WorldWideScience

Sample records for atlantic coastal zone

  1. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  2. Wind effects on coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll patterns in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight during spring 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, David L.; Iverson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) chlorophyll concentration increases in the Mid-Atlantic Bight were associated with high wind speeds in continental shelf waters during March and May 1979. Maximum spring CZCS chlorophyll concentrations occurred during April when the water column was not thermally stratified and were spatially and temporally associated with reductions in wind speed both in onshelf and in offshelf regions. Increased chlorophyll concentrations in offshelf waters were associated with high wind speeds during May when a deep chlorophyll maximum was present. Chlorophyll patchiness was observed on length scales typical of those controlled by biological processes during the April low-wind period but not during March or May when wind speeds were greater. The spring CZCS chlorophyll maximum in the southern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Bight occurred in response to a reduction in mixed layer depth caused by decreased wind speeds and not by increased water column stratification.

  3. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  4. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  5. A numerical analysis of shipboard and coastal zone color scanner time series of new production within Gulf Stream cyclonic eddies in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribble, J. Raymond; Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-induced upwelling occurs along the western edge of the Gulf Stream between Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Coastal zone color scanner images of 1-km resolution spanning the period April 13-21, 1979, were processed to examine these eddy features in relation to concurrent shipboard and current/temperature measurements at moored arrays. A quasi-one-dimensional (z), time dependent biological model, using only nitrate as a nutrient source, has been combined with a three-dimensional physical model in an attempt to replicate the observed phytoplankton field at the northward edge of an eddy. The model is applicable only to the SAB south of the Charleston Bump, at approximately 31.5 deg N, since no feature analogous to the bump exists in the model bathymetry. The modeled chlorophyll, nitrate, and primary production fields of the euphotic zone are very similar to those obtained from the satellite and shipboard data at the leading edges of the observed eddies south of the Charleston Bump. The horizontal and vertical simulated fluxes of nitrate and chlorophyll show that only approximately 10% of the upwelled nitrate is utilized by the phytoplankton of the modeled grid box on the northern edge of the cyclone, while approximately 75% is lost horizontally, with the remainder still in the euphotic zone after the 10-day period of the model. Loss of chlorophyll due to sinking is very small in this strong upwelling region of the cyclone. The model is relatively insensitive to variations in the sinking parameterization and the external nitrate and chlorophyll fields but is very sensitive to a reduction of the maximum potential growth rate to half that measured. Given the success of this model in simulating the new production of the selcted upwelling region, other upwelling regions for which measurements or successful models of physical and biological quantities and rates exist could be modeled similarly.

  6. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  7. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... closing the commercial management groups for aggregated LCS and hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region...

  8. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  9. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  10. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  11. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date... commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform... large coastal shark fishery will open on July 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karyl Brewster...

  12. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... species of sharks, including basking, great hammerhead, scalloped hammerhead, white, dusky, tiger, sand... Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with...

  13. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  14. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic Moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae from the coastal zone of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23ºS, 41-45ºW and 23º05'S, 44º30'W, Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91% specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957 was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955 showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species.

  15. 49 CFR 1105.9 - Coastal Zone Management Act requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. 1105.9... ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.9 Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. (a) If the proposed action affects land or water uses within a State coastal zone designated pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C...

  16. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.33 Policy—Coastal zone management. (a) The Coastal Zone Management Act of... affecting the coastal zone of a state, to conduct or support those activities in a manner which is, to the...

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of

  20. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management... ICMP constitutes an approvable program and that requirements of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA..., submitted a coastal management program to NOAA for approval under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 16...

  2. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The EFP would allow for an exemption from the Reserve. Regulations under the Atlantic Coastal Act require publication of this...

  3. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  4. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. Monitoring man's impact in the coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, A.R. Jr.; Snell, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the monitoring of man's impact in the coastal zone. Color infrared photography shows destroyed or degraded wetlands or beaches, and makes possible relevant linear or aerial measurements with aerial photography. It can also categorize the environmental impacts which have accrued as the result of completion of water development projects. Aerial photography of the Texas coastal zone illustrates the nature and degree of damage likely to occur as a result of construction or maintenance projects. It is concluded that the method of assigning realistic values to unit areas of wetlands and beaches will make it feasible to incorporate the cost of estuarine damages into the cost estimates of water development schemes

  6. Coastal zones : shifting shores, sharing adaptation strategies for coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.E. [Waikato Univ. (New Zealand); Morneau, F.; Savard, J.P. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Madruga, R.P. [Centre of Investigation on the Global Economy (Cuba); Leslie, K.R. [Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (Belize); Agricole, W. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Seychelles); Burkett, V. [United States Geological Survey (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A parallel event to the eleventh Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change was held to demonstrate examples of adaptation from around the world in the areas of food security, water resources, coastal zones, and communities/infrastructure. Panels on each theme presented examples from developing countries, countries in economic transition, and developed countries. These 4 themes were chosen because both mitigation and adaptation are essential to meeting the challenge of climate change. The objective of the event was to improve the knowledge of Canada's vulnerabilities to climate change, identify ways to minimize the negative effects of future impacts, and explore opportunities that take advantage of any positive impacts. This third session focused on how coastal communities are adapting to climate change in such places as Quebec, the Caribbean, and small Island States. It also presented the example of how a developed country became vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina which hit the coastal zone in the United States Gulf of Mexico. The presentations addressed the challenges facing coastal communities along with progress in risk assessment and adaptation both globally and in the Pacific. Examples of coastal erosion in Quebec resulting from climate change were presented along with climate change and variability impacts over the coastal zones of Seychelles. Cuba's vulnerability and adaptation to climate change was discussed together with an integrated operational approach to climate change, adaptation, biodiversity and land utilization in the Caribbean region. The lessons learned from around the world emphasize that adaptation is needed to reduce unavoidable risks posed by climate change and to better prepare for the changes ahead. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Heat flux in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Edson, J.

    1998-01-01

    correlation data taken at a mast two kilometres off the Danish coast in RASEX. For these coastal zone data, the thermal roughness length shows no well-defined relation to the momentum roughness length or roughness Reynolds number, in contrast to previous theories. The variation of the momentum roughness...

  8. Coastal zone: Shelf-EEZ and land sea interface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Parulekar, A

    Among the few vibrant ecotopes is the coastal zone, where multifaceted interactions among air, sea and land are dynamically balanced. An area of intense clash of interest of user community, the coastal zone harbouring vast potential of renewable...

  9. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  10. Probabilistic estimation of dune erosion and coastal zone risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal erosion has gained global attention and has been studied for many decades. As a soft sea defence structure, coastal sandy dunes protect coastal zones all over the world, which usually are densely populated areas with tremendous economic value. The coastal zone of the Netherlands, one of the

  11. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and...: Illinois has submitted a coastal management program to NOAA for approval under the Coastal Zone Management...

  12. 76 FR 80342 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management... program under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), as amended at 16 U.S.C. 1451-1466, and the...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coastal Zone Management Act authorizes the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) to...

  13. Radiotracer studies for coastal zone management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.; Kluss, T.; Airey, P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal engineers and coastal zone managers increasingly rely on numerical models of fluid, sediment and contaminant dynamics. These are used to underpin coastal structure design and to predict environmental response to specific events such as storms or pollutant spills, and gradual changes such as sea-level rise or changes in bathymetry. Radiotracer techniques can be used to provide dynamic data on the movement of a specific patch of water, sediment or pollutant over time, which can be compared with model predictions. Two case studies are presented where radiotracer studies were used to improve confidence in numerical models of: (1) 2D hydrodynamics and sediment transport at the Port of Songkhla, Thailand; and (2) 3D hydrodynamics and algal bloom transport in Manila Bay, Philippines

  14. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods....... The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations...

  15. A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management.

  16. Coastal defence and societal activities in the coastal zone: Compatible or conflicting interests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuren, Saskia; Kok, Matthijs; Jorissen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    World-wide coastal zones are subject to physical and societal changes. Due to climate change sea level is expected to rise and storm conditions may become more intensive. Both may lead to shore erosion intensification in the coastal zone. Moreover, the coastal zone is intensely used for societal

  17. Coastal Zone Color Scanner data of rich coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Klooster, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons of chlorophyll concentrations and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured from ships off the central California coast were made with satellite derived estimates of the same parameters using data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner. Very high chlorophyll concentrations were encountered in Monterey Bay. Although lower chlorophyll values acquired off Pt. Sur agreed satisfactorily with the satellite data, the high chlorophyll values departed markedly from agreement. Two possible causes for the disagreement are suggested. Comparison of diffuse attenuation coefficients from the same data sets showed closer agreement.

  18. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  19. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  20. The Kane fracture zone in the Central Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, G.M.; Rabinowitz, P.D.; Velterop, J.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Kane fracture zone has been traced as a distinct topographic trough from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 24°N to the 80-m.y. B.P. isochron (magnetic anomaly 34) on either side of the ridge axis for a total of approximately 2800 km. Major changes in trend of the fracture zone occur at approximately

  1. Improving environmental impact assessmentfor better integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwi, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    How to make use of coastal and marine resources in a sustainable manner is an increasing concern among coastal stakeholders all over the world. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a well-known concept nowadays, but its implementation is often hampered. This is also the case in Indonesia.

  2. Lafourche Parish Coastal Zone Curriculum Resource Unit. Bulletin 1834.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Bobby; And Others

    The Louisiana coastal zone is a unique geographic feature. Soil carried by the Mississippi River has been deposited in Louisiana for the last 6,000 years to form the coastal area. All natural features in coastal Louisiana relate to materials and processes associated with the emptying of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The…

  3. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  4. Using remote sensing to inform integrated coastal zone management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available TO INFORM INTERGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT GISSA Western Cape Regional Meeting Wesley Roberts & Melanie Luck-Vogel 2 June 2010 CSIR NRE Ecosystems Earth Observation Group What is Integrated Coastal Zone Management? Integrated coastal management... D1D1 B a n d 1 Band 2 Quick theory of CVA Magnitude Direction ( ) ( )22 xaxbyaybM ?+?= Quadrant 1 (++) Accretion Quadrant 2 (-+) Quadrant 4 (+-) Quadrant 3 (--) Erosion CVA Results & Conclusions ? Change in image time series...

  5. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  6. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  7. Concept, approaches and applications of integrated coastal zone management in planning and management of Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, M.C.; Sinha, R.; Nigam, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Kotnala, K.L.

    of coastal planning and management in India is to achieve a balance between these two. In order to regulate coastal development and to ensure minimisation of long term problems, a specific coastal legislation namely Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) was enacted...

  8. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative comparison of the distribution of macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic, based on our own data from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean and available data from literature. The macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic bottoms from both regions could be distinguished by the presence of a high number of regional exclusive non-carbonated species, and the presence of a high number of maërl-forming species in the Mediterranean. Further, regional differences in the distribution of some exclusive species allowed the distinction of three zones in the Northeastern Atlantic (United Kingdom, French Brittany and Galicia, while no differences were found within the Western Mediterranean. However, the algal communities considered in the selected literature could not be qualitatively distinguished, and all the samples should be considered as maërl beds. Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum were the most widespread maërl forming species in the two regions, while in the Western Mediterranean Spongites fruticulosus was also very frequent. According to the differences in the species composition of the basal and erect strata of these beds, and also in their species richness, five different morphologies of macroalgal-dominated detritic bottoms could be distinguished. Their main characteristic species and their biogeographical distribution are detailed.

  10. Monitoring the change of coastal zones from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Le Cozannet, G.; Benveniste, J.; Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The world's coastal zones, where an important fraction of the world population is currently living, are under serious threat because of coastal erosion, cyclones, storms, and salinization of estuaries and coastal aquifers. In the future, these hazards are expected to increase due to the combined effects of sea level rise, climate change, human activities and population increase. The response of coastal environments to natural and anthropogenic forcing factors (including climate change) depends on the characteristics of the forcing agents, as well as on the internal properties of the coastal systems, that remain poorly known and mostly un-surveyed at global scale. To better understand changes affecting coastal zones and to provide useful information to decision makers, various types of observations with global coverage need to be collected and analysed. Observations from space appear as an important complement to existing in situ observing systems (e.g., regional tide gauge networks). In this presentation, we discuss the benefit of systematic coastal monitoring from space, addressing both observations of forcing agents and of the coastal response. We highlight the need for a global coastal sea level data set based on retracked nadir altimetry missions and new SAR technology.

  11. The intertropical convergence zone modulates intense hurricane strikes on the western North Atlantic margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Fall, Patricia L; Toomey, Michael R; Albury, Nancy A; Kakuk, Brian

    2016-02-24

    Most Atlantic hurricanes form in the Main Development Region between 9°N to 20°N along the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Previous research has suggested that meridional shifts in the ITCZ position on geologic timescales can modulate hurricane activity, but continuous and long-term storm records are needed from multiple sites to assess this hypothesis. Here we present a 3000 year record of intense hurricane strikes in the northern Bahamas (Abaco Island) based on overwash deposits in a coastal sinkhole, which indicates that the ITCZ has likely helped modulate intense hurricane strikes on the western North Atlantic margin on millennial to centennial-scales. The new reconstruction closely matches a previous reconstruction from Puerto Rico, and documents a period of elevated intense hurricane activity on the western North Atlantic margin from 2500 to 1000 years ago when paleo precipitation proxies suggest that the ITCZ occupied a more northern position. Considering that anthropogenic warming is predicted to be focused in the northern hemisphere in the coming century, these results provide a prehistoric analog that an attendant northern ITCZ shift in the future may again return the western North Atlantic margin to an active hurricane interval.

  12. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  13. 77 FR 57063 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North...

  14. 77 FR 64906 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... NC 58 Fixed Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North...

  15. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone is... Bridge crossing the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety...

  16. 78 FR 7402 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Paperwork Submissions Under the Coastal Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Paperwork Submissions Under the Coastal Zone Management Act Federal Consistency... collection. A number of paperwork submissions are required by the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) federal... used by coastal states with federally-approved Coastal Zone Management Programs to determine if Federal...

  17. 78 FR 18960 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC586 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  18. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  19. Features of the territorial planning of the sea coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Yavorska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone in Ukraine is likely to undergo the most profound change in the near future. Already more than 65 percent of the Ukrainian Black Sea region population lives within 30 km of the coast. Consequently, unless territory planning and careful environmental management are instituted, sharp conflicts over coastal space and resource are likely, and the degradation of natural resources will stop future social-economic development. In order to maintain and restore coastal ecosystem it was implemented law about formation of the national ecological network of Ukraine. Later were developed General Scheme for Planning of the Territory of Ukraine and regional level planning scheme but there is no especial document regulating the use of land in the coastal zone. The study of geographical conditions, economic activity, and population resettlement shows separation within the regions of several echelons of economic development in relation to the coastline. Such separation may be based on differences in intensity and types of economic use within the territory and the water area, as well as the population density on the land. These features include the following economic stripes: seaside-facade, middle, peripheral – on land, and coastal, territorial waters, exclusive economic zone – in the direction of the sea. At the same time, each economic stripe has a complex internal structure. There are several basic principles of functional zoning of the territory highlighted in the article can help to rational plan the seaside regions.

  20. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  1. Algorithms for Coastal-Zone Color-Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Software for Nimbus-7 Coastal-Zone Color-Scanner (CZCS) derived products consists of set of scientific algorithms for extracting information from CZCS-gathered data. Software uses CZCS-generated Calibrated RadianceTemperature (CRT) tape as input and outputs computer-compatible tape and film product.

  2. The Holocene in the coastal zone of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, F.

    2011-07-01

    This book represents a compilation of several scientific Holocene paleoenvironmental aspects of the coastal zone in Uruguay. It includes information about geological, geomorphological, evolutionary genetics, paleontological, paleobotanic, paleoclimatological, paleolimnological, paleoceanographic and archeologic aspects. The chapters presented were arbitrated by national and foreign recognized scientists

  3. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  4. Geomorphic Regionalization of Coastal Zone Using Geospatial Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The world coastal environment is made of diversified landforms and are also potentially vulnerable to climate variability, delta sinking, extreme events and anthropogenic interferences. Sustainable management of coastal resources and transforming quality ecosystem services to future generation are the goals of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Geographical homogenous unit are the basic implementation locus and back bone of these kinds of integrated management strategy and activities. However, coastal zone management projects in developing world using use arbitrary land-ward and sea-ward boundaries from physical reference as unit of management. The oversimplified fixed distance approaches are not able to map the spatial and temporal changes in coastal systems. The spatio-temporal variations of coastal systems are configured in geomorphic landforms and further that work on interaction between natural forces and anthropogenic inputs. The present research work is an attempt to present a simplified method of regionalization geomorphic landforms using geospatial platforms for delineating Orissa coast into smaller homogenous geographic unit as reference point for future management. Geomorphic landforms are reconstructed using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imagery, Survey of India topomaps, field survey and Digital Elevation Model data at geographic information system (GIS plat form. Seventy geomorphic features covering an area of 5033.64 km2 were identified and further, regionalized into five homogenous geographic units. The need of time is to recognize unsustainable coastal systems in these homogenous geographic units by fine tuning development parameters and also same time allowing coastal systems to adapt naturally to any kind of variability. Although, the methodology applied to Orissa for delineation homogenous geographic area but it can be replicated to any coast in world.

  5. 77 FR 62494 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act Programs--State Coastal Management... request is for a new information collection. The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended (CZMA; 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) requires that state coastal management programs and national estuarine research...

  6. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  7. An assessment of the risk of spreading the fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris to uninfected territories in the European Union with the movement of live Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeler, E.; Thrush, M.; Paisley, Larry

    2006-01-01

    with a higher level of risk of G. salaris introduction, compared with existing routes (i.e. from approved G. salaris free freshwater zones). However, the change in legislation may increase the volume of trade and thus increase the absolute risk of G. salaris spread. This work demonstrates how qualitative risk...... of Atlantic salmon from coastal zones where salinity is less than 25 parts per thousand, and where rivers draining into the region have been declared free of G. salaris, is largely determined by the risk of G. salaris introduction in the freshwater zone. Since reproduction and the survival of G. salaris...... are negatively associated with increasing salinity, the risk of introduction of G. salaris is lower for movements of live Atlantic salmon from coastal zones, compared with the rivers declared G. salaris free, which drain into those coastal zones. Therefore, the change in legislation did not create routes...

  8. 30 CFR 256.20 - Consideration of coastal zone management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of coastal zone management....20 Consideration of coastal zone management program. In the development of the leasing program, consideration shall be given to the coastal zone management program being developed or administered by an...

  9. 77 FR 59899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and NOAA Excellence Awards AGENCY... approved information collection. The 1990 reauthorization of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) authorized an awards program to ``implement a program to promote excellence in coastal zone management by...

  10. 32 CFR 644.318 - Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.318 Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management Programs. Subpart H will outline the provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as...

  11. Ocean Wave Energy Regimes of the Circumpolar Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean wave activity is a major enviromental forcing agent of the ice-rich sediments that comprise large sections of the arctic coastal margins. While it is instructive to possess information about the wind regimes in these regions, direct application to geomorphological and engineering needs requires knowledge of the resultant wave-energy regimes. Wave energy information has been calculated at the regional scale using adjusted reanalysis model windfield data. Calculations at this scale are not designed to account for local-scale coastline/bathymetric irregularities and variability. Results will be presented for the circumpolar zones specified by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics Project.

  12. 77 FR 5398 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC... zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW) adjacent to Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune..., Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC in the Federal Register (77 FR 1431). We received no...

  13. 77 FR 35903 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety... Intracoastal Waterway, mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. [[Page 35904

  14. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission... New Jersey failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the...

  15. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  16. 77 FR 39648 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Large Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... commercial fishery for non-sandbar large coastal sharks (LCS) in the Gulf of Mexico region. This action is.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Atlantic shark fisheries are managed under the 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly...

  17. Life cycle strategies of copepods in coastal upwelling zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W.

    1998-06-01

    Life cycles of copepods of coastal upwelling zones are of the multigenerational type—as many as 10 or more generations may be produced each year, depending upon water temperature, food concentration and length of the upwelling season. Abundant food resources and moderate temperature convey advantages to those copepods living in coastal upwelling zones, however, there is a clear disadvantage in that coastal upwelling zones are highly advective environments. Typically, water circulation patterns are such that surface waters are carried offshore, deeper waters carried onshore and most of the water column over the continental shelf is moving equatorward. The challenge to copepod species that inhabit upwelling systems is life cycle closure—how do eggs, nauplii, juveniles and adults avoid being swept out of these ecosystems in the face of persistent transport out of the system? In this review, I first list the species which dominate coastal upwelling ecosystems then discuss three variations on the multigenerational life cycle scheme that are observed in upwelling systems. The latter part of the review is devoted to discussion of how individuals are retained in the productive continental shelf waters within coastal upwelling ecosystems. The suggestion is made that the only copepod species that successfully achieve life cycle closure in such systems are those that are preadapted to upwelling circulation patterns. Our quantitative understanding of the relative importance of physical factors (such as advection) and biological factors (birth, growth, and mortality) on life cycle strategies and population dynamics is quite rudimentary. It would help our understanding if there were more field studies and more computer modeling studies that focused on seasonal cycles of abundance, development times and vertical distribution of life cycle stages, and measurements of water circulation patterns.

  18. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia Barbosa da; Vieira, Ricardo Pilz; Cardoso, Alexander Machado; Paranhos, Rodolfo Pinheiro da Rocha; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Martins, Orlando Bonifácio

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. MET...

  19. A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

    2014-03-01

    Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  1. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  2. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  3. Investigations of coastal zones using a modular amphibious vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Filatov, Valery; Beresnev, Pavel; Belyakov, Vladimir; Kurkin, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    The project aims to develop a means of verification of data on sea excitement derived from Autonomous mobile robotic system (AMRS) for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters [Kurkin A., Pelinovsky E., Tyugin D., Giniyatullin A., Kurkina O., Belyakov V., Makarov V., Zeziulin D., Kuznetsov K. Autonomous Robotic System for Coastal Monitoring // Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment MEDCOAST. 2015. V. 2. P. 933-944]. The chassis of the developed remote-controlled modular amphibious vehicle (MAV) will be equipped with a video camera and a hydrostatic wave-plotting device with strings sensors mounted on the stationary body's supports. To track the position of the MAV there will be installed the navigation system in order to correct the measurement data. The peculiarity of the tricycle MAV is the ability to change its geometric parameters that will increase its stability to actions of destructive waves and mobility. In May-June 2016 authors took part in conducting field tests of the AMRS on the Gulf of Mordvinov (Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin Island). Participation in this expedition contributed to obtaining experimental data on the topography and the physical and mechanical properties of the surf zone of the most promising field of using the MAV as a road for its moving. Within the project there was developed a mathematical model of the MAV motion in coastal conditions taking into account the new analytical dependences describing the physical and mechanical characteristics of the ground surfaces and the landscape, as well as hydrodynamic effects of surf zones. The reasonable selection of rational parameters of the MAV and developing the methodology of creating effective vehicles for investigations of specific coastal areas of the Okhotsk Sea will be made by using the mathematical model.

  4. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  5. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  6. Ecomarkets for conservation and sustainable development in the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Rod; Lynham, John; Micheli, Fiorenza; Feinberg, Pasha G; Bourillón, Luis; Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Markham, Alexander C

    2013-05-01

    Because conventional markets value only certain goods or services in the ocean (e.g. fish), other services provided by coastal and marine ecosystems that are not priced, paid for, or stewarded tend to become degraded. In fact, the very capacity of an ecosystem to produce a valued good or service is often reduced because conventional markets value only certain goods and services, rather than the productive capacity. Coastal socio-ecosystems are particularly susceptible to these market failures due to the lack of clear property rights, strong dependence on resource extraction, and other factors. Conservation strategies aimed at protecting unvalued coastal ecosystem services through regulation or spatial management (e.g. Marine Protected Areas) can be effective but often result in lost revenue and adverse social impacts, which, in turn, create conflict and opposition. Here, we describe 'ecomarkets' - markets and financial tools - that could, under the right conditions, generate value for broad portfolios of coastal ecosystem services while maintaining ecosystem structure and function by addressing the unique problems of the coastal zone, including the lack of clear management and exclusion rights. Just as coastal tenure and catch-share systems generate meaningful conservation and economic outcomes, it is possible to imagine other market mechanisms that do the same with respect to a variety of other coastal ecosystem goods and services. Rather than solely relying on extracting goods, these approaches could allow communities to diversify ecosystem uses and focus on long-term stewardship and conservation, while meeting development, food security, and human welfare goals. The creation of ecomarkets will be difficult in many cases, because rights and responsibilities must be devolved, new social contracts will be required, accountability systems must be created and enforced, and long-term patterns of behaviour must change. We argue that efforts to overcome these obstacles

  7. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Clerical Appeal would allow NMFS to correct clerical and mathematical errors that sometimes inadvertently occur when applications are processed. It is not an appeal on the merits and would involve no analysis... database is being created by the Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program (ACCSP) and is a critical...

  8. 75 FR 7227 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 600 and 697 RIN 0648-XT83 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  9. Streamflow characteristics of a naturally drained forested watershed in southeast Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2010-01-01

    Information about streamflow characteristics e.g. runoff-rainfall (R/O) ratio, rate and timing of flow, surface and subsurface drainage (SSD), and response time to rainfall events is necessary to accurately simulate fluxes and for designing best management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, those data are scarce in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, a highly...

  10. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  11. Regional Hydrogeochemistry of a Modern Coastal Mixing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Carol M.; Herman, Janet S.

    1996-02-01

    In west central Florida, groundwater samples were collected along flow paths in the unconfined upper Floridan aquifer that cross the inland, freshwater recharge area and the coastal discharge area. A groundwater flow and solute transport model was used to evaluate groundwater flow and mixing of fresh and saline groundwater along a cross section of the unconfined upper Floridan aquifer. Results show that between 8% and 15% of the fresh and 30-31% of the saline groundwater penetrates to the depth in the flow system where contact with and dissolution of gypsum is likely. The deeply circulating fresh and saline groundwater returns to the near-surface environment discharging CaSO4-rich water to the coastal area where it mixes with fresh CaHCO3 groundwater, resulting in a prediction of calcite precipitation in the modern mixing zone.

  12. Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, B. A.; Simpson, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Clouds are removed from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data using channel 5. Instrumentation problems require pre-processing of channel 5 before an intelligent cloud-screening algorithm can be used. For example, at intervals of about 16 lines, the sensor records anomalously low radiances. Moreover, the calibration equation yields negative radiances when the sensor records zero counts, and pixels corrupted by electronic overshoot must also be excluded. The remaining pixels may then be used in conjunction with the procedure of Simpson and Humphrey to determine the CZCS cloud mask. These results plus in situ observations of phytoplankton pigment concentration show that pre-processing and proper cloud-screening of CZCS data are necessary for accurate satellite-derived pigment concentrations. This is especially true in the coastal margins, where pigment content is high and image distortion associated with electronic overshoot is also present. The pre-processing algorithm is critical to obtaining accurate global estimates of pigment from spacecraft data.

  13. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  14. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  15. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the USO Patriotic Festival Air Show. This action... Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  16. Climate Change Impacts on the Mediterranean Coastal Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochier, F.; Ramieri, E.

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the potential impacts of changes in climatic conditions and in related variables, which could affect coastal areas, as well as to identify potential response measures which could reduce the vulnerability of coastal systems and enhance their adaptability. Attention will be focused on the Mediterranean basin which is in the climate change context, a zone of great interest and of recent concern at the world scale by some features: strong ocean-atmosphere-land interactions; contrast between the small size of the sea and its significant role in the global climate system; possibility to use it at a scaled down model for the monitoring of environmental and climate evolution; critical environmental conditions of some areas and high human pressure; and strong geographical, socio-economic and climatic contrasts. The first section provides an introduction to the climate change issue, the past trends and the projections of future climate at the global scale. The second section presents the main features of the Mediterranean basin and some relevant regional projections of future climatic variables. The third section focuses on the main likely impacts on the Mediterranean coasts. Different coastal systems - such as islands, deltas, estuaries, coastal wetlands and coastal cities - and different climate change impacts - such as inundation, increased flooding, salinisation, salt water intrusion, desertification, and increased erosion - are addressed in this section. Finally the last section brings some conclusions and identify some strategies of adaptations and directions for future research aimed at improving our ability to predict and assess the local impacts of climate change in the region

  17. Effects on atmospheric diffusion of meterological processes in coastal zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Meteorological processes in coastal zones differ from those inland because of the surface discontinuity between land and water. The difference in heating between the two surfaces gives rise to sea or lake breeze circulations which can transport pollutants in nongradient directions and recirculate them over source areas. The step change in surface characteristics at the land-water interface also causes formation of internal boundary layers having different transport velocities and diffusion rates than unmodified air upwind or above the boundary. These features require a more extensive measurement program and more versatile diffusion models than at inland sites

  18. Atlantic City, New Jersey Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second... Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats will be participating...

  20. Coastal zone management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization along Dubai Creek

    OpenAIRE

    Al Zahed, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a dynamic process in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented for the allocation of environmental, socio-cultural, and institutional resources to achieve the conservation and sustainable multiple use of the coastal zone. The present study titled “Coastal Zone Management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization” is an effort to consider critical water quality and ecological issues in the current and f...

  1. Groundwater availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Coes, Alissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers and confining units of North and South Carolina are composed of crystalline carbonate rocks, sand, clay, silt, and gravel and contain large volumes of high-quality groundwater. The aquifers have a long history of use dating back to the earliest days of European settlement in the late 1600s. Although extensive areas of some of the aquifers have or currently (2009) are areas of groundwater level declines from large-scale, concentrated pumping centers, large areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain substantial quantities of high-quality groundwater that currently (2009) are unused. Groundwater use from the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in North Carolina and South Carolina has increased during the past 60 years as the population has increased along with demands for municipal, industrial, and agricultural water needs. While North Carolina and South Carolina work to increase development of water supplies in response to the rapid growth in these coastal populations, both States recognize that they are facing a number of unanswered questions regarding availability of groundwater supplies and the best methods to manage these important supplies. An in-depth assessment of groundwater availability of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers of North and South Carolina has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. This assessment includes (1) a determination of the present status of the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater resources; (2) an explanation for how these resources have changed over time; and (3) development of tools to assess the system's response to stresses from potential future climate variability. Results from numerous previous investigations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain by Federal and State agencies have been incorporated into this effort. The primary products of this effort are (1) comprehensive hydrologic datasets such as groundwater levels, groundwater use, and aquifer properties; (2) a

  2. Evaluating Sea water Quality in the Coastal Zone of North Lebanon using Telemac-2DTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Mohamad; Darwich, T.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean are undergoing rapid development withgrowing and conflicting demands on the natural resources. Coastal zones are often subjected to irreversible land degradation and environmental deterioration. Lebanon is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin and the integrated management of the environment in the Lebanese coastal zone must be given concern. Most of the successful decisions addressing the environment protection or the elaboration of preventive measures in the coastal zone. These decisions depend on the availability of efficient simulation tools. The existence of these tools can help protecting the environment and establishing the ground for sustainable natural resources in the coastal zones. In this paper, a simulation tool called Telemac-2D TM software was used to simulate the business as usual, pessimistic, and optimistic status of the sea water quality in the coastal zone of Tripoli (North Lebanon). The coastal zone is affected by the effluents of solid and liquid wastes from Abou-Ali river. The different quality states of the coastal zone represent the normal, high, and low flow of the effluents (plume pollutants) from Abou-Ali river. In addition, it represents the variation of different factors such as wind and sea currents speed and direction. This simulation will help the decision makers to implement pre-cautious measures before a disaster takes place by assessing the quality of the sea water near the coastal zones. (author)

  3. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from coastal Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan R E; deYoung, Brad; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Gregory, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1) with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1). Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  4. Factors regulating early life history dispersal of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua from coastal Newfoundland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R E Stanley

    Full Text Available To understand coastal dispersal dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, we examined spatiotemporal egg and larval abundance patterns in coastal Newfoundland. In recent decades, Smith Sound, Trinity Bay has supported the largest known overwintering spawning aggregation of Atlantic cod in the region. We estimated spawning and dispersal characteristics for the Smith Sound-Trinity Bay system by fitting ichthyoplankton abundance data to environmentally-driven, simplified box models. Results show protracted spawning, with sharply increased egg production in early July, and limited dispersal from the Sound. The model for the entire spawning season indicates egg export from Smith Sound is 13%•day(-1 with a net mortality of 27%•day(-1. Eggs and larvae are consistently found in western Trinity Bay with little advection from the system. These patterns mirror particle tracking models that suggest residence times of 10-20 days, and circulation models indicating local gyres in Trinity Bay that act in concert with upwelling dynamics to retain eggs and larvae. Our results are among the first quantitative dispersal estimates from Smith Sound, linking this spawning stock to the adjacent coastal waters. These results illustrate the biophysical interplay regulating dispersal and connectivity originating from inshore spawning of coastal northwest Atlantic.

  5. Do the Atlantic climate modes impact the ventilation of the eastern tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) exist in the upwelling regions of the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific at intermediate depth. They are a consequence of high biological productivity in combination with weak ventilation. The flow fields in the tropical Atlantic is characterized by Latitudinally Alternating Zonal Jets (LAZJs) with a large vertical scale. It has been suggested that LAZJs play an important role for the ventilation of the OMZ as eastward currents advect oxygen-rich waters from the western boundary towards the OMZ. In the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA), the eastward flowing North Equatorial Undercurrent and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) provide the main oxygen supply into the OMZ. Variability in the strength and location of the LAZJs is associated with oxygen variability in the ETNA OMZ. We here want to address the question whether the variability in the zonal current field can be partly attributed to the large-scale climate modes of the tropical Atlantic, namely the Atlantic zonal and meridional mode. An influence of these modes on the NECC has been found in previous studies. For the analysis we are using the output of a global ocean circulation model, in which a 1/10° nest covering the tropical Atlantic is embedded into a global 1/2° model, as well as reanalysis products and satellite data. The zonal current field and oxygen distribution from the high resolution model is compared to observational data. The location and intensity of the current bands during positive and negative phases of the Atlantic climate modes are compared by focusing on individual events and via composite analysis. Based on the results, the potential impact of the Atlantic climate modes on the ventilation of the ETNA OMZ is discussed.

  6. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Process-based and Surrogate Modelling of Fine Sediment Transport in the Dutch Coastal Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal zones which are known as the interface between continents and oceans are vital and important to human beings because a majority of the world's population live in such zones (Nelson, 2007). Coastal systems are among the most dynamic and energetic environments on earth and they are

  8. Planning and management of the coastal zone in India - A perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Desai, B.N.

    Zone Management Authority at the national level and a suitable agency in each of the maritime states for properly coordinating and implementing the coastal zone management program of the country. It is necessary to consider all major uses of the coastal...

  9. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  10. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? 148.730 Section 148.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  11. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA...

  12. Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plain Long Term Agroecosystem Research site, Tifton, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Strickland; David D. Bosch; Dinku M. Endale; Thomas L. Potter

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain (GACP) physiographic region is an important agricultural production area within the southeastern U.S. that extends from Delaware in the Northeast to the Gulf Coast of Texas. The region consists mainly of low-elevation flat to rolling terrain with numerous streams, abundant rainfall, a complex coastline, and many wetlands. The GACP Long ...

  13. Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm - Multiple scattering effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Castano, Diego J.

    1987-01-01

    Errors due to multiple scattering which are expected to be encountered in application of the current Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric correction algorithm are analyzed. The analysis is based on radiative transfer computations in model atmospheres, in which the aerosols and molecules are distributed vertically in an exponential manner, with most of the aerosol scattering located below the molecular scattering. A unique feature of the analysis is that it is carried out in scan coordinates rather than typical earth-sun coordinates, making it possible to determine the errors along typical CZCS scan lines. Information provided by the analysis makes it possible to judge the efficacy of the current algorithm with the current sensor and to estimate the impact of the algorithm-induced errors on a variety of applications.

