheric and is unrelated to the radiance signal generated by the water. A necessary step in the processing of the data received by the sensor is, therefore, the effective removal of these atmospheric path radiance signals before the K algorithm is applied. Examples of the efficacy of these removal techniques are given together with examples of the spatial distributions of K in several ocean areas.

  9. Development and Climate Change in Uruguay. Focus on Coastal Zones, Agriculture and Forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. This report presents the integrated case study for Uruguay carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Uruguay are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for adaptation in coastal zones as well as for mainstreaming carbonsequestration within the agriculture and forestry sectors

  10. Mapping and Assessing Variability in the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone, the Pack Ice and Coastal Polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore mapping their spatial extent, seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biological active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of different ice types to the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent data record for assessing different ice types. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depends strongly on what sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Polynya area is also larger in the NASA Team algorithm, and the timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These differences lead to different relationships between sea ice characteristics and biological processes, as illustrated here with the breeding success of an Antarctic seabird.

  11. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  12. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  13. Study and mapping of natural hazards in the coastal zone of Murcia; Estudio y cartografia de los peligros naturales costeros de la region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seisdedos, J.; Mulas, J.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L. I.; Rodriguez Franco, J. A.; Garcia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Garrote, J.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance and implications of coastal hazards, very few studies have been focused on their analysis and mapping on a regional scale in a systematic and integrated way. This article presents a methodology based on the detailed analysis of natural hazards affecting coastal zones: floods, erosion, sea level rise, tsunamis, landslides, etc., and the study and mapping of the factors involved (coastal geomorphology, coastal processes, historical events, human activities). These factors and hazards are evaluated and integrated to prepare maps which include the assessments of each individual hazard and the overall ones. A mapping system in strips parallel to the coast is used, allowing the recognition and interpretation of the characteristics of the coast and the associated hazards. This methodology is applied to the coastal zone of Murcia, showing its usefulness for studying and mapping coastal hazards and its applicability to other regions. (Author)

  14. Shapefile for Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, 2009 (CZMP_counties_2009.shp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Wingfield, Dana K.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Wong, Florence L.; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2013-01-01

    A shapefile of 492 Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, current for the ground condition in 2009, has been extracted from the U.S. Census Bureau MAF/TIGER database. Geospatial information systems with the capability to search user-defined, polygonal geographic areas will be able to utilize this shapefile or secondary products derived from it, such as well-known text representations of the individual polygons within the shapefile.

  15. Sociocultural and educational factors in the sustainability of coastal zones : the prestige oil spill in Galicia, ten years later

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Sara; Alves, Fátima; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Meira-Cartea, Pablo; Pardal, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Environmental threats of immediate risk in areas such as coastal zones (CZ) have aroused new trends of citizenship and participatory democracy. This article intends to analyse elements within those trends, such as environmental culture; socio-political context; dynamics of social associative movement and integration of local knowledge. It also aims to contribute to an overview of the opportunities and barriers found in considering sociocultural and educational challenges in CZ. ...

  16. Co-management of tropical coastal zones: The case of the Soufriere Marine Management Area, St. Lucia, WI

    OpenAIRE

    Sandersen, H.; Koester, S.

    2000-01-01

    Metadata only record Centralized, top-down fisheries management models based on biological stock-recruitment have, at best, achieved limited success when adapted to Third World fisheries. Comanagement, a resource management approach oriented towards resource users and their communities, has been proposed as an alternative strategy for managing Third World fisheries. We examine the initial success and subsequent problems of one such collaborative coastal zone management project on St. Lucia...

  17. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Junbao Yu; Kai Ning; Yunzhao Li; Siyao Du; Guangxuan Han; Qinghui Xing; Huifeng Wu; Guangmei Wang; Yongjun Gao

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 2− and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg ...

  18. The impact of land use and season on the riverine transport of mercury into the marine coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Saniewski, Michał; Szubska, Marta; Romanowski, Andrzej; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean seas and coastal zones, rivers can be the main source of mercury (Hg). Catchment management therefore affects the load of Hg reaching the sea with surface runoff. The major freshwater inflows to the Baltic Sea consist of large rivers. However, their systems are complex and identification of factors affecting the outflow of Hg from its catchments is difficult. For this reason, a study into the impact of watershed land use and season on mercury biogeochemistry and transport in ...

  19. Coastal Marine resources management as an issue of integrated coastal zone management in the Western Indian Ocean Africa region

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwa, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the use and abuse of coastal marine resources especially due to overexploitation, habitat degradation and unplanned changes in resource use in nearshore areas which are easily accessible. The countries in the Western Indian Ocean Africa region hardly extract more than 7% of the total annual catches of the Western Indian Ocean region. The countries of the region have low technology capabilities to allow them to effectively exploit offshore fisheries and are therefore not expe...

  20. Global spatial distribution of natural riverine silica inputs to the coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Dürr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica, SiO2, in dissolved (DSi and particulate (PSi form, is both a major product of continental weathering as well as an essential nutrient in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Here we present estimates of the spatial distribution of riverine silica fluxes under natural conditions, i.e. without human influence, to ~140 segments of the global coastal zone. Focussing on the construction of the DSi budget, natural DSi concentration is multiplied with discharge of rivers for each segment for documented basins and segments. Segments with no documentation available are estimated using clustered information based mainly on considerations of local lithology, climate, and lake retention. We approximate fluxes of particulate silica in various forms (PSi from fluxes of suspended matter, calculated from existing models. Results have been established for silica fluxes, concentrations and yields for drainage basins of the different continents, oceans basins as well as coastal segment basins. For the continental surfaces actually draining into the oceans (exorheic regions, representing 114.7 million (M km2, 371 M t y−1 of DSi and 8835 M t y−1 of PSi are transported, corresponding to a mean concentration of 9.5 mg l−1 and 226 mg l−1, and to a mean yield of 3.3 t km−2 y−1 and 77 t km−2 y−1, respectively. DSi yields exceeding 6.6 t km−2 y−1, i.e. >2× the global average, represent 17.4% of the global continental ice-free exorheic area but correspond to 56.0% of DSi fluxes. Pacific catchments hold most of the hyper-active areas (>5× global average, suggesting a close connection between tectonic activity and DSi fluxes resulting from silicate weathering. The macro-filters of regional and marginal seas intercept 33% and 46% of the total dissolved and particulate silica fluxes. The mass of DSi received from rivers

  1. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  2. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Bolman, Bas; Bricker, Suzanne; Burnell, Gavin; Caetano, Miguel; van Duijn, Arie; Fabi, Gianna; Ferreira, João G.; Gault, Jeremy; Grati, Fabio; Grönroos, Juha; Guayder, Olivier; Jak, Robbert

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include activities such as recreation, tourism, facilities for renewable energy production, all of which are expected to increase in importance. There is also increasing focus on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)...

  3. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  4. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Lucy G; Ziegler, Alan D; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M J; Wolters, Jan W; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  5. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy G Gillis

    Full Text Available Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand. We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and

  6. Habitat selection by anurofauna community at rocky seashore in coastal Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, R C; Santori, R T; Gonçalves e Cunha, F C; Pontes, J A L

    2013-08-01

    height of the plant and the diameter on top view were correlated with the occurrence of amphibians, while during the driest period there was no correlation among variables and the bromeliad usage by amphibians. Recorded species were strongly associated to the Atlantic Forest domain. Nevertheless, the occupation of rocky seashores by anurans may be more associated with the specialized reproductive modes presented by species, since there is no permanent water available in ponds or streams. PMID:24212694

  7. Salt water intrusion in aquifers of the south oriental coastal zones of Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of coastal aquifers deserves special attention in research and management of underground water resources. In this work we study the increase of salinity in coastal aquifers of south east Sicily, from Syracuse to Donnalucata, an area subject to intense overexploitation. Results of analyses of water samples collected in 2002-2004 in wells, springs and submarine springs are presented. (author)

  8. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae, aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellidae, microcrustaceans (Cladocera, aquatic ticks (Acarina, gastropods (Pomacea sp., terrestrial insects (Coleoptera, Formicidae and Isoptera, insect fragments, and plant fragments. The species presented an omnivorous feeding habit, and differences in diet could be related to variations in body sizes. Adults (large individuals feed mainly on Formicidae, plant fragments and aquatic ticks, whereas juveniles (small individuals feed basically on aquatic immature insects (Chironomidae and aquatic ticks.

  9. Fracture zones in the Mid Atlantic Ridge lead to alterations in prokaryotic and viral parameters in deep-water masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Simone; Griessler, Thomas; Köstner, Nicole; Klimiuk, Adam; Winter, Christian; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that mixing zones of deep-water masses act as ecotones leading to alterations in microbial diversity and activity due to changes in the biogeochemical characteristics of these boundary systems. We determined the changes in prokaryotic and viral abundance and production in the Vema Fracture Zone (VFZ) of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, where North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are funneled through this narrow canyon and therefore, are subjected to intense vertical mixing. Consequently, salinity, potential temperature, oxygen, PO4, SiO4, NO3 were altered in the NADW inside the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside of the VFZ. Also, viral abundance, lytic viral production (VP) and the virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR) were elevated in the NADW in the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside the VFZ. In contrast to lytic VP, lysogenic VP and both the frequency of lytically (FIC) and lysogenically infected cells (FLC) did not significantly differ between in- and outside the VFZ. Generally, FIC was higher than FLC throughout the water column. Prokaryotic (determined by T-RFLP) and viral (determined by RAPD-PCR) community composition was depth-stratified inside and outside the VFZ. The viral community was more modified both with depth and over distance inside the VFZ as compared to the northern section and to the prokaryotic communities. However, no clusters of prokaryotic and viral communities characteristic for the VFZ were identified. Based on our observations, we conclude that turbulent mixing of the deep water masses impacts not only the physico-chemical parameters of the mixing zone but also the interaction between viruses and prokaryotes due to a stimulation of the overall activity. However, only minor effects of deep water mixing were observed on the community composition of the dominant prokaryotes and viruses. PMID:24917857

  10. Fracture zones in the Mid Atlantic Ridge lead to alterations in prokaryotic and viral parameters in deep-water masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eMuck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that mixing zones of deep-water masses act as ecotones leading to alterations in microbial diversity and activity due to changes in the biogeochemical characteristics of these boundary systems. We determined the changes in prokaryotic and viral abundance and production in the Vema Fracture Zone (VFZ of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, where North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW are funneled through this narrow canyon and therefore, are subjected to intense vertical mixing. Consequently, salinity, potential temperature, oxygen, PO4, SiO4, NO3 were altered in the NADW inside the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside of the VFZ. Also, viral abundance, lytic viral production and the virus-to-prokaryote ratio were elevated in the NADW in the VFZ as compared to the NADW outside the VFZ. In contrast to lytic viral production, lysogenic VP and both the frequency of lytically (FIC and lysogenically infected cells (FLC did not significantly differ between in- and outside the VFZ. Generally, FIC was higher than FLC throughout the water column. Prokaryotic (determined by T-RFLP and viral (determined by RAPD-PCR community composition was depth-stratified inside and outside the VFZ. The viral community was more modified both with depth and over distance inside the VFZ as compared to the northern section and to the prokaryotic communities. However, no clusters of prokaryotic and viral communities characteristic for the VFZ were identified. Based on our observations, we conclude that turbulent mixing of the deep water masses impacts not only the physico-chemical parameters of the mixing zone but also the interaction between viruses and prokaryotes due to a stimulation of the overall activity. However, only minor effects of deep water mixing were observed on the community composition of the dominant prokaryotes and viruses.

  11. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  12. A new species of Serracutisoma (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Goniosomatinae) from the coastal Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio B. DaSilva

    2014-01-01

    Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is described from the coastal Ombrophylous Dense Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states. It differs from other Serracutisoma by having a retrolateral row of spines on femur IV, a rounded white-mark on the carapace and a low dorsal apophysis on trochanter IV. It is likely the sister-species of S. proximum, and with it and other five species forms the S. proximum group, herein formally proposed. Given that the biologic, phylogenetic and biogeographi...

  13. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, F.

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  14. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  15. Need for science-policy linkages for river basins and coastal zone management: Meeting report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sardessai, S.

    for dealing with extreme events in coastal belts was di s cussed with an emphasis on planned approach to hazards rather than crisis manageme nt post - facto. Relevance of preparedness for coping with nat u ral hazards in the coastal regions was hig h... to be phased out by 2008), flow dynamics - simulation and modelling for construction of jetties, etc. in coastal w a ters as well as demarcation of inland ve s sel limit by classif y ing significant wave heights through modelling efforts were also...

  16. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Fernandez-Chacon, Albert; Nordahl, Jan-Harald; Moland, Even; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland

    2016-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15-93 cm) were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500) and low-reward tags (NOK 50) were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags) may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5). Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4) of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8) and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4). Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5) of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing-rod and line fishing in particular-is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway. PMID:26959371

  17. Magnetic anomalies over fracture zones in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twigt, W.

    1980-01-01

    The offset of a fracture zone leads to a configuration in which a strip of oceanic crust of one age will be juxtaposed axially to a strip of another age. Consequently, the polarity of the magnetic layer may be different on either side of the fracture zone. Next to this magnetic contrast the fracture

  18. 77 FR 64906 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (33 FR 57063) for this rulemaking. We received no... safety zone is in effect. This initial zone (published in the Federal Register on June 15, 2012, at 77...

  19. 77 FR 64720 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... (NPRM) for this rule on September 13, 2012 (77 FR 56587). We received no comments in response to the... zone is in effect. This initial zone (published July 30, 2012, at 77 FR 35906) is in effect from 8...

  20. The potential for great earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone, coastal Pacific Northwest - Evaluation of geologic methods of assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental question in earthquake hazards research in the Pacific Northwest is the potential for future great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone in Oregon and Washington. If plate-interface earthquakes have recurred in the late Holocene, determination of their magnitude, extent, and age is critical for resolution of safety issues in the region. A number of different geologic field studies aimed at resolving these issues are in progress in the coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. Because the record of paleoseismic events is fragmentary, a variety of different methods are being used to piece together the late Quaternary tectonic and paleoseismic history of the region. Work in progress falls into two groups - paleoseismology studies of the middle and late Holocene (<5 ka) coastal record, and studies of cumulative late Quaternary tectonic deformation as expressed by marine and fluvial terraces and river valley morphology. Although most studies have focused on the Holocene, regional neotectonic studies provide the critical tectonic framework needed for interpreting the fragmentary record of Holocene seismic events. Thus, when combined with seismological and geophysical studies and comparisons with other subduction zones, these regional studies may provide the most convincing evidence for segmentation of the Cascadia subduction zone. A credible segmentation scenario using both Holocene and Pleistocene data will be the basis for future estimates of magnitude and extent of probable plate-interface earthquakes in the region - critical information for the assessment of the safety of nuclear facilities

  1. Ecomorphological patterns of the fishes inhabiting the tide pools of the Amazonian Coastal Zone, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eleres Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the identification of the ecomorphological patterns that characterize the fish species found in tide pools in the Amazonian Coastal Zone (ACZ in the Pará State, Brazil. Representatives of 19 species were collected during two field campaigns in 2011. The dominance, residence status, and trophic guild of each species were established, and morphometric data were obtained for up to 10 specimens of each species. A total of 23 ecomorphological attributes related to locomotion, position in the water column, and foraging behavior were calculated for the analysis of ecomorphological distance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was utilized for the evaluation of ecomorphological attributes that explained the variation among species. Mantel Test was used to correlate the taxonomic distance with species' morphological patterns and a partial Mantel Test to analyze the correlation among trophic guilds and ecomorphological patterns, controlling the effects of taxonomic distance among species. The analyses revealed two principal axes of the variation related to locomotion, correlated with the width of the caudal peduncle and the shape of the anal fin, as well as the influence of taxonomic distance on the ecomorphological characteristics of the different species. The dominant and resident species both presented a reduced capacity for continuous swimming. The two principal axes identified in relation to the position of the fish in the water column were correlated with the position of the eyes, the area of the pelvic fin, and body shape, with evidence of the influence of taxonomic distance on the morphology of the species. PCA grouped species with pelagic habits with benthonic ones. In the case of foraging behavior, the two principal axes formed by the analysis correlated with the size of the mouth, eye size, and the length of the digestive tract. Species of different guilds were grouped together, indicating a weak relationship

  2. A Model for the Transport of Sea-Spray Aerosols in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzola, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Demoisson, A.

    2015-05-01

    We study the dynamics of sea-spray particles in the coastal region of La Reunion Island on the basis of numerical simulations using the transport aerosol model MACMod (Marine Aerosol Concentration Model) and a survey of the aerosol size distributions measured at four locations at two different heights in the north-west part of the island. This allows evaluation of the performance of our model in case of pure marine air masses with implementation of accurate boundary conditions. First of all, an estimate of the aerosol concentration at 10-m height at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain is obtained using a revisited version of the MEDEX (Mediterranean Extinction) model. Estimates of the vertical profile of aerosol concentrations are then provided using aerosol data obtained at two different heights at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain. A parametrization of the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations for maritime environment is proposed. The results are then compared to the vertical profiles of 0.532 m aerosol particle extinction coefficient obtained from lidar data provided by the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and also to the data provided by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). This allows validation of the complete vertical profiles in the mixed layer and shows the validity of satellite data for determination of the vertical profiles. Two kinds of simulation were made: one without a particle advection flux at the upwind boundary of the numerical domain, whereas the second simulation was made with a particle advection flux. In the first case, the influence of the distance to the shoreline on the local sea-spray dynamics is investigated. In the second set of simulation, the particles issued from the local production in the surf zone near the shoreline are mixed with aerosols advected from the remote ocean. A good agreement between the model calculations using our boundary conditions and the data was found. The

  3. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: A meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of property has been staggering. Monetary losses run into crores and are thus prohibitive. Therefore, coastal managers have to consider whether it is economically viable to rebuild as before, whether to abandon the impacted coast and move inland, or, whether...

  4. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lav Bavčević; Tomislav Vodopija; Mario Lovrinov

    2001-01-01

    We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquacultu...

  5. Performance Indicator Framework for Evaluation of Sustainable Tourism in the Taiwan Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by the ocean, Taiwan has been increasingly developing coastal tourism projects. Concerns that negative impacts might be brought about by prosperous tourism have resulted in a recent focus on sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism involves policies that acknowledge the interdependences among the environment, the community, and the economy. The goal of sustainable tourism is to enhance and protect the environment while satisfying basic human requirements, as well as those of the contemporary and future tourism industries to improve quality of life. On the other hand, unsustainable coastal tourism might undermine the natural environment and society, resulting in air, water, and soil pollution, wildlife habitat disruption, and changes of local community cultural characteristics. Therefore, performance evaluation of coastal tourism, using an indicator framework to facilitate sustainable development and enhance the effectiveness of coastal resources exploitation, is critical. Through a literature review and expert surveys using the methods of the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP, this study builds a performance indicator framework and identifies the key factors affecting the sustainable development of coastal tourism in Taiwan. The results can serve as a reference for the public sector to be used for the sustainable planning and development of coastal tourism.

  6. Assessment of risk factors in pollution of coastal zone and river basins by numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pollution. For this aim the special deterministic models on the basis of passive admixture's turbulence diffusion equation is used. For numerical calculations Mc Kormack's predictor-corrector two steps scheme is used. The scheme is disintegrated, second order in space and time. Such scheme is established because the turbulent velocities very differ in horizontal and vertical directions and model allows implementing singular independent steps in different directions. Grid step for the model is 26.88 km in horizontal direction and 20 m m in vertical until 200 m. Time step is equal to 4 hours and computational time period - 4 months. Number of grid points is equal to 4983 for all calculation areas. Computations are carried out separately for big rivers basins as well as for Black and Caspian Seas water areas. The model calculations are made for cases with various locations of pollutant sources including accidental throws. For different realistic scenarios are calculated the concentrations of admixtures. The directions of their propagation are also determined. The risks are calculated in comparison with the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of the pollutants according to achieved results. That gives possibility to define the most vulnerable areas in coastal zones. Realized methodology is verified by means of various scenarios for mentioned rivers and sea basins. The maps with indication of risk zones in river basins as well as of Black and Caspian Seas water areas are created

  7. The Effect of Altitudinal Gradient on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Almeida, D. Q.; Correa, L. O.; Carmo, J. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a vast heterogeneous region with 1.5 million km2, encompassing a large variety of forest physiognomies and compositions, containing large number of species. These forests are distributed in different topographic and climatic conditions, with high levels of precipitation. The rate of deforestation is high, approaching 350 km2 per year, showing be highly fragmented with a large number of species in extinction. The aim of this study was to understanding of the basic biogeochemistry functioning of the coastal Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Forest at sea level; Lowland Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 100m of altitude asl; Submontana Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 400m of altitude asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 1000m of altitude asl. A sampling area of 1 ha in each phytophysiognomies was subdivided in contiguous sub-parcels (10 x 10m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06m2) was collected monthly (n=15), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30m away from each other. Techniques of multivariate like principal components analysis (PCA) were used to determine correlations between the variable. The ordination graphs make possible to observe frequent of standards, representing a significant ratio of the variability of the data. The two first PCA axes cumulatively explained 60% of the total variance of the litter variables. Litter C and δ13C values were strongly influenced by altitude at 1000m. The N and δ15N of litter were influenced by altitude at 100 and 400m. The C/N relation was influenced by altitude at 0m. The lignin was elevated (p<0.01) at sea level in comparison with the other phytophysiognomies. The cellulose values did not vary significantly along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N concentrations progressively increased along the

  8. Energy-related perturbations of the northeast coastal zone: five years (1974-1979) of oceanographic research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.

    1980-03-01

    Since inception of oceanographic research at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1974, over 75 cruises and 150 papers and reports have been completed. In comparison of shelf ecosystems at high, mid, and low latitudes, an understanding of the natural variability of US coastal waters has been derived. Annual carbon and nitrogen budgets suggest that the energy flow is diverted to a pelagic food web in summer-fall and a demersal food web in winter-spring within the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The impact of energy-related perturbations can now be assessed within the context of natural oscillation of the coastal food web.

  9. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, James H W; Hampp, Joy D; McKenney, Sheila A; Albert, Julie A; Kenney, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007), 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to conservation biology

  10. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H W Hain

    Full Text Available In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007, 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn, with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment. At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  11. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of leaves, litter and soils of the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil along an altitudinal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, S. M.; Della Coletta, L.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study the carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and stable carbon (δ13C) and stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition were determined in samples of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves, litter, and soil samples in two different altitudes (Lowland and Montane Forests) of the coastal Atlantic Forest situated in the Southeast region of Brazil. In both altitudes there were two main differences between Fabaceae and non Fabaceae specimens. Fabaceae had a higher foliar nitrogen content and lower foliar δ15N than non Fabaceae specimens. As a consequence it seems that most of the Fabaceae specimens are fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere in both altitudes. This fact is contrary to most of other studies that found that most Fabaceae are not fixing nitrogen in tropical forests. We speculate that the main reason that Fabaceae are actively fixing nitrogen in the coastal Atlantic Forest is the steepness of the terrain that leads to frequent landslides, causing frequent disturbances of the nitrogen cycle, fostering nitrogen fixation. The main difference between the Lowland and the Montane Forest plots was the higher δ15N in the former in comparison with the later. We speculated that this difference is caused by larger losses of nitrogen by denitrification and riverine output, leading an enriched 15N substrate.

  12. Chemical and Isotopic Variations with Depth: a Detailed Saturated Zone Profile of a 140m Thick Coastal Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raanan, H.; Ronen, D.; Weisbrod, N.; Dahan, O.; Seiler, K.; Vengosh, A.

    2005-12-01

    A percussion borehole was constructed through the saturated zone of the Mediterranean coastal aquifer in Tel Aviv, Israel, penetrating its three subaquifers and the upper part of the underlying Saqiye aquitard. The research site was previously subjected to direct industrial contamination and is currently exposed to the industrial contaminants in the outskirts of the densely populated Tel Aviv metropolis. Here we report the results of a large variety of analysis conducted on the 140m saturated profile that included field measurements (e.g. dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, conductivity), major elements (e.g. Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Ca2+, K+, Na+), trace elements (e.g. Pb, Fe, Cu) and radium isotopic measurements (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra). A clear distinction between the units becomes evident along the vertical profile; the upper phreatic unit (A) appears to be more saline relative to the central unit (B) (TDS of 734 and 670 mg/L, respectively). The deep unit (C) is significantly more saline in its lower part (up to 860 mg/L). We observed two nitrate peaks in the central zones of subaquifers B and C. The high nitrate peaks are associated with low Na/Cl and high Ca/Cl ratios. The 224Ra/223Ra ratio also changes with depth; in the upper and the lower subaquifers the relatively low 224Ra/223Ra ratios (50) indicates a larger fraction of a uranium source whereas in the central zone of the aquifer high 224Ra/223Ra ratios reflect rather a predominant thorium source for the dissolved radium. The data obtained through this borehole allows a rare investigation of the heterogeneity of water quality and composition in a coastal aquifer. The data provides characterization of different end-members along the saturated zone and also indicates the different proportions of lateral versus vertical flows of groundwater in a porous media.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and cyclic pesticides in sediments and macroinvertebrates from the coastal regions of different climatological zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study contributed towards establishing the status of a tropical and a moderate latitude marine ecosystem in terms of the concentration of anthropogenic, lipid associated, cyclic, halogenated hydrocarbons in surface sediments and benthic macroinvertebrates. Samples were obtained from the coastal region and the continental slope of Kenya (Indian Ocean), the Dutch coastal region and the continental shelf of the North Sea, and a bay area of Curacao (Netherlands Antilles, Caribbean). In surface sediments (Kenya), congeners CB28, CB52, CB101, CB118, CB153, CB138 and CB180, and the pesticides alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH, dieldrin, endrin and members of the DDT family were not identified, except in the estuarine zone of the Sabaki River. In North Sea surface sediment, the characteristics PCB pattern was always determined, and concentrations were particularly enhanced in sediment from the river mouths. Also, alpha-HCH, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE were quantified in most samples. Regarding benthic invertebrates, CBs and p,p'-DDE were quantified. Some samples showed particularly enhanced levels in bivalve molluscs and certain penaeid prawns the Kenyan coastal region. The high levels present in the digestive (pyloric caeca) and reproductive (gonad) organs of seastar from the North Sea confirmed distinct concentration gradients. Sponges and tunicates from the bay area of Curacao accumulated CBs and p,p'-DDE, but not at very high concentrations. (author). 23 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy of phytoplankton in the coastal zone of the Crimea (Black sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the concentrations of 45 elements in the coastal phytoplankton communities used as bioindicator of inorganic contamination of the Black Sea coastal area near Sevastopol, Ukraine, were determined by means of neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer. Phytoplankton samples were collected by total tows of the plankton net with 35 μm pore size at 3 stations situated in polluted and relatively pristine water areas of the Sevastopol coastal zone during autumn period of the phytoplankton active growth. The concentration of Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, As, Rb, Ba, Th and Fe, Cr increases exponentially from relatively pristine station to more polluted station and 10 and 3 times greater, respectively, in the phytoplankton of the Sevastopol Bay. The rare-earth elements have relatively the same concentration values of about 1 μg/g and tend to accumulate in the phytoplankton from the polluted station in the Sevastopol Bay. The obtained results are in good agreement with the elemental concentration data in the oceanic plankton, plankton communities from the White Sea and the Black Sea. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry the mineral particles of unknown origin and impurities of copper (0.42% by weight) in the phytoplankton at the polluted station and zinc (0.57% by weight) at the relatively pristine station were determined

  15. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: a meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    to hydrometeorological hazards, suffer from incalculable social and economic losses, and face irreversible impacts. A coastal manager needs to know that the east coast of India has been hit by a minimum of 4 high intensity cyclones every year over the last 100 years... depending upon the type of ecosystems and development along coasts. The main essence of CRZ Notification of 1991 was to protect ecologically sensitive coastal network. But the main issue of interest to the present topic is that CRZ I also includes areas...

  16. Organic tracers in sediments from the coastal zone of Ras Abu el-Darag, Gulf of Suez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Kassim, Tarek A. T. A.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2009-10-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal zone of the Gulf of Suez contain a variety of organic compounds from anthropogenic and natural sources. A total of 12 surface samples of bottom sediments were collected with an Ekman grab sampler along an off-shore transect south of Ras Abu el-Darag. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1 v/v) after drying and sieving through 250 μm mesh. The extracts were derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of the organic components. Marine with minor terrestrial biota were the major natural sources of organic tracers and included n-alkanoic acids, sterols and saccharides (5.7-76.7%). Anthropogenic sources, from petroleum related activities, detergent usage for spill cleaning and littering, are indicated by the presence of n-alkanes with carbon preference index ≤1.0, hopanes, steranes, unresolved complex mixture of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons, alkyl nitriles, alkamides and plasticizers. Their total relative concentrations ranged from 23.3 to 97.3% of the total extracts. Petroleum residues from natural seepage may also be part of these hydrocarbons. The levels of anthropogenic inputs decrease from about 94% in coastal zone sediments to about 20% in sediments from the reef front.

  17. Wet and dry atmospheric depositions of inorganic nitrogen during plant growing season in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei; Gao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 (2-) and Na(+) were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m(-2), in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3 (-)-N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4 (+)-N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N in 0-10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD. PMID:24977238

  18. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42- and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3-–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3-–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3-–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  19. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. PMID:27317133

  20. Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities

  1. Artisanal fisheries production in the coastal zone of Itaipu, Niterói , RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Almeida Tubino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries in the coastal zone of Itaipu-RJ play an important role in the local market, but little is known about production and productivity of the fisheries. From April 2001 to March 2003, we monitored a total of 618 landings from the beach-seine (99, the gill nets ("corvineira" - 331, "linguadeira" - 40 and "rede alta" - 25, the hook and line (98, the squid jigging (17, and the spear fishing and trap fisheries (five and three, respectively. The total monitored production was 21866 kg and the catch per unit effort (CPUE 35.4 kg.trip-1. Considering the number of effective fishing days and the average daily production per fishing gear, the annual production was estimated at 136687 kg (0.2% of the state's production in 2004. Predominant resources were: Micropogonias furnieri,Trichiurus lepturus, squids (Loligo spp., clupeiform fishes (Sardinella brasiliensis, Cetengraulis edentulus, Pellona harrowerii and Harengula clupeola, Eucinostomus spp., Cynoscion spp., Menticirrhus spp., Caranx crysos and Selene setapinnis. The combined analysis using hierarchical and non-hierarchical classification methods, separated four fishing gears and five species groups, based on their similarity patterns, identifying gears that most effectively capture the different fish groups. The beach-seine was less selective and most productive fishery in the summer. The "corvineira" was the second most productive fishery with higher yields in the summer and fall. Catches of "linguadeira" included rays and Paralychthys spp., wherereas the "rede alta" caught primarily M. furnieri,Mugil spp. and sharks.As pescarias artesanais na zona costeira de Itaipu-RJ desempenham um papel importante no mercado local, mas pouco se conhece sobre a produção e a produtividade da pesca. De abril-2001 a março-2003, nós monitoramos um total de 618 desembarques das pescarias de arrastos-de-praia (99, de redes de emalhe (corvineira - 331, linguadeira - 40 e rede alta - 25, de linha

  2. Scientific concepts for hydroacoustic seafloor mapping in the coastal zone and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Bürk, Dietmar; Holler, Peter; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, Hans-Christian

    2013-04-01

    usually single-beam systems that need suitable interpolation routines. We present a workflow for on-survey visualization of hydroacoustic data using color interpolation and present a method to combine the hydroacoustic and ground-truth data sets. Eventually, we suggest a way to interpret the data in a most objective manner. The results from the coastal zone of the North Sea reveal that for scientific purposes it is mostly sufficient to maintain transect-line distances of two or three times the SSS swath width. It is suggested to build gray-scale SSS mosaics during the survey. As a general rule a classification into 20% gray-scale classes should be carried out and 5 samples per class should be taken as a minimum requirement. We recommend to apply two SSS frequencies synchronously to enable the discrimination between backscatter due to grain size and backscatter due to small bedforms. This information is also most important for the interpretation of roughness and hardness data provided by the AGDS. The synopsis of both, SSS and AGDS in combination with multibeam and ground-truth data reveals the most reliable results.

  3. High Holocene coastal uplift gives insight into the seismic behavior at the Arica Bend (Peru-Chile subduction zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madella, Andrea; Delunel, Romain; Szidat, Sönke; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    KEYWORDS: northern Chile, coastal uplift, plate coupling, seismic cycle The Peru-Chile subduction zone offshore of the Arica Bend (18.3° S) is characterized by a seaward-concave geometry, which represents a very uncommon tectonic setting. Several published estimates of plate coupling suggest that the locking degree in the curved segment may be significantly lower than to the north and south of it, however, the lack of historical slip events hinders a full understanding of the seismic behavior in this particular portion of plate interface. We have mapped a terrace located at 35 m a.s.l. ca. 3 km onshore from the mouth of the Lluta river, which debouches immediately to the north of Arica. The sedimentology of the terrace has been described and three wood fragments embedded therein have been collected for radiocarbon dating. In addition, we compared the long stream profile of the Lluta river with its modeled steady-state profile, aiming to detect any possible tectonic perturbation along the trunk stream. Results show that the dated terrace consists of a thin storm deposit embedded within fluvial delta conglomerates, which have been most likely deposited near sea-level at ~10 ka. We thus infer that the coast of the Arica Bend, although characterized by long-term quiescence, has undergone remarkable uplift (~5 mm/y) throughout the Holocene. The vertical displacement has been inferred at roughly 175 km from the trench, which corresponds to the landward termination of the locked zone. Considering this structural position and the long-term absence of coseismic events in this trench segment, we propose that the inferred uplift signal might be related to interseismic flexural buckling, which does not result in permanent crustal deformation. Contrariwise, in the adjacent coastal regions north and south of the Arica Bend, repeated seismic cycles have resulted in long-term permanent crustal deformation, as observable in the uplifted Coastal Cordillera.

  4. Recent Evolution of Western Pacific Coastal Zones: Human-Induced Changes Documented by Remotely-Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Robinson, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Even as we struggle to understand the processes instrumental in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pacific plate, the rates and magnitudes of some fundamental geologic agents are changing due to human interactions with the Earth. Coastal landscapes of the western Pacific convergent margins have experienced unprecedented changes in the past 50 years due to human activities. Abundant natural resources created by convergent margin processes (for example, rich volcanic soils supporting hardwood forests and agriculture; economically viable mineral deposits; and natural harbors) attract large human populations and development. Populations are growing especially rapidly along Pacific coastal zones; their increasing demands for water and electricity drive developments such as large dam construction that become key agents of geomorphologic change. For example, all of East Asia's major rivers are controlled by large dams, and hundreds of new dams are in stages of planning or construction. These developments dramatically change the water and sediment fluxes along the coast. Impacts include changing rates of deposition, shifting salinity balances in coastal waters, coastal erosion and subsidence, changing ecosystems and biogeochemical balances and controls. Another important change agent is coastline modification through land reclamation and development using dikes, levees, channel construction and dredge and fill activities. Using remotely sensed imagery -- astronaut images of Earth -- we provide examples of human activities currently modifying landscapes along East Asian coasts. Here, natural and human factors are interactive, and combine to create some of the largest rates of change along coasts anywhere in the world. In a sense, these events provide a laboratory for viewing natural processes at accelerated rates. The outstanding question is: Where will these changes in geomorphologic process take us in the larger context of the biogeochemical evolution of the margin of the

  5. Differential dissolution of a Pleistocene reef in the groundwater mixing zone of coastal Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Herman, J.S.; Van Driel, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Mixing of fresh groundwater with subterranean Caribbean seawater generates a highly reactive geochemical zone that enhances aragonite and calcite dissolution and permits neomorphism of aragonite.-from Authors

  6. Long-term trends in eutrophication and nutrients in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Anne-Marie; Weckström, Kaarina; Conley, Daniel;

    2006-01-01

    We used high-resolution paleoecological records of environmental change to study the rate and magnitude of eutrophication over the last century in two contrasting coastal ecosystems. A multiproxy approach using geochemical and biological indicators and diatom-based transfer functions provides a l...