  14. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Camilo D Seabra; Maranho, Luciane A; Cortez, Fernando S; Pusceddu, Fabio H; Santos, Aldo R; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Cesar, Augusto; Guimarães, Luciana L

    2016-04-01

    The present study determined environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals, cocaine, and the main human metabolite of cocaine in seawater sampled from a subtropical coastal zone (Santos, Brazil). The Santos Bay is located in a metropolitan region and receives over 7367m(3) of wastewater per day. Five sample points under strong influence of the submarine sewage outfall were chosen. Through quantitative analysis by LC-MS/MS, 33 compounds were investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals (atenolol, acetaminophen, caffeine, losartan, valsartan, diclofenac, and ibuprofen), an illicit drug (cocaine), and its main human metabolite (benzoylecgonine) were detected at least once in seawater sampled from Santos Bay at concentrations that ranged from ng·L(-1) to μg·L(-1). In light of the possibility of bioaccumulation and harmful effects, the high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and cocaine found in this marine subtropical ecosystem are of environmental concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stakeholder involvement for management of the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oen, Amy Mp; Bouma, Geiske M; Botelho, Maria; Pereira, Patrícia; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Conides, Alexis; Przedrzymirska, Joanna; Isaksson, Ingela; Wolf, Christina; Breedveld, Gijs D; Slob, Adriaan

    2016-10-01

    The European Union (EU) has taken the lead to promote the management of coastal systems. Management strategies are implemented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), as well as the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive. Most EU directives have a strong focus on public participation; however, a recent review found that the actual involvement of stakeholders was variable. The "Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons" (ARCH) research project has developed and implemented participative methodologies at different case study sites throughout Europe. These cases represent a broad range of coastal systems, and they highlight different legislative frameworks that are relevant for coastal zone management. Stakeholder participation processes were subsequently evaluated at 3 case study sites in order to assess the actual implementation of participation in the context of their respective legislative frameworks: 1) Byfjorden in Bergen, Norway, in the context of the WFD; 2) Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece, in the context of the MSFD; and 3) Nordre Älv Estuary, Sweden, in the context of the MSP Directive. An overall assessment of the evaluation criteria indicates that the ARCH workshop series methodology of focusing first on the current status of the lagoon or estuary, then on future challenges, and finally on identifying management solutions provided a platform that was conducive for stakeholder participation. Results suggest that key criteria for a good participatory process were present and above average at the 3 case study sites. The results also indicate that the active engagement that was initiated at the 3 case study sites has led to capacity building among the participants, which is an important intermediary outcome of public participation. A strong connection between participatory processes and policy can ensure the legacy of the intermediary outcomes, which is an important and necessary

  16. The coastal rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae of Atlantic Canada: a survey and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The coastline inhabiting rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae of Atlantic Canada are surveyed. Thirty-three species have now been recorded in Atlantic Canada including 26 in New Brunswick, 15 in Newfoundland, 31 in Nova Scotia, and 13 on Prince Edward Island. Oligota parva Kraatz, Acrotona avia (Casey, Strigota ambigua (Erichson, and Myrmecopora vaga (LeConte, are all newly recorded in Canada, and Bledius mandibularis Erichson is newly recorded in Atlantic Canada. We retain A. avia as a species distinct from A. subpygmaea Bernhauer and designate a lectotype and paralectotypes for A. avia. Ten new provincial records are reported, one from New Brunswick, six from Nova Scotia, and three from Prince Edward Island. Four functional groups, halobiont (obligate, halophile (facultative, haloxene (tolerant, and incidental coastal species, are distinguished and the fauna is examined from the perspective of the particular coastline habitats and microhabitats they have been found to inhabit. Fourteen of the 33 staphylinids are introduced, Palearctic species, and eight of these have been associated with historic dry ballast shipping to the region from Great Britain. A trophic analysis indicates that some species are phytophagous algae feeders, while others are either generalist predators, or predators specializing on particular taxonomic or functional groups of invertebrates. Finally, some attention is devoted to discussing the diminished areas of coastline environments such as coastal marshes, and the various kinds of environmental disturbances and degradations they have experienced. These indicate the potential vulnerability of such coastal habitats and consequently of the communities of beetles that inhabit them.

  17. Modelling of hydrodynamic mechanisms of pollutant propagation in coastal zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benque, J.P.

    1982-11-01

    The results of this document have to be distinguished in mathematical models applicable to small-area problems (horizontal scale comparable to depth) and models applicable to large-area phenomena (horizontal scales much greater than depth, quasi-hydrostatic approximation). In the case of the former, progress remains to be made in the simulation of turbulence and in the development of algorithms applicable under often very complex geometrical conditions. Excellent results are obtained by combining mathematical models with reduced-scale models, the former (on larger scales) providing the boundary conditions for the tank of the physical models. Large-area problems can be tackled only by means of mathematical models. These models are extremely efficient for the calculation of mesoscale circulation and transport of pollutants, but they all run into the same difficulty of simulating long-term problems and of determining drift currents. The principal difficulty faced by mesoscale or macroscale models is the determination of atmospheric conditions and of boundary conditions in the open sea. Mathematical models make it possible to determine the situation at every point of a given coastal zone and require only the conditions at the boundaries of the zone for this purpose. However, although these conditions at the boundary correspond to an experimental effort small in relation to total surveillance of the zone, they are essential to the predictions of the mathematical model, and efforts must be made to obtain the best possible boundary conditions. In addition to these experimental surveys at the boundaries, a certain number of observations within the zone are needed for the calibration of the model, i.e. for the determination of certain numerical coefficients appearing in the parametrization

  18. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  19. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E. L.; Welch, R.

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  20. Study on Ecological Risk Assessment of Guangxi Coastal Zone Based on 3s Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z.; Luo, H.; Ling, Z. Y.; Huang, Y.; Ning, W. Y.; Tang, Y. B.; Shao, G. Z.

    2018-05-01

    This paper takes Guangxi coastal zone as the study area, following the standards of land use type, divides the coastal zone of ecological landscape into seven kinds of natural wetland landscape types such as woodland, farmland, grassland, water, urban land and wetlands. Using TM data of 2000-2015 such 15 years, with the CART decision tree algorithm, for analysis the characteristic of types of landscape's remote sensing image and build decision tree rules of landscape classification to extract information classification. Analyzing of the evolution process of the landscape pattern in Guangxi coastal zone in nearly 15 years, we may understand the distribution characteristics and change rules. Combined with the natural disaster data, we use of landscape index and the related risk interference degree and construct ecological risk evaluation model in Guangxi coastal zone for ecological risk assessment results of Guangxi coastal zone.

  1. STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF GUANGXI COASTAL ZONE BASED ON 3S TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes Guangxi coastal zone as the study area, following the standards of land use type, divides the coastal zone of ecological landscape into seven kinds of natural wetland landscape types such as woodland, farmland, grassland, water, urban land and wetlands. Using TM data of 2000–2015 such 15 years, with the CART decision tree algorithm, for analysis the characteristic of types of landscape’s remote sensing image and build decision tree rules of landscape classification to extract information classification. Analyzing of the evolution process of the landscape pattern in Guangxi coastal zone in nearly 15 years, we may understand the distribution characteristics and change rules. Combined with the natural disaster data, we use of landscape index and the related risk interference degree and construct ecological risk evaluation model in Guangxi coastal zone for ecological risk assessment results of Guangxi coastal zone.

  2. 77 FR 50388 - Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; 2012-2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Brownsville, Texas) and continues to the boundary between the eastern and western zones at 87[deg]31.1[min] W... Atlantic; 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Gulf King Mackerel in Western Zone AGENCY... king mackerel in the western zone of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) through...

  3. 78 FR 58248 - Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; 2013-2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... between the eastern and western zones at 87[deg]31.1' W. long., which is a line directly south from the... Atlantic; 2013-2014 Accountability Measure and Closure for Gulf King Mackerel in Western Zone AGENCY... king mackerel in the western zone of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) through...

  4. 78 FR 64888 - Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... the boundary between the eastern and western zones at 87[deg]31.1' W. long., which is a line directly... Atlantic; Reopening of the Commercial Harvest of Gulf King Mackerel in Western Zone AGENCY: National Marine... western zone of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) exclusive economic zone (EEZ). NMFS previously projected that...

  5. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G.; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investiga...

  6. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the Pu distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analyzed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse, and Newport), the suspended particulate matter (1 μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities, and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah River estuary, in addition to fallout Pu, has received up to 0.3 Ci of Pu from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence Pu isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Data are included on the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu in sediments and marsh grass of the Savannah River estuary

  7. 30 CFR 250.235 - If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone... EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do? If an affected State objects to the coastal zone consistency certification accompanying your proposed EP within the timeframe prescribed in...

  8. 15 CFR 930.98 - Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. 930.98 Section 930.98 Commerce and Foreign... Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. State agencies should monitor proposed federal assistance activities outside of the coastal zone or the described...

  9. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  10. Hypoxia is increasing in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Daniel J; Carstensen, Jacob; Aigars, Juris; Axe, Philip; Bonsdorff, Erik; Eremina, Tatjana; Haahti, Britt-Marie; Humborg, Christoph; Jonsson, Per; Kotta, Jonne; Lännegren, Christer; Larsson, Ulf; Maximov, Alexey; Medina, Miguel Rodriguez; Lysiak-Pastuszak, Elzbieta; Remeikaité-Nikiené, Nijolé; Walve, Jakob; Wilhelms, Sunhild; Zillén, Lovisa

    2011-08-15

    Hypoxia is a well-described phenomenon in the offshore waters of the Baltic Sea with both the spatial extent and intensity of hypoxia known to have increased due to anthropogenic eutrophication, however, an unknown amount of hypoxia is present in the coastal zone. Here we report on the widespread unprecedented occurrence of hypoxia across the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. We have identified 115 sites that have experienced hypoxia during the period 1955-2009 increasing the global total to ca. 500 sites, with the Baltic Sea coastal zone containing over 20% of all known sites worldwide. Most sites experienced episodic hypoxia, which is a precursor to development of seasonal hypoxia. The Baltic Sea coastal zone displays an alarming trend with hypoxia steadily increasing with time since the 1950s effecting nutrient biogeochemical processes, ecosystem services, and coastal habitat.

  11. Influence of land-based Kaliningrad (Primorsky) amber mining on coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Alexander; Ulyanova, Marina; Koschavets, Svetlana

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the pollution in the coastal zone of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea (Russian coast). It was studied through a range of methods, including analyses potential water quality indicators (WQIs) and potentially harmful elements (PHEs). A contamination factor and modified degree of contamination were used for describing the contamination of the sediments by toxic substances. Special attention was paid to activity of the Kaliningrad Amber Combine (KAC), the biggest world amber mining company, located onshore close to the coastal zone (Kaliningrad Region). The amber extraction contribution to the ecological state of the coastal zone was estimated. Contamination of the quarry by metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn) was comparable with contamination of abrasion bench. The pollution of the western coastal zone of the Sambia Peninsula is caused both by land-based anthropogenic developments (including KAC) and natural processes (coastal abrasion). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The NAO Influence on the Early to Mid-Holocene North Atlantic Coastal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A.; Cachão, M.; Sousa, P.; Trigo, R. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal upwelling regions yield some of the oceanic most productive ecosystems, being crucial for the worldwide social and economic development. Most upwelling systems, emerging cold nutrient-rich deep waters, are located in the eastern boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific basins, and are driven by meridional wind fields parallel to the coastal shore. These winds are associated with the subsiding branch of the large-scale Anticyclonic high pressure systems that dominate the subtropical ocean basins, and therefore can be displaced or intensified within the context of past and future climate changes. However, the role of the current global warming influencing the coastal upwelling is, as yet, unclear. Therefore it is essential to derive a long-term perspective, beyond the era of instrumental measurements, to detect similar warm periods in the past that have triggered changes in the upwelling patterns. In this work, the upwelling dynamics in the Iberian North Atlantic margin during the early and mid-Holocene is reconstructed, using calcareous nannofossils from a decadally resolved estuarine sediment core located in southwestern Portugal. Results suggest that the coastal dynamics reflects changes in winds direction likely related to shifts in the NAO-like conditions. Furthermore, the reconstructed centennial-scale variations in the upwelling are synchronous with changes in solar irradiance, a major external forcing factor of the climate system that is known to exert influence in atmospheric circulation patterns. In addition, these proxy-based data interpretations are in agreement with wind field and solar irradiance simulation modelling for the mid-Holocene. Therefore, the conclusion that the solar activity via the NAO modulation controlled the North Atlantic upwelling of western Iberia during the early and mid-Holocene at decadal to centennial timescales can be derived. The financial support for attending this meeting was possible through FCT project UID/GEO/50019

  13. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  14. Some aspects of integrated coastal zone management in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    . This trend has created tremendous pressures and the ecological balance is disturbing. There are various factors which are degrading the coastal waters. The Integrated Coastal Management is relatively a recent concept, which involves multidisciplinary approach...

  15. Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program (Section 6217) addresses nonpoint pollution problems in coastal waters.In its program, a state or territory describes how it will implement nonpoint source pollution controls, known as management measures.

  16. A survey of integrated coastal zone management experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Coastal problems that stem from human activities are almost always rooted in resource use conflicts. Since the majority of the world's population lives in coastal areas, such conflicts can only be expected to increase. As population growth continues, the pressure to develop coastal areas for

  17. Where the Sea Meets Land: The Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The first Coastal Society Conference discussed the present status of the coasts, coastal legislation, United States offshore oil policies, assessment of coastal environmental impacts and food and energy as resources or threats. The Society finds that management and legislation are needed for our coasts. (BT)

  18. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Faming; Huang, Boqiang; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Shenghui

    2018-05-23

    Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A), while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002⁻2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B). Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban sustainability in

  19. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  20. Herbicides from the Charente river and the estuarine zone (Marennes-Oleron) to the coastal seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scribe, P.; Chouakri, S.; Dupas, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial distribution of herbicides was investigated in the fluvial section, the estuary of the Charente river and the coastal zone (Marennes-Oleron). Monthly samplings were performed on a fluvial section from Angouleme to Saintes, at Chalonne, Nersac, Sireuil, Bourg and Brives from 1993 onwards. Estuarine and coastal sea-waters were sampled during two cruises in May 1991 and February 1992

  1. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. 77 FR 28854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... because of the importance of U.S. coastal areas, the U.S. Congress passed the Coastal Zone Management Act... (CZMP) Performance Management System; revise assessment document and multi-year strategy; submit.... Method of Collection Respondents have a choice of electronic or paper formats for submitting program...

  3. Similarity and Difference between the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and the Baiu Frontal Zone Simulated by an AGCM

    OpenAIRE

    Kozo, NINOMIYA; Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

    2007-01-01

    Features of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and the Baiu frontal zone (BFZ) simulated by an AGCM (T106L56: a primitive equation spectral model which has 56 σ-levels and triangular spectral truncation at wave-number 106) are studied. The 24-year integration, from 1979 to 2002, by the model constrained by observed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice distribution, is used for this study. The detailed analysis is made for the typical case of SACZ and BFZ selected from data in 1985-1996...

  4. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ataur Rahman; Sowmen Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme events linked to hydro-meteorological processes viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion and erosion etc. These hazards give rise to extensive damage to property and loss of lives every year. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing widespread suffering. Cyclones and tornadoes in particular damage infrastructure...

  5. Towards sustainable coexistence of aquaculture and fisheries in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Øjvind; Gomez, Emma Bello; Børsheim, Knut Yngve

    2012-01-01

    Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include ......, both industries represent human activities strongly influencing, and influenced by, the environment. Management of aquaculture and fisheries, as well as other uses of the coastal zone, should be considered integral parts with local variations in their respective importance.......Globally, coastal areas are subject to an increase in competing activities. Coastal fisheries and aquaculture are highly dependent on availability and accessibility of appropriate sites. Aquaculture production is increasing, whereas fisheries are at best stagnant. Coastal activities also include...

  6. Stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema Fracture Zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman; Demidova, Tatiana; Frey, Dmitri; Grigorenko, Klim

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study stratified flows and internal waves in the Vema fracture zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. This fracture provides intense transportation of cold abyssal waters from the West Atlantic to the equatorial region of the East Atlantic [1]. The results of measurements [2,3] carried out in the cruises of RV Akademik Sergey Vavilov in 2014-2016 are presented. The structure of the near-bottom flow is studied experimentally on the basis of CTD- and LADCP profiling. Theoretical analysis involves mathematical formulation of stratified fluid flow which uses CTD-data obtained from field observation. Spectral properties and kinematic characteristics of internal waves are calculated and discussed. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 15-01-03942, 16-35-50158). References [1] Morozov E., Demidov A., Tarakanov R. and Zenk W. Abyssal Channels in the Atlantic Ocean: Water Structure and Flows, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010. [2] Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Makarenko N.I. Flows of Antarctic Bottom Water through fractures in the southern part of the North Mid Atlantic Ridge, Oceanology, 2015, 55, 796-800. [3] Grigorenko K.S., Makarenko N.I., Morozov E.G., Tarakanov R.Yu., and Frey D.I. Stratified flows and internal waves in the Central West Atlantic, J. Physics: Conf. Series, 2016, 722, 012011.

  7. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data: The Cartagena coastal zone as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D; Campillo, J Antonio; León, Víctor M; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were selected as target species. Concentrations of contaminants in sediment and biota, and contaminant-related biomarkers were analysed. To assess environmental quality in the Cartagena coastal zone with respect to chemical pollution, data were assessed using available assessment criteria, and then integrated for different environmental matrices. A qualitative scoring method was used to rank the overall assessments into selected categories and to evaluate the confidence level of the final integrated assessment. The ICES/OSPAR integrated assessment framework, originally designed for the North Atlantic, was found to be applicable for Mediterranean species and environmental matrices. Further development of assessment criteria of chemical and biological parameters in sediments and target species from the Mediterranean will, however, be required before this framework can be fully applied for determining Good Environmental Status (GES) of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in these regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Conclusions/Significance Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters

  9. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Vieira, Ricardo P; Cardoso, Alexander M; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M; Martins, Orlando B

    2011-03-09

    Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine

  10. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  11. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management.

  12. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ataur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme events linked to hydro-meteorological processes viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion and erosion etc. These hazards give rise to extensive damage to property and loss of lives every year. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing widespread suffering. Cyclones and tornadoes in particular damage infrastructures and crops every year affecting the economy of the country negatively. Some naturally adapted plants as well as landscapes usually reduce the speed of cyclones and tornadoes and thus, protect the coastal zones. However, human activities have destroyed many of the forests and landscapes. Sundarbans and Chokoria Sundarbans mangrove forests of Bangladesh are under a great threat of extinction due to illicit logging and agricultural expansion. At least 34 plant species of tropical forest are on the verge of extinction. Many animals e.g., cats, bears, porcupines, wild boars, pythons and anteaters are in the process of being wiped out from the coastal areas. Among the marine and coastal species, Red crabs, jelly-fish, sharks, and dolphins are also rare but these were the major species prior to 1980s. This study revealed that during the recent decades there has been massive plantations and construction of embankment and polderization but these and other measures have been found to be impractical and ineffective in reducing disasters in coastal areas. There is a need for integration of traditional coping practices and wisdoms with modern approaches. Available knowledge on some of these traditional practices has been documented for establishing a sustainable policy for management of coastal zones of Bangladesh. By combining traditional and scientific management of coastal ecosystem with mangroves and other plants following triple-tier mechanism and habitat, it is

  13. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-01-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d−1 (∼10 nmol l−1 d−1). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (⩽20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3–10 nmol l−1 d−1), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04–0.68 nmol l−1 d−1. Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air–sea exchange scientists. PMID:23178665

  14. Coastal zone color scanner ``system calibration'': A retrospective examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.

    1994-04-01

    During its lifetime the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) produced approximately 66,000 images. These have been placed in an archive of "raw" radiance (sensor counts) in a subsampled format that is easily accessible. They have also been processed to form global fields, at reduced resolution, of normalized water-leaving radiance, phytoplankton pigments, and diffuse attenuation coefficient. Using this archive, we have tried to characterize some aspects of the "system calibration" for the 8-year lifetime of CZCS. Specifically, we have assumed that the sensitivity of the red band decayed in a simple manner similar to the well-known long-term degradation of the shorter-wavelength bands, and we examined the sensitivity of the green and yellow bands by computing the globally averaged water-leaving radiance, over 10-day periods, for all of the imagery. The results provide evidence that in addition to the long-term degradation, short-term (2 weeks to 1 month) variations in the radiometric sensitivity of these bands started in early fall 1981 and continued for the rest of the mission. In contrast, the data suggest the absence of such variations prior to August 1981. It is reasonable to believe that the sensitivity of the blue (and probably the red) band underwent such variations as well; however, our methodology cannot be used to study the other bands. Thus after these fluctuations began, the actual values of CZCS-estimated pigment concentrations at a given location should be viewed with skepticism; however, the global patterns of derived pigment concentration should be valid. Had an extensive set of surface measurements of water-leaving radiance, e.g., from moored buoys or drifters, been available during the CZCS mission, these fluctuations could have been removed from the data set, and this would have greatly increased its value. The lessons learned from CZCS, that is, the requirement of good radiometric calibration and stability and the necessity of "sea truth" stations

  15. Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': A retrospective examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.

    1994-01-01

    During its lifetime the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) produced approximately 66,000 images. These have been placed in an archive of 'raw' radiance (sensor counts) in a subsampled format that is easily accessible. They have also been processed to form global fields, at reduced resolution, of normalized water-leaving radiance, phytoplankton pigments, and diffuse attenuation coefficient. Using this archive, we have tried to characterize some aspects of the 'system calibration' for the 8-year lifetime of CZCS. Specifically, we have assumed that the sensitivity of the red band decayed in a simple manner similar to the well-known long-term degradation of the shorter-wavelength bands, and we examined the sensitivity of the green and yellow bands by computing the globally averaged water-leaving radiance, over 10-day periods, for all of the imagery. The results provided evidence that in addition to the long-term degradation, short-term (2 weeks to 1 month) variations in the radiometric sensitivity of these bands started in early fall 1981 and continued for the rest of the mission. In contrast, the data suggested the absence of such variations prior to August 1981. It is reasonable to believe that the sensitivity of the blue (and probably the red) band underwent such variations as well; however our methodology cannot be used to study the other bands. Thus, after these fluctuations began, the actual values of CZCS - estimated pigment concentrations at a given location should be viewed with skepticism; however, the global patterns of derived pigment concentrations should be valid. Had an extensive set of surface measurements of water-leaving radiance, e.r., from moored buoyes or drifters, had been available during the CZCS mission, these fluctuations could have been removed from the data set, and this would have greatly increased its value. The lessons learned from CZCS that is, the requirement of good radiometric calibration and stability and the necessity of 'sea truth

  16. Changing Livelihoods in the Coastal Zone of the Western Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... of WIO-East African coastal life warrants both single- and ... Perspectives are needed of both natural and ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  17. Editorial Changing Livelihoods in the Coastal Zone of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    change, as these affect coastal and marine ecosystems ... provide new opportunities for and challenges ... The first is composed of endogenous factors ... the rapid development of urban areas ... development of e.g. tourism and aquaculture.

  18. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Control Date AGENCY... that it is establishing a new control date to control future access to the king and Spanish mackerel... September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel. The Council requested a new control date for the king and...

  19. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. (a) The areas. (1) The St. Johns River restricted...

  20. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    streamflows in the surficial aquifer, and changes in water levels in the confined aquifers primarily resulted from the increased withdrawals associated with increased irrigation pumping; this response was most apparent in the Delmarva Peninsula. These results suggest that water levels may not be susceptible to the effects of droughts in the confined aquifers of the NACP aquifer system not used for irrigation, unlike in the unconfined surficial aquifer.A second analysis also was conducted to assess the effects of sea-level rise on the groundwater system throughout the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province because recent analyses of the relative rates of sea-level rise along the Atlantic coast indicate that the Mid-Atlantic region represents a hot spot with anomalously higher rates of sea-level rise than observed elsewhere in the United States. Groundwater levels rose from 0 to 3 ft in response to a 3-ft simulated change in sea-level position, with the largest response occurring along the shoreline and away from non-tidal streams. About 37 percent (or 10,000 square miles) of the area of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province may experience about a 0.5-ft or more increase in water levels with the 3-ft increase in sea-level position, whereas about 18 percent (almost 5,000 square miles) of land of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province may experience a 2-ft or more increase in water levels with the 3-ft increase in sea-level position.These increases in the water table are of particular concern in low-lying areas where the unsaturated (vadose) zone is already thin, thus creating concerns for groundwater inundation of subsurface infrastructure, such as basements, septic systems, and subway systems. This increase in the water table also will likely alter the distribution of groundwater discharge to surface-water bodies thus increasing groundwater flow to streams that would have otherwise discharged directly to coastal waters

  1. Microbial diversity from chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and bottom zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Silva, Renata; de Oliveira, Rafael R.; Pivel, Maria A. G.; Borges, Luiz G. A.; Simão, Taiz L. L.; Pereira, Leandro M.; Trindade, Fernanda J.; Augustin, Adolpho H.; Valdez, Fernanda P.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R. P.; Groposo, Claudia; Miller, Dennis J.; Viana, Adriano R.; Ketzer, João M. M.; Giongo, Adriana

    2018-02-01

    Conspicuous physicochemical vertical stratification in the deep sea is one of the main forces driving microbial diversity in the oceans. Oxygen and sunlight availability are key factors promoting microbial diversity throughout the water column. Ocean currents also play a major role in the physicochemical stratification, carrying oxygen down to deeper zones as well as moving deeper water masses up towards shallower depths. Water samples within a 50-km radius in a pockmark location of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean were collected and the prokaryotic communities from different water depths - chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and deep-sea bottom (down to 1355 m) - were described. At phylum level, Proteobacteria were the most frequent in all water depths, Cyanobacteria were statistically more frequent in chlorophyll maximum zone, while Thaumarchaeota were significantly more abundant in both oxygen minimum and bottom waters. The most frequent microorganism in the chlorophyll maximum and oxygen minimum zones was a Pelagibacteraceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU). At the bottom, the most abundant genus was the archaeon Nitrosopumilus. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing data uncovered in this study shows high spatial heterogeneity among water zones communities. Our data brings important contribution for the characterisation of oceanic microbial diversity, as it consists of the first description of prokaryotic communities occurring in different oceanic water zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Improved oceanographic measurements with cryosat sar altimetry: Application to the coastal zone and arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotton, P. D.; Garcia, P. N.; Cancet, M.

    in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in......, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of “SAR” altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over “conventional” pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin......-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry which often leaves an un-measured “white strip” right at the coastline. Firstly...

  3. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.

  4. Coastal Fog in Atlantic Canada: Characterization and Projection in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, P.; Hartery, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Wheeler, M.; Miller, J.; Bhatia, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.

    2016-12-01

    Marine and coastal fog in Atlantic Canada is usually advective and favored by the meeting of the warm Gulf Stream and cold Labrador Current. As moist warm air moves over cold water, it cools down and becomes supersaturated. The interactions between microphysical, dynamical and radiative processes can also be a determining element in the formation and persistence of fog, which makes fog forecasting a highly challenging task. Current parameterizations within models suffer notably from unresolved microphysical problems such as neglecting droplet concentration, which leads to errors in droplet density predictions of up to 50%. In the scope of improving our understanding of fog and its characteristics, our research group conducted a field study on the coast of Nova Scotia in Eastern Canada during the fog season of 2016. Meteorological variables, droplet and aerosol size distributions, chemical speciation and fog water composition were measured. Results from this study will be presented, along with projections in a changing climate.

  5. Simple estimate of entrainment rate of pollutants from a coastal discharge into the surf zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simon H C; Monismith, Stephen G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-15

    Microbial pollutants from coastal discharges can increase illness risks for swimmers and cause beach advisories. There is presently no predictive model for estimating the entrainment of pollution from coastal discharges into the surf zone. We present a novel, quantitative framework for estimating surf zone entrainment of pollution at a wave-dominant open beach. Using physical arguments, we identify a dimensionless parameter equal to the quotient of the surf zone width l(sz) and the cross-flow length scale of the discharge la = M(j) (1/2)/U(sz), where M(j) is the discharge's momentum flux and U(sz) is a representative alongshore velocity in the surf zone. We conducted numerical modeling of a nonbuoyant discharge at an alongshore uniform beach with constant slope using a wave-resolving hydrodynamic model. Using results from 144 numerical experiments we develop an empirical relationship between the surf zone entrainment rate α and l(sz)/(la). The empirical relationship can reasonably explain seven measurements of surf zone entrainment at three diverse coastal discharges. This predictive relationship can be a useful tool in coastal water quality management and can be used to develop predictive beach water quality models.

  6. An innovative approach to determine economically optimal coastal setback lines for risk informed coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, R.; Jongejan, R.B.; Callaghan, D.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Current methods used to determine Coastal setback lines have several limitations. Furthermore, the historical practice of defining setback lines based on a single deterministic estimate is also proving inadequate with the emergence of risk management style coastal planning frameworks which require

  7. High resolution, topobathymetric LiDAR coastal zone characterization in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbacher, Frank; Baran, Ramona; Andersen, Mikkel S.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal and tidal environments are valuable ecosystems, which, however, are under pressure in many areas around the world due to globalization and/or climate change. Detailed mapping of these environments is required in order to manage the coastal zone in a sustainable way. However, historically...... locations with different environmental settings. We demonstrate the potential of using airborne topobathymetric LiDAR for seamless mapping of land-water transition zones in challenging coastal environments, e.g. in an environment with high water column turbidity and continuously varying water levels due...... these transition zones between land and water are difficult or even impossible to map and investigate in high spatial resolution due to the challenging environmental conditions. The new generation of airborne topobathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) potentially enables full-coverage and high...

  8. Mechanisms and Attribution of Changes in Austral Summer Precipitation Related to the South Atlantic Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Marcia Terezinha

    Austral summer (DJF) precipitation over tropical South America (SA) is characterized by the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). The increase in atmospheric temperature and water vapor content over the SA during the last decades of the 20 th century could affect the duration and amplitude of the SAMS and the intensity of the SACZ. This research examines the spatial variability of precipitation trends over SE Brazil, focusing on the SACZ. More specifically, this study investigates trends in precipitation over Southeastern Brazil (SE Brazil) and examines changes in the position and intensity of the SACZ. SE Brazil is the most densely populated region in the country with a large portion of this population living in urban centers. The SACZ is important for agriculture and water supply for millions of people. One of the main goals of this research is to identify mechanisms associated with the observed changes in the characteristics of the SACZ during the last three decades of the 20th century, and examine the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing to precipitation trends. The first chapter investigates the pattern of spatial variability of precipitation trends over the coastal region of SE Brazil. This study shows that over the southern portion of the study area, precipitation is increasing due to the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Over the northern portion of the area, while the intensity of extreme events is increasing, the number of precipitating days is decreasing. This spatial pattern of precipitation trends suggests a poleward shift of the SACZ, which is investigated in the second chapter. Chapter 2 focuses on the underlying mechanisms associated with changes in precipitation intensity related to the position of the SACZ. Decadal variations in the mean state of the atmosphere suggest that the observed changes in precipitation over SE Brazil are associated with a

  9. Fish Scale Evidence for Rapid Post Glacial Colonization of an Atlantic Coastal Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. A.; Peteet, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    Fish scales from the sediment of Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey, USA, indicate that fishes were present in the pond within 400 years of the time of the first deposition of organic material, at approximately 12,600 yrs BP. The earliest of the scales, from a white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, appears in sediment dated 12,260 +/- 220 yrs BP. Presence of scales in sediment deposited before I 0,000 yrs BP indicates that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, sunfish, Lepomis sp., and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, also were early inhabitants of the pond. The timing of the arrival of each of these fishes suggests that they migrated out from Atlantic coastal refugia. A minnow scale, referred to Phoxininae, was also retrieved; it could not be matched to any cyprinid currently found in northeastern North America. The species present historically in this pond are from five families found currently in ponds throughout the Northeast and sugoest that the lentic palaeo-enviromnent was similar to present mid-elevation or high-latitude lentic systems.

  10. A geomorphological approach to sustainable planning and management of the coastal zone of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bakri, Dhia

    1996-10-01

    The coastal zone in Kuwait has been under a considerable pressure from conflicting land uses since the early 1960s, as well as from the destruction and oil pollution caused by the Gulf War. To avoid further damage and to protect the coastal heritage it is essential to adopt an environmentally sustainable management process. This paper shows how the study of coastal geomorphology can provide a sound basis for sustainable planning and management. Based on coastal landforms, sediments and processes, the coastline of Kuwait was divided into nine geomorphic zones. These zones were grouped into two main geomorphic provinces. The northern province is marked by extensive muddy intertidal flats and dominated by a depositional and low-energy environment. The southern geomorphic province is characterised by relatively steep beach profiles, rocky/sandy tidal flats and a moderate to high-energy environment. The study has demonstrated that pollution, benthic ecology and other environmental conditions of the coast are a function of coastline geomorphology, sedimentology and related processes. The geomorphological information was used to determine the coastal vulnerability and to assess the environmental impacts of development projects and other human activities. Several strategies were outlined to integrate the geomorphic approach into the management of the coastal resources.

  11. EIA modelling for coastal zone management. Part 2

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  12. Intertidal zones as carbon dioxide sources to coastal oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    To understand the factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)) exchanges near land-sea boundary diurnal observations have been made twice on CO sub(2) in the air and water in a coastal region. The results suggest that CO sub(2) enrichment...

  13. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A, while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002–2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B. Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban

  14. The demarcation of arbitrary boundaries for coastal zone management: the Israeli case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Eliraz; Fischhendler, Itay; Portman, Michelle E

    2010-11-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) addresses the interconnections, complexities, and conflicts between many users of the coastal area with different goals. It requires setting managerial boundaries that capture many elements of human and natural systems. Experience teaches us that without a directed effort managerial rules and laws are not likely to coincide with the physical sensitivity of units that reflect different environmental characteristics of the coastal zone. Hence the aim of this study is to explore why coastal managerial boundaries are set arbitrarily and whether and how it is possible to address the problems this poses. We examine what influences the decisions of a new coastal management authority in Israel to determine how this body overcomes the limits of arbitrary boundary demarcation. The study found that real life management succeeded to both address areas outside the arbitrary boundaries and also to respect some of the different socio-economic needs and physical constraints of the coastal sub-units. Israel's Coastal Environment Protection Law allows and, in fact, encourages the regulator to use discretion and to employ various criteria to balance development and conservation. This implies that policy makers are cognizant of a need to balance ecologically-sensitive boundaries that consider the homogeneity of the coast with politically feasible boundaries that are set arbitrarily. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coastal Sea Level along the North Eastern Atlantic Shelf from Delay Doppler Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Benveniste, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Gravelle, M.; Dinardo, S.; Uebbing, B.; Scharroo, R.; Kusche, J.; Kern, M.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimetry data of the CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions processed with Delay Doppler methodology (DDA) provide improved coastal sea level measurements up to 2-4 km from coast, thanks to an along-track resolution of about 300m and a higher signal to noise ratio. We investigate the 10 Kilometre stripe along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf from Lisbon to Bergen to detect the possible impacts in sea level change studies of this enhanced dataset. We consider SAR CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 altimetry products from the ESA GPOD processor and in-house reduced SAR altimetry (RDSAR) products. Improved processing includes in RDSAR the application of enhanced retrackers for the RDSAR waveform. Improved processing in SAR includes modification both in the generation of SAR waveforms, (as Hamming weighting window on the burst data prior to the azimuth FFT, zero-padding prior to the range FFT, doubling of the extension for the radar range swath) and in the SAMOSA2 retracker. Data cover the full lifetime of CryoSat-2 (6 years) and Sentinel-3 (1 year). Conventional altimetry are from the sea level CCI database. First we analyse the impact of these SAR altimeter data on the sea level trend and on the estimation of vertical motion from the altimeter minus tide gauge differences. VLM along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf is generally small compared to the North-Western Atlantic Coast VLM, with a smaller signal to noise ratio. Second we investigate impact on the coastal mean sea level surface and the mean dynamic topography. We evaluate a mean surface from the new altimeter data to be combined to state of the art geoid models to derive the mean dynamic topography. We compare the results to existing oceanographic and geodetic mean dynamic topography solutions, both on grid and pointwise at the tide gauge stations. This study is supported by ESA through the Sea Level CCI and the GOCE++DYCOT projects

  16. Effects of Atlantic warm pool variability over climate of South America tropical transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaurte Villota, Constanza; Romero-Rodríguez, Deisy; Andrés Ordoñez-Zuñiga, Silvio; Murcia-Riaño, Magnolia; Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo

    2016-04-01

    Colombia is located in the northwestern corner of South America in a climatically complex region due to the influence processes modulators of climate both the Pacific and Atlantic region, becoming in a transition zone between phenomena of northern and southern hemisphere. Variations in the climatic conditions of this region, especially rainfall, have been attributed to the influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but little is known about the interaction within Atlantic Ocean and specifically Caribbean Sea with the environmental conditions of this region. In this work We studied the influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on the Colombian Caribbean (CC) climate using data of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) between 1900 - 2014 from ERSST V4, compared with in situ data SIMAC (National System for Coral Reef Monitoring in Colombia - INVEMAR), rainfall between 1953-2013 of meteorological stations located at main airports in the Colombian Caribbean zone, administered by IDEAM, and winds data between 2003 - 2014 from WindSat sensor. The parameters analyzed showed spatial differences throughout the study area. SST anomalies, representing the variability of the AWP, showed to be associated with Multidecadal Atlantic Oscillation (AMO) and with the index of sea surface temperature of the North-tropical Atlantic (NTA), the variations was on 3 to 5 years on the ENSO scale and of approximately 11 years possibly related to solar cycles. Rainfall anomalies in the central and northern CC respond to changes in SST, while in the south zone these are not fully engage and show a high relationship with the ENSO. Finally, the winds also respond to changes in SST and showed a signal approximately 90 days possibly related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation, whose intensity depends on the CC region being analyzed. The results confirm that region is a transition zone in which operate several forcing, the variability of climate conditions is difficult to attribute only one, as ENSO

  17. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  18. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  19. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  20. Marine debris in beaches of the Southwestern Atlantic: An assessment of their abundance and mass at different spatial scales in northern coastal Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Maria Eugenia; Rosenthal, Alan Federico; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo

    2017-06-15

    Argentina is currently undergoing an intensive development of coastal-oriented tourism due to the temperate climate and coastal sceneries of the Southwestern Atlantic and particularly its wide ocean-open sandy beaches, which may turn into an important contributor of marine debris to the beaches. This study was designed to assess at four spatial scales (i) the variation of the abundance and mass of marine debris and (ii) the composition and sources of these items in sandy-tourist beaches of coastal zones of the province of Buenos Aires, in northern Argentina. The abundance and mass of marine debris shifted between sampling localities (separated by ~1.5×10 5 m) and beaches (~3×10 4 m). Debris was primarily from recreational and fishing activities and over 20mm in size. Tackling the complications associated with marine debris in northern Argentina may include intensive educational and advertising campaigns oriented chiefly to beach users and fisherman. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  2. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Activities Plan § 285.647 How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone...