  7. Seasonal and long-term changes in pH in the Dutch coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, P.; van Heuven, S.; Soetaert, K.; Laane, R. W. P. M.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that biogeochemical changes can mask atmospheric CO(2)-induced pH decreases. Data collected by the Dutch monitoring authorities in different coastal systems (North Sea, Wadden Sea, Ems-Dollard, Eastern Scheldt and Scheldt estuary) since 1975 provide

  8. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Bay anchovy

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The bay anchovy occurs along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Yucatan, Mexico (Hildebrand 1963), except for the Florida Keys where it is apparently absent (Daly 1970). (PDF contains 22 pages)

  9. 78 FR 57480 - Safety Zone; 2013 Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator Lighthouse, Atlantic Ocean; Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator... Islamorada, Florida, during the 2013 Annual Islamorada Swim for Alligator Lighthouse on September 21,...

  10. 77 FR 50062 - Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves,...

  11. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    which was reminiscent of Oligocene and early Miocene ecosystems analyzed in previous studies (e.g. Kotthoff et al. 2014). The ecosystem was characterized by oak-hickory forests which probably dominated in the lowlands, while frequent occurrence of conifer pollen (Pinus, Picea, Abies, Sciadopitys, and Tsuga canadensis) indicate that conifer forests prevailed in higher altitudes during the MMCO. We assume that the Miocene uplift of the Appalachian Mountains (e.g. Gallen et al., 2013) led to the proliferation of mountainous taxa and thus to an increase of related pollen taxa in the palynological record. References: Gallen, S. F., Wegmann, K. W., Bohnenstieh, D. W. R.: Miocene rejuvenation of topographic relief in the southern Appalachians, GSA Today, 23, 4-10, 2013. Kotthoff, U., McCarthy, F.M.G., Greenwood, D.R., Müller-Navarra, K., Prader, S., Hesselbo, S.P., (2014): Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from 33 to 13 million years ago (IODP expedition 313). Climate of the Past 10, 1523-1539.

  12. Shore zone land use and land cover: Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, R.; Hayden, B.P.; Vincent, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    Anderson's 1972 United States Geological Survey classification in modified form was applied to the barrier-island coastline within the CARETS region. High-altitude, color-infrared photography of December, 1972, and January, 1973, served as the primary data base in this study. The CARETS shore zone studied was divided into six distinct geographical regions; area percentages for each class in the modified Anderson classification are presented. Similarities and differences between regions are discussed within the framework of man's modification of these landscapes. The results of this study are presented as a series of 19 maps of land-use categories. Recommendations are made for a remote-sensing system for monitoring the CARETS shore zone within the context of the dynamics of the landscapes studied.

  13. Diapycnal oxygen supply to the tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, T; D. Banyte; Brandt, P.; Dengler, M.; Krahmann, G.; Tanhua, T.; Visbeck, M.

    2013-01-01

    The replenishment of consumed oxygen in the open ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off northwest Africa is accomplished by oxygen transport across and along density surfaces, i.e. diapycnal and isopycnal oxygen supply. Here the diapycnal oxygen supply is investigated using a large observational set of oxygen profiles and diapycnal mixing data from years 2008 to 2010. Diapycnal mixing is inferred from different sources: (i) a large-scale tracer release experiment, (ii) microstructure profiles, a...

  14. Preface to the Special Issue on Satellite Altimetry over Land and Coastal Zones: Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes peer reviewed papers stemming from the International Workshop on Coast and Land applications of satellite altimetry, held 21 -22 July 2006, Beijing, China. This workshop is financially supported by the Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, National Chiao Tung University, Asia GIS and GPS Co., Chung-Hsing Surv. Co., Huanyu Surv. Eng. Cons. Inc., and Real-World Eng. Cons. Inc. Twenty-two papers were submitted to this issue for review, and 16 papers were accepted following an iterative peer-review process. The accepted papers cover subjects on: ICESat coastal altimetry (1, satellite altimetry applications in solid earth sciences (2, hydrology (4, land/coast gravity field modeling (4, and coastal oceanography (5.

  15. Extension and inversion structures in the Tethys-Atlantic linkage zone, Algarve Basin, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-07-01

    The Algarve Basin is a Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin overlying Carboniferous basement, located in the southwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula. Its structure reveals a protracted tectonic history comprising various pulses of Mesozoic extension followed by Cenozoic compression. This work deals with the structure along the northern margin, where the Mesozoic extensional structures and Cenozoic inversion structures crop out. The strike of the extensional structures ranges from E-W to N-S, as controlled by a shift from Tethyan-dominated extension in the east to Atlantic-dominated extension in the west. Contractional structures are inverted extensional structures, following their same trends. It is argued that the thickness of the Hettangian evaporite layer exerts a strong control on the structural style throughout the basin during the extensional and inversion episodes. The basin is affected by thick-skinned deformation along the northern margin, where salt is thin or absent, basement involved fault systems and short-cut structures. Basinward, as the Hettangian salt thickens, the margin is affected by thin-skinned deformation, with listric and down-to-the-basin growth faults, diapirism and salt-cored detachment folds. The aim was to discuss the key tectonic features, the relevance of salt, and understand the nature, timing, and significance of all these structures in the regional tectonic evolution.

  16. An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    OpenAIRE

    Haille N. Carter; Steffen W. Schmidt; Amy C. Hirons

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism) and coastal communities that mangroves s...

  17. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, H. G.

    1970-01-01

    The interrelationships of biophysical environmental systems are investigated. Social decision-making affecting the environments of a coastal megapolis are examined. Remote sensing from high altitude aircraft and satellites afforded a powerful and indepensible tool for inventory and planning for urban development. Repetitive low to medium altitude photography is also used for studying environmental dynamics, and to document the cultural impact of man on his environment.

  18. Carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone responds more strongly to eutrophication than to ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Alberto; Gypens, N.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean has altered carbonate chemistry in surface waters since preindustrial times and is expected to continue to do so in the coming centuries. Changes in carbonate chemistry can modify the rates and fates of marine primary production and calcification. These modifications can in turn lead to feedback on increasing atmospheric CO2. We show, using a numerical model, that in highly productive nearshore coastal marine environments, the effect of eutro...

  19. The Issue of Coastal Zone Management in Croatia – Beach Managing

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Kovaèiæ; Sreæko Favro; Mate Perišiæ

    2010-01-01

    Croatia is well known for its sun, clear sea, many islets and peninsulas; these are the key elements in its tourism development. Beaches in Croatia are specific among its touristic resources, in particularly because natural beaches are scarce. In coastal areas, beaches are mostly rocky or artificial; this makes natural beaches even more important. This paper analyzes beach management in Croatia, and gives beach definition by content and classification. The aim of paper is emphasizing the nece...

  20. Data Requirements for Oceanic Processes in the Open Ocean, Coastal Zone, and Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, R. G.; Mccandless, S. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The type of information system that is needed to meet the requirements of ocean, coastal, and polar region users was examined. The requisite qualities of the system are: (1) availability, (2) accessibility, (3) responsiveness, (4) utility, (5) continuity, and (6) NASA participation. The system would not displace existing capabilities, but would have to integrate and expand the capabilities of existing systems and resolve the deficiencies that currently exist in producer-to-user information delivery options.

  1. Editorial - Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones, Edward B. Barbier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Michael; Wolanski, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In the Invited Feature Article in this issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, we are extremely grateful to Edward Barbier for performing the major task of increasing our awareness of the hazards and risks faced by all communities on low lying coasts but especially the poor, rural communities (Barbier, 2015). Against a background of climate-induced change, we now have a good and increasing evidence of the way the natural estuarine, coastal and marine system will respond (Elliott et al, 2015). However, more importantly Barbier (2015) highlights the way in which poor, rural coastal communities will be affected and will need to respond or will need help from the developed world to respond. It is axiomatic that while those communities are having less impact than more developed countries on the causes of climate change they are more affected and so have to respond to its consequences, what have been called exogenic unmanaged pressures. Hence they need to rely on mechanisms, techniques, technologies and approaches to help them cope with such change (see also Wolanski and Elliott 2015).

  2. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the West Greenland (68 deg.-72 deg. N) coastal zone, 2nd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, D.; Johansen, Kasper L.; Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Wegeberg, S.

    2012-12-15

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68 deg. N and 72 deg. N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. (Author)

  3. Baseline Vegetation Photographs of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One representative photo taken from each coastal wetland elevation monitoring site. Photos were taken from one corner of the plot and oriented within the plot. In...

  4. Baseline Vegetation Plot Data of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plot level raw data, including Cover, Woody Stem, and Plot/Environmental, datasets from the first year of vegetation sampling on Coastal Wetland Elevation...

  5. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  6. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay Basins, New Jersey, water years 1976--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunchak-Kariouk, K.; Buxton, D.E.; Hickman, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of 18 water-quality constituents in samples collected at 28 surface-water-quality stations within the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay Basins (referred to as the study area) during water years 1976--93 (October 1, 1975, through September 30, 1993). Relations between each of the 18 constituents and streamflow at the 28 stations over the period of record were determined by testing for trends in the concentrations of constituents during low and high flows. Qualitative values of contributions from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) sources were estimated statistically by examining the relations between concentrations of constituents and streamflow, and load and streamflow.

  7. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  8. Influence of frontal zones on the distribution of particulate matter and organic compounds in surface waters of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Redzhepova, Z. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter and organic compounds (chlorophyll, lipids, and hydrocarbons) were analyzed in surface waters along the routes of R/Vs Akademik Fedorov (cruise 32) and Akademik Treshnikov (cruise 2) in February-May of 2012 and 2014, respectively, in the course of the 57th and 59th Russian Antarctic expeditions. It was found that the frontal zones exert the primary influence on the concentrations of the mentioned components in the Southern Ocean and in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. The supply of pollutants into the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on the shelf of the Iberian peninsula results in a pronounced increase in the concentrations of lipids and hydrocarbons causing local anthropogenic pollution zones.

  9. Meso- to submesocale oxygen variability and lateral oxygen fluxes in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Johannes; Brandt, Peter; Krahmann, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) is located between the oxygen-rich equatorial region and the Cape Verde Frontal Zone at 20°N in a depth range between 300m - 700m. Its southern boundary is predominantly set by the equatorial zonal current system, where the northernmost current branch is represented by the eastward flowing North Equatorial Counter Current / North Equatorial Undercurrent (NECC/NEUC) at 5°N. Recent studies have shown enhanced oxygen variability for this location at the OMZ core depth which is generated due to mesoscale stirring induced by tropical instability waves as well as seasonal variability of the NECC/NEUC. An extensive measurement program was carried out in the past decade consisting of repeat ship sections as well as moored and glider observations along the 23°W section in order to study oxygen ventilation and oxygen variability in the ETNA OMZ regime. Moored and shipboard observations of oxygen and velocity reveal an eddy-driven northward oxygen flux towards the OMZ core, which results in an oxygen supply of up to 60% of the observed oxygen consumption. Based on the several year long moored observations at 5°N and 8°N, a seasonal variability of the eddy-driven meridional oxygen flux is found. Corresponding frequency spectra of the mooring time series are used to discuss time scales of enhanced variability of oxygen and meridional velocity. In this study, we explicitly present a measurement program which was conducted at 5°N, 23°W consisting of a triangular mooring array (Nov. 2012 - Apr. 2014) as well as a glider swarm experiment with a fleet of 3 gliders (Nov. - Dec. 2012). Based on this data set, a variogram of oxygen is derived to study spatial scales on the meso- to submesoscale in the NECC/NEUC regime.

  10. Distribution and ecophysiology of calanoid copepods in relation to the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Teuber

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs affect distribution patterns, community structure and metabolic processes of marine organisms. Due to the prominent role of zooplankton, especially copepods, in the marine carbon cycle and the predicted intensification and expansion of OMZs, it is essential to understand the effects of hypoxia on zooplankton distribution and ecophysiology. For this study, calanoid copepods were sampled from different depths (0-1800 m at eight stations in the eastern tropical Atlantic (3 °47'N to 18 °S during three expeditions in 2010 and 2011. Their horizontal and vertical distribution was determined and related to the extent and intensity of the OMZ, which increased from north to south with minimum O2 concentrations (12.7 µmol kg(-1 in the southern Angola Gyre. Calanoid copepod abundance was highest in the northeastern Angola Basin and decreased towards equatorial regions as well as with increasing depth. Maximum copepod biodiversity was observed in the deep waters of the central Angola Basin. Respiration rates and enzyme activities were measured to reveal species-specific physiological adaptations. Enzyme activities of the electron transport system (ETS and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH served as proxies for aerobic and anaerobic metabolic activity, respectively. Mass-specific respiration rates and ETS activities decreased with depth of occurrence, consistent with vertical changes in copepod body mass and ambient temperature. Copepods of the families Eucalanidae and Metridinidae dominated within the OMZ. Several of these species showed adaptive characteristics such as lower metabolic rates, additional anaerobic activity and diel vertical migration that enable them to successfully inhabit hypoxic zones.

  11. Distribution and ecophysiology of calanoid copepods in relation to the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Lena; Schukat, Anna; Hagen, Wilhelm; Auel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) affect distribution patterns, community structure and metabolic processes of marine organisms. Due to the prominent role of zooplankton, especially copepods, in the marine carbon cycle and the predicted intensification and expansion of OMZs, it is essential to understand the effects of hypoxia on zooplankton distribution and ecophysiology. For this study, calanoid copepods were sampled from different depths (0-1800 m) at eight stations in the eastern tropical Atlantic (3 °47'N to 18 °S) during three expeditions in 2010 and 2011. Their horizontal and vertical distribution was determined and related to the extent and intensity of the OMZ, which increased from north to south with minimum O2 concentrations (12.7 µmol kg(-1)) in the southern Angola Gyre. Calanoid copepod abundance was highest in the northeastern Angola Basin and decreased towards equatorial regions as well as with increasing depth. Maximum copepod biodiversity was observed in the deep waters of the central Angola Basin. Respiration rates and enzyme activities were measured to reveal species-specific physiological adaptations. Enzyme activities of the electron transport system (ETS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) served as proxies for aerobic and anaerobic metabolic activity, respectively. Mass-specific respiration rates and ETS activities decreased with depth of occurrence, consistent with vertical changes in copepod body mass and ambient temperature. Copepods of the families Eucalanidae and Metridinidae dominated within the OMZ. Several of these species showed adaptive characteristics such as lower metabolic rates, additional anaerobic activity and diel vertical migration that enable them to successfully inhabit hypoxic zones. PMID:24223716

  12. Differences between coastal and open ocean distributions of N2O in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kock

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Depth profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O were measured during six cruises to the upwelling area and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ off Peru in 2009 and 2012/13, covering both the coastal shelf region and the adjacent open ocean. N2O profiles displayed a strong sensitivity towards oxygen concentrations. Open ocean profiles showed a transition from a broad maximum to a double-peak structure towards the centre of the OMZ where the oxygen minimum was more pronounced. Maximum N2O concentrations in the open ocean were about 80 nM. A linear relationship between ΔN2O and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU could be found for all measurements within the upper oxycline, with a slope similar to studies in other oceanic regions. N2O profiles close to the shelf revealed a much higher variability, with N2O concentrations in the upper oxycline reaching up to several hundred nanomoles per liter at selected stations. Due to the extremely sharp oxygen gradients at the shelf, these maxima occurred in very shallow water depths of less than 50 m. In this area, a linear relationship between ΔN2O and AOU could not be observed. N2O concentrations above 100 nM were observed at oxygen concentrations ranging from close to saturation to suboxic conditions. Our results indicate that the coastal upwelling off Peru at the shelf causes conditions that lead to extreme N2O accumulation.

  13. Water column biogeochemistry of oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical North Atlantic and eastern tropical South Pacific oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, Carolin R.; Bange, Hermann W.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Callbeck, Cameron M.; Engel, Anja; Hauss, Helena; Kanzow, Torsten; Kiko, Rainer; Lavik, Gaute; Loginova, Alexandra; Melzner, Frank; Meyer, Judith; Neulinger, Sven C.; Pahlow, Markus; Riebesell, Ulf; Schunck, Harald; Thomsen, Sören; Wagner, Hannes

    2016-06-01

    Recent modeling results suggest that oceanic oxygen levels will decrease significantly over the next decades to centuries in response to climate change and altered ocean circulation. Hence, the future ocean may experience major shifts in nutrient cycling triggered by the expansion and intensification of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are connected to the most productive upwelling systems in the ocean. There are numerous feedbacks among oxygen concentrations, nutrient cycling and biological productivity; however, existing knowledge is insufficient to understand physical, chemical and biological interactions in order to adequately assess past and potential future changes. In the following, we summarize one decade of research performed in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB754) focusing on climate-biogeochemistry interactions in tropical OMZs. We investigated the influence of low environmental oxygen conditions on biogeochemical cycles, organic matter formation and remineralization, greenhouse gas production and the ecology in OMZ regions of the eastern tropical South Pacific compared to the weaker OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Based on our findings, a coupling of primary production and organic matter export via the nitrogen cycle is proposed, which may, however, be impacted by several additional factors, e.g., micronutrients, particles acting as microniches, vertical and horizontal transport of organic material and the role of zooplankton and viruses therein.

  14. A Northward Shift of the North Atlantic Ocean Intertropical Convergence Zone in Response to Summertime Saharan Dust Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Eric M.; Lau, K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2010-01-01

    The influence on the summertime North Atlantic Ocean inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) of Saharan dust outbreaks is explored using nine years of continuous satellite observations and atmospheric reanalysis products. During dust outbreak events rainfall along the ITCZ shifts northward by 1 to 4 degrees latitude. Dust outbreaks coincide with warmer lower-tropospheric temperatures compared to low dust conditions, which is attributable to advection of the warm Saharan Air Layer, enhanced subtropical subsidence, and radiative heating of dust. The enhanced positive meridional temperature gradient coincident with dust outbreaks is accompanied by an acceleration of the easterly winds on the n011h side of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ). The center of the positive vorticity region south of the AEJ moves north drawing the center of low-level convergence and ITCZ rainfall northward with it. The enhanced precipitation on the north side of the ITCZ occurs in spite of widespread sea surface temperature cooling north of the ITCZ owing to reduced surface solar insolation by dust scattering.

  15. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  16. Growth characteristics of fish species Gerres filamentosus (Cuvier, 1829) in coastal zone, Quang Binh province

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Van Thiep; Tran, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Thi Huong Binh; Huynh, Ngoc Tam

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted from October 2013 to March 2014 by using the method applied in the current ichthyology study by GV Nikolski, Pravdin IF, OF Xakun, NA Buskaia and Mai Dinh Yen. Fish samples were collected in the coastal area of Quang Binh province. The study results showed that Gerres filamentosus (Cuvier, 1829) had the length romf 52mm to 230mm, corresponding to the weight from 4g to 185g. The age structure of the fish was simple that consisted of four age groups (0+ - 3+), the ann...

  17. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  18. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

  19. Climate influence on Vibrio and associated human diseases during the past half-century in the coastal North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Grande, Chiara; Reid, Philip C; Hélaouët, Pierre; Edwards, Martin; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

    2016-08-23

    Climate change is having a dramatic impact on marine animal and plant communities but little is known of its influence on marine prokaryotes, which represent the largest living biomass in the world oceans and play a fundamental role in maintaining life on our planet. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, experimental evidence is provided on the link between multidecadal climatic variability in the temperate North Atlantic and the presence and spread of an important group of marine prokaryotes, the vibrios, which are responsible for several infections in both humans and animals. Using archived formalin-preserved plankton samples collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey over the past half-century (1958-2011), we assessed retrospectively the relative abundance of vibrios, including human pathogens, in nine areas of the North Atlantic and North Sea and showed correlation with climate and plankton changes. Generalized additive models revealed that long-term increase in Vibrio abundance is promoted by increasing sea surface temperatures (up to ∼1.5 °C over the past 54 y) and is positively correlated with the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) climatic indices (P < 0.001). Such increases are associated with an unprecedented occurrence of environmentally acquired Vibrio infections in the human population of Northern Europe and the Atlantic coast of the United States in recent years. PMID:27503882

  20. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land nd sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of the UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations. (author)

  1. Old groundwater in parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer,Atlantic Coastal Plain, Maryland, USA: Evidence fromradiocarbon, chlorine-36 and helium-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Eggleston, John R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Andreasen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Apparent groundwater ages along two flow paths in the upper Patapsco aquifer of the Maryland Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA, were estimated using 14C, 36Cl and 4He data. Most of the ages range from modern to about 500 ka, with one sample at 117 km downgradient from the recharge area dated by radiogenic 4He accumulation at more than one Ma. Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) water was located about 20 km downgradient on the northern flow path where the radiocarbon age was 21.5 ka, paleorecharge temperatures were 0.5 to 1.5 °C (a maximum cooling of about 12 °C relative to the modern mean annual temperature of 13 °C), and Cl-, Cl/Br, and stable isotopes of water were minimum. Low recharge temperatures (typically 5-7 °C) indicate that recharge occurred predominantly during glacial periods when coastal heads were lowest due to low sea-level stand. Flow velocities averaged about 1.0 ma-1 in upgradient parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer and decreased from 0.13 ma-1 to 0.04 ma-1 at 40 km and 80 km further downgradient, respectively. This study demonstrates that most water in the upper Patapsco aquifer is non-renewable on human timescales under natural gradients, thus highlighting the importance of effective water-supply management to prolong the resource.

  2. Sedimentation across the central California oxygen minimum zone: an alternative coastal upwelling sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoutere, T.L.; Mullins, H.T.; McDougall, K.; Thompson, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and diversity of terrigenous, authigenous, and biogenous material provide evidence of the effect of bottom currents and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on continental slope sedimentation offshore central California. Three major OMZ facies are identified, along the upper and lower edges of OMZ and one at its core.-from Authors

  3. Variations of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific SSS minimum zones and their relations to the ITCZ and SPCZ rain bands (1979-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchilibou, M.; Delcroix, T.; Alory, G.; Arnault, S.; Reverdin, G.

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on the time-space variability of the low Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) waters extending zonally within 2°N-12°N in the Atlantic and Pacific and within 6°S-16°S in the western third of the Pacific. The analysis is based on a combination of in situ SSS observations collected in the last three decades from voluntary observing ships, TAO/TRITON and PIRATA moorings, Argo floats, and (few) CTD profiles. The mean latitudes of the Atlantic and Pacific low SSS waters appear 1°-3° further poleward than the Evaporation minus Precipitation (E-P) minima linked to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zones (ITCZ) and South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). At the seasonal time scale, the E-P minima migrate poleward in summer hemispheres, leading the migration of the SSS minima by 2-3 months in the Atlantic ITCZ, Pacific SPCZ, and in the eastern part of the Pacific ITCZ. On the other hand, the seasonal displacements of E-P and SSS minima are in antiphase in the central and western parts of the Pacific ITCZ. At the interannual time scale, the E-P and SSS minima migrate poleward during La Nina events in the Pacific and during the positive phase of the Atlantic Meridional Dipole (AMD) in the Atlantic (and vice versa during El Nino and the negative phase of the AMD). We further document long-term (1979-2009) meridional migrations of the E-P and SSS minima, especially in the SPCZ region, and discuss whether or not they are consistent with documented SST and wind stress trends.

  4. Century-scale movement of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone linked to solar variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, R.Z.; Quinn, T.M.; Verardo, S.

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) sediments is a proxy for the influx of Caribbean surface waters (the Loop Current) into the GOM. Penetration of the Loop Current into the GOM is related to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ): northward migration of the ITCZ results in increased incursion of the Loop Current into the GOM; southward migration of the ITCZ results in decreased penetration of the Loop Current into the GOM. Abundance variations of G. sacculifer in a sediment core from the Pigmy Basin in the GOM show distinct century-scale cyclicity over the last 5,000 years. The periodicity of these abundance variations is similar to the century-scale periodicity observed in proxy records of solar variability, which suggests that the average position of the ITCZ and thus Holocene century-scale variability in the Caribbean-GOM region is linked to solar variability. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Sedimentological techniques applied to the hydrology of the Atlantic coastal plain in South Carolina and Georgia near the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to provide the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed

  6. Seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton pigment in the Laccadive (Lakshadweep) Sea as observed by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lisa Jade Lierheimer; Karl Banse

    2002-06-01

    Based on Coastal Zone Color Scanner data from November 1978 through December 1981, the seasonal cycle of phytoplankton pigment in the upper part of the euphotic zone is established for the off shore Laccadive Sea. Year-round, the pigment content is low and the seasonal range is small, following the pattern of the nutrient-poor Arabian Sea to the west. Apparently, indigenous phytoplankton blooms are absent. July and August, however, were poorly studied because of cloud cover. Interannual differences during the northeast monsoon and the spring intermonsoon periods are minor. The abundant phytoplankton caused by the upwelling off India during the southwest monsoon remains essentially restricted to the shelf, but there are occasional large, zonal outbreaks into the Laccadive Sea, as well as others advected to the south of India. Visual inspection of the raw CZCS scenes for June through November 1982-1985, with almost no data until August or even September, shows such outbreaks of pigment-rich water to be common. Inspection of monthly SeaWiFS images for 1997 through part of 2001 confirms the absence of indigenous phytoplankton blooms.

  7. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; Jørgensen, BB; Neumann, K.;

    2003-01-01

    low capacity to oxidize and trap sulfide. The inner shelf break marks the seaward border of sulfidic bottom waters, and separates two different regimes of bacterial sulfate reduction. In the sulfidic bottom waters on the shelf, up to 55% of sulfide oxidation is mediated by the large nitrate......The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore...... water profiles for dissolved,sulfide and sulfate, S-35-sulfate reduction rates, as well as bacterial counts of large sulfur bacteria from 20 stations across the continental shelf and slope. The stations covered two transects and included the inner shelf with its anoxic and extremely oxygen...

  8. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  9. Translating Knowledge into Action: Supporting Adaptation in Australia's Coastal Zone through Information Provision and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Rissik, D.; Tonmoy, F. N.; Boulter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adaptation to risks from climate change and sea-level rise is particularly important in Australia, where 70% of the population live in major coastal cities and 85% within 50km of the coast. Adaptation activity focuses at local government level and, in the absence of strong leadership from central government, the extent to which local councils have taken action to adapt is highly variable across the nation. Also, although a number of councils have proceeded as far as identifying their exposure to risk and considering adaptation options, this fails to translate into action. A principal reason for this is concern over the response from coastal residents to actions which may affect property values, and fear of litigation. A project is underway to support councils to understand their risks, evaluate adaptation options and proceed to action. This support will consist of a three-pronged framework: provision of information, a tool to support decision-making, and a community forum. Delivery involves research to understand the barriers to adaptation and how these may be overcome, optimal methods for delivery of information, and the information needs of organizations, action-takers and communities. The presentation will focus on the results of consultation undertaken to understand users' information needs around content and delivery, and how understanding of these needs has translated into design of the framework. A strongly preference was expressed to learn from peers, and a challenge for the framework is to understand how to inject adaptation knowledge which is up-to-date and accurate into peer-to-peer conversations. The community forum is one mechanism to achieve this. The basic structure and delivery mechanisms of the framework are shown in the attached.

  10. Diapycnal oxygen supply to the tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The replenishment of consumed oxygen in the open ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ off northwest Africa is accomplished by oxygen transport across and along density surfaces, i.e. diapycnal and isopycnal oxygen supply. Here the diapycnal oxygen supply is investigated using a large observational set of oxygen profiles and diapycnal mixing data from years 2008 to 2010. Diapycnal mixing is inferred from different sources: (i a large-scale tracer release experiment, (ii microstructure profiles, and (iii shipboard acoustic current measurements plus density profiles. From these measurements, the average diapycnal diffusivity in the studied depth interval from 150 to 500 m is estimated to be 1 × 10−5 m2 s−1, with lower and upper 95% confidence limits of 0.8 × 10−5 m2 s−1 and 1.4 × 10−5 m2 s−1. Diapycnal diffusivity in this depth range is predominantly caused by turbulence, and shows no significant vertical gradient. Diapycnal mixing is found to contribute substantially to the oxygen supply of the OMZ. Within the OMZ core, 1.5 μmol kg−1 yr−1 of oxygen is supplied via diapycnal mixing, contributing about one-third of the total demand. This oxygen which is supplied via diapycnal mixing originates from oxygen that has been laterally supplied within the upper Central Water layer above the OMZ, and within the Antarctic Intermediate Water layer below the OMZ. Due to the existence of a separate shallow oxygen minimum at about 100 m depth throughout most of the study area, there is no net vertical oxygen flux from the surface layer into the Central Water layer. Thus all oxygen supply of the OMZ is associated with remote pathways.

  11. 77 FR 39648 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... that specific quota is closed, even across fishing years. On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393), NMFS... fisheries remain open, except the commercial porbeagle fishery, which closed on May 30, 2012 (77 FR 32036... Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non- Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National...

  12. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity mangrove fringe in Florida, USA, and the Judan River, a small, acidic, tropical rainforest river in Borneo, Malaysia. For the first two rivers, a clear decoupling between DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here indicate that upper estuarine oligo

  13. Marine biological valuation of the shallow Belgian coastal zone:a space-use conflict example within the context of marine spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eede, S.; Laporta, L.; Deneudt, K.; Stienen, Eric; Derous, S.; Degraer, S.; Vincx, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian coastal zone hosts a complex of space-use and resource-use activities with a myriad of pressures. Specifically at the beaches, predictions on sea-level rise, storms and flood risk from the North Sea have led to several big coastal defence projects. Management of sandy beaches is a multi-faceted and complex endeavor, where the interests of several stakeholders need to be combined.In this paper, we used the marine biological valuation (BV) method in order to (1) analyse the spatial ...

  14. Modern changes of tidal troughs among the radial sand ridges in northern Jiangsu coastal zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Haijun; DU Tingqin; GAO Ang

    2009-01-01

    Using satellite images taken on different dates, GIS analysis of aerial photos, bathymetric maps and other field survey data, tidal troughs and major sand ridges in the northern Jiangsu coastal area were contrasted. The results show that there have been three types of movement or migration of tidal trough in this area: (1) Periodic and restricted, this type of trough usually developed along the beaches with immobile gully head as a result of the artificial dams and the swing range increased from gully head to the low reaches, so they have been obviously impacted by human activity and have longer swing periods; (2) Periodic and actively, this kind of trough, which swung with a fast rate and moved periodically on sand ridges, were mainly controlled by the swings of the host tidal troughs and hydrodynamic forces upon tidal sand ridge and influenced slightly by human constructions; (3) Steadily and slowly, they are the main tidal troughs with large scale and a steady orientation in this area and have slow lateral movement. The differences in migration mode of tidal trough shift result in different rates of migration and impact upon tidal sand ridges. Lateral accumulation on current tidal trough and deposition on abandoned tidal troughs are the two types of sedimentation of the tidal sand ridges formation. The whole radial sand ridge was generally prone to division and retreat although sand ridges fluctuated by the analysis of changes in talwegs of tidal troughs and shorelines of sand ridges.

  15. Mapping benthic macroalgal communities in the coastal zone using CHRIS-PROBA mode 2 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, G.; Kutser, T.; Domínguez-Gómez, J. A.; Sánchez-Carnero, N.; Freire, J.

    2011-09-01

    The ecological importance of benthic macroalgal communities in coastal ecosystems has been recognised worldwide and the application of remote sensing to study these communities presents certain advantages respect to in situ methods. The present study used three CHRIS-PROBA images to analyse macroalgal communities distribution in the Seno de Corcubión (NW Spain). The use of this sensor represent a challenge given that its design, build and deployment programme is intended to follow the principles of the "faster, better, cheaper". To assess the application of this sensor to macroalgal mapping, two types of classifications were carried out: Maximum Likelihood and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). Maximum Likelihood classifier showed positive results, reaching overall accuracy percentages higher than 90% and kappa coefficients higher than 0.80 for the bottom classes shallow submerged sand, deep submerged sand, macroalgae less than 5 m and macroalgae between 5 and 10 m depth. The differentiation among macroalgal groups using SAM classifications showed positive results for green seaweeds although the differentiation between brown and red algae was not clear in the study area.

  16. Picoplankton seasonal variation and community structure in the northeast Adriatic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silović, Tina; Balagué, Vanessa; Orlić, Sandi; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The bacterial community in coastal waters of northeastern Adriatic Sea was dominated by SAR11 and Sulfitobacter taxa throughout the year. The seasonal distribution of bacterioplankton taxa showed continual differences between surface (0 m) and bottom (27 m) layers. The surface assemblage was represented by Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, while the bottom assemblage was made up of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. As SAR11 was more dominant in the bottom layer, its appearance may be linked to northward transport of oligotrophic waters of higher salinity from the south. Gammaproteobacteria appeared only in the surface layer during summer, influenced by higher amounts of nutrients, brought in by the Po River. Synechococcus was the most abundant taxon at the genus level. Dominance of Synechococcus during the whole season agrees with its dominance in terms of abundance determined by flow cytometry, and confirms its utmost importance in the picoplankton community of this area. We found two different types of Synechococcus: one type with high similarity to Synechococcus CC9902, present in the surface and bottom layers, and another one similar to Synechococcus WH7803, present only in the surface layer. Oligotrophic conditions together with complex hydrological features of this area were reflected in diversification and dynamic shifts of surface and bottom assemblages. PMID:22748097

  17. Quantification of Deltaic Coastal Zone Change Based on Multi-Temporal High Resolution Earth Observation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Vassilakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of methodologies are described in this paper aiming to quantify the natural hazard due to the coastal changes at a deltaic fan. The coastline of Istiaia (North Evia, Greece has been chosen for this study as several areas of accretion and erosion have been identified during the past few decades. We combined different types of datasets, extracted from high resolution panchromatic aerial photographs and traced the contemporary shoreline by high accuracy surveying with Real Time Kinematics (RTK GPS equipment. The interpretation of all shorelines required geo-statistical analysis in a Geographical Information System. A large number of high resolution morphological sections were constructed normally to the coast, revealing erosional and depositional parts of the beach. Retreating and extension rates were calculated for each section reaching the values of 0.98 m/yr and 1.36 m/yr, respectively. The results proved to be very accurate, allowing us to expand the developed methodology by using more complete time-series of remote sensing datasets along with more frequent RTK-GPS surveying.