  3. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must...

  4. Lionfish (Pterois spp.) invade the upper-bathyal zone in the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Erika; Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Woodall, Lucy; Schofield, Pamela J; Stanley, Karl; Rogers, Alex D

    2017-01-01

    Non-native lionfish have been recorded throughout the western Atlantic on both shallow and mesophotic reefs, where they have been linked to declines in reef health. In this study we report the first lionfish observations from the deep sea (>200 m) in Bermuda and Roatan, Honduras, with lionfish observed to a maximum depth of 304 m off the Bermuda platform, and 250 m off West End, Roatan. Placed in the context of other deeper lionfish observations and records, our results imply that lionfish may be present in the 200-300 m depth range of the upper-bathyal zone across many locations in the western Atlantic, but currently are under-sampled compared to shallow habitats. We highlight the need for considering deep-sea lionfish populations in future invasive lionfish management.

  5. Lionfish (Pterois spp. invade the upper-bathyal zone in the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gress

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-native lionfish have been recorded throughout the western Atlantic on both shallow and mesophotic reefs, where they have been linked to declines in reef health. In this study we report the first lionfish observations from the deep sea (>200 m in Bermuda and Roatan, Honduras, with lionfish observed to a maximum depth of 304 m off the Bermuda platform, and 250 m off West End, Roatan. Placed in the context of other deeper lionfish observations and records, our results imply that lionfish may be present in the 200–300 m depth range of the upper-bathyal zone across many locations in the western Atlantic, but currently are under-sampled compared to shallow habitats. We highlight the need for considering deep-sea lionfish populations in future invasive lionfish management.

  6. Mercury in precipitation at an urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-11-01

    Wet deposition is an important source of metals to the sea. The temporal variability of Hg concentrations in precipitation, and the impact of air masses of different origins over the Polish coastal zone were assessed. Samples of precipitation were collected (August 2008-May 2009) at an urbanized coastal station in Poland. Hg analyses were conducted using CVAFS. These were the first measurements of Hg concentration in precipitation obtained in the Polish coastal zone. Since Poland was identified as the biggest emitter of Hg to the Baltic, these data are very important. In the heating and non-heating season, Hg concentrations in precipitation were similar. Hg wet deposition flux dominated in summer, when the production of biomass in the aquatic system was able to actively adsorb Hg. Input of metal to the sea was attributed to regional and distant sources. Maritime air masses, through transformation of Hg(0), were an essential vector of mercury in precipitation.

  7. Study on the construction of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong-zhu; Zhang, Mei-ying; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Zheng-dong

    2008-10-01

    Coastal zones in Guangdong province are increasingly facing an ecological, economic and social pressure due to the increasing economic utilization and human activities in these regions worldwide, which is threatening the sustainable development of human being. How to take effective measurements and adopt integrated management to ensure sustainable development in these areas is ever becoming a focus that attracts close attentions to the governmental and academic sectors recently. It is important to resolve the problem to establish an advanced decision support system for the coastal zone sustainable development to help scientific decision-making and carry out integrated coastal zone management. This paper mainly introduces the general framework of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system (GDCZSDDSS), including its requirements, general objectives, function and structure, and key technologies etc. After expounding the basic concept and requirements of GDCZSDDSS, the paper discusses generally the three-tier architecture and six kinds of functional modules, and lays a particular emphasis on the crucial role of such key technologies as GIS, RS and GPS (3S), spatial metadata and data warehouse etc., and discusses the methods of the GCZSDDSS integration, which aims at offering a whole solution for realization of the GCZSDDSS ultimately.

  8. Microeconomic motives of land use change in coastal zone area: agent based modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; van der Veen, A.; Voinov, A.; Jakeman, A.; Rizolli, A.

    2006-01-01

    Economic growth causes growing urbanization, extension of tourist sector, infrastructure and change of natural landscape. These processes of land use change attract even more attention if they take place in coastal zone area. In that case not only the efficient allocation and preservation of natural

  9. Effect of lighting conditions of coastal zone of Knyaginya lake on composition of macrophyte biohydrocenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Baranovsky

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In articlе the stuffs of researches of influence of a mode of illuminating intensity of coastal zone of a different exposition flood-land of lake Knyaginya (valley Samara on composition of highest aqueous green and macrozoobentos macrophytes biogeocenose are submitted.

  10. A generative Bezier curve model for surf-zone tracking in coastal image sequences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a generative Bezier curve model suitable for surf-zone curve tracking in coastal image sequences. The model combines an adaptive curve parametrised by control points governed by local random walks with a global sinusoidal motion...

  11. The impact of climate change on future land-use in a coastal zone planning context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2008-01-01

    Climate change has received much attention during the last decennium and especially various mitigation and adaptation strategies. Particularly the coastal zone will feel the consequences of climate change and the associated effects like sea level rise, increased storminess and flooding. Thus...

  12. Socially cooperative choices: An approach to achieving resource sustainability in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Colin; Draper, Dianne

    1996-03-01

    Achieving resource sustainability, particularly in the coastal zone, is complicated by a variety of interdependencies and trade-offs between economic, social, and ecological variables. Although trade-offs between each of these variables are important, this paper emphasizes the social components of resource management. In this regard a distinction is made between individual and cooperative choices. Individual choices frequently are made from a shortterm, self-interested perspective, whereas cooperative choices are made from a long-term, community and resource-sustainability perspective. Typically, when presented with a spectrum of resource management decisions, individuals have a tendency to act in a self-interested manner. Thus, cooperative benefits, such as reduced conflict and improved resource certainty, are not realized. An overview of selected aspects of social dilemma theory suggests that socially cooperative choice outcomes are attainable in coastal zone management by integrating structural and behavioral solutions in resource use decision making. Three barriers to successful integration of structural and behavioral solutions are identified as self-interest, mistrust, and variable perceptions of resource amenities. Examples from coastal zone management indicate that these barriers may be overcome using approaches such as scopereduction, co-management, community education, and local participation. The paper also provides comment on the potential benefits of integrating structural and behavioral solutions in international coastal zone management efforts.

  13. The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) would be significantly enhanced if there was greater connection to the field of social impact assessment (SIA). SIA is the process of managing the social issues of planned interventions (projects, policies, plans, and programs). SIA can also be used to

  14. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer System from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2013-11-14

    The seaward-dipping sedimentary wedge that underlies the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain forms a complex groundwater system. This major source of water provides for public and domestic supply and serves as a vital source of freshwater for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the region. Population increases and land-use and climate changes, however, have led to competing demands for water. The regional response of the aquifer system to these stresses poses regional challenges for water-resources management at the State level because hydrologic effects often extend beyond State boundaries. In response to these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the groundwater availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in 2010.

  15. Genotoxicity Biomonitoring Along a Coastal Zone Under Influence of Offshore Petroleum Exploration (Southeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; da Conceição, Moisés Basilio; Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Weber, Laura Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Offshore oil exploration creates threats to coastal ecosystems, including increasing urbanization and associated effluent releases. Genotoxicity biomarkers in mussels were determined across a gradient of coastal zone influences of offshore petroleum exploration in southeastern Brazil. Coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, beaches and islands were seasonally monitored for genotoxicity evaluation using the brown mussel Perna perna. The greatest DNA damage (5.2% ± 1.9% tail DNA and 1.5‰  ± 0.8‰ MN) were observed in urban estuaries, while Santana Archipelago showed levels of genotoxicity near zero and is considered a reference site. Mussels from urban and pristine beaches showed intermediate damage levels, but were also influenced by urbanization. Thus, mussel genotoxicity biomarkers greatly indicated the proposed oil exploration and urbanization scenarios that consequently are genetically affecting coastal organisms.

  16. An analysis of coastal zone management in England and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.D.R.

    1998-08-01

    The coastal zone is an area of crucial economic and ecological significance, which has increasingly been recognised in land-use planning. Within the coastal zone, integrating land-use planning and environmental management is recognised as one way to minimise trade-offs of interest between economic development and environmental objectives. Many governments are currently discussing the potential role of integrated coastal zone management (CZM) within their planning systems, while some international organisations promote CZM as a means to counter the loss of coastal resources due to human occupation of the coast. This thesis examines how the coastal zone in the United Kingdom is perceived and how effectively CZM is being promoted as a planning model to secure sustainable coastal development through the integration of planning policies. Policy integration is not a quixotic quest, but a model suggesting appropriate methods to manage and reduce conflicts. Any planning model can be traceable to varying assumptions and propositions from political thought, which in turn arises from different political practices. Each CZM plan thus reflects the planning and policy culture of its national system. In order to provide a context within which to assess the UK approach, the development of CZM in the Netherlands is also examined. Both national planning systems have comprehensive statutory land-use planning systems, while marine issues are controlled sectorally by central government. Neither administration has a national CZM policy framework. This thesis therefore includes a comparison of two management plans: the Wash Estuary Management Plan and Integraal Beleidsplan Voordelta. By comparing the organisational structures, policy development and implementation, the case studies provide an insight into the national CZM planning strategy currently being followed in the UK. Finally, the thesis concludes by identifying ways in which CZM might be further improved in the UK and also

  17. EPA studies distribution of terrestrial sediment in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundamental to the inter-Agency effort to protect coral reefs in southwestern Puerto Rico is the assumption that soil eroded from land in the Guánica/Rio Loco watershed is carried out of Guánica Bay and into coral reef zones and may even be pushed by currents to the west, where i...

  18. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  19. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Robert J W; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  20. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J W Brewin

    Full Text Available The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK, with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions. The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST, an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  1. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the South Greenland Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of South Greenland between 56º30' N and 62º N. The coastal zone is divided into 220 areas and the offshore zone into 6 areas. For each area a sensitivity index value is calculated, and each area is subsequently ranked...... are shown on 20 maps-sheets (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included. These maps also show the selected areas. Coast types logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 20 maps. The sensitivities ofthe offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one...

  2. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the Northwest Greenland (75°-77° N) coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Mosbech, Anders; Boertmann, David

    2016-01-01

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 75º N and 77º N. The coastal zone is divided into 53 shoreline segments, and the offshore zone into 4 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment...... rankings are shown on 15 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included in the analysis and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 15 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on four maps...

  3. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  4. Mapping the mantle transition zone beneath the central Mid-Atlantic Ridge using Ps receiver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, M. R.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Kendall, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the mechanisms taking place beneath ridges is important in order to understand how tectonic plates form and interact. Of particular interest is establishing the depth at which these processes originate. Anomalies such as higher temperature within the mantle transition zone may be inferred seismically if present. However, most ridges are found in remote locations beneath the oceans restricting seismologists to use far away land-based seismometers, which in turn limits the imaging resolution. In 2016, 39 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, along the Romanche and Chain fracture zones as part of the PI-LAB research project (Passive Imaging of the Lithosphere and Asthenosphere Boundary). The one-year long seismic data is now retrieved and analysed to image the mantle transition zone beneath the ridge. We determine P-to-s (Ps) receiver functions to illuminate the 410- and 660-km depth mantle discontinuities using the extended multitaper deconvolution. The data from ocean-bottom seismometers have tilt and compliance noise corrections and is filtered between 0.05-0.2 Hz to enhance the signal. 51 teleseismic earthquakes generated hundreds of good quality waveforms, which are then migrated to depth in 3-D. The topography at the d410 deepens towards the west of the Romanche and Chain fracture zone by 15 km, whereas the topography of d660 shallows beneath the ridge between the two zones. Transition zone thickness thins from 5 to 20 km. Thermal anomalies determined from temperature relationships with transition zone thickness and depth variations of the d410 and d660 suggests hotter temperatures of about 200 K. Overall, the result suggests mid-ocean ridges may have associated thermal signatures as deep as the transition zone.

  5. Marine Geophysical Characterization of the Chain Fracture Zone in the Equatorial Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, N.; Rychert, C.; Agius, M. R.; Tharimena, S.; Kendall, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Chain Fracture zone is part of a larger system of fracture zones along the Mid Atlantic Ridge that is thought to be one of the original zones of weakness during the break up of Pangea. It is over 300 km long and produces earthquakes as large as Mw 6.9 on segments of the active fault zone. Here we present the results of two marine geophysical mapping campaigns over the active part of the Chain Fracture zone as part of the PI-LAB (Passive Imaging of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary) experiment. We collected swath bathymetry, backscatter imagery, gravity and total field magnetic anomaly. We mapped the fault scarps within the transform fault system using the 50 m resolution swath and backscatter imagery. In addition, a 30-40 mGal residual Mantle Bouguer Anomaly determined from gravity analysis suggests the crust is by up to 1.4-2.0 km beneath the Chain relative to the adjacent ridge segments. However, in the eastern 75 km of the active transform we find evidence for thicker crust. The active fault system cuts through the region of thicker crust and there is a cluster of MW > 6 earthquakes in this region. There is a cluster of similar sized earthquakes on the western end where thinner crust is inferred. This suggests that variations in melt production and crustal thickness at the mid ocean ridge systems may have only a minor effect on the seismicity and longevity of the transform fault system.

  6. 30 CFR 250.272 - If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do? 250.272 Section 250.272 Mineral Resources MINERALS... objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do? If an affected State objects to the coastal zone consistency certification accompanying your proposed or disapproved DPP or...

  7. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  8. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  9. 3-Dimentional Mapping Coastal Zone using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imageries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Zhonghua; Liu, Fengling; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The metropolitan coastal zone mapping is critical for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal sustainable development and planning. The results of geometric processing of a Shanghai coastal zone from 0.7-m-resolution QuickBird Geo stereo images are presented firstly. The geo-positioning accuracy of ground point determination with vendor-provided rigorous physical model (RPM) parameters is evaluated and systematic errors are found when compared with ground control points surveyed by GPS real-time kinematic (GPS-RTK) with 5cm accuracy. A bias-compensation process in image space that applies a RPM bundle adjustment to the RPM-calculated 3D ground points to correct the systematic errors is used to improve the geo-positioning accuracy. And then, a area-based matching (ABM) method is used to generated the densely corresponding points of left and right QuickBird images. With the densely matching points, the 3-dimentinal coordinates of ground points can be calculated by using the refined geometric relationship between image and ground points. At last step, digital surface model (DSM) can be achieved automatically using interpolation method. Accuracies of the DSM as assessed from independent checkpoints (ICPs) are approximately 1.2 m in height

  10. The assessment of waters ecological state of the Crimea coastal near high-rise construction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrova, Natalya; Ivanenko, Tatyana; Mannanov, Emran

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of our study is determined by the significant level of coastal sea waters pollution by sewage near high-rise construction zones, which determines the violation of the sanitary and hygienic of sea waters `characteristics and limits the possibilities for organizing recreational activities. The purpose of this study is to identify the ecological state of the marine aquatic area by the example of the Western Crimea near high-rise construction zones. The studies confirmed that the recreational and coastal area wastewater is intensely mixed with seawater, as a result, the pollution in the coastal strip of the sea in the area of deep water discharges sharply decrease. This happens because of water rapid rise to the surface and under the influence of the continuous movement of sea water huge masses with deep-water discharge, fresh wastewater is actively mixed with sea water. However, with no doubt, it is inadmissible to discharge sewage into the sea directly from the shore, but only at the estimated distance from the coast. The materials of the article can be useful for the management bodies and organizations involved in monitoring the quality of the coastal zone of the sea, teachers and students of higher educational institutions when assessing the ecological situation of the territories.

  11. Biologically-Oriented Processes in the Coastal Sea Ice Zone of the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, I. A.

    2002-12-01

    The annual advance and retreat of sea ice is a major physical determinant of spatial and temporal changes in the structure and function of marine coastal biological communities. Sea ice biological data obtained in the tidal zone of Kandalaksha Gulf (White Sea) during 1996-2001 period will be presented. Previous observations in this area were mainly conducted during the ice-free summer season. However, there is little information on the ice-covered winter season (6-7 months duration), and, especially, on the sea-ice biology in the coastal zone within tidal regimes. During the January-May period time-series observations were conducted on transects along shorelines with coastal and fast ice. Trends in the annual extent of sea ice showed significant impacts on ice-associated biological communities. Three types of sea ice impact on kelps, balanoides, littorinas and amphipods are distinguished: (i) positive, when sea ice protects these populations from grinding (ii) negative, when ice grinds both fauna and flora, and (iii) a combined effect, when fast ice protects, but anchored ice grinds plant and animals. To understand the full spectrum of ecological problems caused by pollution on the coastal zone, as well as the problems of sea ice melting caused by global warming, an integrated, long-term study of the physical, chemical, and biological processes is needed.

  12. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: The coastal zone in an Era of globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Human pressure has changed the physical and ecological characteristics of coastal zones for centuries. 'Boom and bust' development of coastal zones is a historically recurrent problem. For nearly 40 years, there have been concerted efforts to improve management of the diverse human pressures that have led to deterioration of coastal environments. Since 1992, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been a dominant policy paradigm for bringing together relevant sectors of society to overcome conflicts of resource use and to pursue sustainable development. There is growing evidence that, with some exceptions, these efforts have not reversed environmental degradation. A major reason for this is that the economic and social changes leading to this decline operate increasingly at temporal and spatial scales greater than the scope of management regimes established through ICZM. Alternative approaches such as Adaptive Management are needed to deal with this mismatch of scales. Cross-scale tools including information technology and social networking may also provide vehicles for innovation. As part of a broader range of tools, ICZM helps respond to locally driven problems and adapt to global change. Effective future management must work across scales and benefit from the 'long view' of how coupled social and ecological systems operate.

  13. Phosphorus 32 cycling in the root-litter mat of Pernambuco atlantic coastal forest, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, I.H.; Sampaio, E.V.S.; Elliott, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a compartmental model to describe P cycling in the root-litter mat and surface mineral soil of an Atlantic coastal forest. Considerable amounts of P accumulate in this root-litter mat, relative to available P in the underlying mineral soil. We studied the mechanisms responsible for P retention five days after addition of sup(32)P on the surface of the 02 horizon. Total sup(31)P and sup(32)P were determined in leaves, humus, mineral soil and roots. In addition, we determined sup(31)P and sup(32)P in the solution and microbial biomass of the humus material. Fluxes of sup(31)P were obtained from published data and from experimental results of sup(32)P distribution among compartments. The main fluxes taking P out from the soils solution were uptake by the microbial biomass and sorption by the humus (12.9 e 5.2 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1), respectively), while the mean flux into the roots was 3.1 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1). The main compartment responsible for P accumulation was the humus+fragments, which had the highest P content (61% of total P in the forest floor) and the longest turnover time (15.5 months). (author)

  14. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Karina V R; Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Vanderklein, Dirk W

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  15. Change detection studies in coastal zone features of Goa, India by remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vethamony, P.; Saran, A.K.; Jayakumar, S.

    is the prime tourist destination of India, and the tourism industry is growing rapidly. Ass o- ciated with this growth, c hanges could be d e tected in the land - use, especially along the coastal belt such as co n- struction of buildings, environment...) have been studied using r e mote sensing data 3,4 . As Goa is one of the global tourist destination s of the world, more develo p- ment is expected along the coastal zone , and subs e quently there will be changes in the land - use/ land...

  16. 210Pb sediment dating in coastal transition zones: tropical saltmarshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Carnero-Bravo, V.; Perez-Bernal, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is one of the climate change effects expected to have the largest impact on coastal environments. SLR rates are not uniform around the planet and, therefore, local and regional data and trends are needed for proper adaptation plans. As long term monitoring stations of SLR are very scarce in most of the world, SLR trends obtained from 210Pb-dated sediment cores from tropical saltmarshes have become a practical alternative to obtain SLR trends within the past century, under the assumption that these ecosystems accrete at a similar rate to SLR. However, tropical saltmarshes are challenging environments for 210Pb dating: they are regularly dry, intermittently covered by seawater only during the highest tides, and sedimentary records often reflect the transition between terrestrial and marine environments (e.g. changes in grain size distribution, organic matter content and elemental composition) with all these factors contributing for atypical 210Pb depth profiles. In addition, 137Cs, the chronostratigraphic marker most commonly used to corroborate 210Pb dating, fails to be preserved in the sedimentary record in tropical areas, owing to its solubility in marine waters, if at all detectable. The present study describes the challenges and proposed solutions for 210Pb dating saltmarsh sediment cores from two saltmarsh areas (southern Gulf of California and Yucatan Peninsula) including the use of plutonium isotopes for corroboration purposes. Acknowledgements: projects CONACYT CB2010/153492 and PDCPN201301/214349; UNAM PAPIIT-IN203313 and the PRODEP network "Aquatic contamination: levels and effects" (year 3).

  17. Open Earth Observation Data for Measuring Anthropogenic Development in Coastal Zones at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Leinenkugel, P.; Guo, H.; Kuenzer, C.

    2017-12-01

    During the recent decades, global coasts are undergoing tremendous change due to accelerating socio-economic growth, which has severe effects on the functioning of global coastal systems. In view of this, accurate, timely, and area-wide global information on natural as well as anthropogenic processes in the coastal zone are of paramount importance for sustainable coastal development. A broad range of freely available satellite derived products, and open geo-datasets, as well as statistics with global coverage exist that have not yet been fully exploited to evaluate human development patterns in coastal areas. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of freely and openly available EO and GEO data sets for characterizing and evaluating human development in coastal zones on large scales. Therefore, different geo-spatial dataset such as Global Urban Footprint (GUF), Open Street Map (OSM), time series of Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Land cover were acquired for the entire continental coast of Asia, defined as the terrestrial area 100 km from the coastline. In order to extract indices for the coastline, a reference structure was developed allowing the integration of a 2D spatial pattern of a given parameter to a certain location along the coast line. Based on this reference structure statistics for the coast were calculated every 5 km parallel to the coast line as well as for four different distance intervals from the coast. The results demonstrate the highly unequal distribution of coastal development with respect to urban and agricultural usage in Asia, with large differences between and within different countries. China coasts show the highest overall patterns of urban development, while countries such as Pakistan and Myanmar show comparably low levels with nearly no development evident absence from coastal metropolitan areas. Furthermore, a clear trend of decreasing urban development is evident with increasing distance

  18. Evaluation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Practices in the Turkish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk Özügül, M.; Yerliyurt, Bora; Seçilmişler, Töre

    2017-10-01

    In terms of both international and national contexts, mostly coastal zones are the place of complexity, vulnerability and competition, so that they have to be well-planned and managed. Diversity in users, land uses, investments, sectoral plans and policies make coastal areas highly complex and problematic zones where competition also takes place. Unless these dimensions of pressure aren’t balanced with precautionary actions, coastal zones transform into more vulnerable geographies. Within this context “Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan” appears as a major tool where “integration” becomes a vital keyword for such diversifying environments. This integration challenge covers sectoral, administrative, spatial, interdisciplinary (in terms of scientific research fields) and internationality dimensions. A set of basic principles could also be obtained from the literature in order to reach a better ICZM Plan practice. These could be summarized as; “a broader perspective”, “a long-term perspective”, “adaptive management and monitoring”, “local specificities, specific solutions and flexible measures”, “carrying capacity of ecosystems”, “a participatory process”, “well coordination of policies and partners” and “coherence between sectoral policy objectives, planning and management”. A similar problematic conceptualization is also viable for Turkey, where approximately 76% of the total border length and 27 of 81 provinces are coastal. Naturally, both ICZM and coastal zone planning are within the emerging planning issues of national agenda. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Turkish practices depending on the above-mentioned principles by comparing various official ICZM plans of selected provinces. As a general conclusion it is seen that ICZM -to be an integrative and multi-dimensional tool- is contextually misunderstood. From this perspective “the determination of the plan borders”, “unsuitability of the

  19. Coastline Zones Identification and 3D Coastal Mapping Using UAV Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papakonstantinou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and coastal zones for scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. The availability of very high-resolution digital surface models (DSMs and orthophoto maps is of increasing interest to all scientists, especially those monitoring small variations in the earth’s surface, such as coastline morphology. In this article, we present a methodology to acquire and process high resolution data for coastal zones acquired by a vertical take off and landing (VTOL unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV attached to a small commercial camera. The proposed methodology integrated computer vision algorithms for 3D representation with image processing techniques for analysis. The computer vision algorithms used the structure from motion (SfM approach while the image processing techniques used the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA with fuzzy classification. The SfM pipeline was used to construct the DSMs and orthophotos with a measurement precision in the order of centimeters. Consequently, GEOBIA was used to create objects by grouping pixels that had the same spectral characteristics together and extracting statistical features from them. The objects produced were classified by fuzzy classification using the statistical features as input. The classification output classes included beach composition (sand, rubble, and rocks and sub-surface classes (seagrass, sand, algae, and rocks. The methodology was applied to two case studies of coastal areas with different compositions: a sandy beach with a large face and a rubble beach with a small face. Both are threatened by beach erosion and have been degraded by the action of sea storms. Results show that the coastline, which is the low limit of the swash zone, was detected successfully by both the 3D representations and the image classifications. Furthermore, several traces representing previous sea states were

  20. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane; Kudela, Raphael; Hooker, Stanford; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John M.; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan; Broughton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of

  1. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; Jørgensen, BB; Neumann, K.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore......-depleted bottom waters, the oxygen minimum zone on the continental slope, and the lower continental slope below the oxygen minimum zone. High concentrations of dissolved sulfide, up to 22 mM, in the near-surface sediments of the inner shelf result from extremely high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction...

  2. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68º-72º N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenlandbetween 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into nearly 200 areas and the offshorezone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each area, and each area issubsequently ranked...... on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show thedifferent elements included. These maps also show the selected areas. Coast types, logistics andproposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 38 maps. The sensitivities ofthe offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season...

  3. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  4. A new six-pored Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from the coastal zone of northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Igor Joventino; Brito, Lucas B M; Avila, Robson W

    2014-01-06

    We describe a new Amphisbaena from the Brazilian coastal zone at the municipalities of Guamaré and Macau, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The new species, Amphisbaena littoralis sp. nov., is characterized by six precloacal pores, 252-264 body annuli, 30-34 tail annuli with autotomy on the 6th tail annuli, 20-22 dorsal and 21-24 ventral segments to the midbody annulus.

  5. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 1 data product users' guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed specifically for the remote sensing of Ocean Color parameters from an Earth orbiting space platform. A technical manual which is intended for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 1 data products is presented. It contains information needed by investigators and data processing personnel to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  6. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 2 data product users' guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed for the remote sensing of ocean color parameters from an earth orbiting space platform. A Technical Manual was designed for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 2 data products. It contains information which describes how the Level 1 data was process to obtain the Level 2 (derived) product. It contains information needed to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  7. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  8. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  9. Rapid sewage pollution assessment by means of the coverage of epilithic taxa in a coastal area in the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, M E; Jaubet, M L; Saracho Bottero, M A; Llanos, E N; Elías, R; Garaffo, G V

    2018-07-01

    The sewage pollution impact over coastal environment represents one of the main reasons explaining the deterioration of marine coastal ecosystems around the globe. This paper aims to detect promptly a putative sewage pollution impact in a Southwestern Atlantic coastal area of Argentina as well as to identify a straightforward way for monitoring, based on the relative abundance coverage of the intertidal epilithic taxa. Four sampling sites were distributed at increased distances from the sewage outfall where the cover of individual epilithic species was visually estimated. The surrounded outfall area (i.e. outfall site) resulted polluted with high percentages of organic matter in sediment and Enterococcus concentration in seawater. The structure of the community showed a remarkable difference between the polluted site (outfall site) and the unpolluted sites. The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea dominated the outfall site with variable abundances of the green algae Ulva sp. during the period of study, decreasing the diversity of the community, while the mussel Brachidontes rodriguezii and variable abundances of several algae species dominated the unpolluted sites. The monitoring of the benthic community represents an effective, non-destructive, relative inexpensive and rapid method to assess the health of the coastal environment in the study area. The large abundance of B. proboscidea along with the absence of B. rodriguezii individuals at coastal ecosystem with certain gradient of pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  11. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population Estimates, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Estimates consists of country-level estimates of urban, rural and total population and land area country-wide and...

  12. The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone: A Crossroads of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, A. S.; Furey, H. H.; Xu, X.

    2016-02-01

    The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ), a deep gap in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 52N, is the primary conduit for westward-flowing Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), which merges with Denmark Strait Overflow Water to form the Deep Western Boundary Current. The CGFZ has also been shown to "funnel" the path of the northern branch of the eastward-flowing North Atlantic Current (NAC), thereby bringing these two branches of the AMOC into close proximity. A recent two-year time series of hydrographic properties and currents from eight tall moorings across the CGFZ offers the first opportunity to investigate the NAC as a source of variability for ISOW transport. The two-year mean and standard deviation of ISOW transport was -1.7 ± 1.5 Sv, compared to -2.4 ± 3.0 Sv reported by Saunders for a 13-month period in 1988-1989. Differences in the two estimates are partly explained by limitations of the Saunders array, but more importantly reflect the strong low-frequency variability in ISOW transport through CGFZ (which includes complete reversals). Both the observations and output from a multi-decadal simulation of the North Atlantic using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) forced with interannually varying wind and buoyancy fields indicate a strong positive correlation between ISOW transport and the strength of the NAC through the CGFZ (stronger eastward NAC related to weaker westward ISOW transport). Vertical structure of the low-frequency current variability and water mass structure in the CGFZ will also be discussed. The results have implications regarding the interaction of the upper and lower limbs of the AMOC, and downstream propagation of ISOW transport variability in the Deep Western Boundary Current.

  13. Decadal change of the south Atlantic ocean Angola-Benguela frontal zone since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.; Sun, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution simulations with a regional atmospheric model coupled to an intermediate-level mixed layer ocean model along with multiple atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses are analyzed to understand how and why the Angola-Benguela frontal Zone (ABFZ) has changed since 1980. A southward shift of 0.05°-0.55° latitude decade-1 in the annual mean ABFZ position accompanied by an intensification of + 0.05 to + 0.13 K/100-km decade-1 has occurred as ocean mixed layer temperatures have warmed (cooled) equatorward (poleward) of the front over the 1980-2014 period. These changes are captured in a 35-year model integration. The oceanic warming north of the ABFZ is associated with a weakening of vertical entrainment, reduced cooling associated with vertical diffusion, and a deepening of the mixed layer along the Angola coast. These changes coincide with a steady weakening of the onshore atmospheric flow as the zonal pressure gradient between the eastern equatorial Atlantic and the Congo Basin weakens. Oceanic cooling poleward of the ABFZ is primarily due to enhanced advection of cooler water from the south and east, increased cooling by vertical diffusion, and shoaling of the mixed layer depth. In the atmosphere, these changes are related to an intensification and poleward shift of the South Atlantic sub-tropical anticyclone as surface winds, hence the westward mixed layer ocean currents, intensify in the Benguela upwelling region along the Namibian coast. With a few caveats, these findings demonstrate that air/sea interactions play a prominent role in influencing the observed decadal variability of the ABFZ over the southeastern Atlantic since 1980.

  14. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  15. Heavy metal deposition fluxes affecting an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío

    2013-10-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of industrial emissions and harbour activities on total atmospheric deposition in an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Three large industrial estates and a busy harbour have a notable influence on air quality in the city of Huelva and the surrounding area. The study is based on a geochemical characterization of trace elements deposited (soluble and insoluble fractions) in samples collected at a rate of 15 days/sample from June 2008 to May 2011 in three sampling sites, one in the principal industrial belt, another in the city of Huelva, and the last, 56 km outside Huelva city in an area of high ecological interest. The industrial emissions emitted by the Huelva industrial belt exert a notable influence on atmospheric deposition. Major deposition fluxes were registered for Fe, Cu, V, Ni, P, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Se and Bi, principally in the insoluble fraction, derived from industrial funnel emissions and from harbour activities. Metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, and elements such as P also have a significant presence in the soluble fraction converting them into potentially bio-available nutrients for the living organism in the ocean. A principal component analysis certifies three common emissions sources in the area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals mixed with certain anthropogenic species (Mg, K, Sr, Na, Al, Ba, LREE, Li, Mn, HREE, Ti, Fe, Se, V, SO-, Ni, Ca and P); 2) an industrial factor composed of the same trace elements in the three areas (Sb, Mo, Bi, As, Pb, Sn and Cd) thus confirming the impact of the emissions from the Huelva industrial belt on remote areas; and 3) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg and SO.

  16. Reproductive phenology of coastal plain Atlantic forest vegetation: comparisons from seashore to foothills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira

    2011-11-01

    The diversity of tropical forest plant phenology has called the attention of researchers for a long time. We continue investigating the factors that drive phenological diversity on a wide scale, but we are unaware of the variation of plant reproductive phenology at a fine spatial scale despite the high spatial variation in species composition and abundance in tropical rainforests. We addressed fine scale variability by investigating the reproductive phenology of three contiguous vegetations across the Atlantic rainforest coastal plain in Southeastern Brazil. We asked whether the vegetations differed in composition and abundance of species, the microenvironmental conditions and the reproductive phenology, and how their phenology is related to regional and local microenvironmental factors. The study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 at three contiguous sites: (1) seashore dominated by scrub vegetation, (2) intermediary covered by restinga forest and (3) foothills covered by restinga pre-montane transitional forest. We conducted the microenvironmental, plant and phenological survey within 30 transects of 25 m × 4 m (10 per site). We detected significant differences in floristic, microenvironment and reproductive phenology among the three vegetations. The microenvironment determines the spatial diversity observed in the structure and composition of the flora, which in turn determines the distinctive flowering and fruiting peaks of each vegetation (phenological diversity). There was an exchange of species providing flowers and fruits across the vegetation complex. We conclude that plant reproductive patterns as described in most phenological studies (without concern about the microenvironmental variation) may conceal the fine scale temporal phenological diversity of highly diverse tropical vegetation. This phenological diversity should be taken into account when generating sensor-derived phenologies and when trying to understand tropical vegetation

  17. Fluometuron and pendimethalin runoff from strip and conventionally tilled cotton in the southern atlantic coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Bosch, David D; Bednarz, Craig

    2004-01-01

    In the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of southern Georgia (USA), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) acreage increased threefold in the past decade. To more effectively protect water quality in the region, best management practices are needed that reduce pesticide runoff from fields in cotton production. This study compared runoff of two herbicides, fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-urea] and pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine], from plots in strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT) management near Tifton, GA. Rainfall simulations were conducted one day after preemergence herbicide applications to 0.0006-ha plots and runoff from 0.15-ha plots due to natural rainfall following preemergence pendimethalin and fluometuron and postemergence fluometuron use was monitored. Pendimethalin runoff was greater under CT than ST due to strong pendimethalin soil sorption and higher erosion and runoff under CT. The highest losses, 1.3% of applied in CT and 0.22% of applied in ST, were observed during rainfall simulations conducted 1 DAT. Fluometuron runoff from natural rainfall was substantially lower from ST than from CT plots but the trend was reversed in rainfall simulations. In all studies, fluometuron runoff was also relatively low (<1% of applied), and on plots under natural rainfall, desmethylfluometuron (DMF) represented about 50% of total fluometuron runoff. Fluometuron's relatively low runoff rate appeared linked to its rapid leaching, and high DMF detection rates in runoff support DMF inclusion in fluometuron risk assessments. Results showed that ST has the potential to reduce runoff of both herbicides, but fluometuron leaching may be a ground water quality concern.