  18. Business and Entrepreneurship in South Coastal Zone of Attica Region, in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present paper is to investigate the evolution of the economic situation and particularly employment in Attica region in Greece. It focuses particularly on the southern coastal municipalities in the region and specifically in municipalities of Moshato, Kallithea, Paleo Faliro, Alimos, Elliniko, Voula and Vouliagmeni. Attica is an urbanized region which displays an excellence in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. In addition, it is a center of advanced services with valuable human resources because of higher educational institutions hosted in the region. That means a dynamic development of high technology. The good economic situation of the study area changed in recent years, from 2009 onwards, due to the economic crisis in Greece. The poor fiscal policy resulted in swelling of the external debt of the country, has contributed not only to the economic downturn, but has also affected the welfare of residents. The economic effects are obvious in the private sector, thereby reducing business activities, revenues and lost jobs. All the above have additional effect of increasing intra-regional disparities, such as population disparities, rising unemployment, the population movements for job search and other. The paper elaborates on the economic situation and entrepreneurship in the region over the past 20 years or so including both periods of acne, and those of the last economic downturn. Using documents, tables and graphs, work draws conclusions.

  19. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  20. Policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. The case of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the third in a series of AIXG (Annex I Expert Group on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) papers that analyse the roles that national policy frameworks of various sectors play in adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change is unlikely to be a standalone process. It occurs within the existing sectoral and cross-sectoral policy frameworks, including legal provisions, institutional structures, policies and management practices, and is supported by the available information tools. The previous two papers focused on the water sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyse policy frameworks that are important for facilitating adaptation to climate change impacts in coastal zones. The paper is based on the analysis of the Gulf of Mexico. Two countries, the US and Mexico, are examined, with a focus on two aspects of coastal zones: wetlands and built environment. Next to these two sectors attention is paid to four components that construct policy frameworks, namely legal framework, institutional landscape, policies and management tools, and information. Following a brief introduction of the Gulf of Mexico region, its physical and economic characteristics, the paper takes a look at current climatic conditions and trends in the Gulf region and expected climate change impacts and the key vulnerabilities of the region to these changes (Section 2). The rational for the scope and focus of the sectoral analysis presented in this paper can also be found in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern wetlands in the US and Mexico and their links with adaptation. Section 4 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern the development of human settlements, and adaptation to climate change. Sections 3 and 4 follow a structure similar to the one that was used for the two previous papers on policy frameworks for adaptation in the water sector. Both sections examine

  1. Policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. The case of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levina, E. [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Jacob, J.S. [Texas Sea Grant, Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas A and M University System, Houston, TX (United States); Ramos Bustillos, L.E. [Ramos-Hoek Consultancy, Ajijic, Chapala (Mexico); Ortiz, I. [SAFS University of Washington, Washington DC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper is the third in a series of AIXG (Annex I Expert Group on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) papers that analyse the roles that national policy frameworks of various sectors play in adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change is unlikely to be a standalone process. It occurs within the existing sectoral and cross-sectoral policy frameworks, including legal provisions, institutional structures, policies and management practices, and is supported by the available information tools. The previous two papers focused on the water sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyse policy frameworks that are important for facilitating adaptation to climate change impacts in coastal zones. The paper is based on the analysis of the Gulf of Mexico. Two countries, the US and Mexico, are examined, with a focus on two aspects of coastal zones: wetlands and built environment. Next to these two sectors attention is paid to four components that construct policy frameworks, namely legal framework, institutional landscape, policies and management tools, and information. Following a brief introduction of the Gulf of Mexico region, its physical and economic characteristics, the paper takes a look at current climatic conditions and trends in the Gulf region and expected climate change impacts and the key vulnerabilities of the region to these changes (Section 2). The rational for the scope and focus of the sectoral analysis presented in this paper can also be found in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern wetlands in the US and Mexico and their links with adaptation. Section 4 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern the development of human settlements, and adaptation to climate change. Sections 3 and 4 follow a structure similar to the one that was used for the two previous papers on policy frameworks for adaptation in the water sector. Both sections examine

  2. Measurements of the Balance of Subsidence and Sedimentation in the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Davis, J. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Bulbul, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of rising sea levels, the balance of land subsidence, sea level rise and sedimentation is critical for low-lying deltaic regions. Deltas commonly experience subsidence due to compaction of their thick sediment accumulations and other processes. Many are susceptible to growth faulting and seaward collapse of the sediment pile on detachment layers (salt and/or shales) leading to even greater subsidence. We present evidence for moderate subsidence rates and continuing active sedimentation at the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh. Subsidence rates are based on continuous GPS, including three new coastal stations established in 2012, hourly tide gauge data for 1977-2012 at 16 sites, two historical sites with ages of 300 years (salt-making kilns) and 400 years (Hindu temple), and sedimentation accumulation rates of near-sea-level deposits from hand-drilled tube wells. Results so far suggest that most sites are subsiding at 3-4 mm/y, although some higher rates are recorded. Updated estimates for subsidence will be presented. Two sets of vertical optical strainmeters record sediment compaction and inform its variation with depth. Sedimentation estimates based on sedimentation plots, marker horizons, and surface elevation tables (SETs) suggest that accumulation rates in natural areas near the coast currently compensate for relative subsidence, whereas human-modified areas farther inland receive insufficient sediment and are at risk. We hypothesize that the moderate subsidence rate of the delta is due to buttressing of the margin by the continental rise. The slope-rise break is shallow at 1 km water depth due to the high sediment supply feeding the Bengal Fan. Thus the thick wedge of continental rise sediments rise higher than the top of the weak overpressured sediments in the delta that could act as a décollement surface. This prevents the seaward collapse of the delta and associated higher rates of subsidence.

  3. Acoustic measurement of sediment dynamics in the coastal zones using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, A., II; Paramasivam, A.; Seshachalam, S.; A, C.

    2014-12-01

    Analyzing of the impact of constructive or low energy waves and deconstructive or high energy waves in the ocean are very much significant since they deform the geometry of seashore. The deformation may lead to productive result and also to the end of deteriorate damage. Constructive waves results deposition of sediment which widens the beach where as deconstructive waves results erosion which narrows the beach. Validation of historic sediment transportation and prediction of the direction of movement of seashore is essential to prevent unrecoverable damages by incorporating precautionary measurements to identify the factors that influence sediment transportation if feasible. The objective of this study is to propose a more reliable and energy efficient Information and communication system to model the Coastal Sediment Dynamics. Various factors influencing the sediment drift at a particular region is identified. Consequence of source depth and frequency dependencies of spread pattern in the presence of sediments is modeled. Property of source depth and frequency on sensitivity to values of model parameters are determined. Fundamental physical reasons for these sediment interaction effects are given. Shallow to deep water and internal and external wave model of ocean is obtained intended to get acoustic data assimilation (ADA). Signal processing algorithms are used over the observed data to form a full field acoustic propagation model and construct sound speed profile (SSP). The inversions of data due to uncertainties at various depths are compared. The impact of sediment drift over acoustic data is identified. An energy efficient multipath routing scheme Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is deployed for the well-organized communication of data. The WSN is designed considering increased life time, decreased power consumption, free of threats and attacks. The practical data obtained from the efficient system to model the ocean sediment dynamics are evaluated with remote

  4. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  5. Microbial Production in the Hyporheic Zone of a Coastal Floodplain River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, S. M.; Edwards, R. T.

    2001-12-01

    Microbes living on saturated sediments influence stream ecosystem processes by altering the amount and chemical composition of materials delivered from the watershed to the river. Although many factors control rates of microbial processes, available dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often limiting. This limitation is of key interest in the hyporheic (subsurface) zone where microorganisms are dependent upon allochthonous sources of DOM for respiration and production. In floodplain rivers, long hyporheic flowpaths (hundreds of meters) occur beneath productive riparian terraces. At this scale, advecting DOM is rapidly utilized at the head of the flowpath leaving a large proportion of the hyporheic microbial community potentially DOM limited. An alternative source of labile DOM however, is the infiltration of DOM from overlying riparian soils. I investigated how variation in DOM and microbial activity was related to differences among the successional stages of overlying vegetation and positions along flowpaths in the hyporheic zone of a floodplain terrace on the Queets River, WA. Samples for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial production were collected seasonally from 30 wells during 2000-2001. Dissolved organic carbon ranged from 0.5-2.0 mg/L over the year and was higher in wells overlain by mixed old-growth conifer than young alder. There was insufficient DOC in advecting surface water to support hyporheic respiration in the terrace, suggesting that riparian soils were a potential DOM source for microbial metabolism. Microbial growth experiments demonstrated that hyporheic microorganisms were capable of metabolizing riparian soil leachates. Microbial production was higher at the head of the flowpaths than the end of the flowpaths; however it did not decrease in a fashion predicted from other studies. Although microbial production was higher in wells overlain by older trees, production was not statistically related to the overlying patch structure. The

  6. A Simplified Methodology For Risk Assessment of The Oolitic Limestone Aquifer, West of Alexandria Coastal Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater risk analysis helps to assess the effects of contaminants reach to specific position in groundwater system after introduction at some location above the uppermost aquifer. This provides a basis for initiating protective and mitigation measures for important groundwater resources. An attempt has been made in the present study to assess the risk of diffuse groundwater pollution at the north western coast of Alexandria against landfill waste disposal as well as agricultural pollutants leachates which are the main land use in the studied area. A simplified weighing/ rating approach have been functioned for this purpose, Slovene methodology, which is relevant for fissured carbonate aquifers that characterize the studied area. This method is based on an origin-pathway-target model, which applies for both resource and source protection. Conservative values for the intrinsic geological, hydrogeological, geo morphological and climatological parameters have been reviewed and determined for assessment of the source and resource vulnerability, hazards and risk (lithology, texture and structure of soil zone, lithology and thickness of the unsaturated zone and aquifer conditions, morphological features, slope and vegetation cover, average annual stormy days, travel time and karst network , the fertilizers and pesticide used for agriculture, the volume of unlined waste disposal site). The methodology applied in the present study emphasizes how the physical properties of the hydrological system can be integrated in an index that reflects the level of risk of a diffuse pollution to groundwater. This aligns with the prospective of site safety evaluation around risky installations such as a nuclear power plants or waste disposal facilities where assurance should be done that the risk to the public and environment is acceptably low. According to the functioned methodology, the fissured limestone under study is low vulnerable and highly protectable against surface diffuse

  7. Recent Monitoring of Suspended Sediment Patterns along Louisiana's Coastal Zone using ER-2 based MAS Data and Terra Based MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, M. M.; Menzel, W. P.; Huh, O. K.; Walker, N. D.; Rouse, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    The University nf Wisconsin and Louisiana State University have teamed to study the forcing of winter season cold frontal wind systems on sediment distribution patterns and geomorphology in the Louisiana coastal zone. Wind systems associated with cold fronts have been shown to model coastal circulation and resuspend sediments along the micro tidal Louisiana coast (Roberts et at. 1987, Moeller et al. 1993). Remote sensing data is being used to map and track sediment distribution patterns for various wind conditions. Suspended sediment is a building material for coastal progradation and wetlands renewal, but also restricts access to marine nursery environments and impacts oyster bed health. Transferring a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) algorithm to EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Barnes et al. 1998) observations may enable estimates of SSC globally.

  8. Operative forecast of hydrophysical fields in the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone within the ECOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kordzadze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area, which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic regional model of the Black Sea dynamics developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics (RM-IG. This model is nested in the basin-scale model (BSM of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI, Sevastopol/Ukraine. The regional area is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with a meridian 39.36° E. Since June 2010 we regularly compute 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea with 1 km spacing. In this study results of two forecasts are presented. The first forecast corresponds to Summer season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 6 August to 00:00 h, 9 August 2010. The second one corresponds to Autumn season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 26 October to 00:00 h, 29 October 2010. Data needed for the forecasts – the 3-D initial and prognostic hydrophysical fields, also 2-D prognostic meteorological fields at the sea surface, wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates for the our regional area are placing on the MHI server every day and we are available to use these data operatively. Prognostic hydrophysical fields are results of forecast by BSM of MHI and 2-D meteorological boundary fields represent results of forecast by regional atmospheric model ALADIN. All these fields are given on the grid of BSM with 5 km spacing and with one-hour time step frequency for the integration period. The analysis of predicted fields shows that to use the model with high resolution is very important factor for identification of nearshore eddies of small sizes. It should be noted very

  9. Estuarine and coastal zone marine pollution by the nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylates endocrine disrupters: is there a potential ecotoxicological problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri

    2006-02-01

    The nonionic biodegradation-resistant ("hard") alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO) surfactants and their degradation products are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We report here the findings concerning the APEOs concentrations and homologic distribution profiles in Israel's estuarine and coastal zone seawater to serve as a case study. The concentrations in sewage-containing rivers, estuaries and 50-60-m offshore sea (Mediterranean) water were found to be 12.5-75.1, 4.2-25.0 and 0.9-2.6 microg/L, respectively. The corresponding homologic distribution profiles were found to be within the range of 1-10% each, somewhat skewing, as expected, towards the more toxic shorter-chain ethoxylates. Egg production by zebrafish, exposed to 75, 25 and 10 microg/L of a typical industrial APEOs was reduced up to 89.6%, 84.7% and 76.9%, respectively, between the 8th and 28th days of exposure. Apparently, there is a potential APEOs-related ecotoxicological health risk problem. PMID:16225920

  10. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh - Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Luong Chinh; Van Trang, Ho Thi; Liem, Vu Huu; Tuong, Tran Ngoc; Duyen, Pham Thi

    2015-06-01

    The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%): ±4.37 (mg/l) 3.86 (mg/l), 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l), 48.30 (mg/l), 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l), 23.38 (mg/l), 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water - Air - Land.

  11. Modelling changes in the coastal geomorphology of Unst, Shetland and the implications for understanding High to Late Medieval harbour changes in the Norse North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John; Dugmore, Andrew; Newton, Anthony; Mudd, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The Norse settlement of the North Atlantic islands relied upon a network of harbours that also played a key role in the development of North European economies through the late Middle Ages. However, many of these harbours fell into disuse, their locations are uncertain and the reasons for this are unclear. A crucial geomorphological characteristic of a successful harbour is structural equilibrium. A harbour must have physical stability (or a dynamic equilibrium in the case of a beach) for boats to use it safely season to season, year on year. In the absence of a major civil engineering effort, something that was not possible in the pre-modern Atlantic islands, the geomorphology of a harbour is a key indicator of its physical equilibrium (or otherwise). Should the harbour be located on a changeable coastline (or one that becomes changeable) it may become unviable. Conversely, a harbour may be located on a coastline stable over centennial timescales, where little geomorphological change occurs, infrastructure can endure and many aspects of the physical environment remain predictable. The geomorphological setting of Norse harbours in the Atlantic is variable, with contrasting landform stability over short, medium and long time scales. We assess geomorphological change on the island of Unst, the most northerly of the British Isles, a coastline used by the Norse as well as earlier and later societies. This island offers a complex coastline of deep fjords and arcuate embayments and thus significant differences in forces acting upon the coastline. There is also evidence for instability in the beaches used by the Norse that could have been driven by the changes in climate conditions from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Age and the present day. We model coastlines using the sediment dynamics model MIKE21. Model results agree well with the location of extant sandy beaches on Unst, but model runs with modern environmental drivers also build sandy beaches where

  12. Analysis of beach morphodynamics on the Bragantinian mangrove peninsula (Pará, North Brazil) as prerequisite for coastal zone management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Gesche; Soares, Cidiane

    2004-05-01

    A beach profile monitoring programme was initiated in 1997 as a contribution to the development of recommendations for an integrated coastal zone management scheme of the mangrove peninsula of Bragança, State of Pará (North Brazil). It was the first scientific investigation on the coastal morphodynamics in a mangrove environment, which was opened for human use only since the mid-1970s. The observations were carried out on five sections for 4 years, on a fortnightly basis whenever possible. Temporal evolution of the beach morphology was assessed using time series of beach height, changes in profile shape, sediment transport calculations, and photographs. This unique data set for new settlement areas in this mangrove-dominated coastal zone illuminates the role of the interaction between human activities and natural coastal dynamics. Four coastal cells were identified as coastal management units, each with specific dynamic behaviour and utilisation by humans. The cells are rather small with dimensions in the order of 1-3 km. Only one of the units (cell 1) had a stable coastline during the 4 years of observation, while all others are eroding. Clearing of vegetation is the principal reason for the enhancement of the natural chronic erosion at these sites. In the wake of increasing tourism, housing was erected on the first dune ridge (cell 2) with much damage to the natural vegetation. In this unit, erosion is predominantly targeted on the dunes. In cell 3, the most important reason for the increased erosion is clearing of the adjacent fringing mangroves. This is also true for cell 4, but additionally the construction of large fishing traps, which artificially entrap sand and create sandbanks and thereby increase velocities in the tidal channel tend to enhance erosion at the shoreline. Only for cell 1 can protection measures for the still available vegetation be recommended while a planned retreat of many tourism facilities and fishermen's housings should be included

  13. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  14. A satellite view of riverine turbidity plumes on the NE-E Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Negri de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity plumes of São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, and Paraiba do Sul river systems, located along the NE/E Brazilian coast, are analyzed for their dispersal patterns of Total Suspended Solids (TSS concentration using Landsat images and a logarithmic algorithm proposed by Tassan (1987 to convert satellite reflectance values to TSS. The TSS results obtained were compared to in situ collected TSS data. The analysis of the satellite image data set revealed that each river system exhibits a distinct turbidity plume dispersal pattern. The behavior, dimension and degree of turbidity of the São Francisco River plume have been greatly altered by the construction of a cascade of hydroelectric dam reservoirs in its hydrological basin. The plume has lost its typical unimodal seasonal pattern of material dispersion and its turbidity has decreased due to the regulation of river flow by the dams and TSS retainance by the reservoirs. In contrast, the Doce and Paraíba do Sul river plumes are still subject to seasonal pulsations and show more turbid conditions than the SF plume, as dams are less numerous, set in the middle river sections and the natural river flow has been maintained. The Caravelas Coastal System river plume is restricted to near shore shallow waters dominated by resuspension processes. During austral spring and summer when NE-E winds prevail, all plumes generally disperse southward. Short-term northward reversals may occur in winter with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts. The São Francisco and Doce river plumes tend to disperse obliquely to the coast and transport materials further offshore, while the Caravelas and Paraíba do Sul plumes tend to disperse mainly parallel to the coast, enhancing TSS retention nearshore.O presente estudo analisa as plumas de turbidez dos sistemas dos rios São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, e Paraiba do Sul localizados na costa NE/E do Brasil utilizando imagens Landsat e o algoritmo logarítmico para Total

  15. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  16. Detection and mapping of the iron ore occurrence in the sea floor sediments in the coastal zone of the Sepetiba Bay. Rio de Janeiro. Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the detection and mapping of the iron occurrence in the sea floor sediments in the coastal zone of the Sepetiba Bay. Rio de Janeiro. Brasil. The results of geochemical analysis revealed that the area around the mangrove forest located near the Itacuruca channel, the perpendicular direction to the Muriqui Yacht Club channel and the immediate vicinity of the the Guaiba Island Terminal were respectively the areas of highest iron ore concentration

  17. Simulating Stakeholder Behavior in a Marine Setting: Integrated Coastal Zone Planning and the Influential Power of Selected Stakeholders in Frøya, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Rachel G.; Svalestuen, Yngve; Öztürk, Pinar; Tidemann, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture expansion is a political priority in Norway, despite simmering conflicts, and competing claims. We expand on this hypothesis and analyze the Norwegian governance system by adding stakeholder theory in case of a simulated model of the effects of municipal coastal zone planning in the municipality of Frøya, Norway. One cannot analyze the governance system in Norway without fully comprehending the perspectives of the stakeholders involved. Different stakeholders will react and respon...

  18. ATM Coastal Topography-Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 15 (Part 1 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 15, from Isles Dernieres to Grand Isle, acquired September 7 and 10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last

  19. ATM Coastal Topography - Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 16 (Part 2 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 16, from Grand Isle to the Chandeleur Islands, acquired September 7 and 9, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and

  20. Application of Sedimentologic-Geophysical Analysis for Coastal Zone Management in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaja, V. S.; Durmishi, C.; Alikaj, P.; Jata, I.

    2004-12-01

    The areas under investigation encompassing a large expense of land of south- western part of Albanian coast zone. The paper examines the Quaternary history of dual (sedimentologic models and the evaluation impact of the geological environment in expansion of ancient civilization in this region). The work presented here is result of continued study about four last years and goes on in our days. The neotectonic structure of Butrint region is consisted off horst- graben structure, E-W trending. The Quaternary formations fill the lowest part of the region and have different origins and consisted of alluvial and lagoon deposits, about 80-m thickness. The lagoonal deposits are common around Butrint lake wile ancient town (Hellenistic- Roman- Byzantine) was extended mainly on the soft Holocene sediments. The soundings data, particularly resistivity variation are the base of sedimentologic and lithological studies due to the lack of boreholes. Two cycles of sedimentation can be observed within the thickness of 40- 50m: the first, gravel and sands and second mainly of clays in upper part of the cross section. In addition to, V.E.S. data and resistivity maps point out the features of sedimentologic environment distinguishing Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, delineated of water-bearing coarse-grained sands and gravels and land-sea interaction separating salty waters areas. Based on the sedimentologic and structural factors studied and geophysical maps and cross-sections, plenty of geomorphic problems are obvious now. This studies show the evidence to the advancement of the coastline is still occurring and the shoreline is still on the move.

  1. A new species of Serracutisoma (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Goniosomatinae from the coastal Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. DaSilva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is described from the coastal Ombrophylous Dense Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states. It differs from other Serracutisoma by having a retrolateral row of spines on femur IV, a rounded white-mark on the carapace and a low dorsal apophysis on trochanter IV. It is likely the sister-species of S. proximum, and with it and other five species forms the S. proximum group, herein formally proposed. Given that the biologic, phylogenetic and biogeographic aspects of Serracutisoma have been studied, the implications of the discovery of a new species are discussed, for instance the evolution of male fight, aggregation and maternal care, traits that are shared with other species. The geographic range of Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is compatible with the "Paraná" area of endemism, but with an unique distribution pattern compared to other endemic harvestmen species, which could indicate a new area of endemism also occupied by the primate Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson, 1990.

  2. Using Mixed Morphometrics and Near-Surface Geophysics to Characterize Geomorphic Evolution of the South Texas Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymer, B. A.; Barrineau, C. P.; Bishop, M. P.; Everett, M. E.; Tchakerian, V. P.; Houser, C.

    2013-12-01

    This work explores the utility of combining non-invasive EM induction and DEM-derived surface parameters to reconstruct the geomorphic history of Padre Island, Laguna Madre wind-tidal flats, and the South Texas Sand Sheet. Over the years, the wind-tidal flats of Laguna Madre, Texas have been the focus of several important geological investigations, mainly because they represent an anomaly compared to other coastal depositional environments. High evaporation rates, low rainfall and isolation from tidal passes combine to produce a unique set of hydrologic and geomorphic conditions along the South Texas coast. Thus, this landscape offers a unique opportunity to test the application of spectral stratigraphy to differentiate various coastal depositional environments. We aim to develop a novel approach for utilizing various remote sensing technologies to reveal linkages between stratigraphy and surface conditions. For this study, we used a multi-frequency GSSI EMP-400 EM Profiler™ to conduct three shore-normal surveys along the southern, central and northern portions of the sand sheet at a total distance of ~10 km, 9 km and 7 km, respectively. In addition, a ~20 km long shore-parallel survey intersected the three shore-normal transects. Responses were recorded at three discrete frequencies (1 kHz, 3 kHz and 15 kHz) corresponding to skin depths of ~16 m, 10 m, and 5 m, respectively. To invert the EM data, we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo 1D inversion model to distinguish different geoelectric layers, which can provide information regarding sediment thickness. An airborne LiDAR-derived elevation model was used to generate parameters including slope, aspect, curvature, and roughness to classify the landscape according to surface characteristics. Moisture and vegetation indices were computed from Landsat Thematic Mapper data to include soil and biological conditions. Preliminary results suggest that inverse modeling of EM data reveals inflection points corresponding to

  3. Processes affecting groundwater quality in arid zones: The case of the Bou-Areg coastal aquifer (North Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Only locally, in the southern part of the aquifer, close to the city of Kariat Arkmane, the high salinization observed may be attributed to the presence of lagoon water intrusion. The isotopic composition of dissolved NO3- indicates manure and septic effluents, especially in urban areas and in the central part of the plain, and synthetic fertilizers in the agricultural zone as the main drivers for human induced pollution. The study shows that agricultural return flow has significantly modified the chemistry of the system and it is a prime example of the human-induced changes over coastal environments. Saline water intrusion from the lagoon in the shallow aquifer is negligible, while discharge of polluted groundwater into the lagoon has been found to partially alter its quality

  4. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1993 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta were conducted for the ninth consecutive year. The population response of emperor...

  5. Nuclear and isotopic techniques for the characterization of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal zones. Results of a coordinated research project 2001-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of nearshore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability, making direct assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. An initiative on SGD characterization was developed by the IAEA and UNESCO in 2000 as a 5-year plan to assess methodologies and importance of SGD for coastal zone management. The IAEA component included a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for the Characterization of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in Coastal Zones, carried out jointly by the IAEA's Isotope Hydrology Section in Vienna and the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, together with 9 laboratories from 8 countries. In addition to the IAEA, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) have provided support. This overall effort originally grew from a project sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) who established a Working Group (112) on SGD. The activities included joint meetings (Vienna 2000, 2002, and 2005; Syracuse, Italy, 2001; and Monaco 2004), sampling expeditions (Australia 2000; Sicily 2001 and 2002; New York 2002; Brazil 2003; and Mauritius 2005), joint analytical work, data evaluation, and preparation of joint publications. The objectives of the CRP included the improvement of capabilities for water resources and environmental management of coastal zones; application of recently developed nuclear and isotopic techniques suitable for quantitative estimation of various components of SGD; understanding of the influence of SGD on coastal processes and on groundwater

  6. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  7. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic...

  8. Evolution of porosity in the saltwater freshwater mixing zone of coastal carbonate aquifers: An alternative modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Douchko; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    SummaryDissolution of calcium carbonate in the saltwater-freshwater mixing zone in carbonate islands and coastal aquifers up to now has been treated by coupling geochemical equilibrium programmes to a reactive-transport model. The result is a complex nonlinearly coupled set of differential transport-advection equations, which need high computational efforts. If dissolution rates of calcite are sufficiently fast, such that one can assume the solution to be in equilibrium with respect to calcite a highly simplified modelling approach can be used. By use of the concept of Phillips in his book: Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, Cambridge University Press, New York (1991) and its more general formulation by De Simoni et al. [De Simoni, M., Carrera, J., Sánchez-Vila, X., Guadagnini, A., 2005. A procedure for the solution of multicomponent reactive transport problems, Water Resource Research, 41, W11410.], it is possible to decouple the complex set of equations. To calculate initial changes of porosity in the rock matrix one needs solely to solve the advection-transport equation for salinity s. Current codes on density driven flow such as SEAWAT can be used. To obtain the dissolution capacity of the mixed saltwater-freshwater solution the calcium equilibrium concentration ceq( s) is obtained as a function of salinity by PHREEQC-2. Initial porosity changes can then be calculated by a simple analytical expression of the gradient of the spatial distribution s( x, y) of salinity, the distribution of flow fluxes q( x, y) and the second derivative of the calcium equilibrium concentration ceq( s) with respect to salinity s. This approach does no longer require large dispersivities on the order of meters; but reasonable results are obtained with dispersivity on the scale of the pore size of the porous rock, which correctly describes mixing on the molecular scale. The method is applied to a simple 1-D-domain without convective flow and a constant gradient of salinity as

  9. The offshore perspective in evaluating volcano-tectonic hazard within the Campi Flegrei district, Eastern Tyrrhenian coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, M.; Spiess, V.; di Fiore, V.; Esposito, E.; Fekete, N.; Metzen, J.; Molisso, F.; Porfido, S.; Violante, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei is an active volcanic district located west of the city of Naples, largely on the continental shelf of the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, that has been characterized by dominantly explosive eruptions during the latest Quaternary. This is one of the highest volcanic risk-prone areas of the world and likely the only example in the historical record of a caldera where dramatic ground/seafloor deformation (up to 3.5 m of uplift between 1970 and 1984) was not followed by a volcanic eruption. Recent research on the Campi Flegrei has shown that a significant part of the offshore regional tectonic framework, the volcanic structure and the active sedimentary processes are still largely unknown. Even the age and the basic geometry of the offshore caldera-like system is poorly constrained. In this study we present the preliminary results of the interpretation of a grid of high resolution multichannel seismic profiles acquired in the Napoli Bay in January 2008. The main results of the research include the recognition of: a) dramatic recent (< 6 ka) folding and uplift of sub-seafloor strata close to the Pozzuoli coastline and associated instability of unconsolidated sediments; b) potentially seismogenetic active faults; c) recent (< 6 ka) epi-superficial magmatic intrusion (laccoliths) off the Pozzuoli Bay. Accurate description and mapping of these offshore features represent necessary pieces of information to reconstruct the whole geometry and stratigraphy of the Campi Flegrei system. The understanding of the recent geodynamic evolution of the Pozzuoli Bay is also essential to obtain a reliable scenario for the evaluation of natural hazards and provides significant support for the integrated management of the coastal zone.

  10. Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, F. G.; Arbones, B.; Montero, M. F.; Barton, E. D.; Arístegui, J.

    2016-05-01

    Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production were studied in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone. The region showed strong mesoscale activity, in which upwelling filaments and island eddies interacted to cause significant vertical displacements of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Oligotrophic stations both in the open ocean and within anticyclonic eddies were characterised by low values of integrated chlorophyll (33 ± 4 mg chl a m- 2) and dominance of pico- and nanophytoplankton, while stations associated with filaments and cyclonic eddies showed moderate chl a values (50 ± 17 mg m- 2). Shelf stations affected by upwelling exhibited the highest chl a (112 ± 36 mg m- 2) with microphytoplankton dominance. Photosynthetic variables in the three groups of stations showed similar depth gradients, with maximum photosynthetic rates (PmB) decreasing with depth and maximum quantum yields (ϕm) increasing with depth. However, the increase with depth of ϕm was not so evident in shelf waters where nutrients were not depleted at the surface. Primary production (PP) displayed a coast-ocean gradient similar to that of chl a, with highest values (2.5 ± 1.2 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the eutrophic shelf stations and lowest (0.36 ± 0.11 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the oligotrophic stations. Nevertheless, integrated PP at the oligotrophic stations was not related to integrated chl a concentration but was positively (r = 0.95) correlated to carbon fixation at the DCM and negatively (r = - 0.85) correlated to the depth of the DCM, suggesting that light, and not phytoplankton biomass, was the main factor controlling PP in oligotrophic environments. It is concluded that downward displacements of the DCM, either by convergence fronts or downwelling at the core of anticyclones can significantly reduce PP in the oligotrophic ocean.

  11. Tsunami Risk Mapping in Coastal Zones of Low Tsunami Hazard: The Case of the Balchik Town, Bulgarian Coast, Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokaefs, A. L.; Diakogianni, G.; Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Ranguelov, B. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by low seismicity and low tsunami hazard. However, in the coastal zone of Balchik, located about 20 km to the north of Varna, Bulgaria, a few strong earthquakes associated with damaging tsunami waves have been reported historically: AD544 or 545 and 1901. In addition, Varna and Balchik, is a highly tourist destination. Therefore, the town of Balchik, has been selected as one of the test-sites of the EU tsunami research project SCHEMA. One of the major components in that research project as regards the test-site of Balchik is the production of tsunami risk maps. Our contribution is outlined as follows. We compile an updated and revised earthquake and tsunami catalogue for the Black Sea and select the large event of AD545 to produce an extreme tsunami scenario on the basis of two independent approaches. The first is based only on tsunami descriptions contained in historical documentary sources and on findings of possible tsunami effects in the archaeological site of Cibele temple. The second is based on inundation results coming from numerical simulation of a tsunamigenic source which is only hypothetical given that we have no precise information about the focal parameters of the causative earthquake of 545. Finally we adopted an extreme wave of 3-5 m in height. Maps illustrating a number of attributes, such as tsunami inundation, local topography, land use/land cover, importance of facilities etc. have been used to characterize and map the expected tsunami impact in scale 1:5000 which is practically applicable. The tsunami impact scenario includes three different items: damage potential, vulnerability of population, risk of life. This is a contribution of the EU Research Project "SCHEMA", contract n. 030963, FP6.

  12. The abundance of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in the root zone of plant species in invaded coastal sage scrub habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C Irvine

    Full Text Available Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs are associated with the roots, leaves and seeds of most terrestrial plants and utilize volatile C(1 compounds such as methanol generated by growing plants during cell division. PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems due to their importance in crop seed germination, yield, pathogen resistance and drought stress tolerance. In contrast, little is known about the PPFM abundance and diversity in natural ecosystems, let alone their interactions with non-crop species. Here we surveyed PPFM abundance in the root zone soil of 5 native and 5 invasive plant species along ten invasion gradients in Southern California coastal sage scrub habitat. PPFMs were present in every soil sample and ranged in abundance from 10(2 to 10(5 CFU/g dry soil. This abundance varied significantly among plant species. PPFM abundance was 50% higher in the root zones of annual or biennial species (many invasives than perennial species (all natives. Further, PPFM abundance appears to be influenced by the plant community beyond the root zone; pure stands of either native or invasive species had 50% more PPFMs than mixed species stands. In sum, PPFM abundance in the root zone of coastal sage scrub plants is influenced by both the immediate and surrounding plant communities. The results also suggest that PPFMs are a good target for future work on plant-microorganism feedbacks in natural ecosystems.

  13. The Abundance of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs in the Root Zone of Plant Species in Invaded Coastal Sage Scrub Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Irina C.; Brigham, Christy A.; Suding, Katharine N.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) are associated with the roots, leaves and seeds of most terrestrial plants and utilize volatile C1 compounds such as methanol generated by growing plants during cell division. PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems due to their importance in crop seed germination, yield, pathogen resistance and drought stress tolerance. In contrast, little is known about the PPFM abundance and diversity in natural ecosystems, let alone their interactions with non-crop species. Here we surveyed PPFM abundance in the root zone soil of 5 native and 5 invasive plant species along ten invasion gradients in Southern California coastal sage scrub habitat. PPFMs were present in every soil sample and ranged in abundance from 102 to 105 CFU/g dry soil. This abundance varied significantly among plant species. PPFM abundance was 50% higher in the root zones of annual or biennial species (many invasives) than perennial species (all natives). Further, PPFM abundance appears to be influenced by the plant community beyond the root zone; pure stands of either native or invasive species had 50% more PPFMs than mixed species stands. In sum, PPFM abundance in the root zone of coastal sage scrub plants is influenced by both the immediate and surrounding plant communities. The results also suggest that PPFMs are a good target for future work on plant-microorganism feedbacks in natural ecosystems. PMID:22383990

  14. Cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the Vitória-Trindade Chain, western South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekin, L L; Rossi-Santos, M R; Baracho, C; Cypriano-Souza, A L; Simões-Lopes, P C

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. To fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts. We observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, N = 9 groups), the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, N = 1), the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N = 1), the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis, N = 1), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, N = 2), and the killer whale (Orcinus orca, N = 1). Most humpback whale groups (N = 7; 78%) were observed in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts, especially the mounts close to the Abrolhos Bank. Only one lone humpback whale was observed near Trindade Island after a search effort encompassing more than 520 km. From a total of 28 acoustic stations, humpback whale songs were only detected near the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, where most groups of this species were visually detected (including a competitive group and groups with calves). The presence of humpback whales at the Trindade Island and surroundings is most likely occasional, with few sightings and low density. Finally, we observed a significant number of humpback whales along the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, which may function as a breeding habitat for this species. We also added important records regarding the occurrence of cetaceans in these mounts and in the Western South Atlantic, including the endangered fin whale. PMID:25055095

  15. COASTAL Analysis Submission for Middlesex County, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping (April 2003) and Atlantic Ocean...