  18. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Á lvarez, Elena; Balau, Ana C.; Marbà , Nú rià N.; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrã o, Ester Á lvares

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  19. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  20. Catchment-coastal zone interaction based upon scenario and model analysis: Elbe and the German Bight case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, J.; Behrendt, H.; Gilbert, A.J.; Janssen, R.; Kannen, A.; Kappenberg, J.W.; Lenhart, H.; Lise, W.; Nunneri, C.; Windhorst, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic strategy on the interaction of activities in the Elbe river basin and their effects on eutrophication in the coastal waters of the German Bight. This catchment-coastal zone interaction is the main target of the EUROCAT (EUROpean CATchments, catchment changes and their

  1. Regional analysis of soil-atmosphere nitrous oxide emissions in the Northern Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plant, R.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Regional analysis of greenhouse gas emissions is becoming increasingly important in answering questions related to environmental change, and typically employs a Geographic Information System (GIS) linked with a process-based simulation model. For the Northern Atlantic Zone (NAZ) in Costa Rica (281

  2. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles,

  3. Towards an Integrated Management and Planning in the Romanian Black Sea Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Catalin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic and “natural” systems are, to a variable extent, now locked in a coevolutionary path, characterized by a joint determinism and complex feedback effects. The management of the coastal zones, including also modeling and assessment measures, should, be reoriented over time to properly capture the causes and consequences of the joint system changes as manifested in the coastal areas. This will require a collaborative work among a range of economical, environmental and social science disciplines. The pressures and the high instability are similar between the coast and the sea, in both senses (from the land to the sea and also from the sea to the land, being given by various factors as the strong winds, waves, storms, open sea, currents, as well well also the variability of temperatures, salinity, density, due to the Danube impact, etc. The influence of the rivers discharging into the Black Sea is important, while the coastal erosion, flooding, urbanization, tourism, naval industry have an impact on the coast and the sea environment. The Marine Spatial Planning Directive is appropriate in Romania to put in practice the similar tools, and practical approach from the coast to the maritime space. This paper aims to represent an useful starting point in the management of the coastal zones for both natural and social science research that would be seeked (by a more integrated modelling and assessment process to better describe and understand the functioning of the ecosystems, that form the coastal interface, and in particular the filter effect is exerted on nutrients in response to the environmental pressures, both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic - the climate change, land use/cover change, urbanization and effluent treatment from both point and non-point sources. For this it is necessary a broad analytical framework (rather than a specific model in which to set a more detailed analysis.

  4. Estimating the dynamics of groundwater input into the coastal zone via continuous radon-222 measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, William C.; Dulaiova, Henrieta

    2003-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone has received increased attention in the last few years as it is now recognized that this process represents an important pathway for material transport. Assessing these material fluxes is difficult, as there is no simple means to gauge the water flux. To meet this challenge, we have explored the use of a continuous radon monitor to measure radon concentrations in coastal zone waters over time periods from hours to days. Changes in the radon inventories over time can be converted to fluxes after one makes allowances for tidal effects, losses to the atmosphere, and mixing with offshore waters. If one assumes that advective flow of radon-enriched groundwater (pore waters) represent the main input of 222 Rn in the coastal zone, the calculated radon fluxes may be converted to water fluxes by dividing by the estimated or measured 222 Rn pore water activity. We have also used short-lived radium isotopes ( 223 Ra and 224 Ra) to assess mixing between near-shore and offshore waters in the manner pioneered by . During an experiment in the coastal Gulf of Mexico, we showed that the mixing loss derived from the 223 Ra gradient agreed very favorably to the estimated range based on the calculated radon fluxes. This allowed an independent constraint on the mixing loss of radon--an important parameter in the mass balance approach. Groundwater discharge was also estimated independently by the radium isotopic approach and was within a factor of two of that determined by the continuous radon measurements and an automated seepage meter deployed at the same site

  5. Dependence of waterbirds and shorebirds on shallow-water habitats in the Mid-Atlantic coastal region: An ecological profile and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Waterbirds (waterfowl, colonially nesting wading and seabirds, ospreys [Pandion haliaetus], and bald eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) and shorebirds (sandpipers, plovers, and relatives) may constitute a large fraction of the top level carnivore trophic component in many shallow-water areas of the mid-Atlantic region. The large biomass of many species (>1 kg body mass for the two raptors and some waterfowl) and enormous populations (e.g., >1 million shorebirds in late May in parts of Delaware Bay) reveal the importance of waterbirds as consumers and as linkages in nutrient flux in many shallow-water habitats. Salt and brackish marsh shallow-water habitats, including marsh pannes and tidal pools and creeks as well as constructed impoundments, are used intensively during most months of the year; in fall and winter, mostly by dabbling ducks, in spring and summer by migrant shorebirds and breeding colonial wading birds and seabirds. In adjacent estuaries, the intertidal flats and littoral zones of shallow embayments are heavily used by shorebirds, raptors, and colonial waterbirds in the May to September periods, with use by duck and geese heaviest from October to March. With the regional degradation of estuarine habitats and population declines of many species of waterbirds in the past 20 yr, some management recommendations relevant to shallow waters include: better protection, enhancement, and creation of small bay islands (small and isolated to preclude most mammalian predators) for nesting and brooding birds, especially colonial species; establishment of sanctuaries from human disturbance (e.g., boating, hunting) both in open water (waterfowl) and on land, better allocation of sandy dredged materials to augment islands or stabilize eroding islands; improvement in water management of existing impoundments to ensure good feeding, resting, and nesting opportunities for all the waterbirds, support for policies to preclude point and nonpoint source runoff of chemicals

  6. Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

  7. Were sea level changes during the Pleistocene in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain a driver of speciation in Petunia (Solanaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fregonezi, Aline M C; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Cybis, Gabriela B; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2015-05-20

    Quaternary climatic changes led to variations in sea level and these variations played a significant role in the generation of marine terrace deposits in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. The main consequence of the increase in sea level was local extinction or population displacement, such that coastal species would be found around the new coastline. Our main goal was to investigate the effects of sea level changes on the geographical structure and variability of genetic lineages from a Petunia species endemic to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. We employed a phylogeographic approach based on plastid sequences obtained from individuals collected from the complete geographic distribution of Petunia integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group. We used population genetics tests to evaluate the degree of genetic variation and structure among and within populations, and we used haplotype network analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to estimate divergence times and population growth. We observed three major genetic lineages whose geographical distribution may be related to different transgression/regression events that occurred in this region during the Pleistocene. The divergence time between the monophyletic group P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group (P. integrifolia ssp. integrifolia) was compatible with geological estimates of the availability of the coastal plain. Similarly, the origin of each genetic lineage is congruent with geological estimates of habitat availability. Diversification of P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata possibly occurred as a consequence of the marine transgression/regression cycles during the Pleistocene. In periods of high sea level, plants were most likely restricted to a refuge area corresponding to fossil dunes and granitic hills, from which they colonized the coast once the sea level came down. The modern pattern of lineage geographical distribution and population variation was established by a range

  8. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  9. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) zone 55/58 1996-2001 era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0038689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1996-2001 era or land cover change classifications of the SE Atlantic, zone 55 and zone 58. This imagery was collected as part of the...

  10. Monitoring Drought along the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean Using the Coastal Salinity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, P. A.; Rouen, L.; Lackstrom, K.; McCloskey, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal droughts have a different dynamic than upland droughts, which are typically characterized by agricultural, hydrologic, meteorological, and (or) socio-economic impacts. Drought uniquely affects coastal ecosystems due to changes in salinity conditions of estuarine creeks and rivers. The location of the freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of coastal communities. The location of the interface determines the freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities, fisheries spawning habitat, and the freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. The severity of coastal drought may explain changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. To address the data and information gap for characterizing coastal drought, a coastal salinity index (CSI) was developed using salinity data. The CSI uses a computational approach similar to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The CSI is computed for unique time intervals (for example 1-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month) that can characterize the onset and recovery of short- and long-term drought. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that the index can be used for different estuary types (for example: brackish, oligohaline, or mesohaline), for regional comparison between estuaries, and as an index of wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought (saline) conditions. In 2017, three activities in 2017 will be presented that enhance the use and application of the CSI. One, a software package was developed for the consistent computation of the CSI that includes preprocessing of salinity data, filling missing data, computing the CSI, post-processing, and generating the supporting metadata. Two, the CSI has been computed at sites along the Gulf of Mexico (Texas to Florida) and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean (Florida to

  11. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  12. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  13. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  14. Transboundary Clusters in the Coastal Zones of the European Part of Russia: Inventory, Typology, Factors, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory and a typology of the existing and emerging economic clusters in the coastal zone of the European part of Russia. The authors hold that transboundary clustering takes priority in the Baltic coastal region — nine of the 56 clusters identified are located in the Kaliningrad region and another eight in Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region. The authors describe major catalysts and immanent inhibitors in coastal zones. The former include a high density of coastal economies, proximity to international markets, and better logistics and communications. The inhibitors comprise geopolitical risks and institutional barriers. It is shown that the potential and prospects of transboundary clustering are affected by both global integration and disintegration patterns, coastal infrastructure, geopolitical and geoeconomic ‘neighbourhood’, cultural excellence, and business and investment environment.

  15. Extension parallel to the rift zone during segmented fault growth: application to the evolution of the NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bubeck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical interaction of propagating normal faults is known to influence the linkage geometry of first-order faults, and the development of second-order faults and fractures, which transfer displacement within relay zones. Here we use natural examples of growth faults from two active volcanic rift zones (Koa`e, island of Hawai`i, and Krafla, northern Iceland to illustrate the importance of horizontal-plane extension (heave gradients, and associated vertical axis rotations, in evolving continental rift systems. Second-order extension and extensional-shear faults within the relay zones variably resolve components of regional extension, and components of extension and/or shortening parallel to the rift zone, to accommodate the inherently three-dimensional (3-D strains associated with relay zone development and rotation. Such a configuration involves volume increase, which is accommodated at the surface by open fractures; in the subsurface this may be accommodated by veins or dikes oriented obliquely and normal to the rift axis. To consider the scalability of the effects of relay zone rotations, we compare the geometry and kinematics of fault and fracture sets in the Koa`e and Krafla rift zones with data from exhumed contemporaneous fault and dike systems developed within a > 5×104 km2 relay system that developed during formation of the NE Atlantic margins. Based on the findings presented here we propose a new conceptual model for the evolution of segmented continental rift basins on the NE Atlantic margins.

  16. Seasonal and long-term changes in pH in the Dutch coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Provoost

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that biogeochemical changes can mask atmospheric CO2-induced pH decreases. Data collected by the Dutch monitoring authorities in different coastal systems (North Sea, Wadden Sea, Ems-Dollard, Eastern Scheldt and Scheldt estuary since 1975 provide an excellent opportunity to test whether this is the case in the Dutch coastal zone. The time-series were analysed using Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA which resulted in the identification of system-dependent patterns on both seasonal and intra-annual time scales. The observed rates of pH change greatly exceed those expected from enhanced CO2 uptake, thus suggesting that other biogeochemical processes, possibly related to changes in nutrient loading, can play a dominant role in ocean acidification.

  17. Trophic Ecology and Movement Patters of Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo Cuvier) off the Western North Atlantic Coastal and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, G.; Edman, R.; Frazier, B.; Bubley, W.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the trophic dynamics and habitat utilization of apex predators is central to inferring their influence on different marine landscapes and to help design effective management plans for these animals. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are abundant in shelf and offshore Gulf Stream waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean, and based on movements from individuals captured in Florida and Bahamas, seem to avoid coastal and shelf waters off South Carolina and Georgia. This contradicts reports of tiger sharks regularly being caught nearshore by anglers in these states, indicating that separate sub-populations may exist in the western North Atlantic. In the present study we captured Tiger Sharks in coastal waters off South Carolina in 2014 and 2015 in order to describe their movement patterns through acoustic and satellite tagging, and trophic dynamics through stable isotope analyses. Movement data show that these tiger sharks repeatedly visit particular inshore areas and mainly travel over the continental shelf, but rarely venture offshore beyond the continental shelf edge. Ongoing C and N stable isotope analyses of muscle, blood and skin tissues from adult and juvenile tiger sharks, as well as from potential prey species and primary producers, will help determine if their diets are based on inshore, shelf or offshore based food webs. Tiger sharks exploiting nearshore environments and shelf waters have much higher probabilities of interacting with humans than individuals occupying far offshore Gulf Stream habitats.

  18. High-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphy at Atlantic Coastal Plain drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, B.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret borehole geophysical logs in conjunction with lithology developed from continuous core to produce high-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphic profiles for the drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8) in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The resulting hydrologic and stratigraphic columns show a generalized relation between hydrologic and geologic units. Fresh-water aquifers encountered are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River and Castle Hayne. Geologic units present are of the middle and upper Tertiary and Quaternary periods, these are the Castle Hayne (Eocene), Pungo River (Miocene), Yorktown (Pliocene), James City and Flanner Beach (Pleistocene), and the topsoil (Holocene). The River Bend Formation (Oligocene) is missing as a distinct unit between the Pungo River Formation and the Castle Hayne Formation. The confining unit underlying the Yorktown Aquifer corresponds to the Yorktown Geologic Unit. The remaining hydrologic units and geologic units are hydrologically transitional and non-coincident. The lower Pungo River Formation serves as the confining unit for the Castle Hayne Aquifer, rather than the River Bend Aquifer, and separates the Pungo River Aquifer from the upper Castle Hayne Aquifer. All geologic formations were bound by unconformities. All aquifers were confined by the anticipated hydrologic units. We conclude that CR-622 (Strat 8) represents a normal sequence in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  19. Applying post classification change detection technique to monitor an Egyptian coastal zone (Abu Qir Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh M. El-Hattab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover changes considered as one of the important global phenomena exerting perhaps one of the most significant effects on the environment than any other factor. It is, therefore, vital that accurate data on land cover changes are made available to facilitate the understanding of the link between land cover changes and environmental changes to allow planners to make effective decisions. In this paper, the post classification approach was used to detect and assess land cover changes of one of the important coastal zones in Egypt, Abu Qir Bay zone, based on the comparative analysis of independently produced classification images of the same area at different dates. In addition to satellite images, socioeconomic data were used with the aid of land use model EGSLR to indicate relation between land cover and land use changes. Results indicated that changes in different land covers reflected the changes in occupation status in specific zones. For example, in the south of Idku Lake zone, it was observed that the occupation of settlers changed from being unskilled workers to fishermen based on the expansion of the area of fish farms. Change rates increased dramatically in the period from 2004 to 2013 as remarkable negative changes were found especially in fruits and palm trees (i.e. loss of about 66 km2 of land having fruits and palm trees due to industrialization in the coastal area. Also, a rapid urbanization was monitored along the coastline of Abu Qir Bay zone due to the political conditions in Egypt (25th of January Revolution within this period and which resulted to the temporary absence of monitoring systems to regulate urbanization.

  20. A systematic review of socio-economic assessments in support of coastal zone management (1992-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gentil, Eric; Mongruel, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between the social and natural sciences has become essential in order to encompass all the dimensions of coastal zone management. Socio-economic approaches are increasingly recommended to complement integrated assessment in support of these initiatives. A systematic review of the academic literature was carried out in order to analyze the main types of socio-economic assessments used to inform the coastal zone management process as well as their effectiveness. A corpus of 1682 articles published between 1992 and 2011 was identified by means of the representative coverage approach, from which 170 were selected by applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and then classified using a content analysis methodology. The percentage of articles that mention the use of socio-economic assessment in support of coastal zone management initiatives is increasing but remains relatively low. The review examines the links between the issues addressed by integrated assessments and the chosen analytical frameworks as well as the various economic assessment methods which are used in the successive steps of the coastal zone management process. The results show that i) analytical frameworks such as 'risk and vulnerability', 'DPSIR', 'valuation', 'ecosystem services' and 'preferences' are likely to lead to effective integration of social sciences in coastal zone management research while 'integration', 'sustainability' and 'participation' remain difficult to operationalize, ii) risk assessments are insufficiently implemented in developing countries, and iii) indicator systems in support of multi-criteria analyses could be used during more stages of the coastal zone management process. Finally, it is suggested that improved collaboration between science and management would require that scientists currently involved in coastal zone management processes further educate themselves in integrated assessment approaches and participatory methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias A. Houekpoheha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made ​​by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.

  2. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  3. Stress triggering of earthquakes and subsidence in the Louisiana coastal zone due to hydrocarbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallman, Ellen P.

    This thesis presents contributions towards better understanding of the interaction between earthquakes through elastic stress triggering and the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence and land loss in southern Louisiana. The first issue addressed in this thesis is that of the role of static stress changes on earthquake triggering. The first study investigated whether observed changes in seismicity rate following the 1992 Landers, California and 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquakes are accurately predicted by elastic Coulomb stress transfer models. The analyses found that for all the tested DeltaCFS models wherever seismicity rate changes could be resolved the rate increased regardless of whether the DeltaCFS theoretically promoted or inhibited failure. The second study the common definition of a stress shadow was extended to independently test the stress shadow hypothesis using a global catalog of seismicity. The analyses indicated that while stress shadows are subtle, they are present in the global catalog. It also explains why "classical" stress shadows, similar to what was observed following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake are rarely observed for individual main shocks. The second issue addressed in this thesis is the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence and land loss in the Louisiana Coastal Zone. The two studies in this thesis extend previous work by modeling the effect of oil and gas production in the region in two ways. First, multiple producing oil and gas fields and multiple epochs of leveling data are considered to provide constraints on predicted subsidence. Second, the role of compaction of the reservoir bounding shales on the regional subsidence signal is included. The results of the two studies on the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence in the Louisiana Coastal Zone indicate that regional models of subsidence must include the effects of production-induced subsidence due to both sands and shales, but that this can not account for the

  4. The Climate Change Vulnerability and Risk Management Matrix for the Coastal Zone of The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Amuzu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global Climate Change is one of the dire challenges facing the international community today. Coastal zones are vulnerable to its impacts. An effective approach with long-term prospects in addressing climate change impacts is it’s mainstreaming into development agenda of sectoral policies. A comprehensive risk and vulnerability assessment is a pre-requisite to ensure that the right adaptive response is taken for effective integration into developmental plans. The objective of this study is to evaluate and prioritize risks, vulnerability and adaptation issues of current and anticipated impacts of climate change on the coastal zone of The Gambia. The study will also give a methodological contribution for assessing risks, vulnerability and adaptation from the sub-national to local levels. The relevance of this study will be to create a link between the sub-national and local levels in order to facilitate the integration and mainstreaming of climate change into sectoral and local policies for more climate-resilient communities. This will aid in the promotion of strategic investment of constrained developmental resources to actualize successfully dynamic coping strategies, elude ‘maladaptation’ and less compelling responsive measures. A purposive expert sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study. The findings of the study reveal that by the end of the 21st century, the climatic variables likely to have the highest impact on the coastal zone of The Gambia are ‘increased flood severity’ and ‘increased temperature’. The coastal zone of The Gambia showed a high vulnerability to these climate change variables. The suggested adaptive response in addressing the impacts of increased flood intensity in the study area includes; improving regulations for restricting agriculture and livestock grazing activities to improve land cover; strengthening of early-warning systems, among others. The suggested adaptive response in

  5. Groundwater chemistry of shallow aquifers in the coastal zones of Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    Laluraj et al.: Groundwater chemistry of shallow aquifers - 133 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 3(1): 133-139. http://www.ecology.kee.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY OF SHALLOW AQUIFERS... post monsoon (November 2003) in the coastal zones of Cochin. Laluraj et al.: Groundwater chemistry of shallow aquifers - 134 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 3(1): 133-139. http://www.ecology.kee.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2005, Penkala...

  6. Distribution of pollutants in the Russian sector of the Black Sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos'yan, R.D.; Yesin, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    For the latest 30-40 years the Black Sea pollution by various pollutants is observed. It is the result of economical activity intensification on the shore and of slow growth of cleaning system capacity. In the coastal zone concentration of pollutants depends on the pollutant amount brought from the source and the process of their distribution and transport to the open sea. Within the Krasnodar region towns of Novorossiisk, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, Sochi and the ports of Novorossiisk and Tuapse are the main sources of pollutants

  7. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.

    2001-01-01

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  8. On the behaviour of artificial radionuclides at the Baltic sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, D.B.; Astrauskene, N.P.; Kadzhene, G.I.; Lukinskene, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    The measured results of the 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce radionuclide concentrations near the settlement of Juodkrante at the Baltic Sea coast have been considered. The instability of the mean values of the radionuclide concentrations, especially that of strontium-90, has been determined. A certain increase of the radionuclide concentration near the sea coast as compared to that in the open sea has been noted, as well as the influence of the stormy weather on the absolute values of the radionuclide concentration at the coastal zone. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Marine natural hazards in coastal zone: observations, analysis and modelling (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, Ira

    2010-05-01

    Giant surface waves approaching the coast frequently cause extensive coastal flooding, destruction of coastal constructions and loss of lives. Such waves can be generated by various phenomena: strong storms and cyclones, underwater earthquakes, high-speed ferries, aerial and submarine landslides. The most famous examples of such events are the catastrophic tsunami in the Indian Ocean, which occurred on 26 December 2004 and hurricane Katrina (28 August 2005) in the Atlantic Ocean. The huge storm in the Baltic Sea on 9 January 2005, which produced unexpectedly long waves in many areas of the Baltic Sea and the influence of unusually high surge created by long waves from high-speed ferries, should also be mentioned as examples of regional marine natural hazards connected with extensive runup of certain types of waves. The processes of wave shoaling and runup for all these different marine natural hazards (tsunami, coastal freak waves, ship waves) are studied based on rigorous solutions of nonlinear shallow-water theory. The key and novel results presented here are: i) parameterization of basic formulas for extreme runup characteristics for bell-shape waves, showing that they weakly depend on the initial wave shape, which is usually unknown in real sea conditions; ii) runup analysis of periodic asymmetric waves with a steep front, as such waves are penetrating inland over large distances and with larger velocities than symmetric waves; iii) statistical analysis of irregular wave runup demonstrating that wave nonlinearity nearshore does not influence on the probability distribution of the velocity of the moving shoreline and its moments, and influences on the vertical displacement of the moving shoreline (runup). Wave runup on convex beaches and in narrow bays, which allow abnormal wave amplification is also discussed. Described analytical results are used for explanation of observed extreme runup of tsunami, freak (sneaker) waves and ship waves on different coasts

  10. Grenville age of basement rocks in Cape May NJ well: New evidence for Laurentian crust in U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain basement Chesapeake terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, R.E.; Maguire, T.J.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Volkert, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake terrane of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain basement is bounded on the northwest by the Salisbury positive gravity and magnetic anomaly and extends to the southeast as far as the Atlantic coast. It underlies the Coastal Plain of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey. Rubidium/Strontium dating of the Chesapeake terrane basement yields an age of 1.025 ?? 0.036 Ga. This age is typical of Grenville province rocks of the Middle to Late Proterozoic Laurentian continent. The basement lithologies are similar to some exposed Grenville-age rocks of the Appalachians. The TiO2 and Zr/P2O5 composition of the metagabbro from the Chesapeake terrane basement is overlapped by those of the Proterozoic mafic dikes in the New Jersey Highlands. These new findings support the interpretation that Laurentian basement extends southeast as far as the continental shelf in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The subcrop of Laurentian crust under the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain implies unroofing by erosion of the younger Carolina (Avalon) supracrustal terrane. Dextral-transpression fault duplexes may have caused excessive uplift in the Salisbury Embayment area during the Alleghanian orogeny. This extra uplift in the Salisbury area may have caused the subsequent greater subsidence of the Coastal Plain basement in the embayment.

  11. Assessing the impact of cyclones in the coastal zone of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Judith; Bricheno, Lucy; Chowdury, Shahad; Rahman, Munsur; Ghosh, Tuhin; Kay, Susan; Caesar, John

    2014-05-01

    We review the state of knowledge regarding tropical cyclones and their impacts on coastal ecosystems, as well as the livelihood and health of the coastal communities, under the present and future climate, with application to the coastal zone of Bangladesh. This region is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones as it is very low-lying and densely populated. Cyclones cause damage due to the high wind speed and also the ensuing storm surge, which causes inundation and salinity intrusion into agricultural land and contaminates fresh water. The world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans, protects the coast of the Brahmaputra-Ganges-Meghna (BGM) delta from these cyclonic storms but mangroves are themselves vulnerable to cyclone damage, as in 2007 when ~36% of the mangrove area was severely damaged leading to further losses of livelihood. We apply an idealised cyclone model and use the winds and pressures from this model to drive a storm surge model in the Bay of Bengal, in order to examine the impact of the intensity, track speed and landfall of the cyclones in terms of surge and inundation. The model is tested by reproducing the track and intensity of Cyclone Sidr of 2007. We also examine the projected future climate from the South Asia Regional Climate Model to understand how tropical cyclones may change under global warming and assess how this may impact the BGM Delta over the 21st century.

  12. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  13. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  14. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  15. Climate Change and Coastal Zones. An Overview of the State-of-the-Art on Regional and Local Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterr, H.; Klein, R.J.T.; Reese, S.

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in methodologies for assessing the vulnerability of coastal zones to climate change at regional and local scales. The focus of vulnerability assessment in coastal zones used to be on erosion and land loss due to sea-level rise. Methodologies now increasingly consider the wide range of climate and impact variables that play a part in determining coastal vulnerability, as well as non-climatic developments. The paper presents a conceptual framework for vulnerability assessment that identifies a number of system components that can be considered determinants of vulnerability. It then goes on to outline a number of steps that are required for the actual assessment of coastal vulnerability, such as scenario development, data collection and impact assessment. The approach is illustrated using a regional and local case study in Germany

  16. Low-cost embedded systems for democratizing ocean sensor technology in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, B. T.; Lio, H. I.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental sciences suffer from undersampling. Enabling sustained and unattended data collection in the coastal zone typically involves expensive instrumentation and infrastructure deployed as cabled observatories or moorings with little flexibility in deployment location following initial installation. High costs of commercially-available or custom instruments have limited the number of sensor sites that can be targeted by academic researchers, and have also limited engagement with the public. We have developed a novel, low-cost, open-source sensor and software platform to enable wireless data transfer of biogeochemical sensors in the coastal zone. The platform is centered upon widely available, low-cost, single board computers and microcontrollers. We have used a blend of on-hand research-grade sensors and low-cost open-source electronics that can be assembled by tech-savvy non-engineers. Robust, open-source code that remains customizable for specific miniNode configurations can match a specific site's measurement needs, depending on the scientific research priorities. We have demonstrated prototype capabilities and versatility through lab testing and field deployments of multiple sensor nodes with multiple sensor inputs, all of which are streaming near-real-time data from Kaneohe Bay over wireless RF links to a shore-based base station.

  17. Diatoms dominate the eukaryotic metatranscriptome during spring in coastal 'dead zone' sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Elias; Sachpazidou, Varvara; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2017-10-11

    An important characteristic of marine sediments is the oxygen concentration that affects many central metabolic processes. There has been a widespread increase in hypoxia in coastal systems (referred to as 'dead zones') mainly caused by eutrophication. Hence, it is central to understand the metabolism and ecology of eukaryotic life in sediments during changing oxygen conditions. Therefore, we sampled coastal 'dead zone' Baltic Sea sediment during autumn and spring, and analysed the eukaryotic metatranscriptome from field samples and after incubation in the dark under oxic or anoxic conditions. Bacillariophyta (diatoms) dominated the eukaryotic metatranscriptome in spring and were also abundant during autumn. A large fraction of the diatom RNA reads was associated with the photosystems suggesting a constitutive expression in darkness. Microscope observation showed intact diatom cells and these would, if hatched, represent a significant part of the pelagic phytoplankton biomass. Oxygenation did not significantly change the relative proportion of diatoms nor resulted in any major shifts in metabolic 'signatures'. By contrast, diatoms rapidly responded when exposed to light suggesting that light is limiting diatom development in hypoxic sediments. Hence, it is suggested that diatoms in hypoxic sediments are on 'standby' to exploit the environment if they reach suitable habitats. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Microplastics in sea coastal zone: Lessons learned from the Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarenko, Irina; Stepanova, Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Baltic amber, adored for its beauty already in Homer's Odyssey (ca. 800 B.C.E), has its material density close to that of wide-spread plastics like polyamide, polystyrene, or acrylic. Migrations of amber stones in the sea and their massive washing ashore have been monitored by Baltic citizens for ages. Based on the collected information, we present the hypothesis on the behaviour of microplastic particles in sea coastal zone. Fresh-to-strong winds generate surface waves, currents and roll-structures, whose joint effect washes ashore from the underwater slope both amber stones and plastics - and carries them back to the sea in a few days. Analysis of underlying hydrophysical processes suggests that sea coastal zone under stormy winds plays a role of a mill for plastics, and negatively buoyant pieces seem to repeatedly migrate between beaches and underwater slopes until they are broken into small enough fragments that can be transported by currents to deeper areas and deposited out of reach of stormy waves. Direct observations on microplastics migrations are urged to prove the hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR

  20. Mercury concentration variability in the zooplankton of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella

    2017-12-01

    Being a toxic element, mercury is introduced to the human organism through the consumption of fish and seafood, which in turn often feed on zooplankton. The bioaccumulation of Hg by zooplankton is an important factor influencing the magnitude of the mercury load introduced with food into the predator organism. Therefore the present article attempts to identify the processes and factors influencing Hg concentration in the zooplankton of the coastal zone, an area where marine organisms - an attractive food source for humans - thrive. This is particularly important in areas where climate changes influence the species composition and quantity of plankton. The studies were carried out on three test sites in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea in the period from December 2011 to May 2013. The obtained results show that the shorting of the winter season is conducive to Hg increase in zooplankton and, consequently, in the trophic chain. High mercury concentrations were measured in genus Synchaeta and Keratella when Mesodinium rubrum were predominant in phytoplankton, while other sources of this metal in the plankton fauna were epilithon, epiphton and microbenthos. This is of particular importance when it comes to sheltered bays and estuaries with low water dynamics.

  1. Chemical composition of aerosol in the atmospheric surface layer of the East Antarctica coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Golobokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of aerosol in the ground layer of the coastal zone in East Antarctica is analyzed in the article. The aerosol samples were taken in 2006–2015 during seasonal works of the Russian Antarctic Expeditions (RAE, namely, these were 52nd–53rd, 55th, and 58th–60th expeditions. Samples were taken in the 200‑km band of the sea-shore zone along routes of the research vessels (REV «Akademik Fedorov» and «Akademik Treshnikov» as well as on territories of the Russian stations Molodezhnaya and Mirny. Although the results obtained did show the wide range of the aerosol concentrations and a certain variability of their chemical composition, some common features of the variability were revealed. Thus, during the period from 2006 to 2014 a decrease of average values of the sums were noted. Spatially, a tendency of decreasing of the ion concentrations was found in the direction from the station Novolazarevskaya to the Molodezhnaya one, but the concentrations increased from the Molodezhnaya to the station Mirny. The sum of ions of the aerosol in the above mentioned coastal zone was, on the average, equal to 2.44 μg/m3, and it was larger than that on the territory of the Antarctic stations Molodezhnaya (0,29 μg/m3 and Mirny (0,50 ág / m3. The main part to the sum of the aerosol ions on the Antarctic stations was contributed by Na+, Ca2+, Cl−, SO4 2−. The main ions in aerosol composition in the coastal zone are ions Na+ and Cl−. The dominant contribution of the sea salt and SO4 2− can be traced in not only the composition of atmospheric aerosols, but also in the chemical composition of the fresh snow in the coastal areas of East Antarctica: at the Indian station Maitri, on the Larsemann Hills, and in a boring located in 55.3 km from the station Progress (K = 1.4÷6.1. It was noted that values of the coefficient of enrichment K of these ions decreases as someone moves from a shore to inland. Estimation of

  2. Application of multiple geochemical markers to investigate organic pollution in a dynamic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wong, Charles S; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-02-01

    Multiple geochemical markers, including aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were employed to relate sediment organic chemical pollution in the coastal zone off South China to socioeconomic development there. Concentrations of Σn-C(15-35) (n-alkanes with 15-35 carbon atoms), ΣLAB (sum of C(10) to C(13) LABs), and Σ(26) PAH (sum of 26 PAH compounds) ranged from 110 to 3,160, 11 to 160, and 26 to 600 ng/g, with medians of 730, 40, and 230 ng/g, respectively. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from terrestrial higher plant waxes, and in minor amounts from aquatic plankton and bacteria. Compositions of LABs indicated that considerable amounts of poorly treated wastewater had been directly discharged or transported to the eastern and western coastal areas of Guangdong Province. In addition, anthropogenic hydrocarbons were derived largely from vehicular emissions and combustion of domestic coal and biomass and to a lesser extent from oil spills. Eastern and western coastal sediments contained higher levels of LABs but lower levels of PAHs than those of the Pearl River Estuary, a coastal area of the Pearl River Delta. This spatial pattern of organic pollution was consistent with chemical use patterns. The eastern and western regions of Guangdong Province are economically less developed than the Pearl River Delta region, where more domestic wastewater treatment plants have been built. However, greater amounts of energy are consumed in the latter region to produce more combustion-derived PAH contamination. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  3. New insight into defining the lakes of the southern Baltic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśliński, Roman; Olszewska, Alicja

    2018-01-29

    There exist many classification systems of hydrographic entities such as lakes found along the coastlines of seas and oceans. Each system has its advantages and can be used with some success in the area of protection and management. This paper aims to evaluate whether the studied lakes are only coastal lakes or rather bodies of water of a completely different hydrological and hydrochemical nature. The attempt to create a new classification system of Polish coastal lakes is related to the incompleteness of lake information in existing classifications. Thus far, the most frequently used are classifications based solely on lake basin morphogenesis or hydrochemical properties. The classifications in this paper are based not only on the magnitude of lake water salinity or hydrochemical analysis but also on isolation from the Baltic Sea and other sources of water. The key element of the new classification system for coastal bodies of water is a departure from the existing system used to classify lakes in Poland and the introduction of ion-"tracking" methods designed to identify anion and cation distributions in each body of water of interest. As a result of the work, a new classification of lakes of the southern Baltic Sea coastal zone was created. Featured objects such as permanently brackish lakes, brackish lakes that may turn into freshwater lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that may turn into brackish lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that experience low levels of salinity due to specific incidents, and permanently freshwater lakes. The authors have adopted 200 mg Cl -  dm -3 as a maximum value of lake water salinity. There are many conditions that determine the membership of a lake to a particular group, but the most important is the isolation lakes from the Baltic Sea. Changing a condition may change the classification of a lake.

  4. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  5. Monitoring of thermal regime of permafrost in the coastal zone of Western Yamal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A.

    2009-04-01

    Data on thermal regime of permafrost are required for estimation of the climate change influence on permafrost dynamics. Monitoring of thermal regime of permafrost was arranged in the area of weather station "Marre-Sale", western Yamal. In terms of geomorphology, the area of our observations belongs to the second and third marine terraces; the surface of these terraces has been partly modified by recent cryogenic processes. The elevation varies from 10 to 30 m a.s.l. Marine clays lie at the base of the geological section of the coastal deposits. Their upper part was eroded and uneven surface of marine sediments is overlain by continental sandy sediments. Marine clays are saline. In the southern part of study area, low accumulative islands are forming. Their heights above sea level do not exceed 0.5 meters, and during high tides their surface is covered by sea water. The sediments accumulating at these islands are saline silty clays. Western Yamal region is located within continuous permafrost zone with thickness of 150 to 200 meters. Study of thermal regime in the on-shore zone has been performed since 1979 using the 10-12-m-deep boreholes. In 2007, five boreholes were included in the work program of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) project developed as a part of IPY scientific activities. According to TSP program, temperature sensors were installed at depths 2, 3, 5, and 10 meters; measurements have been performed every six hours. In this presentation, results of our observations related to climate change are discussed. For different terrain units, increase of mean annual permafrost temperature during the last 30 years has reached 0.6 to 1.5 deg. C. In the transit zone, monitoring of thermal regime have been performed since 2006. Sensors were installed at depths 0, 0.25, 0.6, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25 meters. The active layer depth here reaches 1.9 meters, thus the 2.25-m-sensor is located within permafrost. Monitoring data show the sharp increase in mean

  6. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  7. Pollution of the sediments of the coastal zone of the Sambia Peninsula and the Curonian Spit (Southeastern Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Alexander; Krechik, Viktor; Danchenkov, Aleksandr; Krek, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The detailed environmental survey of the coastal zone of the Kaliningrad Region northern coast was carried out. The pollutants distribution in the silty clay fraction and calculation of ecological indexes allowed the evaluation of distribution of potentially harmful elements (PHEs). The sources of pollution in the most intensively used areas were identified, and transit and accumulation zones were allocated. A large area of anomalous content of PHEs was revealed on the underwater coastal slope of the Curonian Spit National Park, which is situated far from the sources of pollution. The alongshore bed load transport provides the contamination of the underwater slope whereas the beaches are less exposed to pollution.

  8. 76 FR 60444 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., cobia, cero, little tunny, dolphin, and bluefish (Gulf only). At present, only king mackerel, Spanish... bluefish from the Coastal Migratory Pelagic FMP. The Councils and NMFS have determined these species are...