  16. GIS-based vulnerability assessment to sea level rise of Al Hoceima Bay (Moroccan Mediterranean): towards an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouakhi, A.; Snoussi, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the context of coastal vulnerability to climate change and human impacts, integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is an increasingly relevant process for the sustainable development of coastal areas, in which scientific input plays a vital role. In the Mediterranean Basin, projected increases in sea level rise and in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events pose a major challenge for the management of low-lying coastal ecosystems and human settlements. The bay of Al Hoceima is one of the least studied and largest low-lying coastal areas of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast, and is exposed to the effects of sea level rise and storms. The coast is also a touristic area and one of the most important economic assets in the region. Physical coastal vulnerability assessments, determination of setback lines, and evaluation of coastal aquifer vulnerability to sea level rise are among the principal tools used to help decision makers in such a context. Here we quantified, in the context of sea level rise: (1) the physical vulnerability of the coastline, by developing a standard index methodology based on the five most relevant physical indices for local-scale vulnerability analysis, for a total of 822 50m/50m coastal cells; (2) coastal setback lines, based on shoreline evolutionary trends adjusted to sea level rise scenarios using a digital shoreline Analysis System (DSAS); and (3) the vulnerability to sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifer, using a modified GALDIT index (ground water occurrence, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, depth to groundwater level above the sea; distance from the shore; impact of existing status of sea water intrusion in the area; and thickness of the aquifer), following an integrated GIS approach. We find that 41% of the studied coastline is highly vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise and extreme weather events; 60% of the coastline is in retreat (with rates varying between -2m and -0.2m/y), 30% is in dynamic equilibrium

  17. Analysis of aerosol scattering properties measured by a nephelometer at a coastal-rural site in the Atlantic southwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan F.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Angel M.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol hemispherical scattering and the backscattering coefficients, σsp, σbsc, have been measured using a 3-wavelength (450, 550 and 700 nm) integrating nephelometer over two years (January 2006-May 2008) in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. These coefficients have been carefully analyzed starting with the impact of corrections on the measurements of σsp: i.e., drift calibration constants do not modify the mean value in our data series. However, the selection of dry data (with RH less than 50%) modifies substantially the number of data and the resulting mean value of σsp is now 14% lower, which is compensated when the angular truncation correction is applied. The characterization and features of σsp, σbsc, and the derived parameters αsp (alpha Ångström exponent) and b (the backscatter ratio) has been analyzed, as annual, seasonal and diurnal evolution. A general statistic based on hourly data gives mean values and standard deviation of σsp (500 nm)=48±38 Mm-1 with a median of 38 Mm-1, and σbsc (500 nm)=5.6±3.8 Mm-1 with a median of 4.6 Mm-1. Thus, these values show moderate-low values but with a large range of variation considering the existing measured values over the Iberian Peninsula. The median value of σsp (500 nm) is an indicator that events of high aerosol burden are frequent presenting a substantial influence on the daily averages. The alpha Ångström exponent, αsp, derived from the pairs 450/700 nm gives a mean value 1.35±0.54 with a median of 1.47 and with the most frequent value of 1.7, thus indicating the prevalence of medium size particles but with a significant influence of fine particles. The b ratio has the same value for mean and median, 0.12±0.02, showing a decrease with increasing values of σsp. Annual and daily cycles have been also analyzed showing the complex behaviour of the optical properties at this coastal site where cold and warn periods show very different

  18. Hidden biosphere in an oxygen-deficient Atlantic open-ocean eddy: future implications of ocean deoxygenation on primary production in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, C. R.; Fischer, M. A.; Neulinger, S. C.; Fiedler, B.; Philippi, M.; Schütte, F.; Singh, A.; Hauss, H.; Karstensen, J.; Körtzinger, A.; Künzel, S.; Schmitz, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) is characterized by a highly productive coastal upwelling system and a moderate oxygen minimum zone with lowest open-ocean oxygen (O2) concentrations of approximately 40 μmol kg-1. The recent discovery of re-occurring mesoscale eddies with close to anoxic O2 concentrations (anoxia have the potential to alter microbial community structure with critical impacts on primary productivity and biogeochemical processes of oceanic water bodies.

  19. Coastal zones in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name ICG_Occasional_Paper_Ser_2000_1_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info ICG_Occasional_Paper_Ser_2000_1_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Variability in warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns over subtropical South America: relationships between the South Atlantic convergence zone and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-03-01

    Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.

  1. Regional spatial planning assessments for adaptation to accelerated sea level rise - an application to Martinique’s coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schleupner

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated sea level rise and hurricanes are increasingly influencing human coastal activities. With respect to the projected continuation of accelerated sea level rise and global warming one must count with additional expenses for adaptation strategies along the coasts. On the mountainous island Martinique the majority of settlements are situated along the coast almost at sea level. But potential rises in sea level and its impacts are not addressed in coastal management, even if saltwater i...

  2. Potential vulnerability implications of sea level rise for the coastal zones of Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    that coastal cities are facing now, implications of exacerbated pressures from the prospects of climate change and associated sea level rise will be of serious concern in future. Despite the magnitude and urgency of the issue, scientific understanding... of climate change and potential risks to coastal cities have not been fulfilled – though, since very long it has been recognized that these perspectives are required for a range of purposes. It is well known that the land areas adjacent to the shorelines...

  3. 我国海岸带经济管理领域的研究方向与进展%Ecological and environmental pressure and research progress of China’s coastal zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 林捷敏; 杨斌

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes and induces the current research progress of China’s coastal zone research by summarizing ecological,environmental and economic papers.First,the circumscription of different disciplines and viewpoint from different academicians are compared.According to the research and management objects,the coastal zone can be defined from the biological and managemental angles,respectively.The ecological and environmental pressure faced by China’s coastal zone are summrized into the pressure form population growth in the zone,the overexploitation of coastal zone resources,disaster and natural variance in the zone and invasion of foreign species,and also the characteristics of the pressure are discussed.The paper also sums up the main research progress in the field of marine economy and management of China’s coastal zone.The main research contents are the index system and estimate model of coastal zone sustainable development,the integration development strategy of coastal zone and coastal planning,marine industrial structure and competitive power,ecological value of coastal zone,economic accounting of natural disaster and marine culture.%综述了海岸带经济管理领域的研究文献,比较了不同学科对海岸带的定义以及不同学者的观点。根据学术研究目的和管理目标,海岸带可从生物自然视角和管理视角加以定义。将我国海岸带面临的各种生态环境压力归纳为人口增长、海岸带资源开发、海岸带灾害与自然变异、生物物种入侵等,并讨论了这些压力的特点。归纳了现阶段我国海岸带经济管理领域的主要研究内容、方向和研究进展。现阶段的主要研究方向有:海岸带可持续发展指标体系和定量评价模型;海岸带海陆一体化发展战略与海岸带规划;海洋产业结构与产业竞争力;海岸带生态价值与自然灾害经济核算;海洋文化产业。

  4. Estimation of Efficiency, Sustainability and Constraints in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) vis-a-vis Traditional Methods of Paddy Cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, I.V.Y. Rama

    2011-01-01

    The study has assessed the economics and sustainability of SRI (system of rice intensification) and traditional methods of paddy cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh for the period 2008-09, based on the data of costs and returns of crop. Apart from budgeting techniques, benefit-cost ratio (BCR), yield gap analysis, sustainability index and response priority index have been employed in the study. It has shown that BCR is higher for SRI (1.76) than traditional (1.25) methods. Fur...

  5. Redescriptions of two species of Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae parasitic on teleost marine fishes from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Luque

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Lepeophtheirus Nordmann, 1832 parasitic on the ariid fish Netuma barba Lacépède, 1803, and the bothiid fish Paralichthys sp. from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, are redescribed and illustrated: L. bagri Dana, 1852, and L. monacanthus Heller, 1865. New junior synonyms for these species are proposed: L. marginatus syn.n., L. christianensis syn.n. and L. platensis syn.n. of L. bagri and L. unispinosus syn.n. of L. monacanthus.

  6. An assessment of the risk of spreading the fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris to uninfected territories in the European Union with the movement of live Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeler, E.; Thrush, M.; Paisley, Larry;

    2006-01-01

    European Union (EU) legislation (EC decision 2004/453/EC) allowed movements of salmonids to territories free of G. salaris from coastal sites where (i) salinity does not fall below 25 parts per thousand (parts per thousand), or (ii) rivers draining into the estuary have been declared free of G. salaris....... This risk assessment was undertaken to establish whether exports of live Atlantic salmon from coastal sites increased the risk of G. salaris introduction and establishment in uninfected EU territories. A scenario tree of events necessary for the introduction and establishment of the parasite was...... level. Similarly, establishment at the site of destination will also be largely determined by salinity. At high salinities the parasite has only hours to reach freshwater (e.g. via migration on wild fish), and therefore the risk of establishment is extremely low. The risk of G. salaris introduction with...

  7. Lower crustal high-velocity bodies along North Atlantic passive margins, and their link to Caledonian suture zone eclogites and Early Cenozoic magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, Rolf; Kvarven, Trond; Faleide, Jan Inge; Thybo, Hans

    2016-02-01

    In this study we use crustal-scale Ocean Bottom Seismic models to infer the presence of two types of lower crustal bodies at North Atlantic passive margins; Type I, primarily interpreted as Early Eocene magmatic intrusions, and Type II, interpreted as Caledonian eclogites. We discuss how these eclogites might be related to the main Caledonian Suture Zone and other tectonic features in a conjugate North Atlantic setting. Based on the first-order approximation that P-wave velocities can be related to rock strength, the narrower continental margin at the southern (Møre) transect may be explained by stronger lower crust there, compared with the northern (Vøring) transect. This difference in strength, possibly resulting in a steeper dip in the subducting Baltica Plate south of the proto-Jan Mayen Lineament, may explain the asymmetry in extensional style observed across this lineament. Our interpretation locates the main suture off mid-Norway close to the Møre Trøndelag Fault Zone on the Møre Margin, along the western boundary of the Trøndelag Platform on the Vøring Margin, and further northwards beneath the Lofoten Ridge. The Lower Crustal Body Type I is about 60% thicker on the Greenland side, for both transects, and its thickness along the northern transect is more than twice that of the southern transect. These differences are consistent with sub-lithospheric interaction between the Icelandic hotspot and the continental rift/oceanic accretion system around the time of continental break-up.

  8. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic time series site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-03-01

    We provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic based on a three year time-series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We combine the 3He data with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely balance the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also applied the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost three-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003-2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.3 mol m-2 y-1, which is ~ 40% smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference between the time periods, which is barely significant, may be due to a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by decoupling of 3He and nitrate during obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean.

  9. Water column biogeochemistry of oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical North Atlantic and eastern tropical South Pacific Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löscher, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    intensification of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are connected to the most productive upwelling systems in the ocean. There are numerous feedbacks among oxygen concentrations, nutrient cycling and biological productivity; however, existing knowledge is insufficient to understand physical, chemical...

  10. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlets and the Association with Violent Crime in One Mid-Atlantic City: The Implications for Zoning Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Milam, Adam J.; Greiner, Amelia; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Curriero, Frank C; Thornton, Rachel J.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime such as homicide causes significant excess morbidity and mortality in US urban areas. A health impact assessment (HIA) identified zoning policy related to alcohol outlets as one way to decrease violent crime. The objectives were to determine the relationship between alcohol outlets including off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime in one urban area to provide local public health evidence to inform a zoning code rewrite. An ecologic analysis of census tracts in Baltimore Ci...

  11. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    The impact that sub-mesoscale (1-10 km) to mesocale (50-100 km) oceanographic variability has on plankton and nutrient distributions (horizontal and vertical) in the coastal upwelling and transition zones off Concepcion was the focus of this study. Satellite time-series data (wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), and altimetry) were used to understand the dynamic context of in situ data derived from a short-term front survey (3 d) during the upwelling period (3-6 February, 2014). The survey included two transects perpendicular to the coast, covering the shelf and shelf-break areas just north of Punta Lavapie, a main upwelling center (˜37° S). Wind and SST time-series data indicated that the survey was undertaken just after a moderate upwelling event (end of January) which lead to a relaxation phase during early February. A submesoscale thermal front was detected previous to and during the survey and results from an eddy tracking algorithm based on altimetry data indicated that this front (F1) was flanked on its oceanic side by an anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy (M1), which was ˜25 d old at the sampling time. M1 strengthened the thermal gradient of F1 by bringing warmer oceanic water nearer to the colder coastal upwelling zone. The distributions of hydrographic variables and nutrients in the water column (<300 m depth) also denoted these two features. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) and diatom abundance were highest in the surface layer (<20 m depth) between the coast and F1, with primary maxima in the latter, whereas they were highest at the subsurface (20-40 m depth) towards M1 and associated with secondary maxima. The distribution of dominant diatoms in the top layer (<100 m depth) indicated that both coastal and oceanic species were aggregated at F1 and in M1. These results suggest that the front-eddy interaction creates a complex field of submesoscale processes in the top layer, including vertical nutrient injections and lateral stirring, which contributes to the

  12. Assessment of mercury mobility and bioavailability by fractionation method in sediments from coastal zone inundated by the 26 December 2004 tsunami in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boszke, Leonard; Kowalski, Artur; Szczuciński, Witold; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Lorenc, Stanisław; Siepak, Jerzy

    2006-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami covered significant portion of a coastal zone with a blanket of potentially contaminated sediments. In this report are presented results on mercury concentrations in sediments deposited by the tsunami in a coastal zone of Thailand. Since the total mercury concentrations are insufficient to assess mercury mobility and bioavailability in sediment, its fractionation was applied. Sediments were sampled within 50 days after the event and analyzed by sequential extraction method. The procedure of sequential extraction involved five subsequent stages performed with solutions of chloroform, deionized water, 0.5 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, and aqua regia. The mean concentration of total mercury in sediments was 119 ± 50 ng g-1 dry mass (range 66-230). The fractionation revealed that mercury is mainly bound to the least bioavailable sulphides 75 ± 6% (range 62-86), organomercury compounds 14 ± 7% (range 4-26), and humic matter 9 ± 7% (range 1-27). The lowest contributions bring fractions of water-soluble mercury 0.8 ± 1.0% (range 0.1-3.6) and acid soluble mercury 0.9 ± 0.5% (range 0.2-2.1). Although, the total mercury content is similar in a reference sample and in the tsunami sediments, the highly toxic organomercury fraction contribution is higher in the latter. The results were compared with chemical and sedimentological properties of the sediments but no significant correlations were obtained between them.

  13. Mercury concentration in the sediments as a function of changing climate in coastal zone of Southern Baltic Sea – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bełdowska M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, despite of its many uses in industry, is also highly toxic. It is highly neurotoxic, and because of the ability of mercury to penetrate placental barrier, in some countries ban on predatory fish consumption (the main route of mercury into human organism by pregnant women was introduced. There are very little publications describing the consequences of weather anomalies on contaminants cycles. No research was published concerning the reemission of Hg due to climate change in the Southern Baltic Sea. The study area was situated in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk - the Southern Baltic. Samples of different species of macrophytobenthos were collected once a month during 2006-2012. Samples of Potamogeton pectinatus, sediments and pore waters were collected once a month from February 2011 to January 2012. The climate changes in the moderate latitudes: extension of the fall season, has contributed to stabilization of high concentrations of mercury in pore waters. Lack of ice cover in the coastal zone and simultaneous occurrence of storms had an impact on supply of the organic matter to the sediments and the increased concentration of Hg. More intense burning of fossil fuels in this season favored the increased metal concentration in the atmosphere and consequently an increase of the atmospheric deposition of metals to the sediments. This led to a fourfold increase of the mercury concentration in sediments as compared to fall season.

  14. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  15. Simulating stakeholder behavior in a marine setting: Integrated coastal zone planning and the influential power of selected stakeholders in Frøya, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gjelsvik Tiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture expansion is a political priority in Norway, despite simmering conflicts and competing claims. We expand on this hypothesis and analyze the Norwegian governance system by adding stakeholder theory in case of a simulated model of the effects of municipal coastal zone planning in the municipality of Frøya, Norway. One cannot analyze the governance system in Norway without fully comprehending the perspectives of the stakeholders involved. Different stakeholders will react and respond differently and have conflicting presumptions basing their actions towards the planning process for coastal areas. They will also have different levels of power and abilities to influence the system. The article presents the interdisciplinary, first generation development of an agent based simulation model that mimics the outcomes of coastal zone planning for a stakeholder groups, the commercial fishers and the aquaculture industry, based on qualitative input from legislation, regulations and stakeholder workshops. We proceed with verifying the applicability of this simulator in light of the key actors involved, namely the commercial fishers. We found that the simulator had two outcomes for the commercial fishers that were consistently recurring, namely collapse and stability, based on the simulated occurrences of complaints by the stakeholders, with the latter being the de facto perceptions of actuality by the commercial fishers. Using stakeholder theory, we argue that the aquaculture industry’s role has the saliency of an Important Stakeholder in Frøya has steered the commercial fishers, who has the role of Dependent Stakeholders according to stakeholder theory, to no longer see any legitimacy in the process in that their complaints were never upheld because of their lack of the attribute Power.

  16. Early seafloor spreading in the South Atlantic: new evidence for M-series magnetochrons north of the Rio Grande Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Dale E.; Hall, Stuart A.