  9. Variations in the Holocene North Atlantic Bottom Current Strength in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, C.; Van Toer, A.; Cortijo, E.; Turon, J.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the strength of the North Atlantic bottom current during the Holocene period is presented via the study of cores located at the western termination of the northern deep channel of the Charlie-Gibbs fracture zone. This natural roughly E-W corridor is bathed by the Iceland-Scotland overflow water (ISOW) when it passes westward out of the Iceland Basin into the western North Atlantic basin. At present, it is also described as the place where southern sourced silicate-rich Lower Deep Water (LDW) derived from the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) are passing westward, mixing with the ISOW. We conducted a deep-water multiproxy analysis on two nearby cores, coupling magnetic properties, anisotropy, sortable silt and benthic foraminifera isotopes. The first core had been taken by the R. V. Charcot in 1977 and the second one is a CASQ core taken during the IMAGES-AMOCINT MD168- cruise in the framework of the 06-EuroMARC-FP-008 Project on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne (French Polar Institute, IPEV) in 2008. The radiocarbon ages indicate an average sedimentation rate of about 50 cm/kyr through middle and late Holocene allowing a data resolution ranging from 40 to 100 years depending on the proxy. In each core, we observe long-term and short-term changes in the strength of the bottom currents. On the long term, a decrease in the amount of magnetic particles (normalized by the carbonate content) is first from 10 kyr to 8.6 kyr and then between 6 and 2 kyrs before reaching a steady state. Following Kissel et al. (2009), this indicates a decrease in the ISOW strength. The mean sortable silt shows exactly the same pattern indicating that not only the intensity of the ISOW but the whole deep water mass bathing the sites has decreased. On the short term, a first very prominent event centered at about 8.4 kyr (cal. ages) is marked by a pronounced minima in magnetic content and the smaller mean sortable silt sizes. This is typical for an abrupt reduction in deep flow

  10. Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL): first flights and system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Aitken, Jennifer; Kim, Minsu; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2012-09-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery sensor system and software suite designed for the highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for mapping the coastal zone. This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. The system performance test shows that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) in Mississippi and up to 41m when Kd=0.11m-1 in Florida. With a seven segment array for topographic mode and the shallow water zone, CZMIL generated high resolution products with a maximum pulse rate of 70 kHz, and with 10 kHz in the deep water zone. Diffuse attenuation coefficient, bottom reflectance and other environmental parameters for the whole multi km2 area were estimated based on fusion of lidar and CASI-1500 hyperspectral camera data.

  11. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the bloo...

  12. 78 FR 42021 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... system by the dealer and received by NMFS no later than midnight, local time, of the first Tuesday... the Gulf of Mexico region that were harvested, off-loaded, and sold, traded, or bartered, prior to the..., or bartered from a vessel that fishes only in state waters and that has not been issued an Atlantic...

  13. Process studies of the carbonate system in coastal and ocean environments of the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salt, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in anthropogenic, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been largely mitigated by ocean uptake since the start of the Industrial Revolution, with the Atlantic Ocean providing the largest store of anthropogenic carbon. The thesis of Lesley Salt examines how the uptake of CO2 varies in

  14. Aqua-planet simulations of the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ferreira, Rosana; Chao, Winston C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Amazon Basin convection and cold fronts on the formation and maintenance of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is studied using aqua-planet simulations with a general circulation model. In the model, a circular patch of warm sea-surface temperature (SST) is used to mimic the effect of the Amazon Basin on South American monsoon convection. The aqua-planet simulations were designed to study the effect of the strength and latitude of Amazon Basin convection on the formation of the SACZ. The simulations indicate that the strength of the SACZ increases as the Amazon convection intensifies and is moved away from the equator. Of the two controls studied here, the latitude of the Amazon convection exerts the strongest effect on the strength of the SACZ. An analysis of the synoptic-scale variability in the simulations shows the importance of frontal systems in the formation of the aqua-planet SACZ. Composite time series of frontal systems that occurred in the simulations show that a robust SACZ occurs when fronts penetrate into the subtropics and become stationary there as they cross eastward of the longitude of the Amazon Basin. Moisture convergence associated with these frontal systems produces rainfall not along the model SACZ region and along a large portion of the northern model Amazon Basin. Simulations in which the warm SST patch was too weak or too close to the equator did not produce frontal systems that extended into the tropics and became stationary, and did not form a SACZ. In the model, the SACZ forms as Amazon Basin convection strengthens and migrates far enough southward to allow frontal systems to penetrate into the tropics and stall over South America. This result is in agreement with observations that the SACZ tends to form after the onset of the monsoon season in the Amazon Basin.

  15. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  16. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Boswell, Kevin M.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Wells, R. J. David; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15–16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON), as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1–5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20–0.25 m s−1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0–1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  17. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the Northern West Greenland (72°-75° N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael; Boertmann, David; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 72º N and 75º N. The coastal zone is divided into 118 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 3 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area ....... Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area...

  18. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  19. Nutrient fluxes across sediment-water interface in Bohai Bay Coastal Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Di; Yuan, Dekui; Feng, Huan; Xing, Fangwei; Teo, Fang Yenn; Li, Shuangzhao

    2017-01-30

    Sediment cores and overlying water samples were collected at four sites in Tianjin Coastal Zone, Bohai Bay, to investigate nutrient (N, P and Si) exchanges across the sediment-water interface. The exchange fluxes of each nutrient species were estimated based on the porewater profiles and laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed significant differences between the two methods, which implied that molecular diffusion alone was not the dominant process controlling nutrient exchanges at these sites. The impacts of redox conditions and bioturbation on the nutrient fluxes were confirmed by the laboratory incubation experiments. The results from this study showed that the nutrient fluxes measured directly from the incubation experiment were more reliable than that predicted from the porewater profiles. The possible impacts causing variations in the nutrient fluxes include sewage discharge and land reclamation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of intense rains and flooding on mercury riverine input to the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Saniewski, Michał; Gębka, Karolina; Szubska, Marta; Wochna, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine the impact of intense rains and flooding on mercury riverine input to the coastal zone. This study focused on four small rivers (Reda, Zagórska Struga, Płutnica, Gizdepka), typical of the Southern Baltic region, with no significant mercury sources. Samples were collected for 16months during average flow conditions and during selected meteorological events: floods, downpours, thaws and droughts. Results showed decreased retention of mercury during intense rainfalls, thus demonstrating mercury elution from the catchment. Floods and melting snow also have a tremendous impact on the outflow of mercury from the catchment. Development of urban infrastructure and farmlands increases the outflow of mercury from the catchment too, making such areas a significant source of mercury in the river. On the other hand, areas with natural character, predominated by forests, stimulate retention of mercury that reaches them through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergies and conflicts in coping with territorial development in the coastal zone of Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marie Thuillier Cerdan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a synthesis of the most relevant results of a project inserted in an integrated research programme focusing on Rural Territorial Dynamics in Latin America. The coastal zone of Santa Catarina State, in the south of Brazil, was chosen as an experimental area to test the fitness of a model that explores the interconexions between  stakeholders, institutional arrangements and patterns of natural resources use and management. The authors address several kinds of impacts of three territorial dynamics observed in this area, bringing together issues related to economic growth, social inclusion, political descentralization, bio/sociodiversity conservation and socio-ecological viability. Moreover, they review the complexity of the synergic-antagonistic relationships involving these dynamics in the recent times.

  2. Investigation of durability of silica fume concretes in coastal structures within tidal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjian, E.; Sadeghi Pouya, H.

    2003-01-01

    In recent decade use of silica fume has been become greater in coastal concrete structures in the persona gulf, to increase durability of those establishments. In this research the durability of cement passers and concrete cubes with use of 7 and 10 percent of silica fume as a cement replacement have been investigated in three curing conditions (fresh water, coast of sea and simulation bonds) by measuring compressive strengths and capillary absorption. Silica fume specimens under wetting and drying condition showed more strength loss after 180 days compare to samples without silica fume or cured in the fresh water. In addition the greater silica fume amount in specimens cured within tidal zone and under wetting and drying simulation, the more water absorption by capillary. According to the results, good correspondence between simulated condition and real site exposure was obtained

  3. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrient sequestration in Aquitaine lakes (SW France) limits nutrient flux to the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquet, Damien; Anschutz, Pierre; Charbonnier, Céline; Rapin, Anne; Sinays, Rémy; Canredon, Axel; Bujan, Stéphane; Poirier, Dominique

    2017-12-01

    Oligotrophic coastal zones are disappearing from increased nutrient loading. The quantity of nutrients reaching the coast is determined not only by their original source (e.g. fertilizers used in agriculture, waste water discharges) and the land use, but also by the pathways through which nutrients are cycled from the source to the river mouth. In particular, lakes sequester nutrients and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to coastal environments. Here, we quantify the impact of Aquitaine great lakes on the fluxes of dissolved macro-nutrients (N, P, Si) to the Bay of Biscay. For that, we have measured nutrient concentrations and fluxes in 2014 upstream and downstream lakes of Lacanau and Carcans-Hourtin, which belongs to the catchment of the Arcachon Bay, which is the largest coastal lagoon of the Bay of Biscay French coast. Data were compared to values obtained from the Leyre river, the main freshwater and nutrient source for the lagoon. Results show that processes in lakes greatly limit nutrient flux to the lagoon compared to fluxes from Leyre river, although the watershed is similar in terms of land cover. In lakes, phosphorus and silicon are trapped for long term in the sediment, silicon as amorphous biogenic silica and phosphorus as organic P and P associated with Fe-oxides. Nitrogen that enters lakes mostly as nitrate is used for primary production. N is mineralized in the sediment; a fraction diffuses as ammonium. N2 production through benthic denitrification extracts only 10% of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the aquatic system. The main part is sequestered in organic-rich sediment that accumulates below 5 m depth in both lakes.

  5. Ecosystem resilience and threshold response in the Galápagos coastal zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair W R Seddon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC provides a conservative estimate on rates of sea-level rise of 3.8 mm yr(-1 at the end of the 21(st century, which may have a detrimental effect on ecologically important mangrove ecosystems. Understanding factors influencing the long-term resilience of these communities is critical but poorly understood. We investigate ecological resilience in a coastal mangrove community from the Galápagos Islands over the last 2700 years using three research questions: What are the 'fast and slow' processes operating in the coastal zone? Is there evidence for a threshold response? How can the past inform us about the resilience of the modern system? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Palaeoecological methods (AMS radiocarbon dating, stable carbon isotopes (δ(13C were used to reconstruct sedimentation rates and ecological change over the past 2,700 years at Diablas lagoon, Isabela, Galápagos. Bulk geochemical analysis was also used to determine local environmental changes, and salinity was reconstructed using a diatom transfer function. Changes in relative sea level (RSL were estimated using a glacio-isostatic adjustment model. Non-linear behaviour was observed in the Diablas mangrove ecosystem as it responded to increased salinities following exposure to tidal inundations. A negative feedback was observed which enabled the mangrove canopy to accrete vertically, but disturbances may have opened up the canopy and contributed to an erosion of resilience over time. A combination of drier climatic conditions and a slight fall in RSL then resulted in a threshold response, from a mangrove community to a microbial mat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Palaeoecological records can provide important information on the nature of non-linear behaviour by identifying thresholds within ecological systems, and in outlining responses to 'fast' and 'slow' environmental change between alternative stable states. This study

  6. Vertical datum conversion process for the inland and coastal gage network located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic-Gulf hydrologic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Noll, Michael L.

    2017-03-07

    Datum conversions from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 among inland and coastal gages throughout the hydrologic regions of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South Atlantic-Gulf have implications among river and storm surge forecasting, general commerce, and water-control operations. The process of data conversions may involve the application of a recovered National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929–North American Vertical Datum of 1988 offset, a simplistic datum transformation using VDatum or VERTCON software, or a survey, depending on a gaging network datum evaluation, anticipated uncertainties for data use among the cooperative water community, and methods used to derive the conversion. Datum transformations from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 using VERTCON purport errors of ± 0.13 foot at the 95 percent confidence level among modeled points, claiming more consistency along the east coast. Survey methods involving differential and trigonometric leveling, along with observations using Global Navigation Satellite System technology, afford a variety of approaches to establish or perpetuate a datum during a survey. Uncertainties among leveling approaches are generally quality category and ≥0.1 foot for Level II or III quality categories (defined by the U.S. Geological Survey) by observation and review of experienced practice. The conversion process is initiated with an evaluation of the inland and coastal gage network datum, beginning with altitude datum components and the history of those components queried through the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory database. Subsequent edits to the Groundwater Site Inventory database may be required and a consensus reached among the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers to identify the outstanding workload categorized as in-office datum transformations or offset applications versus out

  7. Integrated coastal zone management perspectives to ensure the sustainability of coral reefs in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G; Leopold, M; Dumas, P S; Ferraris, J; Herrenschmidt, J B; Fontenelle, G

    2010-01-01

    Based on a pluridisciplinary research programme on New Caledonia's lagoon (2004-2008), this paper addresses economic, ecological and political issues in order to implement integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in this French Pacific territory. The nickel mining industry constitutes the core of the re-balancing economic and social strategy between the Northern and Southern provinces. But major impacts on the coastal environment of metal-processing plants, harbours, and decades of mine exploitation have released a controversy. A short diachronic analysis suggests that such environmental concerns prompted the emergence of collective actions to among civil society, customary and institutional stakeholders. The inscription of New Caledonia lagoon and reef areas in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008 would be both an outcome and a catalyst of this on-going process. Looking beyond the reefs towards the mainland and watersheds for the construction of local socio-ecological systems, we assume that the current stakes could result in the initiation of ICZM in New Caledonia. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Forecasting power plant effects on the coastal zone. EG and G final report number B-4441

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    Field methods, data analyses, and calculation are presented exemplifying procedures for oceanic dispersion prediction as a tool for forecasting power plant effects on the coastal zone. Measurements were made of dye, drogues and temperatures near Pilgrim Station's discharge (Plymouth, Massachusetts), and of currents and other variables across Massachusetts Bay. Analysis of current data illustrates separation of tidal, wind-driven and inertial constituents and their significance for dispersion. Dye and temperature dispersion are compared with the currents study, and diffusion coefficients estimated. Current data from coastal sites (New Jersey and Massachusetts) are analyzed to determine field requirements for dispersion estimates. Methods to calculate expected precision of estimates based on brief current records are developed. Model calculations predicting dispersion based on observed ocean currents are described. Formulae are derived to estimate the spatial distribution of impact from a discharge. A numerical model to calculate discharge dispersion in more detail is discussed and used to study time variations of discharge effects. Model predictions are compared with field observations

  9. An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haille N. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism and coastal communities that mangroves support and protect. To determine the most effective form of mangrove management, this review examines management guidelines, particularly those associated with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Five case studies were reviewed to further explore the fundamentals of mangrove management. The management methodologies of two developed nations as well as three developing nations were assessed to encompass comprehensive influences on mangrove management, such as socioeconomics, politics, and land-use regulations. Based on this review, successful mangrove management will require a blend of forestry, wetland, and ICZM programs in addition to the cooperation of all levels of government. Legally binding policies, particularly at the international level, will be essential to successful mangrove management, which must include the preservation of existing mangrove habitat and restoration of damaged mangroves.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of selected sites of the Moroccan coastal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, R.; Ferrari, S.; Moret, I.; Gambaro, A. [Univ. Ca Foscari, Venezia (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Le Moumni, B. [Univ. Abdelmaleck Essaadi, Tangier (Morocco). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Oceanology; Bellucci, L.G.; Frignani, M. [ISMAR-CNR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy); Zangrando, R. [IDPA-CNR, Venezia (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    A good knowledge of sources of contaminants, distribution mechanisms, sites where chemicals tend to accumulate, potential risk and actual danger to the human and environmental health is fundamental to design a policy for the environment. In this respect, it is important to recognize that sediments can keep a record of the conditions of the environment at the time of their deposition and accumulation and hence can be used to reconstruct history and trends of contamination processes. Furthermore, actively accreting salt marshes, due to the lack of sediment reworking, may provide a relatively high resolution record of atmospheric fluxes. On the other hand, transition coastal environments are of particular importance because of their position between the inland sources and the sea, which is the final repository of all the materials mobilized from the continent. In order to assess the level of PCB contamination in key areas of coastal Morocco we chose to analyse sediments from the Nador (NAD) and the Moulay Bousselham (MB) lagoons, the terminal tract of the Martil River (MR), the port of Tangier (TG) and a soil taken close to the industrial town of Tetouan (TS). The first two were chosen because of their high environmental value, the others as representative of zones potentially contaminated.

  11. Nonstationary porosity evolution in mixing zone in coastal carbonate aquifer using an alternative modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabidi, Ezzeddine; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2015-07-01

    In the last few decades, hydrogeochemical problems have benefited from the strong interest in numerical modeling. One of the most recognized hydrogeochemical problems is the dissolution of the calcite in the mixing zone below limestone coastal aquifer. In many works, this problem has been modeled using a coupling algorithm between a density-dependent flow model and a geochemical model. A related difficulty is that, because of the high nonlinearity of the coupled set of equations, high computational effort is needed. During calcite dissolution, an increase in permeability can be identified, which can induce an increase in the penetration of the seawater into the aquifer. The majority of the previous studies used a fully coupled reactive transport model in order to model such problem. Romanov and Dreybrodt (J Hydrol 329:661-673, 2006) have used an alternative approach to quantify the porosity evolution in mixing zone below coastal carbonate aquifer at steady state. This approach is based on the analytic solution presented by Phillips (1991) in his book Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, which shows that it is possible to decouple the complex set of equation. This equation is proportional to the square of the salinity gradient, which can be calculated using a density driven flow code and to the reaction rate that can be calculated using a geochemical code. In this work, this equation is used in nonstationary step-by-step regime. At each time step, the quantity of the dissolved calcite is quantified, the change of porosity is calculated, and the permeability is updated. The reaction rate, which is the second derivate of the calcium equilibrium concentration in the equation, is calculated using the PHREEQC code (Parkhurst and Apello 1999). This result is used in GEODENS (Bouhlila 1999; Bouhlila and Laabidi 2008) to calculate change of the porosity after calculating the salinity gradient. For the next time step, the same protocol is used but using the updated porosity

  12. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea

  13. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  14. Using SST and land cover data from EO Missions for improved mesoscale modelling of the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume

    was to evaluate the uncertainty of the modelled wind in the coastal zone and further improve it. Moreover LIDAR measurements were used to evaluate the wind speed retrieval from high resolution SAR systems (Sentinel-1 and TerraSAR-X). The WRF model used a high-resolution satellite SST reanalysis product from...... be implemented in the meso-scale model to better represent the actual conditions in the study area. Such improvements are expected to strengthen the model’s ability to represent land- sea and air-sea interactions, the atmospheric stability and the local topographic features that partly affect the coastal zone......Existing wind measurements in near-shore and offshore areas are sparse and scarce, therefore simulations from state-of-the-art meso-scale models are used for wind resource predictions. In coastal and near-shore areas, models are inaccurate and uncertain, mainly because of numerical approximations...

  15. Guidance on a better integration of aquaculture, fisheries, and other activities in the coastal zone: from tools to practical examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelzenmüller, V.; Schulze, T.; Gimpel, A.; Bartelings, H.; Bello, E.; Bergh, O.; Bolman, B.; Caetano, M.; Davaasuren, N.; Fabi, G.; Ferreira, J.G.; Gault, J.; Gramolini, R.; Grati, F.; Hamon, K.G.; Jak, R.G.; Kopke, K.; Laurans, M.; Mäkinen, T.; O’Donnell, V.; O’Hagan, A.M.; O’Mahony, C.; Oostenbrugge, van H.; Ramos, J.; Saurel, C.; Sell, A.L.; Silvo, K.; Sinschek, K.; Soma, K.; Stenberg, C.; Taylor, N.; Vale, C.; Vasquez, F.; Verner-Jeffreys, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    This guidance document provides a comprehensive assessment of the conflicts and synergies between fisheries, aquaculture and other activities in the coastal zone in six COEXIST case study areas. It forms deliverable D5.2 of the COEXIST project and synthesises deliverable D5.1, which provides a more

  16. Geochemical approach values to the base line (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and P) for environmental studies in Montevideo coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnoli, E.; Burone, L.; Hutton, M.; Tuduri, A.; Bueno, C.; Muniz, P.; Venturini, N.; Garcia-Rodriguez, F.

    2012-01-01

    The geochemical base line values (background) represent the natural chemical concentrations (heavy metals) in sediments and soils. These are used in archaeological surveys to identify anomalies, and environmental studies of contaminated areas. In Montevideo coastal zone are explored the base line values for geochemical application and enrichment index

  17. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  18. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data : The Cartagena coastal zone as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D.; Campillo, J. Antonio; León, Víctor M.; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A. Dick

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the

  19. Roles of coastal laboratories in the implementation of the nation`s emerging priorities for research in the coastal zone: Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, T.C. [ed.] [Maryland Univ., Cambridge, MD (United States). Horn Point Environmental Labs.; Brooks, A.S. [ed.] [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Center for Great Lakes Studies; Clegg, J.S. [ed.] [California Univ., Bodega Bay, CA (United States). Bodega Marine Lab.] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Rapid growth in the human population and related increases in consumption, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation are serious concerns for the quality of life and national security. Global change, biological diversity, and sustainable ecosystems were identified as priority areas of research based on their importance for the advance of the fundamental knowledge needed to manage for a sustainable biosphere. Demographic trends, global climate change, and patterns of contaminant release and transport suggest that the effects of human activity on the environment and on natural resources will be especially pronounced in the coastal zone. This report presents the results of a workshop organized by the National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) to evaluate the changing roles of coastal laboratories and to recommend mechanisms by which the community of coastal scientists can more effectively work together and with government agencies in defining priorities and implementing research programs that are responsive to national needs. The workshop is part of an ongoing effort to facilitate more integrated approaches to environmental research and the use of scientific information for the purposes of education and environmental management in the coastal zone.

  20. Biogeochemical and Optical Analysis of Coastal DOM for Satellite Retrieval of Terrigenous DOM in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, A.; Dyda, R. Y.; Hernes, P. J.; Hooker, Stan; Hyde, Kim; Novak, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Estuaries and coastal ocean waters experience a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a consequence of riverine/estuarine fluxes of terrigenous DOM, sediments, detritus and nutrients into coastal waters and associated phytoplankton blooms. Our approach integrates biogeochemical measurements (elemental content, molecular analyses), optical properties (absorption) and remote sensing to examine terrestrial DOM contributions into the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). We measured lignin phenol composition, DOC and CDOM absorption within the Chesapeake and Delaware Bay mouths, plumes and adjacent coastal ocean waters to derive empirical relationships between CDOM and biogeochemical measurements for satellite remote sensing application. Lignin ranged from 0.03 to 6.6 ug/L between estuarine and outer shelf waters. Our results demonstrate that satellite-derived CDOM is useful as a tracer of terrigenous DOM in the coastal ocean

  1. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  2. Atlantic Coastal Experiment VI: R/V KNORR cruise, 23 August--11 September 1980, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K. (eds)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of estuaries on the ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Bight was undertaken. Data were collected from excursions into the Hudson, Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries, three across-shelf and one along-shelf transects, and two time series stations. In all, 139 stations were occupied and 164 XBT soundings were taken. In addition to standard hydrographic measurements, nutrient , chlorophyll, particulate carbon and nitrogen, 14C, 15N, DNA, particle size, FTD, phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses were made.

  3. LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL PLANNING OF THE COASTAL ZONE OF SOUTH-WEST CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Danekina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the application of methods of landscape planning in order to maintain the sustainable state of the coastal south-western part of the Crimean peninsula. There are many protected landscapes in this territory, including reserves and other specially protected landscapes. However, the network of such specially protected natural resources can not fully satisfy the resources they consume and simultaneously maintain a favorable ecological situation in the region. The results of studies of the prospects and prerequisites for the formation and preservation of the landscape-ecological framework of the South-Western Crimea have been presented. Various groups of factors that negatively affect the ecological state of the region are analyzed, among them construction in coastal protective bands, recreational digression of soils and vegetation, pollution with industrial wastewater, illegal sand sampling, etc. Assessment of nature use structures has shown that the existing system needs landscape-ecological justification and planning. The structure of the landscape-ecological framework of the South-Western Crimea has been developed. Its elements have been identified, which contain natural “cores” subject to special protection, ecological corridors and buffer zones. In the course of the study, a mapping of the landscapeecological planning organization of the coastal territory of the Crimean coast has been carried out. The map-scheme shows the elements of the landscape-ecological framework, landscape zones and belts and types of anthropogenic landscapes. In the conditions of limited economic development of the territory, the landscape-ecological framework must include transformed anthropogenic landscapes. Landscape planning should be carried out taking into account regional features of the Black Sea coast, for this purpose the article gives a brief description of the landscape diversity and stability of landscape geosystems. The most

  4. Monitoring water quality in Northwest Atlantic coastal waters using dinoflagellate cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution is a major environmental problem in many coastal waters around the US. Determining the total input of nutrients to estuaries is a challenge. One method to evaluate nutrient input is through nutrient loading models. Another method relies upon using indicators as...

  5. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  6. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68°-72° N) Coastal Zone, 2nd revised edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment...... ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season...

  7. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and planes...

  8. Floristic inventory of a zone of ecological tension in the Atlantic Forest of Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Kalinne; Gomes, Polyhanna; Alves, Marccus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe, is situated in a transition area between Atlantic Forest and the Caatinga and is considered by the Ministério do Meio Ambiente to be extremely important for the conservation of the Atlantic Forest flora. The paucity of floristic information from Sergipe state and areas of ecological tension motivated this floristic survey in the only National Park in the state. Botanical collections were made from 2006 to 2009, in six expedictions, by me...

  9. A Potentially Endangered New Species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from the Atlantic Coastal Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, S; Barbosa, E P; Freitas, A V L

    2017-06-01

    A new satyrine species in the subtribe Euptychiina, Euptychia atlantica Nakahara & Freitas sp. nov., is described from the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil. Based on the existing museum specimens, E. atlantica sp. nov. is known from the coastal montane forests of Rio de Janeiro to south Bahia, a unique biogeographical region which is undergoing rapid degradation. Illustrations of adults and their genitalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided herein, in addition to a discussion of the relationships and conservation status of the new species.

  10. Drought or humidity oscillations? The case of coastal zone of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Amin; Houhou, Rola

    2015-10-01

    There is discrepancy in classifying Lebanon according to the different climatic zones; however, it is often described as a semi-arid region. Lately, Lebanon has been witnessing climatic oscillations in the meteorological parameters. The impact of these oscillations on water sector has been reflected also on energy-food nexus. Yet, there are a number of studies obtained to identify the climate of Lebanon, and they show contradictory results; especially these studies elaborated different datasets and applied diverse methods which often modeled only on large-scale regions. Therefore, the analysis of climatic data depended on complete and long-term climatic records that can be applied to assess the existing climatic status of Lebanon, as well as to assure whether Lebanon is under drought, humidity or it is oscillating between both. This study utilized considerable datasets, from different sources including the remotely sensed systems (e.g. TRMM). These datasets were interpolated and analyzed statistically according to De Martonne Aridity Index. Aiming to affirm the climatic attribute of Lebanon; however, ten climatic stations were investigated. They are with representative geographic setting and diverse time series in the coastal zone of Lebanon were investigated. Even though, Lebanon is known as a semi-arid region, yet results in this study show that the studied zone does not evidence any drought, since around 70% of the investigated years are characterized by semi-humid to humid climate. This climatic figure is well pronounced since rainfall rate exceeds 900 mm, average temperature rate is about 19 °C, and snow remains for a couple of months annually.

  11. St Paul fracture zone intratransform ridge basalts (Equatorial Atlantic): Insight within the mantle source diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, C.; Brunelli, D.; Maia, M.; Prigent, S.; Sichel, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The St Paul Transform System offsets by 630 km the Equatorial Mid Atlantic Ridge at 1° N. It consists of four Major faults separating three intra transform ridge axes. Volcanic glassy samples were collected inside two intratransform ridge (ITR) segments during the COLMEIA cruise (Maia et al ; 2016) and samples from the third ITR available from a previous cruise ST PAUL (Hékinian et al. 2000). Major, trace elements and Hf, Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes were determined on selected hand picked glass chips. Few glassy samples recovered and analysed from abyssal hill samples open a time window of about 4.5 million years in the chemistry of the northern ITR. Results show that all samples are basaltic in composition but trace elements display contrasting images for the three ITR. The northern ITR samples are all light REE and highly incompatible enriched and are E-MORB; the central ITR samples display rather flat REE pattern with a level on enrichment of the HREE higher than the other two ITR and are T-MORB. Southern ITR samples are more heterogeneous N-MORB to T-MORB with a lower level of HREE. Isotopes reveal that the ITRs sample distinct mantle sources. In various isotope plans, the northern ITR samples plot together with published results from the MAR directly north of the St Paul F.Z. Therefore they exhibit some flavor of the Sierra Leone hotspot interacting with the MAR at 1.7°N. Central and southern ITR samples have very distinct composition from the northern ITR but resemble each other. However, for identical 206Pb/204Pb ratios, central ITR has slightly but significantly higher 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb, also higher 143Nd/144Nd for a given 87Sr/86Sr. Southern ITR is in chemical continuity of the MAR southward. So that central ITR samples display a rather specific composition. Off axis samples corresponding to the activity of the northern ITR up to 4.6 m.y. show that the hotspot contribution was even bigger on the spreading axis than today and might be fading with

  12. Gas bubble disease mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, at a coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcello, R.A. Jr.; Fairbanks, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    A substantial mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, occurred in the discharge channel and discharge plume area of the Boston Edison Company's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 during the period April 8 through April 24, 1973. Gas bubble disease was implicated as the cause of their death. Measurements of dissolved gas concentration of the station's intake and discharge water during this fish mortality are presented. Observations on the behavior and results of the pathological examination of menhaden afflicted with gas embolism are discussed

  13. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  14. Compound-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Evidence of Late Quaternary Paleohydrologic Change from the Atlantic Coastal Plain, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C.; Taylor, A. K.; Spencer, J.; Jones, K.

    2017-12-01

    Reconstructions of late Quaternary paleohydrology are rare from the U.S. Atlantic coastal plain (ACP). Here we present compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of terrestrially-derived n-alkanes (δ2Halkane) from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake in eastern North Carolina spanning the last 50,000 years. Combined with prior pollen, charcoal, and bulk sediment geochemical analyses, the δ2Halkane data indicate arid conditions during the late-Pleistocene, but marked differences in edaphic conditions at the two sites likely due to differing water table depths. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is marked by rapid fluctuations in δ2Halkane values that resemble the Bølling Allerød and Younger Dryas climatic events indicating potential sensitivity of regional hydrology to rapid climate change. The δ2Halkane data indicate a generally mesic Holocene that supported colonization by Quercus-dominated ecosystems during the early to middle Holocene. Evidence of increased aridity on the in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina contrasts with evidence of mesic conditions in eastern North Carolina during the middle to late Holocene, a geographic pattern similar to modern teleconnected precipitation responses to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This pattern may be indicative of a stronger Pacific basin influence on regional paleoprecipitation patterns than the distally-closer Atlantic. A transition from Quercus-to Pinus-dominated ecosystems 5500 cal yr B.P. is accompanied by a large increase in charcoal abundance, but is not coincident with any high-amplitude changes in the δ2Halkane record, indicating that precipitation variability was not likely the mechanism responsible for this ecological transition. While further development of regional paleohydrological records is necessary, the lack of a clear change in middle Holocene precipitation dynamics and the temporally-heterogeneous nature of the Quercus-Pinus transition in the region indicate prehistoric anthropogenic

  15. The analysis of dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F.; Westra, S.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding in coastal catchments can be caused by runoff generated by an extreme rainfall event, elevated sea levels due to an extreme storm surge event, or the combination of both processes occurring simultaneously or in close succession. Dependence in extreme rainfall and storm surge arises because common meteorological forcings often drive both variables; for example, cyclonic systems may produce extreme rainfall, strong onshore winds and an inverse barometric effect simultaneously, which the former factor influencing catchment discharge and the latter two factors influencing storm surge. Nevertheless there is also the possibility that only one of the variables is extreme at any given time, so that the dependence between rainfall and storm surge is not perfect. Quantification of the strength of dependence between these processes is critical in evaluating the magnitude of flood risk in the coastal zone. This may become more important in the future as the majority of the coastal areas are threatened by the sea level rise due to the climate change. This research uses the most comprehensive record of rainfall and storm surge along the coastline of Australia collected to-date to investigate the strength of dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline. A bivariate logistic threshold-excess model was employed to this end to carry out the dependence analysis. The strength of the estimated dependence is then evaluated as a function of several factors including: the distance between the tidal gauge and the rain gauge; the lag between the extreme precipitation event and extreme surge event; and the duration of the maximum storm burst. The results show that the dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline is statistically significant, although some locations clearly exhibit stronger dependence than others. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of large-scale meteorological effects as

  16. Nutrient and physical profile data from four Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruises collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern Atlantic Ocean from February 17, 1985 to September 7, 1986 (NODC Accession 8800324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruise data collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern...

  17. Distribution, Community Composition, and Potential Metabolic Activity of Bacterioplankton in an Urbanized Mediterranean Sea Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, Kumari; Balestra, Cecilia; Piredda, Roberta; Benes, Vladimir; Borra, Marco; Passarelli, Augusto; Margiotta, Francesca; Saggiomo, Maria; Biffali, Elio; Sanges, Remo; Scanlan, David J; Casotti, Raffaella

    2017-09-01

    Bacterioplankton are fundamental components of marine ecosystems and influence the entire biosphere by contributing to the global biogeochemical cycles of key elements. Yet, there is a significant gap in knowledge about their diversity and specific activities, as well as environmental factors that shape their community composition and function. Here, the distribution and diversity of surface bacterioplankton along the coastline of the Gulf of Naples (GON; Italy) were investigated using flow cytometry coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Heterotrophic bacteria numerically dominated the bacterioplankton and comprised mainly Alphaproteobacteria , Gammaproteobacteria , and Bacteroidetes Distinct communities occupied river-influenced, coastal, and offshore sites, as indicated by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, distance metric (UniFrac), linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), and multivariate analyses. The heterogeneity in diversity and community composition was mainly due to salinity and changes in environmental conditions across sites, as defined by nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations. Bacterioplankton communities were composed of a few dominant taxa and a large proportion (92%) of rare taxa (here defined as operational taxonomic units [OTUs] accounting for coastal zones is of critical importance, considering that these areas are highly productive and anthropogenically impacted. Their richness and evenness, as well as their potential activity, are very important to assess ecosystem health and functioning. Here, we investigated bacterial distribution, community composition, and potential metabolic activity in the GON, which is an ideal test site due to its heterogeneous environment characterized by a complex hydrodynamics and terrestrial inputs of varied quantities and quality. Our study demonstrates that bacterioplankton communities in this region are highly diverse and strongly regulated by a combination of different environmental

  18. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.

  19. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano, M.; Hernandez-Leon, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we review information on the ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone (C-ACTZ). This CTZ shows the singularity that the Canary Archipelago interrupts the main flow of the Canary Current and Trade Winds, introducing large mesoscale variability, in the form of island warm wakes and cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies downstream of the islands. Besides, upwelling filaments stretch towards the archipelago from the African coastal upwelling, transporting phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish larvae. They also interact with eddies shed from the islands to exchange water properties and biogenic material. All these mesoscale features influence the composition, structure, abundance and distribution of the larval fish community (LFC) of the region. The Canary Current (CC) and eddies shed from the islands drag larvae of island neritic fish species into the oceanic region and contribute, along warm wakes, to the horizontal distribution of fish larvae. Upwelling and upwelling filaments transport larvae of African neritic species into the oceanic region. These larvae dominate the LFC and account for the relatively high average larval fish abundance found in the C-ACTZ during the summer upwelling season. Filaments originated in the region of Cape Juby-Cape Bojador are entrained around a quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy, trapped between Gran Canaria Island and the African coast, forming a system through which most of the African neritic larvae may return to the African shelf. However, some larvae reach the eastern islands of the Canary archipelago and they may be spread all over the neritic region of the archipelago by eddies shed from the islands. Also in summer, the distribution of the LFC of the C-ACTZ is vertically stratified and fish larvae seem to carry out little or not diel vertical migration. Overall, this study highlights the strong relationship between mesoscale oceanographic processes and the LFC in the C-ACTZ.

  20. CZMIL (coastal zone mapping and imaging lidar): from first flights to first mission through system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Wozencraft, Jennifer; Aitken, Jennifer; Macon, Christopher; Mathur, Abhinav; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery system and software suite designed for highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for coastal zone mapping in the framework of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. Results of the USACE May-October 2012 mission in Green Bay, WI and Lake Erie are presented. The system performance tests show that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Mississippi with Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) and up to 41m in Florida when Kd=0.11m-1. Bathymetric accuracy of CZMIL was measured by comparing CZMIL depths with multi-beam sonar data from Cat Island, MS and from off the coast of Fort. Lauderdale, FL. Validation demonstrated that CZMIL meets USACE specifications (two standard deviation, 2σ, ~30 cm). To measure topographic accuracy we made direct comparisons of CZMIL elevations to GPS-surveyed ground control points and vehicle-based lidar scans of topographic surfaces. Results confirmed that CZMIL meets the USACE topographic requirements (2σ, ~15 cm). Upon completion of the Green Bay and Lake Erie mission there were 89 flights with 2231 flightlines. The general hours of aircraft engine time (which doesn't include all transit/ferry flights) was 441 hours with 173 hours of time on survey flightlines. The 4.8 billion (!) laser shots and 38.6 billion digitized waveforms covered over 1025 miles of shoreline.

  1. The Stock Potency of Demersal Fish Resource at The Coastal Zone, East Kutai District in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliani Juliani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the potency of demersal fish resource spread over three sub-districts i.e. Sangkulirang, Sandaran and Kaliorang in Kutai district, East Kalimantan province. The result showed that the highest total biomass was produced by aquatic zone of Sandaran sub-district with 1,763,713.6 ton/zone and the density stock was 13,566.5 kg/km2. It was followed by Sangkulirang sub-district with 264,653.3 ton/zone and 6,640.4 kg/km2, respectively and then by Kaliorang sub-district with 58.086,5 ton/zone and 2,768.0 kg/km2, respectively. In term of species particularly from crustaseaae family, the most economic aquatic zone was found in Sangkulirang sub-district. The export product species Penaeus sp was obtained from Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus sp, Parapenaeopsis sculptilis, Penaeus sp, and lobster which was accounted by 3,381.6 tons/zone, 83,199 tons/zone, 14,492.7 tons/zone, 24,691.3 tons/zone, 41,331.1 tons/zone, and 1,073.5 tons/zone, respectively. It was followed by Sandaran sub-district with export product species was Penaeus merguensis 33,495.7 tons/zone and non-export products were Parapenaeopsis sculptilis 63,641.7 tons/zone, Penaeus sp 16,747.8 tons/zone, Metapenaeus sp 1.674,8 tons/zone, Caridina sp 1.562.572,2 tons/zone, and Scylla serrata 3,349.6 tons/zone. Next was Kaliorang sub-district which accounted by Penaeus merguensis 62.2 tons/zone and Metapenaeus monoceros 49.7 tons/zone. In situ measurement on seven physical-chemical quality parameters of water which compared to the standardized of sea water showed that water quality found in coastal zone of Kaliorang, Sangkulirang and Sandaran sub-district, East Kutai province was suitable and feasible for the aquatic and living of marine habitats Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Year Five of Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    established the first network of subsurface observing locations (of temperature and salinity ) and shelf current observations. The program also initiated a...evolving, three-dimensional fields of the coastal ocean from the estuaries out to the boundaries of the EEZ was the ambitious goal of the SEACOOS...fiddler crab Uca minax, Marine Biology, 152:1283-1291, doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0777- y. Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, O.M. Smedstad, G.R

  3. Assessment of risk factors in radionuclides pollution of coastal zone and river basins by numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.; Tsitskishvili, L.; Kordzakhia, G.; Diasamidze, R.; Shaptoshvili, A.; Valiaev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. For this aim the special deterministic models on the basis of passive admixture's turbulence diffusion equation is used. For numerical calculations Mc Kormack's predictor-corrector two steps scheme is used. The scheme is disintegrated, second order in space and time. Such scheme is established because the turbulent velocities very differ in horizontal and vertical directions and model allows implementing singular independent steps in different directions. Grid step for the model is 26.88 km in horizontal direction and 20 m m in vertical until 200 m. Time step is equal to 4 hours and computational time period - 4 months. Number of grid points is equal to 4983 for all calculation areas. Computations are carried out separately for big rivers basins as well as for Black and Caspian Seas water areas. The model calculations are made for cases with various locations of pollutant sources including accidental throws. For different realistic scenarios are calculated the concentrations of admixtures. The directions of their propagation are also determined. The risks are calculated in comparison with the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of the pollutants according to achieved results. That gives possibility to define the most vulnerable areas in coastal zones. Realized methodology is verified by means of various

  4. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange from North Sea coastal waters and the Atlantic Meridional Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R.

    2016-02-01

    Suppression of gas transfer velocity (kw) by surfactants are well established, both in laboratory wind flumes and purposeful oceanic releases. However, the effects on kw of time and space varying concentrations of natural surfactant are inadequately studied. We have developed an automated gas exchange tank for simultaneous high precision measurement of kw in unmodified seawater samples. Here we present data from two studies along a coastal North Sea transect during 2012-2013 and the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) 24 from September to November 2014. Measurements of surfactant activity (SA), CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a have enabled us to characterize the effects of variable amounts of natural surfactant on kw. North Sea coastal waters range in k660 (kw normalized to the value for CO2 in freshwater at 20oC) was 6.8-24.5 cm hr-1 (n=20), with the ranges of SA, total CDOM absorbance (200-450 nm) and chlorophyll-a measured in the surface microlayer (SML) of our seawater samples were 0.08-0.38 mg l-1 T-X-100, 0.13-4.7 and 0.09-1.54 µg l-1, respectively. The AMT k660 ranged from 7.0-23.9 cm hr-1 (n=22), with SA measured in the SML and subsurface water (SSW) of our seawater samples ranging from 0.15-1.08 mg l-1 T-X-100 and 0.07-0.43 mg l-1 T-X-100, respectively. Importantly, we found 12-45% (North Sea) and 1-43% (AMT) k660 suppression relative to Milli-Q water that relate to seasonal and spatial differences in SA. The North Sea demonstrated notable seasonal influences on k660 suppression that were related to CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a. The degree of k660 suppression was highest in summer consistent with k660 control by natural surfactant. The degree of k660 suppression decreased with distance offshore in the North Sea and displayed a strong relationship with SA (r2 = 0.51-0.64, p = 0.02, n = 20). The AMT demonstrated notable differences in k660 suppression between hemispheres and across the Longhurst Provinces but the overall relationship between k660

  5. Larval dispersion of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata in coastal marine waters of the Southwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Claudia; Luppi, Tomás; Spivak, Eduardo; Schejter, Laura

    2009-08-01

    The estuarine brachyuran crab Neohelice granulata export their larvae from the parental intertidal population of the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, and probably other populations, to marine waters. The degree of larval dispersion or self-recruitment of populations is unknown. We evaluated the presence of all larval stages of N. granulata in coastal waters of Argentina between 37.9° and 35.8° S, at two different spatial scales: a broad scale of tens to hundreds of kilometers from the Río de la Plata estuary in the north, to Mar Chiquita lagoon in the south, and a small scale of hundreds of meters to some kilometers around the mouth of Mar Chiquita, during spring and summer. Additionally, we registered the larval composition and density at San Clemente creek population, in Samborombon Bay (Río de la Plata estuary), every 3 h along a 30-hour period. Evidence indicates that larval release of N. granulata is temporally synchronized with nocturnal ebb tides and all development from Zoea I to Zoea IV occur in areas close to the parental population, even with very different oceanographic characteristics. A possible mechanism based on salinity selection and wind-driven transport is proposed for such behavior, and some considerations related to the connectivity of present populations are made.

  6. Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.

  7. The Effect of Dissolved Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Microzooplankton Growth Rates in the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Lavrentyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is wide spread among marine phytoplankton, including diatoms, which can produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA. Most studies on diatom-produced PUA have been dedicated to their inhibitory effects on reproduction and development of marine invertebrates. However, little information exists on their impact on key herbivores in the ocean, microzooplankton. This study examined the effects of dissolved 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal on the growth rates of natural ciliate and dinoflagellate populations in the Chesapeake Bay and the coastal Atlantic waters. The overall effect of PUA on microzooplankton growth was negative, especially at the higher concentrations, but there were pronounced differences in response among common planktonic species. For example, the growth of Codonella sp., Leegaardiella sol, Prorodon sp., and Gyrodinium spirale was impaired at 2 nM, whereas Strombidium conicum, Cyclotrichium gigas, and Gymnodinium sp. were not affected even at 20 nM. These results indicate that PUA can induce changes in microzooplankton dynamics and species composition.

  8. The Effect of Dissolved Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Microzooplankton Growth Rates in the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Peter J.; Franzè, Gayantonia; Pierson, James J.; Stoecker, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is wide spread among marine phytoplankton, including diatoms, which can produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA). Most studies on diatom-produced PUA have been dedicated to their inhibitory effects on reproduction and development of marine invertebrates. However, little information exists on their impact on key herbivores in the ocean, microzooplankton. This study examined the effects of dissolved 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal on the growth rates of natural ciliate and dinoflagellate populations in the Chesapeake Bay and the coastal Atlantic waters. The overall effect of PUA on microzooplankton growth was negative, especially at the higher concentrations, but there were pronounced differences in response among common planktonic species. For example, the growth of Codonella sp., Leegaardiella sol, Prorodon sp., and Gyrodinium spirale was impaired at 2 nM, whereas Strombidium conicum, Cyclotrichium gigas, and Gymnodinium sp. were not affected even at 20 nM. These results indicate that PUA can induce changes in microzooplankton dynamics and species composition. PMID:25955757

  9. Cold-climate slope deposits and landscape modifications of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.; Dejong, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene cold-climate geomorphology are distributed across the weathered and eroded Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain uplands from the Wisconsinan terminal moraine south to Tidewater Virginia. Cold-climate deposits and landscape modifications are superimposed on antecedent landscapes of old, weathered Neogene upland gravels and Pleistocene marine terraces that had been built during warm periods and sea-level highstands. In New Jersey, sequences of surficial deposits define a long history of repeating climate change events. To the south across the Delmarva Peninsula and southern Maryland, most antecedent topography has been obscured by Late Pleistocene surficial deposits. These are spatially variable and are collectively described as a cold-climate alloformation. The cold-climate alloformation includes time-transgressive details of climate deterioration from at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 through the end of MIS 2. Some deposits and landforms within the alloformation may be as young as the Younger Dryas. Southwards along the trend of the Potomac River, these deposits and their climatic affinities become diffused. In Virginia, a continuum of erosion and surficial deposits appears to be the product of ‘normal’ temperate, climate-forced processes. The cold-climate alloformation and more temperate deposits in Virginia are being partly covered by Holocene alluvium and bay mud.

  10. Ocean acidification in the coastal zone from an organism's perspective: multiple system parameters, frequency domains, and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Salisbury, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple natural and anthropogenic processes alter the carbonate chemistry of the coastal zone in ways that either exacerbate or mitigate ocean acidification effects. Freshwater inputs and multiple acid-base reactions change carbonate chemistry conditions, sometimes synergistically. The shallow nature of these systems results in strong benthic-pelagic coupling, and marine invertebrates at different life history stages rely on both benthic and pelagic habitats. Carbonate chemistry in coastal systems can be highly variable, responding to processes with temporal modes ranging from seconds to centuries. Identifying scales of variability relevant to levels of biological organization requires a fuller characterization of both the frequency and magnitude domains of processes contributing to or reducing acidification in pelagic and benthic habitats. We review the processes that contribute to coastal acidification with attention to timescales of variability and habitats relevant to marine bivalves.

  11. Cloud Based GIS Approach for Monitoring Environmental Pollution in the Coastal Zone of Kalutara, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.P.M. Sirirwardane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS can be used as a powerful tool in many aspects of handling geospatial data. By considering the modern geospatial approaches, this research is focused on monitoring environmental pollution in the coastal zone of Kalutara area, with the objective of identification of existing natural resources. Green vegetation patches, water bodies and beech areas were detected using remote sensing techniques. A detailed GPS field survey was conducted and identified minor environmental resources with various pollution incidents. This information was used to improve the available data sets. The types of pollution incidents were categorised according to the severity level by considering the relationship to each natural resource. Maps were created and data was uploaded to the ArcGIS online cloud platform. Web services were hosted using this cloud infrastructure. Pollution incidents data layer has been given web based editing capabilities for field monitoring using GPS enabled mobiles. Field observations were conducted and locations of the pollution effects were uploaded into web maps from the field with related attributes. The hot spots were used to get better understanding and awareness of the environmental pollution. As the results, pollution incidents were identified and there was a significant effect to the minor environmental elements. The cloud infrastructure, helped to bring down the barriers of data sharing and the incident reporting mechanism became more convenient during the field observations.

  12. Data Analysis Of A Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Campaign By The Nasa C130 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippi, I.; Radicati, B.

    1988-01-01

    The principal goal of most of our remote sensing campaigns has been the choice of the best airborne sensors and the selection of the most efficient visible and infrared wavelengths for the remote sensing of the Italian coastal zone. The "1986 C130 European Program" was performed by NASA C130 airplane last summer. In this contest on 30th July a flight over the Tuscan islands and coast was performed. The airplane was equipped with the following main sensors: a Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), a Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) and an Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS). The images acquired, were firstly corrected for the several types of instrumental noise and errors and after that were correlated with the flight parameters and geometrically corrected. Finally the data were reduced to physical units taking into account the sensors calibration. Particular attention was also paid to the atmospheric effects taken into account by the use of the spectral results of the computer program LOWTRAN-6. First results on sea temperature detection, especially near river or channel estuaries, were reported. At the same time comparison between the thermal infrared channel of the TMS and those of THIS was performed. In addition studies are being made on the relationships among chlorophyll, plankton, yellow substance, oil at sea, total suspended matter, fluorescence and sea color. On that basis, combining the bands of the TMS, tentative image processing is being performed to determinate alga and dissolved organic materials covering.

  13. Reproductive biology of the female Jonah crab from the Maryland-Virginia Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H.; Stevens, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis, have long been considered a bycatch of the lobster industry. Jonah crab harvest is not regulated, there are no fishing size limits, nor restrictions to protect females. The study sampled Jonah crabs from one area in the Maryland-Virginia coastal zone from a local fishing vessel in June and July of 2015. This study is based on examination of the gross anatomy of 49 crabs and on histological preparations from 29 crabs. Ovary development stages were created and ordered based on area of oocytes, color and size of ovary, and the presence of sperm plugs. Four stages were observed but five are identifiable. Size at 50% sexual maturity (SM50), for females, as indicated by vulvar condition and oocyte area, was estimated to be 49.46 mm carapace length (CL). No prior information or study has been published concerning female Jonah crabs. This fishery-independent data is vital to ensure long-term sustainability, and develop appropriate management for this species.

  14. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  15. Development and Climate Change in Uruguay. Focus on Coastal Zones, Agriculture and Forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Gagnon-Lebrun, F.; Van Aalst, M.; Smith, J.; Hagenstad, M.; Baethgen, W.E.; Martino, D.L.; Lorenzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. This report presents the integrated case study for Uruguay carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Uruguay are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for adaptation in coastal zones as well as for mainstreaming carbonsequestration within the agriculture and forestry sectors

  16. Climate change and their consequences on coastal zone of Ain el Turck in Oran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Tewfik Bouroumi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Algeria does not escape the problem of the climate change, its geographical position in zone of transition, and its dry and semi-arid climate, in fact a very vulnerable space. In Algeria, approximately two thirds of the population is concentrated on the coast which represents only 4 % of the territory. The Mediterranean coast, in particular in Algeria, is subjected to pressures: financial stakes, climatic risks, pollutions and conservation of the water. It is on the basis of the critical and objective report with regard to a wild urbanization of the Algerian coast as well as the influence of the demographic pressure that the choice of the search for this article was held. This publication has for objective to raise (to draw up a current situation (inventory of fixtures of the sector of the environment in Algeria and to present through the case of the coastal city of Oran the consequences of climate change. We propose, to review the situation through the case of the municipality of Ain El Türck, by basing itself on data relative to the evolution of the temperatures and the sea level.

  17. Trophic Structure Over the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: The Bathypelagic Zone Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present preliminary results and ongoing efforts to characterize the trophic structure and energy flow of the pelagic ecosystems of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), from Iceland to the Azores. This study is one component of the international CoML field project MAR-ECO (ww...

  18. Are subduction zones invading the atlantic? Evidence from the southwest iberia margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Rosas, Filipe M.; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter P.; Boutelier, David; Gutscher, Marc André; Ribeiro, António

    Subduction initiation at passive margins plays a central role in the plate tectonics theory. However, the process by which a passive margin becomes active is not well understood. In this paper we use the southwest Iberia margin (SIM) in the Atlantic Ocean to study the process of passive margin

  19. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  20. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  1. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  2. Parametrisation and empirical model for bedload movement in the multibar coastal zone on the base of field radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Pruszak, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The near-shore zone is the most interesting sea region is coastal engineering. In this region the most effective changes in coastal morphodynamic takes place due to intensive sediment transport generated by waves and currents. The processes occurring in this zone are of great importance for coast protection and hydrotechnic activities as well as recreation. They are extremely complicated due to their stochastic character in the time and space domain. The most valuable information concerning the dynamics of bedload transport and its local character is provided by the field surveys. Such investigations are carried out under natural conditions and take into account the characteristic properties of the region. The subject of the work was the study of bedload movement for the multibar conditions

  3. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  4. Constructing development and integrated coastal zone management in the conditions of the landslide slopes of Cheboksary water reservoir (Volga River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled construction and insufficient accounting of engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions of the coastal zone, intensified technogenic impact on sloping surfaces and active urbanization led to the emergence of serious problems and emergency situations on the coasts of many Volga reservoirs, including the Cheboksary reservoir, within Cheboksary urban district and adjacent territories of Chuvashia. This article is devoted to substantiation of the possibility of rational construction development of landslide slopes of the Cheboksary water reservoir.

  5. Study and mapping of natural hazards in the coastal zone of Murcia; Estudio y cartografia de los peligros naturales costeros de la region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seisdedos, J.; Mulas, J.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L. I.; Rodriguez Franco, J. A.; Garcia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Garrote, J.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance and implications of coastal hazards, very few studies have been focused on their analysis and mapping on a regional scale in a systematic and integrated way. This article presents a methodology based on the detailed analysis of natural hazards affecting coastal zones: floods, erosion, sea level rise, tsunamis, landslides, etc., and the study and mapping of the factors involved (coastal geomorphology, coastal processes, historical events, human activities). These factors and hazards are evaluated and integrated to prepare maps which include the assessments of each individual hazard and the overall ones. A mapping system in strips parallel to the coast is used, allowing the recognition and interpretation of the characteristics of the coast and the associated hazards. This methodology is applied to the coastal zone of Murcia, showing its usefulness for studying and mapping coastal hazards and its applicability to other regions. (Author)

  6. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  7. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kusano, Yukiko; Ochi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Nariaki; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal plain regions is becoming increasingly important for site characterisation and the prediction of hydrogeological environmental conditions resulting from radioactive waste disposal and underground CO2 storage. In previous studies of the freshwater-saltwater interface, electromagnetic methods were used for sites characterised by unconsolidated deposits or Neocene soft sedimentary rocks. However, investigating the freshwater-saltwater interface in hard rock sites (e.g. igneous areas) is more complex, with the permeability of the rocks greatly influenced by fractures. In this study, we investigated the distribution of high-salinity groundwater at two volcanic rock sites and one sedimentary rock site, each characterised by different hydrogeological features. Our investigations included (1) applying the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method and (2) conducting laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples. We interpreted the 2D resistivity sections by referring to previous data on geology and geochemistry of groundwater. At the Tokusa site, an area of inland volcanic rocks, low resistivity zones were detected along a fault running through volcanic rocks and shallow sediments. The results suggest that fluids rise through the Tokusa-Jifuku Fault to penetrate shallow sediments in a direction parallel to the river, and some fluids are diluted by rainwater. At the Oki site, a volcanic island on a continental shelf, four resistivity zones (in upward succession: low, high, low and high) were detected. The results suggest that these four zones were formed during a transgression-regression cycle caused by the last glacial period. At the Saijo site, located on a coastal plain composed of thick sediments, we observed a deep low resistivity zone, indicative of fossil seawater remnant from a transgression after the last glacial period. The current coastal

  9. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, X H; Wang, Y D; Hou, X Y

    2014-01-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  10. Inferring genetic connectivity in real populations, exemplified by coastal and oceanic Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Ingrid; Hauser, Lorenz; Jorde, Per Erik; Knutsen, Halvor; Punt, André E; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2018-04-19

    Genetic data are commonly used to estimate connectivity between putative populations, but translating them to demographic dispersal rates is complicated. Theoretical equations that infer a migration rate based on the genetic estimator F ST , such as Wright's equation, F ST ≈ 1/(4 N e m + 1), make assumptions that do not apply to most real populations. How complexities inherent to real populations affect migration was exemplified by Atlantic cod in the North Sea and Skagerrak and was examined within an age-structured model that incorporated genetic markers. Migration was determined under various scenarios by varying the number of simulated migrants until the mean simulated level of genetic differentiation matched a fixed level of genetic differentiation equal to empirical estimates. Parameters that decreased the N e / N t ratio (where N e is the effective and N t is the total population size), such as high fishing mortality and high fishing gear selectivity, increased the number of migrants required to achieve empirical levels of genetic differentiation. Higher maturity-at-age and lower selectivity increased N e / N t and decreased migration when genetic differentiation was fixed. Changes in natural mortality, fishing gear selectivity, and maturity-at-age within expected limits had a moderate effect on migration when genetic differentiation was held constant. Changes in population size had the greatest effect on the number of migrants to achieve fixed levels of F ST , particularly when genetic differentiation was low, F ST ≈ 10 -3 Highly variable migration patterns, compared with constant migration, resulted in higher variance in genetic differentiation and higher extreme values. Results are compared with and provide insight into the use of theoretical equations to estimate migration among real populations. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Brassica cover crops for nitrogen retention in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jill E; Weil, Ray R

    2009-01-01

    Brassica cover crops are new to the mid-Atlantic region, and limited information is available on their N uptake capabilities for effective N conservation. Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Daikon), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Adagio), and rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Dwarf Essex) were compared with rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Wheeler), a popular cover crop in the region, with regard to N uptake ability and potential to decrease N leaching at two sites in Maryland. Plants were harvested in fall and spring for dry matter and N analysis. Soil samples from 0 cm to 105 to 180 cm depth were obtained in fall and spring for NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N analyses. Ceramic cup tension lysimeters were installed at depths of 75 to 120 cm to monitor NO(3)-N in soil pore water. Averaged across 3 site-years, forage radish and rape shoots had greater dry matter production and captured more N in fall than rye shoots. Compared with a weedy fallow control, rape and rye caused similar decreases in soil NO(3)-N in fall and spring throughout the sampled profile. Cover crops had no effect on soil NH(4)-N. During the spring on coarse textured soil, pore water NO(3)-N concentrations in freeze-killed Brassica (radish) plots were greater than in control and overwintering Brassica (rape) and rye plots. On fine textured soil, all cover crops provided a similar decrease in pore water NO(3)-N concentration compared with control. On coarse textured soils, freeze-killed Brassica cover crops should be followed by an early-planted spring main crop.

  12. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 77 FR 40513 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Southport, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... filming of a movie involving explosions and other dangerous stunts on water. The temporary safety zone is... filming of the movie, a delay in enacting this safety zone would be contrary to public interest. Under 5 U... Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of Executive Order...

  14. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  15. A significant longshore transport divergence zone at the Northeastern Brazilian coast: implications on coastal Quaternary evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABÍLIO C.S.P. BITTENCOURT

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available By using the mean directions of the wave-fronts approaching the Brazilian northeastern coastal stretch comprised between the localities of Real river (Sergipe State and Galinhos (Rio Grande do Norte State - coincident with those of the main winds occurring in the area - and their periods, we have defined a wave climate model based on the construction of refraction diagrams. The resulting model of sediment transport, as obtained by numerical modelling from the refraction diagrams, taking into consideration the angle of approach and waves heights along the 10-m isobath, was capable of reproducing the patterns of sediment dispersion provided by geomorphic indicators of the longshore drift. All this coastal region, approximately 900 km in length, is characterized by a significant divergence zone in the direction of net longshore drift of sediments, the potential intensity of which increases considerably in value, in almost its entire length, continuously toward downdrift, which might explain the greater or lesser long term susceptibility to erosion, during the Quaternary, along the coastal stretch studied.Utilizando-se as direções médias das principais frentes-de-onda que se aproximam do trecho costeiro do nordeste brasileiro compreendido entre as localidades de Rio Real (Sergipe e Galinhos (Rio Grande do Norte - coincidentes com aquelas dos principais ventos que ocorrem na área - e de seus períodos, nós definimos um modelo de clima de ondas baseado na construção de diagramas de refração. O modelo resultante de transporte de sedimentos, obtido por modelagem numérica feita a partir dos diagramas de refração, considerando o ângulo de aproximação e a altura das ondas ao longo da isóbata de 10m, foi capaz de reproduzir os padrões de dispersão de sedimentos fornecidos pelos indicadores geomórficos de deriva litorânea. Toda essa região costeira, com cerca de 900km de extensão, caracteriza-se por se constituir em uma grande zona de

  16. Variability of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide apparent quantum yield spectra in three coastal estuaries of the South Atlantic Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Reader

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical oxidation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC to carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 has been estimated to be a significant process with global photoproduction transforming petagrams of DOC to inorganic carbon annually. To further quantify the importance of these two photoproducts in coastal DOC cycling, 38 paired apparent quantum yield (AQY spectra for CO and CO2 were determined at three locations along the coast of Georgia, USA over the course of one year. The AQY spectra for CO2 were considerably more varied than CO. CO AQY spectra exhibited a seasonal shift in spectrally integrated (260 nm–490 nm AQY from higher efficiencies in the autumn to less efficient photoproduction in the summer. While full-spectrum photoproduction rates for both products showed positive correlation with pre-irradiation UV-B sample absorption (i.e. chromophoric dissolved organic matter, CDOM as expected, we found no correlation between AQY and CDOM for either product at any site. Molecular size, approximated with pre-irradiation spectral slope coefficients, and aromatic content, approximated by the specific ultraviolet absorption of the pre-irradiated samples, were also not correlated with AQY in either data set. The ratios of CO2 to CO photoproduction determined using both an AQY model and direct production comparisons were 23.2 ± 12.5 and 22.5 ± 9.0, respectively. Combined, both products represent a loss of 2.9 to 3.2% of the DOC delivered to the estuaries and inner shelf of the South Atlantic Bight yearly, and 6.4 to 7.3% of the total annual degassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. This result suggests that direct photochemical production of CO and CO2 is a small, yet significant contributor to both DOC cycling and CO2 gas exchange in this coastal system.

  17. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  18. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  19. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (tsunami (>10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has produced.

  20. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has produced.

  1. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Lucy G; Ziegler, Alan D; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M J; Wolters, Jan W; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  2. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the plutonium distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States of America. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analysed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In the three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse and Newport) the suspended particulate matter (1μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah river estuary, in addition to fall-out plutonium, has received up to 0.3Ci of plutonium from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the US Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence plutonium isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Plutonium contents in surface marsh sediment from the Savannah River estuary are lower than those found in nearby bay sediments. In fact, total plutonium concentrations of sediments showed increases from the upper to lower portions of the estuary; however, higher contributions of 238 Pu in the upper portions indicate that releases from the Savannah River Plant do contribute plutonium to the Savannah river estuary. Plutonium concentrations in Spartina were less than 10fCi/g dry weight but are higher than plutonium contents of terrestrial plants ( 238 Pu to the total plutonium activities in the sediment and the Spartina. Plutonium concentrations were about three times higher in the Newport river estuary than in the Neuse and Savannah river estuaries. (author)

  3. Land suitability assessment in the catchment area of four Southwestern Atlantic coastal lagoons: multicriteria and optimization modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gallego, Lorena; Achkar, Marcel; Conde, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, a land suitability assessment was conducted in the basin of four Uruguayan coastal lagoons (Southwestern Atlantic) to analyze the productive development while minimizing eutrophication, biodiversity loss and conflicts among different land uses. Suitable land for agriculture, forest, livestock ranching, tourism and conservation sectors were initially established based on a multi-attribute model developed using a geographic information system. Experts were consulted to determine the requirements for each land use sector and the incompatibilities among land use types. The current and potential conflicts among incompatible land use sectors were analyzed by overlapping land suitability maps. We subsequently applied a multi-objective model where land (pixels) with similar suitability was clustered into "land suitability groups", using a two-phase cluster analysis and the Akaike Information Criterion. Finally, a linear programming optimization procedure was applied to allocate land use sectors into land suitable groups, maximizing total suitability and minimizing interference among sectors. Results indicated that current land use overlapped by 4.7 % with suitable land of other incompatible sectors. However, the suitable land of incompatible sectors overlapped in 20.3 % of the study area, indicating a high potential for the occurrence of future conflict. The highest competition was between agriculture and conservation, followed by forest and agriculture. We explored scenarios where livestock ranching and tourism intensified, and found that interference with conservation and agriculture notably increased. This methodology allowed us to analyze current and potential land use conflicts and to contribute to the strategic planning of the study area.

  4. Particle export fluxes to the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Anja; Wagner, Hannes; Le Moigne, Frédéric A. C.; Wilson, Samuel T.

    2017-04-01

    In the ocean, sinking of particulate organic matter (POM) drives carbon export from the euphotic zone and supplies nutrition to mesopelagic communities, the feeding and degradation activities of which in turn lead to export flux attenuation. Oxygen (O2) minimum zones (OMZs) with suboxic water layers ( 100 µmol O2 kg-1), supposedly due to reduced heterotrophic activity. This study focuses on sinking particle fluxes through hypoxic mesopelagic waters (warming, acidification and enhanced stratification.

  5. Disturbance and coastal forests: a strategic approach to forest management in hurricane impact zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2007-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami focused world attention on societal responses to environmental hazards and the potential of natural systems to moderate disturbance effects. Coastal areas are critical to the welfare of up to 50% of the world's population. Coastal systems in the southern United States are adapted to specific disturbance regimes of tropical cyclones (...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hou, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Ye [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Min, E-mail: mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BC{sub Cr}) and thermal oxidation (BC{sub CTO}). The concentrations of BC{sub Cr} in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32 mg g{sup −1}, while BC{sub CTO} ranged between 0.57 and 4.76 mg g{sup −1}. Spatial variations of δ{sup 13}C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from − 21.13‰ to − 24.87‰ and from − 23.53‰ to − 16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2 ng g{sup −1} in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5 ng g{sup −1} in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. - Highlights: • River runoffs were responsible for the high PAH pollution levels in the study area. • BC and PAHs derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels. • BC was associated

  7. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinke, Anthony D; Kendall, Scott T; Kroll, Daniel J; Strickler, Eric A; Weinert, Maggie E; Holcomb, Thomas M; Defore, Angela A; Dila, Deborah K; Snider, Michael J; Gereaux, Leon C; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2014-11-01

    During the summers of 2002-2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L -1 day -1 , respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and -33 ± 15 µg C L -1 day -1 , respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles.

  8. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, F.; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ 13 C org and δ 15 N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. - Highlights: •Pollution by untreated sewage discharge is evident at the outfall and in Salvador's coastal zone. •Seasonal wind- and tide-driven surface currents control advective transport of discharged sewage. •Water quality at Salvador's recreational beaches is impacted by a plume of untreated sewage.

  9. Scientific management of Mediterranean coastal zone: a hybrid ocean forecasting system for oil spill and search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, A; Ferrer, M I; Vizoso, G; Orfila, A; Basterretxea, G; Casas, B; Alvarez, A; Roig, D; Garau, B; Martínez, M; Fernández, V; Fornés, A; Ruiz, M; Fornós, J J; Balaguer, P; Duarte, C M; Rodríguez, I; Alvarez, E; Onken, R; Orfila, P; Tintoré, J

    2006-01-01

    The oil spill from Prestige tanker showed the importance of scientifically based protocols to minimize the impacts on the environment. In this work, we describe a new forecasting system to predict oil spill trajectories and their potential impacts on the coastal zone. The system is formed of three main interconnected modules that address different capabilities: (1) an operational circulation sub-system that includes nested models at different scales, data collection with near-real time assimilation, new tools for initialization or assimilation based on genetic algorithms and feature-oriented strategic sampling; (2) an oil spill coastal sub-system that allows simulation of the trajectories and fate of spilled oil together with evaluation of coastal zone vulnerability using environmental sensitivity indexes; (3) a risk management sub-system for decision support based on GIS technology. The system is applied to the Mediterranean Sea where surface currents are highly variable in space and time, and interactions between local, sub-basin and basin scale increase the non-linear interactions effects which need to be adequately resolved at each one of the intervening scales. Besides the Mediterranean Sea is a complex reduced scale ocean representing a real scientific and technological challenge for operational oceanography and particularly for oil spill response and search and rescue operations.

  10. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  11. Experimental and numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic dispersion of a pollutant effluent in a estuarine coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidas, N.K.; Koutitonsky, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study was performed to measure and simulate the hydrodynamic dispersion of a pollutant effluent discharged by an outfall diffuser into an estuarine coastal zone near Rimouski, Canada. Field measurements of currents, tides, salinity, and winds were obtained in the vicinity of the injection site, and two tracer dispersion experiments were carried on in these coastal waters. The measurements were taken before and after the construction of the marine outfall diffuser. The similitude between the plume of a tracer (physical model) released into the coastal waters before construction and that of the real effluent (prototype) discharged at the same site was studied. A new coefficient of similitude was established, which allows to transpose the concentrations of the physical model tracer to the waste water concentrations of the prototype. The numerical simulation (2D) is performed with a hydrodynamic model and an advection-dispersion model of the MIKE21 system from the Danish Hydraulic Institute, using the so-called telescopic approach. The objective of these simulations was to predict, among other things, the pollutant effluent concentrations for critical hydrodynamic conditions relative to the aquatic ecosystem to be protected. The methodology elaborated was used for the management of the coastal environments subjected to pollution. (author). 28 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  12. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  13. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  14. Organic contamination of surface sediments in the metropolitan coastal zone of Athens, Greece: sources, degree, and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Talagani, P; Hatzianestis, I; Kaberi, H; Rousakis, G; Kanellopoulos, T D; Hatiris, G A

    2014-03-15

    Bottom sediments represent a crucial component of the marine environment, since they constitute a habitat, a trophic resource, and a spawning place for various organisms. Unfortunately, the sediments of urban coastal areas are deeply impacted by anthropogenic activities that degrade their quality. In the Drapetsona-Keratsini metropolitan coastal zone of Athens, current industrial and shipping activities together with the effluents from a sewage outfall, which was in operation in the past, have resulted in one of the most contaminated sedimentary environments, in terms of organic compound loads, in Mediterranean. Exceptionally high concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 4457 μg g⁻¹), carcinogenic PAHs (up to 7284 ng g⁻¹), and organochlorines (up to 544 ng g⁻¹ for PCBs; up to 208 ng g⁻¹ for DDTs) constitute a major threat to the marine life of the associated Saronikos Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  16. National Assessment Of Shoreline Change: Part 2, Historical Shoreline Changes And Associated Coastal Land Loss Along The U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states comprising the Southeast Atlantic Coast (east Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina) represents the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and will eventually include the Northeast Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in

  17. Ecomorphological patterns of the fishes inhabiting the tide pools of the Amazonian Coastal Zone, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eleres Soares

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the identification of the ecomorphological patterns that characterize the fish species found in tide pools in the Amazonian Coastal Zone (ACZ in the Pará State, Brazil. Representatives of 19 species were collected during two field campaigns in 2011. The dominance, residence status, and trophic guild of each species were established, and morphometric data were obtained for up to 10 specimens of each species. A total of 23 ecomorphological attributes related to locomotion, position in the water column, and foraging behavior were calculated for the analysis of ecomorphological distance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was utilized for the evaluation of ecomorphological attributes that explained the variation among species. Mantel Test was used to correlate the taxonomic distance with species' morphological patterns and a partial Mantel Test to analyze the correlation among trophic guilds and ecomorphological patterns, controlling the effects of taxonomic distance among species. The analyses revealed two principal axes of the variation related to locomotion, correlated with the width of the caudal peduncle and the shape of the anal fin, as well as the influence of taxonomic distance on the ecomorphological characteristics of the different species. The dominant and resident species both presented a reduced capacity for continuous swimming. The two principal axes identified in relation to the position of the fish in the water column were correlated with the position of the eyes, the area of the pelvic fin, and body shape, with evidence of the influence of taxonomic distance on the morphology of the species. PCA grouped species with pelagic habits with benthonic ones. In the case of foraging behavior, the two principal axes formed by the analysis correlated with the size of the mouth, eye size, and the length of the digestive tract. Species of different guilds were grouped together, indicating a weak relationship

  18. Reattachment Zone Characterisation Under Offshore Winds With Flow Separation On The Lee Side Of Coastal Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Baas, A. C.; Lynch, K.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    Airflow separation, lee-side eddies and secondary flows play an essential role on the formation and maintenance of sand dunes. Downstream from dune crests the flow surface layer detaches from the ground and generates an area characterised by turbulent eddies in the dune lee slope (the wake). At some distance downstream from the dune crest, flow separates into a reversed component directed toward the dune toe and an offshore “re-attached” component. This reattachment zone (RZ) has been documented in fluvial and desert environments, wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations, but not yet characterised in coastal dunes. This study examines the extent and temporal evolution of the RZ and its implications for beach-dune interaction at Magilligan, Northern Ireland. Wind parameters were measured over a profile extending from an 11 m height dune crest towards the beach, covering a total distance of 65 m cross-shore. Data was collected using an array of nine ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) deployed in April-May 2010, as part of a larger experiment to capture airflow data under a range of incident wind velocities and offshore directions. UAs were located along the profile (5 m tower spacing) over the beach, which allowed a detailed examination of the RZ with empirical data. Numerical modelling using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software was also conducted with input data from anemometer field measurements, running over a surface mesh generated from LiDAR and DGPS surveys. Results demonstrate that there is a wind threshold of approximately 5-6 ms-1 under which no flow separation exists with offshore winds. As wind speed increases over the threshold, a flow reversal area is quickly formed, with the maximum extent of the RZ at approximately 3.5 dune heights (h). The maximum extent of the RZ increases up to 4.5h with stronger wind speeds of 8-10 ms-1 and remains relatively constant as wind speed further increases. This suggests that the spatial extent of the RZ is

  19. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  20. Style and rate of quaternary deformation of the Hosgri Fault Zone, offshore south-central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathryn L.; Lettis, William R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Hall, N. Timothy; Keller, Mararget A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone is the southernmost component of a complex system of right-slip faults in south-central coastal California that includes the San Gregorio, Sur, and San Simeon Faults. We have characterized the contemporary style of faulting along the zone on the basis of an integrated analysis of a broad spectrum of data, including shallow high-resolution and deep penetration seismic reflection data; geologic and geomorphic data along the Hosgri and San Simeon Fault Zones and the intervening San Simeon/Hosgri pull-apart basin; the distribution and nature of near-coast seismicity; regional tectonic kinematics; and comparison of the Hosgri Fault Zone with worldwide strike-slip, oblique-slip, and reverse-slip fault zones. These data show that the modern Hosgri Fault Zone is a convergent right-slip (transpressional) fault having a late Quaternary slip rate of 1 to 3 mm/yr. Evidence supporting predominantly strike-slip deformation includes (1) a long, narrow, linear zone of faulting and associated deformation; (2) the presence of asymmetric flower structures; (3) kinematically consistent localized extensional and compressional deformation at releasing and restraining bends or steps, respectively, in the fault zone; (4) changes in the sense and magnitude of vertical separation both along trend of the fault zone and vertically within the fault zone; (5) strike-slip focal mechanisms along the fault trace; (6) a distribution of seismicity that delineates a high-angle fault extending through the seismogenic crust; (7) high ratios of lateral to vertical slip along the fault zone; and (8) the separation by the fault of two tectonic domains (offshore Santa Maria Basin, onshore Los Osos domain) that are undergoing contrasting styles of deformation and orientations of crustal shortening. The convergent component of slip is evidenced by the deformation of the early-late Pliocene unconformity. In characterizing the style of faulting along the Hosgri Fault Zone, we assessed

  1. Assessment of risk factors in pollution of coastal zone and river basins by numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.; Kordzakhia, G.; Shaptoshvili, A.; Tsitskishvili, L.; Diasamidze, R.; Soloduchin, V.