    2016-04-01

    Recent tectonic reconstructions of the South Atlantic have partitioned the ocean basin into several segments based upon one or more proposed intra-plate South American deformation zones. In several of these reconstructions, opening of the southern segment(s) by seafloor spreading prior to Aptian-Albian time is accompanied by contemporaneous strike-slip motion along an intraplate boundary extending southeastward from the Andean Cochabamba - Santa Cruz bend to the Rio Grande Fracture Zone (RGFZ). We have examined new magnetic data over the Pelotas, Santos and Campos Basins, offshore Argentina and Brazil, acquired by ION-GXT in tandem with long-offset, long record seismic reflection data, and identified seafloor spreading anomalies M4, M3, M2 and M0 (˜131, ˜129, ˜128 and ˜125 Ma). Integrating these results with our earlier work, we have been able to correlate magnetochrons M4, M3, M2 and M0 north and south of the RGFZ on the South American margin, and north and south of the Walvis Ridge on the African side. Our results are therefore inconsistent with diachronous opening models that involve substantial continental strike-slip motion north of RGFZ during M4 to M0 time. Although the ocean basin may have opened from south to north, our results indicate that seafloor spreading began north of the RGFZ earlier than previously proposed.

  17. Early seafloor spreading in the South Atlantic: new evidence for M-series magnetochrons north of the Rio Grande Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Dale E.; Hall, Stuart A.

    2016-08-01

    Recent tectonic reconstructions of the South Atlantic have partitioned the ocean basin into several segments based upon one or more proposed intraplate South American deformation zones. In several of these reconstructions, opening of the southern segment(s) by seafloor spreading prior to Aptian-Albian time is accompanied by contemporaneous strike-slip motion along an intraplate boundary extending southeastward from the Andean Cochabamba-Santa Cruz bend to the Rio Grande Fracture Zone (RGFZ). We have examined new magnetic data over the Pelotas, Santos and Campos Basins, offshore Argentina and Brazil, acquired by ION-GXT in tandem with long-offset, long record seismic reflection data, and identified seafloor spreading anomalies M4, M3, M2 and M0 (˜131, ˜129, ˜128 and ˜125 Ma). Integrating these results with our earlier work, we have been able to correlate magnetochrons M4, M3, M2 and M0 north and south of the RGFZ on the South American margin, and north and south of the Walvis Ridge on the African side. Our results are therefore inconsistent with diachronous opening models that involve substantial continental strike-slip motion north of RGFZ during M4 to M0 time. Although the ocean basin may have opened from south to north, our results indicate that seafloor spreading began north of the RGFZ earlier than previously proposed.

  18. Oceanographic profile Temperature, Salinity and other measurements from bottle casts from the MUSSON and VICTOR BUGAEV in the Coastal N Atlantic, North Atlantic and other locations from 1974 to 1991 (NODC Accession 0000558)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data were collected in the North Atlantic Ocean from the MUSSON and other platforms from 27 February 1974 to 16 February 1991. Data...

  19. Fracture zones in the Mid Atlantic Ridge lead to alterations in prokaryotic and viral parameters in deep-water masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muck, S.; Griessler, T.; Köstner, N.; Klimiuk, A.; Winter, C.; Herndl, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that mixing zones of deep-water masses act as ecotones leading to alterations in microbial diversity and activity due to changes in the biogeochemical characteristics of these boundary systems. We determined the changes in prokaryotic and viral abundance and production in the Vema Fr

  20. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand... Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix. The Second Annual Space... necessary for the safety of race participants, participant vessels, spectators, and the general...

  1. Great earthquake potential in Oregon and Washington: An overview of recent coastal geologic studies and possible segmentation of the central Cascadia subduction zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental questions in earthquake hazards research in the Pacific Northwest concern the magnitude and recurrence of great earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone in Oregon and Washington. Geologic work of the last few years has produced convincing evidence for coseismic subsidence along the Washington and Oregon coasts. Regional subsidence recorded by estuarine deposits suggests that plate-interface earthquakes of at least Mw 8 (>100-km-long ruptures) occurred during the late Holocene in northern Oregon and southern Washington. Differences in the types of coastal marsh sequences between northern and south-central Oregon, however, suggest that regional coastal subsidence does not extend south of about 45.5 degrees N along the Oregon coast. North of this latitude, the coast may intersect the seaward edge of a zone of coseismic subsidence that continues southward onshore. Alternatively, the Cascadia subduction zone is segmented near 44-45 degrees N; a segment boundary at this location would suggest that plate-interface events near Mw 8 along the central CSZ would be more frequent than larger (Mw 9) events. South of this boundary in the Coos Bay region, the tectonic framework developed through mapping and dating of marine and fluvial terraces indicates that many episodes of abrupt marsh burial in south-central Oregon are best interpreted as the product of deformation on local structures. Some of the local deformation could be associated with moderate earthquakes (Ms <6). At most sites in south-central Oregon, however, it is still unclear whether coseismic events were responses to local faulting or folding, to regional deformation during great plate-interface earthquakes, or to both. This study has potential implications for risk assessments for light water reactors in North America

  2. Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, an integrated damage from floods in Russia was about 1 billion euros, floods have caused the death of over 200 people. It is one of the most pressing scientific topics, but most of the works devoted to natural risks assessment. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the influence of dangerous hydrological phenomena (e.g. floods, underflooding and surges) on society, using vulnerability and damage assessment techniques. The objectives are to examine domestic and foreign methodologies, to integrate them and to test on specific Russian territory. Foreign training was organized at UNU-EHS (Bonn, Germany). Three different methods were used for each stage of research. The first part of the research was devoted to estimation of potential damage for population and economy of the Baltic Sea coastal zones. The authors used a model, which takes into account direct damage (loss of life, destruction of buildings, etc.) as well as indirect effects of the first, second, etc. orders (loss of profits, loss of the budget, etc.). A database, based on satellite images, maps, yearbooks of Russian Statistical Service and reports of entities, has been prepared. The database is a matrix, in which the rows are coastal zones, and the columns are given indicators: number of people in port areas (people), cost of fixed assets (million rubles), investment (million rubles.), revenue / profit (million rubles.), etc. The authors identified zones with different depth of flooding, using satellite images, and calculated the direct and indirect costs, using the methodology of EMERCOM. Maximum direct potential damage for the Baltic coast is about 15,7 billion euros, but indirect damage is more than 25,5 billion euros. The second part of research was devoted to vulnerability assessment of coastal municipalities of Krasnodar Region. A database, as a matrix of 252 parameters from 2007 to 2009 for 14 coastal municipalities, was developed. The parameters were divided into several blocks

  3. Using SST and land cover data from EO Missions for improved mesoscale modelling of the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume;

    the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), specifically developed for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region. To improve the physical description of the domain, the elevation, topography and land use, the CORINE land cover database and the SRTM elevation database are used as boundary conditions; with a spatial...... resolution of 100 m to 250 m, the CORINE land cover information represent a more accurate classification of land uses for the entire domain. SST, land cover, and elevation information from Earth Observation platforms are unique due to their extended spatial coverage and resolution, such that they can...... the wind resource modelling of coastal areas. The wind over a coastal area was measured by land-based LIDAR systems [6], an offshore LIDAR buoy and satellite radar remote sensing (SAR and scatterometers). Simulations using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) meso-scale model were performed. The aim...

  4. On evaluation of ShARP passive rainfall retrievals over snow-covered land surfaces and coastal zones

    CERN Document Server

    Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-01-01

    For precipitation retrievals over land, using satellite measurements in microwave bands, it is important to properly discriminate the weak rainfall signals from strong and highly variable background surface emission. Traditionally, land rainfall retrieval methods often rely on a weak signal of rainfall scattering on high-frequency channels (85 GHz) and make use of empirical thresholding and regression-based techniques. Due to the increased ground surface signal interference, precipitation retrieval over radiometrically complex land surfaces, especially over snow-covered lands, deserts and coastal areas, is of particular challenge for this class of retrieval techniques. This paper evaluates the results by the recently proposed Shrunken locally linear embedding Algorithm for Retrieval of Precipitation (ShARP), over a radiometrically complex terrain and coastal areas using the data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. To this end, the ShARP retrieval experiments are performed ove...

  5. Detachment shear zone of the Atlantis Massif core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Früh-Green, G. L.; Kelley, D. S.; Williams, E. A.; Yoerger, D. R.; Jakuba, M.

    2006-06-01

    Near-bottom investigations of the cross section of the Atlantis Massif exposed in a major tectonic escarpment provide an unprecedented view of the internal structure of the footwall domain of this oceanic core complex. Integrated direct observations, sampling, photogeology, and imaging define a mylonitic, low-angle detachment shear zone (DSZ) along the crest of the massif. The shear zone may project beneath the nearby, corrugated upper surface of the massif. The DSZ and related structures are inferred to be responsible for the unroofing of upper mantle peridotites and lower crustal gabbroic rocks by extreme, localized tectonic extension during seafloor spreading over the past 2 m.y. The DSZ is characterized by strongly foliated to mylonitic serpentinites and talc-amphibole schists. It is about 100 m thick and can be traced continuously for at least 3 km in the tectonic transport direction. The DSZ foliation arches over the top of the massif in a convex-upward trajectory mimicking the morphology of the top of the massif. Kinematic indicators show consistent top-to-east (toward the MAR axis) tectonic transport directions. Foliated DSZ rocks grade structurally downward into more massive basement rocks that lack a pervasive outcrop-scale foliation. The DSZ and underlying basement rocks are cut by discrete, anastomosing, normal-slip, shear zones. Widely spaced, steeply dipping, normal faults cut all the older structures and localize serpentinization-driven hydrothermal outflow at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. A thin (few meters) sequence of sedimentary breccias grading upward into pelagic limestones directly overlies the DSZ and may record a history of progressive rotation of the shear zone from a moderately dipping attitude into its present, gently dipping orientation during lateral spreading and uplift.

  6. Coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: a preliminary database for the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2001-01-01

    The prediction of coastal evolution is not straightforward. There is no standard methodology, and even the kind of data required to make such predictions are the subject of much scientific debate. Since a viable, quantitative predictive model for coastal evolution is not available. The relative susceptibility of the Nation's coastline to sea-level rise is quantified here at a regional to national scale using basic information on coastal geomorphology, rate of sea-level rise, past shoreline evolution and other factors. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental and conditions, and yields a relative measure of the system's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. This information has immediate application to many of the decisions our society will be making regarding coastal development in both the short- and long-term.

  7. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-09-01

    Significant rates of primary production occur in the oligotrophic ocean, without any measurable nutrients present in the mixed layer, fueling a scientific paradox that has lasted for decades. Here, we provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic. We combine a 3-year time series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely mirror the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also apply the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost 3-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003 to 2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.14 mol m-2 yr-1, which is ~40 % smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference in nitrate flux between the time periods may be signifying a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for the BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by the decoupling of 3He and nitrate during the obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean. The upward nitrate flux is certainly large enough to support observed rates of primary production at BATS and more generally

  8. 海岸带高光谱遥感与近海高光谱成像仪(HICO)%Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Coastal Zone and Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄明静; 邢前国; 施平

    2013-01-01

    HICO (Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean) is the first hyperspectal imager on board International Space Station (ISS),and it is specially designed for coastal ocean remote sensing.In this paper,main characteristics of HICO are introduced and compared with another two on-orbit hyperspectral imager:EO-1 Hyperion,HJ-1A HyperSpectral Imager.In the case of turbid water environment of the Yellow River Delta,three typical kinds of objects are selected for comparasion of their radicane and ground reflectance after the atmospheric correction with FLAASH (Fast Line of Sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes).Results show that HICO's spectrum curves are smooth and consistant with in-situ measured spectra,while HSI's fluctuate strongly,particularly in blue bands.Water retrieval using ~820 nm band in atmospheric correction distinctly improves the reflectance accuracy around absorption band of water vapour.On the whole,HICO has better performance than HSI in delivering the spectral characteristics of objects in coastal zone.%应海岸带监测需求,高光谱成像仪开始在海岸带监测中发挥重要作用.搭载于国际空间站上的HICO(Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean)是第一颗针对近岸海洋遥感的高光谱成像仪,其波谱范围为360~1080 nm,光谱分辨率为5 nm.介绍了HICO数据的基本情况,并与在轨星载高光谱成像仪EO-1 Hyperion和HJ-1A HSI基本参数做了对比.同时针对高浑浊水体,以黄河三角洲近岸3种典型地物为例,结合FLAASH大气校正模型,提取了辐亮度和地表反射率,初步对比分析了HICO和HSI的光谱性能.结果表明HICO能更好地反映近岸地物的光谱特征.

  9. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1988 breeding pairs indices for geese and swans from aerial surveys of the coastal zone, Yukon Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The final year ofthe 4year study to develop an aerial survey of geese nesting in the coastal zone of the Yukon Delta has been completed. A.total of 1,614 miles of...

  10. A Coastal Storms Intensity Scale for the Catalan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E. T.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The impact of storms on the coastal zone produces a series of high-intensity processes such as beach erosion, overwash and inundation, usually considered as coastal hazards. When these coastal hazards verify along developed/urbanized areas, could produce large damages in existing infrastructures, affect coastal uses and disturb coastal ecosystem services. The importance of these storms and induced hazards is explicit in the Protocol on ICZM in the Mediterranean signed in 2008 by the EU and the Mediterranean countries. This Protocol includes a specific chapter on natural hazards, where the parties are advised to undertake vulnerability and hazard assessments of coastal zones and take prevention, mitigation and adaptation measures to address the effects of natural disasters. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to present an intensity scale for coastal storms developed for typical conditions of the Catalan Shelf. This follows the classic works of the hurricane (Saffir-Simpson, 1971) and the Atlantic Northeast storms (Dolan-Davis, 1992) scales although adapting them to the characteristics of Mediterranean coastal wave storms. To develop such scale, wave data recorded along the Catalan coast in 5 locations covering a coastline of about 400 km have been used. Recorded wave time series cover a total time frame of about 25 years (1984-2008). The first task was to identify storms in time series, which here were defined as those events during which the significant wave height exceeded a minimum value (threshold) of 2 m during a minimum period of 6 hours. Because our interest is to use this information to help managers to deal with coastal hazards, this definition was based not just in statistical properties of time series but on physical ones, i.e. this is the minimum event producing a significant coastal response in terms of beach erosion (estimated by means of numerical modelling of beach response to storm impacts). With this, a complete storm data set for

  11. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  12. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  13. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  14. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  15. An assessment of the risk of spreading the fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris to uninfected territories in the European Union with the movement of live Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeler, E.; Thrush, M.; Paisley, Larry; Rodgers, C.

    . This risk assessment was undertaken to establish whether exports of live Atlantic salmon from coastal sites increased the risk of G. salaris introduction and establishment in uninfected EU territories. A scenario tree of events necessary for the introduction and establishment of the parasite was...... longest). Transmission from seawater sites, where salinity is greater than 25 parts per thousand, is only possible if infected fish were introduced hours before export. Furthermore, transport via wellboat in full-strength seawater (33 parts per thousand) reduced the risk of introduction to a negligible...... level. Similarly, establishment at the site of destination will also be largely determined by salinity. At high salinities the parasite has only hours to reach freshwater (e.g. via migration on wild fish), and therefore the risk of establishment is extremely low. The risk of G. salaris introduction with...

  16. Hydroclimatic modulation of diatom/Phaeocystis blooms in nutrient-enriched Belgian coastal waters (North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, E.; Rousseau, V.; Parent, J.-Y.; Ozer, J.; C. Lancelot

    2006-01-01

    Statistical analysis of 14 yr (1988-2001) of intensive phytoplankton monitoring at Station 330 in the central Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ, Southern Bight of the North Sea) indicates that the long-term diatom biomass trend and the spring dominance of Phaeocystis colonies over diatoms are determined by the combined effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and freshwater and continental nitrate carried by the Scheldt. The strong correlation between diatoms and the NAO index is largely explai...

  17. Merging LANDSAT TM and airborne SAR for generating maps of Louisiana's coastal zone to facilitate oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution from oil spills is an ever present risk in coastal areas. The risk increases as oil and gas exploration, extraction and transportation expands with demands for energy by a growing population and increasing standards of living. Up-to-date maps of the areas at risk will help facilitate oil spill cleanup and reduce environmental damage. In the study described here, recently acquired LANDSAT TM and airborne X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used to evaluate techniques to generate accurate and up-to-date image-based maps suitable for use by field personnel in preparation for, during and following an oil spill. Selection of the study area, selection of the LANDSAT TM data and bands, the importance of SAR data, image processing and merging techniques, selection procedures for the best image-based maps, evaluation of the merged images, and problems encountered during the study were discussed

  18. Evaluation of ShARP Passive Rainfall Retrievals over Snow-Covered Land Surfaces and Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M.; Bras, Rafael L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2016-04-01

    For precipitation retrievals over land, using satellite measurements in microwave bands, it is important to properly discriminate the weak rainfall signals from strong and highly variable background surface emission. Traditionally, land rainfall retrieval methods often rely on a weak signal of rainfall scattering on high-frequency channels (85 GHz) and make use of empirical thresholding and regression-based techniques. Due to the increased ground surface signal interference, precipitation retrieval over radiometrically complex land surfaces, especially over snow-covered lands, deserts and coastal areas, is of particular challenge for this class of retrieval techniques. This paper evaluates the results by the recently proposed Shrunken locally linear embedding Algorithm for Retrieval of Precipitation (ShARP), over a radiometrically complex terrain and coastal areas using the data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. To this end, the ShARP retrieval experiments are performed over a region in Southeast Asia, partly covering the Tibetan Highlands, Himalayas, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basins and its delta. We elucidate promising results by ShARP over snow covered land surfaces and at the vicinity of coastlines, in comparison with the land rainfall retrievals of the standard TRMM-2A12 product. Specifically, using the TRMM-2A25 radar product as a reference, we provide evidence that the ShARP algorithm can significantly reduce the rainfall over estimation due to the background snow contamination and markedly improve detection and retrieval of rainfall at the vicinity of coastlines. During the calendar year 2013, we demonstrate that over the study domain the root mean squared difference can be reduced up to 38% annually, while the reduction can reach up to 70% during the cold months.

  19. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events.

  20. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850