    2005-01-01

    pollution. For this aim the special deterministic models on the basis of passive admixture's turbulence diffusion equation is used. For numerical calculations Mc Kormack's predictor-corrector two steps scheme is used. The scheme is disintegrated, second order in space and time. Such scheme is established because the turbulent velocities very differ in horizontal and vertical directions and model allows implementing singular independent steps in different directions. Grid step for the model is 26.88 km in horizontal direction and 20 m m in vertical until 200 m. Time step is equal to 4 hours and computational time period - 4 months. Number of grid points is equal to 4983 for all calculation areas. Computations are carried out separately for big rivers basins as well as for Black and Caspian Seas water areas. The model calculations are made for cases with various locations of pollutant sources including accidental throws. For different realistic scenarios are calculated the concentrations of admixtures. The directions of their propagation are also determined. The risks are calculated in comparison with the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of the pollutants according to achieved results. That gives possibility to define the most vulnerable areas in coastal zones. Realized methodology is verified by means of various scenarios for mentioned rivers and sea basins. The maps with indication of risk zones in river basins as well as of Black and Caspian Seas water areas are created

  2. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: A meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of property has been staggering. Monetary losses run into crores and are thus prohibitive. Therefore, coastal managers have to consider whether it is economically viable to rebuild as before, whether to abandon the impacted coast and move inland, or, whether...

  3. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: a meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of property has been staggering. Monetary losses run into crores and are thus prohibitive. Therefore, coastal managers have to consider whether it is economically viable to rebuild as before, whether to abandon the impacted coast and move inland, or, whether...

  4. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  5. Some implications of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) legislation for the coast of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    Since the 1970`s, coastal ecosystems have come under heavy onslaught of tourism and related anthropogenic activities. Lack of guidelines for human intervention along coasts prompted the Ministry of Environment and Forests to promulgate a legal...

  6. Phytoplankton and pigment patterns across frontal zones in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Kattner, Gerhard; van Oijen, Tim; de Jong, Jeroen T. M.; de Baar, Hein J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton distribution and concentrations of macronutrients and iron were studied in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and the eastern Weddell Gyre of the Southern Ocean, during austral autumn. HPLC analysis of algal pigments was combined with microscopy observations to assess algal distribution.

  7. Investigation of nonlinear 2D bottom transportation dynamics in coastal zone on optimal curvilinear boundary adaptive grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhinov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the practically important tasks of hydrophysics for sea coastal systems is the problem of modeling and forecasting bottom sediment transportation. A number of problems connected to ship safety traffic, water medium condition near the coastal line etc. depends on forecasting bottom deposit transportation under natural and technogenic influences. Coastal systems are characterized by a complicated form of coastline - the presence of long, narrow and curvilinear peninsulas and bays. Water currents and waves near the beach are strongly depend on complicated coastal line and in turn, exert on the bottom sediment transportation near the shore. The use of rectangular grids in the construction of discrete models leads to significant errors in both the specification of boundary conditions and in the modeling of hydrophysical processes in the coastal zone. In this paper, we consider the construction of a finite-element approximation of the initial-boundary value problem for the spatially two-dimensional linearized equation of sediment transportation using optimal boundary-adaptive grid. First, the linearization of a spatially two-dimensional nonlinear parabolic equation on the time grid is performed-when the coefficients of the equation that are nonlinearly dependent on the bottom relief function are set on the previous time layer, and the corresponding initial conditions are used on the first time layer. The algorithm for constructing the grid is based on the procedure for minimizing the generalized Dirichlet functional. On the constructed grid, finite element approximation using bilinear basis functions is performed, which completes the construction of a discrete model for the given problem. The using of curvilinear boundary adaptive grids leads to decreasing of total grid number in 5-20 times and respectively the total modeling time and/or it allows to improve modeling accuracy.

  8. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    , it’s worth to plan from the ground level involving government, NGO’s, Public and industries. Adaptation to sea level rise situations should go with the improved versions of integrated coastal zone management projects. Mostly, agricultural lands... stream_size 35402 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Environ_Manage_148_124a.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Environ_Manage_148_124a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Author...

  9. The Effect of Altitudinal Gradient on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Almeida, D. Q.; Correa, L. O.; Carmo, J. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a vast heterogeneous region with 1.5 million km2, encompassing a large variety of forest physiognomies and compositions, containing large number of species. These forests are distributed in different topographic and climatic conditions, with high levels of precipitation. The rate of deforestation is high, approaching 350 km2 per year, showing be highly fragmented with a large number of species in extinction. The aim of this study was to understanding of the basic biogeochemistry functioning of the coastal Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Forest at sea level; Lowland Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 100m of altitude asl; Submontana Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 400m of altitude asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 1000m of altitude asl. A sampling area of 1 ha in each phytophysiognomies was subdivided in contiguous sub-parcels (10 x 10m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06m2) was collected monthly (n=15), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30m away from each other. Techniques of multivariate like principal components analysis (PCA) were used to determine correlations between the variable. The ordination graphs make possible to observe frequent of standards, representing a significant ratio of the variability of the data. The two first PCA axes cumulatively explained 60% of the total variance of the litter variables. Litter C and δ13C values were strongly influenced by altitude at 1000m. The N and δ15N of litter were influenced by altitude at 100 and 400m. The C/N relation was influenced by altitude at 0m. The lignin was elevated (p<0.01) at sea level in comparison with the other phytophysiognomies. The cellulose values did not vary significantly along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N concentrations progressively increased along the

  10. Performance Indicator Framework for Evaluation of Sustainable Tourism in the Taiwan Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by the ocean, Taiwan has been increasingly developing coastal tourism projects. Concerns that negative impacts might be brought about by prosperous tourism have resulted in a recent focus on sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism involves policies that acknowledge the interdependences among the environment, the community, and the economy. The goal of sustainable tourism is to enhance and protect the environment while satisfying basic human requirements, as well as those of the contemporary and future tourism industries to improve quality of life. On the other hand, unsustainable coastal tourism might undermine the natural environment and society, resulting in air, water, and soil pollution, wildlife habitat disruption, and changes of local community cultural characteristics. Therefore, performance evaluation of coastal tourism, using an indicator framework to facilitate sustainable development and enhance the effectiveness of coastal resources exploitation, is critical. Through a literature review and expert surveys using the methods of the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP, this study builds a performance indicator framework and identifies the key factors affecting the sustainable development of coastal tourism in Taiwan. The results can serve as a reference for the public sector to be used for the sustainable planning and development of coastal tourism.

  11. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H W Hain

    Full Text Available In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007, 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn, with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment. At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  12. Fixed-nitrogen loss associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses in a coastal oxygen minimum zone (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Lundgaard, Ann Sofie Birch; Morales Ramirez, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are of key importance for pelagic fixed-nitrogen loss (N-loss) through microbial denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Recent studies document that zooplankton is surprisingly abundant in and around OMZs and that the microbial community...... associated with carcasses of a large copepod species mediates denitrification. Here, we investigate the complex N-cycling associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses exposed to the steep O2 gradient in a coastal OMZ (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica). 15N-stable-isotope enrichment experiments revealed...... that the carcasses of abundant copepods and ostracods provide anoxic microbial hotspots in the pelagic zone by hosting intense anaerobic N-cycle activities even in the presence of ambient O2. Carcass-associated anaerobic N-cycling was clearly dominated by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) at up...

  13. The Influence of Weather Anomalies on Mercury Cycling in the Marine Coastal Zone of the Southern Baltic-Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decreased emission loads of mercury, historical deposits of this metal in various compartments of the environment may become an additional diffuse source in the future. Global climate change manifests itself in the temperate zone in several ways: warmer winters, shorter icing periods, increased precipitation and heightened frequency of extreme events such as strong gales and floods, all of which cause disturbances in the rate and direction of mercury biogeochemical cycling. The present study was conducted at two sites, Oslonino and Gdynia Orlowo (both in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk), from which samples were collected once a month between January 2012 and December 2012. In the Southern Baltic region, climate changes can certainly enhance coast to basin fluxes of mercury and the transfer of bioavailable forms of this metal to the food web. They may also, in the future, contribute to uncontrollable increases of mercury in the seawater.

  14. Micro- and mesozooplankton communities in the surf zone of a tropical sandy beach (Equatorial Southwestern Atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira-Santos, Nivia Maria; Martins-Garcia, Tatiane; Oliveira-Soares, Marcelo de

    2016-01-01

    Sandy beaches constitute important ecosystems from both ecological and socioeconomic standpoints. The ecosystems of tropical zones present a high diversity and are sensible to global climatic changes, as well as to local impacts. Despite its relevance, researches on biodiversity and existing ecological processes, like size distribution of plankton communities, in these regions are often neglected. Here, the first results of a study on the structure of zooplankton communities in a tropical san...

  15. Use of Lagrangian simulations to hindcast the geographical position of propagule release zones in a Mediterranean coastal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Antonio; Lett, Christophe; Mourre, Baptiste; Pérez-Ruzafa, Ángel; García-Charton, José Antonio

    2018-03-01

    The study of organism dispersal is fundamental for elucidating patterns of connectivity between populations, thus crucial for the design of effective protection and management strategies. This is especially challenging in the case of coastal fish, for which information on egg release zones (i.e. spawning grounds) is often lacking. Here we assessed the putative location of egg release zones of the saddled sea bream (Oblada melanura) along the south-eastern coast of Spain in 2013. To this aim, we hindcasted propagule (egg and larva) dispersal using Lagrangian simulations, fed with species-specific information on early life history traits (ELTs), with two approaches: 1) back-tracking and 2) comparing settler distribution obtained from simulations to the analogous distribution resulting from otolith chemical analysis. Simulations were also used to assess which factors contributed the most to dispersal distances. Back-tracking simulations indicated that both the northern sector of the Murcia region and some traits of the North-African coast were hydrodynamically suitable to generate and drive the supply of larvae recorded along the coast of Murcia in 2013. With the second approach, based on the correlation between simulation outputs and field results (otolith chemical analysis), we found that the oceanographic characteristics of the study area could have determined the pattern of settler distribution recorded with otolith analysis in 2013 and inferred the geographical position of main O. melanura spawning grounds along the coast. Dispersal distance was found to be significantly affected by the geographical position of propagule release zones. The combination of methods used was the first attempt to assess the geographical position of propagule release zones in the Mediterranean Sea for O. melanura, and can represent a valuable approach for elucidating dispersal and connectivity patterns in other coastal species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat flow, morphology, pore fluids and hydrothermal circulation in a typical Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank near Oceanographer Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, V.; Lucazeau, F.; Cannat, M.; Poort, J.; Monnin, C.; Battani, A.; Fontaine, F.; Goutorbe, B.; Rolandone, F.; Poitou, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M.-M.; Piedade, A.; Hipólito, A.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrothermal circulation affects heat and mass transfers in the oceanic lithosphere, not only at the ridge axis but also on their flanks, where the magnitude of this process has been related to sediment blanket and seamounts density. This was documented in several areas of the Pacific Ocean by heat flow measurements and pore water analysis. However, as the morphology of Atlantic and Indian ridge flanks is generally rougher than in the Pacific, these regions of slow and ultra-slow accretion may be affected by hydrothermal processes of different regimes. We carried out a survey of two regions on the eastern and western flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Oceanographer and Hayes fracture zones. Two hundred and eight new heat flow measurements were obtained along six seismic profiles, on 5 to 14 Ma old seafloor. Thirty sediment cores (from which porewaters have been extracted) have been collected with a Kullenberg corer equipped with thermistors thus allowing simultaneous heat flow measurement. Most heat flow values are lower than those predicted by purely conductive cooling models, with some local variations and exceptions: heat flow values on the eastern flank of the study area are more variable than on the western flank, where they tend to increase westward as the sedimentary cover in the basins becomes thicker and more continuous. Heat flow is also higher, on average, on the northern sides of both the western and eastern field regions and includes values close to conductive predictions near the Oceanographer Fracture Zone. All the sediment porewaters have a chemical composition similar to that of bottom seawater (no anomaly linked to fluid circulation has been detected). Heat flow values and pore fluid compositions are consistent with fluid circulation in volcanic rocks below the sediment. The short distances between seamounts and short fluid pathways explain that fluids flowing in the basaltic aquifer below the sediment have remained cool and unaltered

  17. Biological, physical and chemical properties at the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelbert, José H.; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Reta, Raúl; Braga, Elisabete S.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Berasategui, Alejandro; Gomez-Erache, Mónica; Ramírez, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf were previously described. However, only scarce data on the biology of the front is available in the literature. The main goal of this paper is to describe the physical, chemical and biological properties of the STSF found in winter 2003 and summer 2004. A cross-section was established at the historically determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled in winter and seven in summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations where water samples from selected depths were filtered for nutrient determination. Surface samples were taken for chlorophyll a (Chl- a) determination and plankton net tows carried out above and below the pycnocline. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner-shelf salinity front and that the STSF was located on the mid-shelf. The low salinity waters in the inner-shelf indicated a strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (72 μM), suspended matter (45 mg l -1), phosphate (2.70 μM) and low nitrate (1.0 μM) levels. Total dissolved nitrogen was relatively high (22.98 μM), probably due to the elevated levels of organic compound contribution close to the continental margin. Surface Chl -a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 8.0 mg m -3 were registered, to offshore waters. Towards the open ocean, high subsurface nutrients values were observed, probably associated to South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW). Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton abundance followed the same trend; three different groups associated to the inner-, mid- and outer-shelf region were identified. During summer, diluted waters extended over the shelf to join the STSF in the upper layer; the concentration of inorganic nutrients decreased in shallow waters; however, high values were observed between 40 and 60 m and in deep offshore waters. Surface Chl -a ranged 0.07-1.5 mg m -3

  18. A methodological approach to be used in integrated coastal zone management processes: the case of the Catalan Coast (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardá, Rafael; Avila, Conxita; Mora, Joan

    2005-02-01

    Since early 1999, we have been working on an environmental information system as a preliminary phase to develop the National Strategy of the Catalan Coast. Using the tourism industry as the main pressuring driver and the municipality as the territorial unit, we have compiled a vast amount of information that has been converted into an information platform for the general public, politicians, and public administrators. Working in close co-operation with the planning authorities of the Generalitat of Catalonia, we developed decision support tools as a methodological approach for coastal management. The decision support system is composed by: (a) the development of an environmental indicator-based report; (b) the use of a geographical information system (GIS); and (c) the incorporation of different types of graphical packages. These tools have been applied to the 70 municipalities of the Catalan Coast and a specific development of the system was carried out in the region of La Selva, municipalities of Blanes, Lloret de Mar, and Tossa de Mar (southern Costa Brava, Girona). The system has been designed to help coastal managers in Catalonia, and it is thought to be used in the process of developing the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) of the Catalan Coast following the EC Recommendation (COM/00/545).

  19. Dynamics and fates of trace metals chronically input in a Mediterranean coastal zone impacted by a large urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oursel, B; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Mounier, S; Omanović, D; Lucas, Y

    2013-04-15

    Quantification and characterization of chronic inputs of trace metals and organic carbon in a coastal Mediterranean area (the city of Marseille) during the dry season was carried out. The 625 km(2) watershed includes two small coastal rivers whose waters are mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) just before their outlet into the sea. Dissolved and particulate Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Ni and organic carbon concentrations in the rivers were comparable to those in other Mediterranean coastal areas, whereas at the outlet, 2- to 18-fold higher concentrations reflected the impact of the TWW. A non-conservative behavior observed for most of the studied metals in the mixing zone was validated by a remobilization experiment performed in the laboratory. The results showed that sorption/desorption processes could occur with slow kinetics with respect to the mixing time in the plume, indicating non-equilibrium in the dissolved/particulate metal distribution. Thus, a sample filtration immediately after sampling is strictly required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy of phytoplankton in the coastal zone of the Crimea (Black sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekhoroshkov, P.S.; Kravtsova, A.V.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Tokarev, Yu.N.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the concentrations of 45 elements in the coastal phytoplankton communities used as bioindicator of inorganic contamination of the Black Sea coastal area near Sevastopol, Ukraine, were determined by means of neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer. Phytoplankton samples were collected by total tows of the plankton net with 35 μm pore size at 3 stations situated in polluted and relatively pristine water areas of the Sevastopol coastal zone during autumn period of the phytoplankton active growth. The concentration of Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, As, Rb, Ba, Th and Fe, Cr increases exponentially from relatively pristine station to more polluted station and 10 and 3 times greater, respectively, in the phytoplankton of the Sevastopol Bay. The rare-earth elements have relatively the same concentration values of about 1 μg/g and tend to accumulate in the phytoplankton from the polluted station in the Sevastopol Bay. The obtained results are in good agreement with the elemental concentration data in the oceanic plankton, plankton communities from the White Sea and the Black Sea. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry the mineral particles of unknown origin and impurities of copper (0.42% by weight) in the phytoplankton at the polluted station and zinc (0.57% by weight) at the relatively pristine station were determined

  1. Microbiological quality and antibiotic residues in informally marketed raw cow milk within the coastal savannah zone of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, K K; Mensah, G I; Aning, K G; Nartey, N; Nipah, G K; Bonsu, C; Akyeh, M L; Smits, H L

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the microbiological quality and the presence of antibiotic residues in raw cow milk and in some indigenous milk products produced and marketed by the informal sector in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. Milk samples were aseptically collected from 224 kraals and samples of 26 indigenous milk products were purchased from processors and retailers. Total plate counts, total coliform counts and the presence of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 were determined in all 250 samples. Milk samples were also tested for antibiotic residues. Total plate counts exceeded 10⁵ CFU/ml in 45.2% of the samples while coliforms exceeded 10³ CFU/ml in 66.0% and E. coli was detected in 11.2%. E. coli was present in raw cow milk but not in the indigenous products and all E. coli isolates were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Antibiotic residues were detected in 3.1% of the raw cow milk samples. Bulk milk contains unacceptable levels of hygiene indicators and antibiotic residues and is a potential source of milk-borne infections. The detection of E. coli and antibiotic residues raises public health concerns about the safety of fresh unpasteurized cow milk in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and calls for improved farm hygiene, the need for milk pasteurization and the sensible use of antibiotics in the milk industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42- and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3-–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3-–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3-–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  3. Wet and dry atmospheric depositions of inorganic nitrogen during plant growing season in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei; Gao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 (2-) and Na(+) were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m(-2), in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3 (-)-N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4 (+)-N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N in 0-10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  4. Occurrence of halogenated flame retardants in sediment off an urbanized coastal zone: association with urbanization and industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Hu, Yuan-Jie; Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, sediment samples were collected from an urbanized coastal zone (i.e., Daya Bay and Hong Kong waters of South China) and analyzed for 20 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 10 alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs). The sum concentration of PBDEs was in the range of 1.7-55 (mean: 17) ng g(-1), suggesting a moderate pollution level compared to the global range. The higher fractions of AHFRs (i.e., TBB+TBPH, BTBPE and DBDPE) than those of legacy PBDEs (i.e., penta-BDE, octa-BDE and deca-BDE) corresponded with the phasing out of PBDEs and increasing demand for AHFRs. Heavy contamination occurred at the estuary of Dan'ao River flowing through the Daya Bay Economic Zone, home to a variety of petrochemicals and electronics manufacturing facilities. The concentrations of HFRs in surface sediments of Hong Kong were the highest in Victoria Harbor, which receives around 1.4 million tons of primarily treated sewage daily, and a good relationship (r(2) = 0.80; p 0.73; p < 0.05) with the production volume of electronic devices, production value of electronic industries and population size, demonstrating the importance of industrializing and urbanizing processes in dictating the historical input patterns of AHFRs.

  5. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities

  7. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of

  8. Evaluation of comprehensive environmental effect about coastal zone development activities in Liaoning Province and management advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Cai, Yue-Yin; Sun, Yong-Guang; Ma, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Using spatial analysis function of Arcgis software, the present study investigated the building environment impact evaluation index system of coastal development in Liaoning Province. The factors of it included of current state of environmental quality, environmental impact of marine development and marine environmental disaster. Weighted factor analysis and comprehensive index method were utilized. At the end, comprehensive environment effect of coastal development in Liaoning Province were evaluated successfully. The result showed that the environmental effect of development activity were most serious, along the Zhao Jiatun coast in north of Zhimao bay and coast of Mianhua island in Dalian bay.

  9. Monitoring Rates of Subsidence and Relative Sea-Level Rise in Low-Elevation Coastal Zones: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornqvist, T. E.; Jankowski, K. L.; Fernandes, A. M.; Keogh, M.; Nienhuis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Low-elevation coastal zones (LECZs) that often host large population centers are particularly vulnerable to accelerating rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Traditionally, tide-gauge records are used to obtain quantitative data on rates of RSLR, given that they are perceived to capture the rise of the sea surface, as well as land subsidence which is often substantial in such settings. We argue here that tide gauges in LECZs often provide ambiguous data because they ultimately measure RSLR with respect to a benchmark that is typically anchored tens of meters deep. This is problematic because the prime target of interest is usually the rate of RSLR with respect to the land surface. We illustrate this problem with newly obtained rod surface elevation table - marker horizon (RSET-MH) data from coastal Louisiana (n = 274) that show that shallow subsidence in the uppermost 5-10 m accounts for 60-85% of total subsidence. Since benchmarks in this region are anchored at 23 m depth on average, tide-gauge records by definition do not capture this important process and thus underestimate RSLR by a considerable amount. We show how RSET-MH data, combined with GPS and satellite altimetry data, enable us to bypass this problem. Rates of RSLR in coastal Louisiana over the past 6-10 years are 12 ± 8 mm/yr, considerably higher than numbers reported in recent studies based on tide-gauge analysis. Subsidence rates, averaged across this region, total about 9 mm/yr. It is likely that the problems with tide-gauge data are not unique to coastal Louisiana, so we suggest that our new approach to RSLR measurements may be useful in LECZs worldwide, with considerable implications for metropolitan areas like New Orleans that are located within such settings.

  10. Seasonal and long-term changes in pH in the Dutch coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, P.; Van Heuven, S.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that biogeochemical changes can mask atmospheric CO2-induced pH decreases. Data collected by the Dutch monitoring authorities in different coastal systems (North Sea, Wadden Sea, Ems-Dollard, Eastern Scheldt and Scheldt estuary) since 1975 provide an

  11. Seasonal and long-term changes in pH in the Dutch coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, P.; van Heuven, S.; Soetaert, K.; Laane, R. W. P. M.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that biogeochemical changes can mask atmospheric CO(2)-induced pH decreases. Data collected by the Dutch monitoring authorities in different coastal systems (North Sea, Wadden Sea, Ems-Dollard, Eastern Scheldt and Scheldt estuary) since 1975 provide

  12. Long-term trends in eutrophication and nutrients in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Anne-Marie; Weckström, Kaarina; Conley, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We used high-resolution paleoecological records of environmental change to study the rate and magnitude of eutrophication over the last century in two contrasting coastal ecosystems. A multiproxy approach using geochemical and biological indicators and diatom-based transfer functions provides...

  13. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  14. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or thousands of measured surface fuelbeds representing the fine scale variation in fire behavior on the landscape is constrained in terms of creating compatible custom fire behavior fuel models. In this study, we demonstrate an objective method for taking ecologically complex fuelbeds from inventory observations and converting those into a set of custom fuel models that can be mapped to the original landscape. We use an original set of 629 fuel inventory plots measured on an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. From models linking stand conditions to component fuel loads, we impute fuelbeds for over 6000 stands. These imputed fuelbeds were then converted to fire behavior parameters under extreme fuel moisture and wind conditions (97th percentile) using the fuel characteristic classification system (FCCS) to estimate surface fire rate of spread, surface fire flame length, shrub layer reaction intensity (heat load), non-woody layer reaction intensity, woody layer reaction intensity, and litter-lichen-moss layer reaction intensity. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the stands based on the values of the fire behavior parameters. The resulting 7 clusters were the basis for the development of 7 custom fire behavior fuel models from the cluster centroids that were calibrated against the FCCS point data for wind and fuel moisture. The latter process resulted in calibration against flame length as it was difficult to obtain a simultaneous calibration against both rate of spread and flame length. The clusters based on FCCS fire behavior

  15. Time-series variations of the short-lived Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An

    2015-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the short-lived Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.

  16. Microbial nitrogen sinks in the water column of a large coastal hypoxic area, the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogener, M. K.; Roberts, B. J.; Rabalais, N. N.; Stewart, F. J.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Excess nitrogen in coastal environments leads to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, habitat loss, oxygen depletion and reductions in biodiversity. As such, biological nitrogen (N) removal through the microbially-mediated process of denitrification is a critical ecosystem function that can mitigate the negative consequences of excess nitrogen loading. However, denitrification can produce nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as a byproduct under some environmental conditions. To understand how excess nitrogen loading impacts denitrification, we measured rates of this process in the water column of the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone" three times over the summer of 2015. The Dead Zone is generated by excessive nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River co-occurring with strong water column stratification, which leads to a large summer-time hypoxic/anoxic area at the mouth of the river and along the coast of Louisiana. Rates of denitrification ranged from 31 to 153 nmol L-1 d-1. Dead Zone waters are also enriched in methane and aerobic methane oxidation rates ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 nmol L-1 d-1. Maximal denitrification rates were observed at stations with the lowest oxygen concentrations and highest methane oxidation rates, suggesting a potential coupling between nitrate reduction and methane oxidation which both scrubs reactive N and methane from the system, thus performing a duel ecosystem service.

  17. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the West Greenland (68 deg.-72 deg. N) coastal zone, 2nd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, D.; Johansen, Kasper L.; Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Wegeberg, S.

    2012-12-15

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68 deg. N and 72 deg. N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. (Author)

  18. Preface to the Special Issue on Satellite Altimetry over Land and Coastal Zones: Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes peer reviewed papers stemming from the International Workshop on Coast and Land applications of satellite altimetry, held 21 -22 July 2006, Beijing, China. This workshop is financially supported by the Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, National Chiao Tung University, Asia GIS and GPS Co., Chung-Hsing Surv. Co., Huanyu Surv. Eng. Cons. Inc., and Real-World Eng. Cons. Inc. Twenty-two papers were submitted to this issue for review, and 16 papers were accepted following an iterative peer-review process. The accepted papers cover subjects on: ICESat coastal altimetry (1, satellite altimetry applications in solid earth sciences (2, hydrology (4, land/coast gravity field modeling (4, and coastal oceanography (5.

  19. Performance Indicator Framework for Evaluation of Sustainable Tourism in the Taiwan Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Hao Wang; Meng-Tsung Lee; Pierre-Alexandre Château; Yang-Chi Chang

    2016-01-01

    Surrounded by the ocean, Taiwan has been increasingly developing coastal tourism projects. Concerns that negative impacts might be brought about by prosperous tourism have resulted in a recent focus on sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism involves policies that acknowledge the interdependences among the environment, the community, and the economy. The goal of sustainable tourism is to enhance and protect the environment while satisfying basic human requirements, as well as those of the co...

  20. An assessment of two decades of contaminant monitoring in the Nation’s Coastal Zone.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimbrough, K. L.; Lauenstein, G. G.; Christensen, J. D.; Apeti, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary: Information found in this report covers the years 1986 through 2005. Mussel Watch began monitoring a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants such as DDT, PCBs and PAHs. Through time additional chemicals were added, and today approximately 140 analytes are monitored. The Mussel Watch Program is the longest running estuarine and coastal pollutant monitoring effort conducted in the United States that is national in scope each year. Hundreds of scientific journal art...

  1. Diurnal variability of CO2 flux at coastal zone of Taiwan based on eddy covariance observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hwa; Zhong, Yao-Zhao; Yang, Kang-Hung; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we employed shore-based eddy covariance systems for a continuous measurement of the coastal CO2 flux near the northwestern coast of Taiwan from 2011 to 2015. To ensure the validity of the analysis, the data was selected and filtered with a footprint model and an empirical mode decomposition method. The results indicate that the nearshore air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes exhibited a significant diurnal variability and a substantial day-night difference. The net air-sea CO2 flux was -1.75 ± 0.98 μmol-C m-2 s-1, whereas the net air-land CO2 flux was 0.54 ± 7.35 μmol-C m-2 s-1, which indicated that in northwestern Taiwan, the coastal water acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 but the coastal land acts as a source. The Random Forest Method was applied to hierarchize the influence of Chl-a, SST, DO, pH and U10 on air-sea CO2 fluxes. The result suggests that the strength of the diurnal air-sea CO2 flux is strongly influenced by the local wind speed.

  2. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  3. Top-down control as important as nutrient enrichment for eutrophication effects in North Atlantic coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, Orjan; Eklof, Johan; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Olsson, Jens; Moksnes, Per-Olav; Bergstrom, Ulf

    Seagrass and seaweed habitats constitute hotspots for diversity and ecosystem services in coastal ecosystems. These habitats are subject to anthropogenic pressures, of which eutrophication is one major stressor. Eutrophication favours fast-growing ephemeral algae over perennial macroalgae and

  4. Recent trends in the abundance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa and cod Gadus morhua in shallow coastal waters of the Northeastern Atlantic continental shelf – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of the southern distribution boundary in the Bay of Biscay and deepening of stocks in the North Sea. In contrast, no trend in shallow water abundance of plaice similar to a decline in deep-water stocks during the 1970s and their slow recovery during the 2000s is apparent in the Skagerrak/Kattegat. Although......Shallow, near-shore water habitats on the continental shelf of the Northeast Atlantic have been productive fishing areas in the past. Here, we review the present knowledge about (i) recent trends in the abundance of plaice and cod in these habitats and (ii) hypotheses regarding the factors...... responsible for any trends. At present, only a few studies exist on the trends of abundance of plaice or cod, namely from the Bay of Biscay, the North Sea and the Skagerrak/Kattegat. They suggest a declining abundance in coastal, shallow areas and – at least for plaice – a latitudinal gradient with an erosion...

  5. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  6. Estimation of time averages from irregularly spaced observations - With application to coastal zone color scanner estimates of chlorophyll concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelton, Dudley B.; Schlax, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The sampling error of an arbitrary linear estimate of a time-averaged quantity constructed from a time series of irregularly spaced observations at a fixed located is quantified through a formalism. The method is applied to satellite observations of chlorophyll from the coastal zone color scanner. The two specific linear estimates under consideration are the composite average formed from the simple average of all observations within the averaging period and the optimal estimate formed by minimizing the mean squared error of the temporal average based on all the observations in the time series. The resulting suboptimal estimates are shown to be more accurate than composite averages. Suboptimal estimates are also found to be nearly as accurate as optimal estimates using the correct signal and measurement error variances and correlation functions for realistic ranges of these parameters, which makes it a viable practical alternative to the composite average method generally employed at present.

  7. UV filters, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene and ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA from untreated wastewater in sediment from eastern Mediterranean river transition and coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Helmieh; Gomez, Elena; Halwani, Jalal; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    UVF may occur in the aquatic environment through two principal sources: direct inputs from recreational activities and indirect wastewater- and river-borne inputs. The aim of this study was to obtain a first overview of levels of three UVF (EHMC, OC and OD-PABA) in coastal areas subjected to river inputs, untreated wastewater discharges and dumpsite leachates. We selected three eastern Mediterranean rivers that have been impacted for decades by untreated wastewater release and collected sediment in the coastal zone during the hot and humid seasons. Western Mediterranean sites receiving treated wastewaters were analyzed for comparison. The results gave an overview of sediment contamination under these two contrasted situations representative of Mediterranean coastal areas without bathing activities. The analysis of the three UVF revealed the ubiquity and high point source contamination by EHMC and OC in transition and coastal zones, with levels as high as 128 ng g(-1)d.w. OD-PABA was also frequently detected, but at lower concentrations (coastal bathing zones. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Integrated Observations From Fixed and AUV Platforms in the Littoral Zone at the SFOMC Coastal Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanak, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    A 12-hour survey of the coastal waters off the east coast of Florida at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Center (SFOMC) coastal ocean observatory, during summer 1999, is described to illustrate the observatory's capabilities for ocean observation. The facility is located close to the Gulf Stream, the continental shelf break being only 3 miles from shore and is therefore influenced by the Gulf Stream meanders and the instability of the horizontal shear layer at its edge. As a result, both cross-shelf and along-shelf components of currents in the littoral zone can undergo dramatic +/- 0.5 m/s oscillations. Observations of surface currents from an OSCR, and of subsurface structure from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) platform, a bottom-mounted ADCP and CT-chain arrays during the survey will be described and compared. The AUV on-board sensors included upward and downward looking 1200kHz ADCP, a CTD package and a small-scale turbulence package, consisting of two shear probes and a fast-response thermistor. Prevailing atmospheric conditions were recorded at an on-site buoy. The combined observations depict flows over a range of scales. Acknowledgements: The observations from the OSCR are due to Nick Shay and Tom Cook (University of Miami), and from the bottom-mounted ADCP, CT chain arrays and the surface buoy are due to Alex Soloviev (Nova Southeastern University) and Mark Luther and Bob Weisberg (University of South Florida).

  9. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  10. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Juvenile fish use of the shallow zone of beaches of the Cananéia-Iguape coastal system, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present study is to describe the juvenile fish use of the shallow zone of beaches of the Cananéia-Iguape coastal system, São Paulo, Brazil, analyzing its occurrence period and the patterns of utilization for the most abundant species. Using a beach seine monthly for one year, we sampled 13861 individuals, of 57 species and 24 families. The fish species used the study area for different proposes: Atherinella brasiliensis was sampled in all phases of gonadal development and considered as resident, juveniles of Trachinotus goodei used the beaches for growth and juveniles of Mugil curema and Mugil liza used the beaches as a route from the ocean to the estuary. Our results showed the importance of the sandy beaches for juvenile fish, especially in spring and summer when most juveniles occur and recruit. Unfortunately, this is the period of the most intense tourist activity. As many of the species studied are commercially important, this study highlighted the necessity of coastal habitat preservation for better fishery management.

  12. Atmospheric influence on Arctic marginal ice zone position and width in the Atlantic sector, February-April 1979-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Courtenay [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) widths in the Atlantic sector were measured during the months of maximum sea ice extent (February-April) for years 1979-2010 using a novel method based on objective curves through idealized sea ice concentration fields that satisfied Laplace's equation. Over the record, the Labrador Sea MIZ (MIZ{sub L}) had an average width of 122 km and narrowed by 28 % while moving 254 km poleward, the Greenland Sea MIZ (MIZ{sub G}) had an average width of 98 km and narrowed by 43 % while moving 158 km west toward the Greenland coast, and the Barents Sea MIZ (MIZ{sub B}) had an average width of 136 km and moved 259 km east toward the Eurasian coast without a trend in width. Trends in MIZ position and width were consistent with a warming Arctic and decreasing sea ice concentrations over the record. Beyond the trends, NAO-like atmospheric patterns influenced interannual variability in MIZ position and width: MIZ{sub L} widened and moved southeast under anomalously strong northerly flow conducive to advection of sea ice into the Labrador Sea, MIZ{sub G} widened and moved northeast under anomalously weak northerly flow conducive to diminishing the westward component of sea ice drift, and MIZ{sub B} widened and moved poleward at the expense of pack ice under anomalously strong southwesterly flow conducive to enhancing oceanic heat flux into the Barents Sea. In addition, meridional flow anomalies associated with the NAO per se moved MIZ{sub B} east and west by modulating sea ice concentration over the Barents Sea. (orig.)

  13. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  14. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m"− "2): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  15. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xiaohua, Long, E-mail: longxiaohua@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hongbo, Shao, E-mail: shaohongbochu@126.com [Institute of Agro-biotechnology, Jiangsu Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Zhaopu, Liu [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m{sup −} {sup 2}): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  16. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica : a pattern recognition approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale, using remote sensing and GIS, applying an object-oriented and data-driven strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of

  17. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  18. Comparative biology and population mixing among local, coastal and offshore Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, Aril; Johannessen, Arne; Kvamme, Cecilie; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2017-01-01

    The population structure of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) from 13 local, coastal and offshore areas of the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic (northeast Atlantic) was studied using biological and environmental data from 1970–2015. The objective was to identify distinct populations by comparing variability in the temporal and spatial phenotypic characteristics and evaluate the potential for mixing of populations in time and space. The populations varied in biological characteristics such as mean vertebral counts (VS), growth and maturity ogives. Generalized additive models indicated temporally stable VS in the North Sea and western Baltic, whereas intra-annual temporal variation of VS occurred in other areas. High variability of VS within a population was not affected by environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Consequently, seasonal VS variability can be explained by the presence or absence of herring populations as they migrate between areas. The three main populations identified in this paper correspond to the three managed stocks in this area: Norwegian spring spawners (NSS), western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS) and North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS). In addition, several local populations were identified in fjords or lakes along the coast, but our analyses could not detect direct mixing of local populations with the three main populations. Our results highlight the importance of recognizing herring dynamics and understanding the mixing of populations as a challenge for management of herring. PMID:29084258

  19. Lessons derived from two high-frequency sea level events in the Atlantic: implications for coastal risk analysis and tsunami detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Gómez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The upgrade and enhancement of sea level networks worldwide for integration in sea level hazard warning systems have significantly increased the possibilities for measuring and analyzing high frequency sea level oscillations, with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours. Many tide gauges now afford 1 min or more frequent sampling and have shown such events to be a common occurrence. Their origins and spatial distribution are diverse and must be well understood in order to correctly design and interpret, for example, the automatic detection algorithms used by tsunami warning centers. Two events recorded recently in European Atlantic waters are analyzed here: possible wave-induced seiches that occurred along the North coast of Spain during the storms of January and February of 2014, and oscillations detected after an earthquake in the mid-Atlantic the 13th of February of 2015. The former caused significant flooding in towns and villages and a huge increase in wave-induced coastal damage that was reported in the media for weeks. The second was a smaller signal present in several tide gauges along the Atlantic coast that, that coincided with the occurrence of this earthquake, leading to a debate on the potential detection of a very small tsunami and how it might yield significant information for tsunami wave modelers and for the development of tsunami detection software. These kinds of events inform us about the limitations of automatic algorithms for tsunami warning and help to improve the information provided to tsunami warning centers, whilst also emphasizing the importance of other forcings in generating extreme sea levels and their associated potential for causing damage to infrastructure.

  20. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  1. Particulate uranium, plutonium and polonium in the biogeochemistries of the coastal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, V F; Koide, M; Goldberg, E D [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)

    1979-01-18

    It is stated that although increasing attention has been paid to the role of inorganic solid phases in the chemistry of seawater, little quantitative data has been available to assess their involvement with living systems. Recent observations are here reported on the uptake of uranium, plutonium and polonium in coastal waters by organisms and submerged surfaces as traced by their isotopes. It is shown that the body burdens of these radioelements in some marine organisms are governed measurably by the uptake of their particulate forms. Furthermore, these elements are associated with different particulate phases, as deduced from the rates at which they deposit on submerged surfaces.

  2. Evolution of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbon and 3,4 benzopyrene content in mussels from a coastal zone polluted by a fuel spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J; Peltier, J C; Fleckinger, R

    1969-05-03

    After an oil spill, a coastal zone was polluted and wild mussels were contaminated by paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons and 3,4-benzopyrene. The evolution of this contamination was followed. Normal levels were re-established after a month and a half. Normal paraffins were metabolized faster than other hydrocarbons.

  3. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  4. Hydrothermal circulation, serpentinization, and degassing at a rift valley-fracture zone intersection: Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15[degree]N, 45[degree]W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rona, P.A.; Nelson, T.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States)); Bougault, H.; Charlou, J.L.; Needham, H.D. (Inst. Francais de Recherche pour I' Exploitation de la Mer, Centre de Brest (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. of Western Brittany, Brest (France)); Trefry, J.H. (Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne (United States)); Eberhart, G.L.; Barone, A. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A hydrothermal system characterized by high ratios of methane to both manganese and suspended particulate matter was detected in seawater sampled at the eastern intersection of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone. This finding contrasts with low ratios in black smoker-type hydrothermal systems that occur within spreading segments. Near-bottom water sampling coordinated with SeaBeam bathymetry and camera-temperature tows detected the highest concentrations of methane at fault zones in rocks with the appearance of altered ultramafic units in a large dome that forms part of the inside corner high at the intersection. The distinct chemical signatures of the two types of hydrothermal systems are inferred to be controlled by different circulation pathways related to reaction of seawater primarily with ultramafic rocks at intersections of spreading segments with fracture zones but with mafic rocks within spreading segments.

  5. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, J. C.; Mcclain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Climatological data on the distribution of surface pigment fields in the entire southern ocean over a seasonal cycle are examined. The occurrence of intense phytoplankton blooms during austral summer months and during other seasons in different regions is identified and analyzed. The highest pigment concentrations are observed at high latitudes and over regions with water depths usually less than 600 m. Basin-scale pigment distribution shows a slightly asymmetric pattern of enhanced pigment concentrations about Antarctica, with enhanced concentrations extending to lower latitudes in the Atlantic and Indian sectors than in the Pacific sector. A general increase in pigment concentrations is evident from the low latitudes toward the Antarctic circumpolar region. Spatial relationships between pigment and archived geophysical data reveal significant correlation between pigment distributions and both bathymetry and wind stress, while general hemispheric scale patterns of pigment distributions are most coherent with the geostrophic flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  6. Microbial community structure across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone in the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, T F; Johnson, P R; Shriner, A D; Matheny, T A; Hunt, P G

    2013-01-01

    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world because of their ability to retain nutrients, prevent soil erosion, protect aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, and filter pollutants. Despite their importance, the microbial community structures of riparian buffer zones remains poorly defined. Our objectives for this study were twofold: first, to characterize the microbial populations found in riparian buffer zone soils; and second, to determine if microbial community structure could be linked to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). To achieve these objectives, we investigated the microbial populations of a riparian buffer zone located downslope of a pasture irrigated with swine lagoon effluent, utilizing DNA sequencing of the 16S rDNA, DEA, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the denitrification genes nirK, nirS, and nosZ. Clone libraries of the 16S rDNA gene were generated from each of twelve sites across the riparian buffer with a total of 986 partial sequences grouped into 654 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The Proteobacteria were the dominant group (49.8% of all OTUs), with the Acidobacteria also well represented (19.57% of all OTUs). Analysis of qPCR results identified spatial relationships between soil series, site location, and gene abundance, which could be used to infer both incomplete and total DEA rates.

  7. Sedimentation across the central California oxygen minimum zone: an alternative coastal upwelling sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoutere, T.L.; Mullins, H.T.; McDougall, K.; Thompson, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and diversity of terrigenous, authigenous, and biogenous material provide evidence of the effect of bottom currents and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on continental slope sedimentation offshore central California. Three major OMZ facies are identified, along the upper and lower edges of OMZ and one at its core.-from Authors

  8. An Assessment of Oil Pollution in the Coastal Zone of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 μg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 μg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 μg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 μg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  9. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Aureli, A.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Cable, J.E.; Charette, M.A.; Kontar, E.; Krupa, S.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Loveless, A.; Moore, W.S.; Oberdorfer, J.A.; Oliveira, J.; Ozyurt, N.; Povinec, P.; Privitera, A.M.G.; Rajar, R.; Ramessur, R.T.; Scholten, J.; Stieglitz, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Turner, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments (coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations

  10. Metal discharges by Sinaloa Rivers to the coastal zone of NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Mejía-Cruz, R; Osuna López, I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Voltolina, D

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the discharges of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn of the eight main rivers of Sinaloa State to the Mexican coastal environment. Zn was the most abundant dissolved metal and Fe was the most abundant particulate (8.02-16.90 and 51.8-1,140.3 μg/L, respectively). Only particulate Mn had significantly (p = 0.028) higher values in summer-fall (rainy season), whereas the significantly (p = 0.036) higher values of dissolved Zn were observed in winter and spring. The highest annual total discharges to Sinaloa coastal waters were those of the rivers San Lorenzo and Piaxtla (>2 × 10(3) m.t.) and the lowest those of rivers Baluarte and El Fuerte (349 and 119 m.t., respectively). Pb concentrations may become of concern, because they are higher than the value recommended for the welfare of aquatic communities of natural waters.

  11. Development of equipment and radiotracer experiment using RI labelled sand in the coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. J.; Jung, S. H.; Kim, J. B.; Jin, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the radiotracer technology and the related equipments which have been developed for its industrial application through the nuclear long-term research project, a radiotracer study on sediment transport was carried out as a part of the development of the radiotracer technology for a coastal marine environment. The crystalline material doped with iridium having a similar composition and density as those of the bedload sand collected from the research area was produced by the oxide-route method. A radioisotope container was specially designed to inject the radiotracer from 1m above the sea bedload without radioactive contamination during the transport from the nuclear reactor at KAERI. The position data from the DGPS and the radiation measurement data are collected concurrently and stored by means of the application software programmed with the LabVIEW of the National Instrument. The position data is reprocessed to make it represent the real position of the radiation probe under water and not that of the DGPS antenna on board. In order to evaluate the influence of a breakwater on the deviation of the neighboring coastline, the time dependency of the spatial distribution of the sediment was studied in the area through three tracking measurements after the iridium glass was injected. This trial application showed the potential of the radiotracer technology as an important role for maintaining and developing the coastal marine environment in the future

  12. The Effect of Breaking Waves on CO_2 Air-Sea Fluxes in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; García-Nava, Héctor

    2018-03-01

    The influence of wave-associated parameters controlling turbulent CO_2 fluxes through the air-sea interface is investigated in a coastal region. A full year of high-quality data of direct estimates of air-sea CO_2 fluxes based on eddy-covariance measurements is presented. The study area located in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, is a net sink of CO_2 with a mean flux of -1.3 μmol m^{-2}s^{-1} (-41.6 mol m^{-2}yr^{-1} ). The results of a quantile-regression analysis computed between the CO_2 flux and, (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness, and (4) water temperature, suggest that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with the magnitude of the flux but the behaviour of the relation varies along the probability distribution function, with the slopes of the regression lines presenting both positive and negative values. These results imply that the presence of surface waves in coastal areas is the key factor that promotes the increase of the flux from and into the ocean. Further analysis suggests that the local characteristics of the aqueous and atmospheric layers might determine the direction of the flux.

  13. Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, W.C. [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Aggarwal, P.K.; Kulkarni, K.M. [Isotope Hydrology Section, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria); Aureli, A. [Department Water Resources Management, University of Palermo, Catania (Italy); Bokuniewicz, H. [Marine Science Research Center, Stony Brook University (United States); Cable, J.E. [Department Oceanography, Louisiana State University (United States); Charette, M.A. [Department Marine Chemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (United States); Kontar, E. [Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (Russian Federation); Krupa, S. [South Florida Water Management District (United States); Loveless, A. [University of Western Australia (Australia); Moore, W.S. [Department Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina (United States); Oberdorfer, J.A. [Department Geology, San Jose State University (United States); Oliveira, J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Ozyurt, N. [Department Geological Engineering, Hacettepe (Turkey); Povinec, P.; Scholten, J. [Marine Environment Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (Monaco); Privitera, A.M.G. [U.O. 4.17 of the G.N.D.C.I., National Research Council (Italy); Rajar, R. [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ramessur, R.T. [Department Chemistry, University of Mauritius (Mauritius); Stieglitz, T. [Mathematical and Physical Sciences, James Cook University (Australia); Taniguchi, M. [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (Japan); Turner, J.V. [CSIRO, Land and Water, Perth (Australia)

    2006-08-31

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. A joint project of UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments (coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions. We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations. (author)

  14. Ecosystem-based management of coastal zones in face of climate change impacts: Challenges and inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Gerson; Elliff, Carla I; Silva, Iracema R

    2018-06-01

    Climate change effects have the potential of affecting both ocean and atmospheric processes. These changes pose serious threats to the millions of people that live by the coast. Thus, the objective of the present review is to discuss how climate change is altering (and will continue to alter) atmospheric and oceanic processes, what are the main implications of these alterations along the coastline, and which are the ecosystem-based management (EBM) strategies that have been proposed and applied to address these issues. While ocean warming, ocean acidification and increasing sea level have been more extensively studied, investigations on the effects of climate change to wind and wave climates are less frequent. Coastal ecosystems and their respective natural resources will respond differently according to location, environmental drivers and coastal processes. EBM strategies have mostly concentrated on improving ecosystem services, which can be used to assist in mitigating climate change effects. The main challenge for developing nations regards gaps in information and scarcity of resources. Thus, for effective management and adaptive EBM strategies to be developed worldwide, information at a local level is greatly needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    the successful governance of such projects, including any that may involve development of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone or beyond. Three supplemental files of coded data accompany this dissertation.

  16. Old groundwater in parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Maryland, USA: Evidence from radiocarbon, chlorine-36 and helium-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Niel; Eggleston, John R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Andreasen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Apparent groundwater ages along two flow paths in the upper Patapsco aquifer of the Maryland Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA, were estimated using 14C, 36Cl and 4He data. Most of the ages range from modern to about 500 ka, with one sample at 117 km downgradient from the recharge area dated by radiogenic 4He accumulation at more than one Ma. Last glacial maximum (LGM) water was located about 20 km downgradient on the northern flow path, where the radiocarbon age was 21.5 ka, paleorecharge temperatures were 0.5–1.5  °C (a maximum cooling of about 12 °C relative to the modern mean annual temperature of 13 °C), and Cl–, Cl/Br, and stable isotopes of water were minimum. Low recharge temperatures (typically 5–7 °C) indicate that recharge occurred predominantly during glacial periods when coastal heads were lowest due to low sea-level stand. Flow velocities averaged about 1.0 m a–1 in upgradient parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer and decreased from 0.13 to 0.04 m a–1 at 40 and 80 km further downgradient, respectively. This study demonstrates that most water in the upper Patapsco aquifer is non-renewable on human timescales under natural gradients, thus highlighting the importance of effective water-supply management to prolong the resource.

  17. Vema-TRANSIT - An interdisciplinary study on the bathymetry of the Vema-Fracture Zone and Puerto Rico Trench as well as abyssal Atlantic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Torben; Kaiser, Stefanie; Brandt, Angelika

    2018-02-01

    The seafloor below 3500 m remains largely unexplored. The paucity of knowledge of abyssal and hadal environments encompasses a wide spectrum of geological and biological patterns and processes as well as their interactions. Historically most marine research has been conducted in the North Atlantic. However, the high proportion of undescribed taxa frequently discovered at greater depth there underline the need to fill in these knowledge gaps. The Vema-TRANSIT campaign in northern winter 2014-2015 surveyed and sampled along almost the entire extent of one of the major offsets of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), the Vema Fracture Zone (VFZ), as well as the deepest trench in the Atlantic, the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). The discoveries that were made include new data on deep-sea habitats showing geologically complex features across all crust ages from 110 Ma until present. Moreover, some new species and genera of the abyssal and hadal benthos were described herein. Not only the taxa themselves, but also their distributions and genetic structure were elucidated. In this context, significant differences in abundances, community composition, and species distribution were detected that were affected by the MAR as well as by the depth transition between hadal PRT and the adjacent abyss. Despite significant differences between eastern and western communities, the MAR does not represent an absolute barrier. Instead, the VFZ, and especially the VTF may serve as a connecting feature between east and west and this may be exemplary for fracture zones across the whole Atlantic. Nevertheless, the MAR as well as the 3000-m-depth gradient between abyss and hadal appear to restrict gene flow for poor dispersers and thus contribute to speciation processes in the deep sea.

  18. Downscaling, 2-way Nesting, and Data Assimilative Modeling in Coastal and Shelf Waters of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, J.; Levin, J.; Lopez, A.; Arango, H.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ocean models that downscale output from basin and global scale models are widely used to study regional circulation at enhanced resolution and locally important ecosystem, biogeochemical, and geomorphologic processes. When operated as now-cast or forecast systems, these models offer predictions that assist decision-making for numerous maritime applications. We describe such a system for shelf waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GoM) where the MARACOOS and NERACOOS associations of U.S. IOOS operate coastal ocean observing systems that deliver a dense observation set using CODAR HF-radar, autonomous underwater glider vehicles (AUGV), telemetering moorings, and drifting buoys. Other U.S. national and global observing systems deliver further sustained observations from moorings, ships, profiling floats, and a constellation of satellites. Our MAB and GoM re-analysis and forecast system uses the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; myroms.org) with 4-dimensional Variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to adjust initial conditions, boundary conditions, and surface forcing in each analysis cycle. Data routinely assimilated include CODAR velocities, altimeter satellite sea surface height (with coastal corrections), satellite temperature, in situ CTD data from AUGV and ships (NMFS Ecosystem Monitoring voyages), and all in situ data reported via the WMO GTS network. A climatological data assimilative analysis of hydrographic and long-term mean velocity observations specifies the regional Mean Dynamic Topography that augments altimeter sea level anomaly data and is also used to adjust boundary condition biases that would otherwise be introduced in the process of downscaling from global models. System performance is described with respect to the impact of satellite, CODAR and in situ observations on analysis skill. Results from a 2-way nested modeling system that adds enhanced resolution over the NSF OOI Pioneer Array in the central MAB are also

  19. Sedimentological techniques applied to the hydrology of the Atlantic coastal plain in South Carolina and Georgia near the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falls, F.W.; Baum, J.S.; Edwards, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to provide the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed

  20. New direct estimates of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water transport through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone and its relationship to the North Atlantic Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy; Furey, Heather; Xu, Xiaobiao

    2015-04-01

    Detailed observations of the pathways, transports and water properties of dense overflows associated with the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) provide critical benchmarks for climate models and mixing parameterizations. A recent two-year time series from eight moorings offers the first long-term simultaneous observations of the hydrographic properties and transport of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) flowing westward through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ), a major deep gap in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) connecting the eastern and western basins of the North Atlantic. In addition, current meters up to 500-m depth and satellite altimetry allow us to investigate the overlying North Atlantic Current (NAC) as a source of ISOW transport variability. Using the isohaline 34.94 to define the ISOW layer, the two year mean and standard deviation of ISOW transport was -1.7 ± 1.5 Sv, compared to -2.4 ± 3.0 Sv reported by Saunders for a 13-month period in 1988-1989 using the same isohaline. Differences in the two estimates are partly explained by limitations of the Saunders array, but more importantly reflect the strong low-frequency variability in ISOW transport through CGFZ (which includes complete reversals). Both the observations and output from a multi-decadal simulation of the North Atlantic using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) forced with interannually varying wind and buoyancy fields indicate a strong positive correlation between ISOW transport and the strength of the NAC through the CGFZ. This result raises new questions regarding the interaction of the upper and lower limbs of the AMOC, downstream propagation of ISOW transport variability in the Deep Western Boundary Current and alternative pathways of ISOW across the MAR.

  1. Coastal Zone Ecosystem Services: from science to values and decision making; a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetti, T; Turner, R K; Jickells, T; Andrews, J; Elliott, M; Schaafsma, M; Beaumont, N; Malcolm, S; Burdon, D; Adams, C; Watts, W

    2014-09-15

    This research is concerned with the following environmental research questions: socio-ecological system complexity, especially when valuing ecosystem services; ecosystems stock and services flow sustainability and valuation; the incorporation of scale issues when valuing ecosystem services; and the integration of knowledge from diverse disciplines for governance and decision making. In this case study, we focused on ecosystem services that can be jointly supplied but independently valued in economic terms: healthy climate (via carbon sequestration and storage), food (via fisheries production in nursery grounds), and nature recreation (nature watching and enjoyment). We also explored the issue of ecosystem stock and services flow, and we provide recommendations on how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services via accounting and economic values respectively. We considered broadly comparable estuarine systems located on the English North Sea coast: the Blackwater estuary and the Humber estuary. In the past, these two estuaries have undergone major land-claim. Managed realignment is a policy through which previously claimed intertidal habitats are recreated allowing the enhancement of the ecosystem services provided by saltmarshes. In this context, we investigated ecosystem service values, through biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates. Using an optimistic (extended conservation of coastal ecosystems) and a pessimistic (loss of coastal ecosystems because of, for example, European policy reversal) scenario, we find that context dependency, and hence value transfer possibilities, vary among ecosystem services and benefits. As a result, careful consideration in the use and application of value transfer, both in biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates, is advocated to supply reliable information for policy making. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Late summer particulate organic carbon export and twilight zone remineralisation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchon, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Cardinal, D.; André, L.; Dehairs, F.

    2013-02-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Bonus-GoodHope (BGH) expedition (January-March 2008) in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, particulate organic carbon (POC) export was examined from the surface to the mesopelagic twilight zone using water column distributions of total 234Th and biogenic particulate Ba (Baxs). Surface POC export production was estimated from steady state and non steady state modelling of 234Th fluxes, which were converted into POC fluxes, using the POC/234Th ratio of large, potentially sinking particles (> 53 μm) collected via in situ pumps. Deficits in 234Th activities were observed at all stations from the surface to the bottom of the mixed layer, yielding 234Th export fluxes from the upper 100 m of 496 ± 214 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1195 ± 158 dpm m-2 d-1 for the steady state model and of 149 ±517 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1217 ± 231 dpm m-2 d-1 for the non steady state model. Using the POC/234Thp ratio of sinking particles (ratios varied from 1.7 ± 0.2 μmol dpm-1 to 4.8 ± 1.9 μmol dpm-1) POC export production at 100 m was calculated to range between 0.9 ± 0.4 and 5.1 ± 2.1 mmol C m-2 d-1,assuming steady state and between 0.3 ± 0.9 m-2 d-1 and 4.9 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2 d-1, assuming non steady state. From the comparison of both approaches, it appears that during late summer export decreased by 56 to 16% for the area between the sub-Antarctic zone and the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF), whereas it remained rather constant over time in the HNLC area south of the SACCF. POC export represented only 6 to 54% of new production, indicating that export efficiency was, in general, low, except in the vicinity of the SACCF, where export represented 56% of new production. Attenuation of the POC sinking flux in the upper mesopelagic waters (100-600 m depth interval) was evidenced both, from excess 234Th activities and from particulate biogenic Ba (Baxs) accumulation. Excess 234Th activities, reflected by 234Th/238U ratios as large as 1.21 ± 0

  3. Atlantic coastal experiment 5: R/V advance II cruise (MESEX I) 27 April--2 May 1979, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Bock, K. (ed.)

    1983-03-01

    68 hydrographic stations were arranged as boundary transects, and a proximate calibration matrix, to an array of current meters and fluorometers moored within the coastal boundary layer near southern Long Island. Assessments were made of water-mass characterization, nutrient distribution, chlorophyll variability and phytoplankton composition. Supplemental thermal structure was obtained from expendable bathythermographs.

  4. Quantifying Organic Matter in Surface Waters of the United States and Delivery to the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.

    2012-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters. It is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context, and considering upstream-downstream linkages along flow paths. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation from headwaters to the coasts; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments; and 4) considered seasonal factors affecting the temporal variation in OC responses. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. The modeling approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of OC loads that were observed at a network of monitoring stations across the nation, and further explored factors controlling seasonal dynamics of OC based on these long term monitoring data. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the OC to each location

  5. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... AP will also review Amendment 19 to the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP regarding alternatives for bag...

  6. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity DOC and CDOM optical properties determined by UV absorbance at 254 nm (A254) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along the lower salinity range (salinity DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here

  7. Seasonality of coastal zone scanner phytoplankton pigment in the offshore oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, K.; English, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Global Ocean Data Set of plant pigment concentrations in the upper euphotic zone is evaluated for diserning geographical and temporal patterns of seasonality in the open sea. Monthly medians of pigment concentrations for all available years are generated for fields of approximately 77,000 sq km. For the climatological year, highest and lowest medians, month of occurence of the highest median, ratio of highest to lowest medians, and absolute range between the highest and lowest medians are mapped ocean-wide between 62.5 deg N and 62.5 deg S. Seasonal cycles are depicted for 48 sites. In much of the offshore ocean, seasonality of pigment is inferred to be driven almost equally by the interaction of the abiotic environment with phytoplankton physiology and the loss of cells from grazing. Special emphasis among natural domains or provinces is given to the Subantarctic water ring, with no seasonality in its low chlorophyll concentrations in spite of strong environmental forcing, and the narrow Transition Zones, a few degrees of latitude on the equatorial sides of the Subtropical Convergences of the southern hemisphere and their homologs in the northern hemisphere, which have late winter blooms caused by nutrient injection into the upper layers.

  8. Business and Entrepreneurship in South Coastal Zone of Attica Region, in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present paper is to investigate the evolution of the economic situation and particularly employment in Attica region in Greece. It focuses particularly on the southern coastal municipalities in the region and specifically in municipalities of Moshato, Kallithea, Paleo Faliro, Alimos, Elliniko, Voula and Vouliagmeni. Attica is an urbanized region which displays an excellence in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. In addition, it is a center of advanced services with valuable human resources because of higher educational institutions hosted in the region. That means a dynamic development of high technology. The good economic situation of the study area changed in recent years, from 2009 onwards, due to the economic crisis in Greece. The poor fiscal policy resulted in swelling of the external debt of the country, has contributed not only to the economic downturn, but has also affected the welfare of residents. The economic effects are obvious in the private sector, thereby reducing business activities, revenues and lost jobs. All the above have additional effect of increasing intra-regional disparities, such as population disparities, rising unemployment, the population movements for job search and other. The paper elaborates on the economic situation and entrepreneurship in the region over the past 20 years or so including both periods of acne, and those of the last economic downturn. Using documents, tables and graphs, work draws conclusions.

  9. Periphyton indicate effects of wastewater discharge in the near-coastal zone, Perth (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jeffrey; Walker, Di; Morrison, Peter; Hillman, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Periphyton communities on artificial substrata were successfully utilised as a biological indicator of the potential eutrophic effects of wastewater discharge into coastal waters off Perth, Western Australia. Biomass and percentage carbonate content measurements of periphyton communities grown in situ indicated that the periphyton primary production (organic weight) was enhanced in the vicinity of the discharge outlets, with a significant negative correlation between distance north of the northern outlet in Whitfords Lagoon and periphyton organic weight (OW) observed in autumn at a depth of 4 m ( r = -0.704, P relatively calm autumn season and substrata at depths of 2 m and 4 m. Thus, in favourable conditions phytoplankton and high relief reef communities are more likely to exhibit a eutrophic influence (in the form of enhanced primary production) of the treated wastewater discharge. Laboratory studies confirmed that treated wastewater, diluted 100-fold to estimate surface concentrations above the wastewater outfalls in the field, stimulates periphyton growth above levels recorded in unpolluted seawater ( F = 12.485; P = 0.0073).

  10. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  11. Future export of particulate and dissolved organic carbon from land to coastal zones of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strååt, Kim Dahlgren; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Undeman, Emma

    2018-01-01

    impacting the input of terrestrial litter, while reduced primary production mainly explained the differences predicted in summer. The simulations also showed that future changes in POC and DOC export can vary significantly across the different sub-basins of the Baltic Sea. These changes in organic carbon input may impact future coastal food web structures e.g. by influencing bacterial and phytoplankton production in coastal zones, which in turn may have consequences at higher trophic levels.

  12. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  13. Assessing sea-level rise impact on saltwater intrusion into the root zone of a geo-typical area in coastal east-central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Medeiros, Stephen C; Hagen, Scott C; Hall, Carlton R

    2018-07-15

    Saltwater intrusion (SWI) into root zone in low-lying coastal areas can affect the survival and spatial distribution of various vegetation species by altering plant communities and the wildlife habitats they support. In this study, a baseline model was developed based on FEMWATER to simulate the monthly variation of root zone salinity of a geo-typical area located at the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island Complex (CCBIC) of coastal east-central Florida (USA) in 2010. Based on the developed and calibrated baseline model, three diagnostic FEMWATER models were developed to predict the extent of SWI into root zone by modifying the boundary values representing the rising sea level based on various sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios projected for 2080. The simulation results indicated that the extent of SWI would be insignificant if SLR is either low (23.4cm) or intermediate (59.0cm), but would be significant if SLR is high (119.5cm) in that infiltration/diffusion of overtopping seawater in coastal low-lying areas can greatly increase root zone salinity level, since the sand dunes may fail to prevent the landward migration of seawater because the waves of the rising sea level can reach and pass over the crest under high (119.5cm) SLR scenario. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. The case of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, E.; Jacob, J.S.; Ramos Bustillos, L.E.; Ortiz, I.

    2007-05-01

    This paper is the third in a series of AIXG (Annex I Expert Group on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) papers that analyse the roles that national policy frameworks of various sectors play in adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change is unlikely to be a standalone process. It occurs within the existing sectoral and cross-sectoral policy frameworks, including legal provisions, institutional structures, policies and management practices, and is supported by the available information tools. The previous two papers focused on the water sector. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyse policy frameworks that are important for facilitating adaptation to climate change impacts in coastal zones. The paper is based on the analysis of the Gulf of Mexico. Two countries, the US and Mexico, are examined, with a focus on two aspects of coastal zones: wetlands and built environment. Next to these two sectors attention is paid to four components that construct policy frameworks, namely legal framework, institutional landscape, policies and management tools, and information. Following a brief introduction of the Gulf of Mexico region, its physical and economic characteristics, the paper takes a look at current climatic conditions and trends in the Gulf region and expected climate change impacts and the key vulnerabilities of the region to these changes (Section 2). The rational for the scope and focus of the sectoral analysis presented in this paper can also be found in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern wetlands in the US and Mexico and their links with adaptation. Section 4 focuses on the analysis of policy frameworks that govern the development of human settlements, and adaptation to climate change. Sections 3 and 4 follow a structure similar to the one that was used for the two previous papers on policy frameworks for adaptation in the water sector. Both sections examine

  15. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    35 Figure 4. At the toe of a hill slope, the gradient is only slightly inclined or nearly level. ..................... 35...marshes, beach/ dune systems, and wet flats are typical of the outer coastal plain on recent or Holocene sediments, while mixed evergreen/hardwood...mangrove shrublands are also found along the Texas and Louisiana coasts (NatureServe 2006). Beach/ dune systems are typically associated with barrier

  16. Tsunami Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.

    2012-12-01

    -computation - starting with those sources that carry the highest risk. Model computation zones are confined to regions at risk to save computation time. For example, Atlantic sources have been shown to not propagate into the Gulf of Mexico. Therefore, fine grid computations are not performed in the Gulf for Atlantic sources. Outputs from the Atlantic model include forecast marigrams at selected sites, maximum amplitudes, drawdowns, and currents for all coastal points. The maximum amplitude maps will be supplemented with contoured energy flux maps which show more clearly the effects of bathymetric features on tsunami wave propagation. During an event, forecast marigrams will be compared to observations to adjust the model results. The modified forecasts will then be used to set alert levels between coastal breakpoints, and provided to emergency management.

  17. A Simplified Methodology For Risk Assessment of The Oolitic Limestone Aquifer, West of Alexandria Coastal Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.A.; Hussein, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater risk analysis helps to assess the effects of contaminants reach to specific position in groundwater system after introduction at some location above the uppermost aquifer. This provides a basis for initiating protective and mitigation measures for important groundwater resources. An attempt has been made in the present study to assess the risk of diffuse groundwater pollution at the north western coast of Alexandria against landfill waste disposal as well as agricultural pollutants leachates which are the main land use in the studied area. A simplified weighing/ rating approach have been functioned for this purpose, Slovene methodology, which is relevant for fissured carbonate aquifers that characterize the studied area. This method is based on an origin-pathway-target model, which applies for both resource and source protection. Conservative values for the intrinsic geological, hydrogeological, geo morphological and climatological parameters have been reviewed and determined for assessment of the source and resource vulnerability, hazards and risk (lithology, texture and structure of soil zone, lithology and thickness of the unsaturated zone and aquifer conditions, morphological features, slope and vegetation cover, average annual stormy days, travel time and karst network , the fertilizers and pesticide used for agriculture, the volume of unlined waste disposal site). The methodology applied in the present study emphasizes how the physical properties of the hydrological system can be integrated in an index that reflects the level of risk of a diffuse pollution to groundwater. This aligns with the prospective of site safety evaluation around risky installations such as a nuclear power plants or waste disposal facilities where assurance should be done that the risk to the public and environment is acceptably low. According to the functioned methodology, the fissured limestone under study is low vulnerable and highly protectable against surface diffuse

  18. Marine Spatial Planning Makes Room for Offshore Aquaculture in a Crowded Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J.

    2016-12-01

    Offshore aquaculture is an emerging industry predicted to contribute significantly to global seafood production and food security. However, aquaculture farms can generate conflicts by displacing existing ocean user groups and impacting ecosystems. Further, there are multiple farm types with different seafood species, productivity levels and impacts. Thus, it is important to strategically and simultaneously plan farm type and location in relation to the seascape in order to most effectively maximize aquaculture value while also minimizing conflicts and environmental impacts. We address this problem and demonstrate the value of multi-objective planning with a case study that integrates bioeconomic modeling with ecosystem service tradeoff analysis to inform the marine spatial planning (MSP) of mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture farms in the already-crowded Southern California Bight (SCB) ecosystem. We considered four user groups predicted to conflict with or be impacted by the three types of aquaculture: wild-capture fisheries, ocean viewshed from coastal properties, marine benthic habitat protection, and risk of disease outbreak between farms. Results indicate that significant conflicts and impacts, expected under conventional planning, can be reduced by strategic planning. For example, 28% of potential mussel farm sites overlap with wild-capture halibut fishery grounds, yet MSP can enable mussel aquaculture to generate up to a third of its total potential industry value without impacting halibut fishery yield. Results also highlight hotspot areas in the SCB most appropriate for each type of aquaculture under MSP, as well as particular mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture spatial plans that align with legislative regulations on allowable impacts from future aquaculture farms in California. This study comprehensively informs aquaculture farm design in the SCB, and demonstrates the value of multi-objective simultaneous planning as a key component in MSP.

  19. Estuarine habitat quality reflects urbanization at large spatial scales in South Carolina's coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Robert F; Riekerk, George H M; Bergquist, Derk C; Felber, Jordan; Chestnut, David E; Holland, A Fredrick

    2008-02-01

    analyses support the hypotheses that estuarine habitat quality reflects upland development patterns at large spatial scales, and that upland urbanization can result in increased risk of biological degradation and reduced safe human use of South Carolina's coastal resources.

  20. A modern robust approach to remotely estimate chlorophyll in coastal and inland zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Palanisamy; He, Xianqiang; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Varunan, Theenathayalan

    2018-05-01

    The chlorophyll concentration of a water body is an important proxy for representing the phytoplankton biomass. Its estimation from multi or hyper-spectral remote sensing data in natural waters is generally achieved by using (i) the waveband ratioing in two or more bands in the blue-green or (ii) by using a combination of the radiance peak position and magnitude in the red-near-infrared (NIR) spectrum. The blue-green ratio algorithms have been extensively used with satellite ocean color data to investigate chlorophyll distributions in open ocean and clear waters and the application of red-NIR algorithms is often restricted to turbid productive water bodies. These issues present the greatest obstacles to our ability to formulate a modern robust method suitable for quantitative assessments of the chlorophyll concentration in a diverse range of water types. The present study is focused to investigate the normalized water-leaving radiance spectra in the visible and NIR region and propose a robust algorithm (Generalized ABI, GABI algorithm) for chlorophyll concentration retrieval based on Algal Bloom index (ABI) which separates phytoplankton signals from other constituents in the water column. The GABI algorithm is validated using independent in-situ data from various regional to global waters and its performance is further evaluated by comparison with the blue-green waveband ratios and red-NIR algorithms. The results revealed that GABI yields significantly more accurate chlorophyll concentrations (with uncertainties less than 13.5%) and remains more stable in different waters types when compared with the blue-green waveband ratios and red-NIR algorithms. The performance of GABI is further demonstrated using HICO images from nearshore turbid productive waters and MERIS and MODIS-Aqua images from coastal and offshore waters of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and East China Sea.