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Sample records for atlantic coastal plains

  1. North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Deleware, and New Jersey.

  2. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  3. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  4. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  5. Development of Ecological Reference Models and an Assessment Framework for Streams on the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Military installations in the Sand Hills ecoregion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain protect unique ecosystems including blackwater streams. The Department of Defense...

  6. Atlantic coastal plain geothermal test holes, New Jersey. Hole completion reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Radford, L.; Glascock, M.

    1979-03-01

    A description of the Atlantic Coastal Plains Geothermal Drilling Program and data for the following Geothermal test holes drilled in New Jersey are summarized: Site No. 40, Fort Monmouth; Site No. 41, Sea Girt; Site No. 39-A, Forked River; Site No. 38, Atlantic City; and Site No. 36, Cape May.

  7. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Past permafrost on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H.; Demitroff, M.; Newell, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Sand-wedge casts, soil wedges and other non-diastrophic, post-depositional sedimentary structures suggest that Late-Pleistocene permafrost and deep seasonal frost on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain extended at least as far south as southern Delaware, the Eastern Shore and southern Maryland. Heterogeneous cold-climate slope deposits mantle lower valley-side slopes in central Maryland. A widespread pre-existing fragipan is congruent with the inferred palaeo-permafrost table. The high bulk density of the fragipan was probably enhanced by either thaw consolidation when icy permafrost degraded at the active layer-permafrost interface or by liquefaction and compaction when deep seasonal frost thawed. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Extents of the aquifer and confining units of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina aquifer system (pp1773_extents)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set pp1773_extents contains polygon datasets that represent the areal extents of each of the 16 hydrogeologic units of the of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of...

  10. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeologic framework was developed from a combination of the physiography and the predominant texture of surficial geologic units in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal...

  11. Assessing groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability throughout the United States to gain a better understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and how changes in land use, water use, and climate may affect those resources. The goal of this National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for the Nation's principal aquifer systems to help characterize how much water is currently available, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). The concept of groundwater availability is more than just how much water can be pumped from any given aquifer. Groundwater availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The primary objective of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater-availability study is to identify spatial and temporal changes in the overall water budget by more fully determining the natural and human processes that control how water enters, moves through, and leaves the groundwater system. Development of tools such as numerical models can help hydrologists gain an understanding of this groundwater system, allowing forecasts to be made about the response of this system to natural and human stresses, and water quality and ecosystem health to be analyzed, throughout the region.

  12. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Vera Rosa Schafer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth’s overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  13. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  14. The distribution and composition of REE-bearing minerals in placers of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton; Shah, Anjana K.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) resources are currently of great interest because of their importance as raw materials for high-technology manufacturing. The REE-phosphates monazite (light REE enriched) and xenotime (heavy REE enriched) resist weathering and can accumulate in placer deposits as part of the heavy mineral assemblage. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States are known to host heavy mineral deposits with economic concentrations of zircon, ilmenite and rutile. This study provides a perspective on the distribution and composition of REE phosphate minerals in the region. The elemental chemistry and mineralogy of sands and associated heavy-mineral assemblages from new and archived sediment samples across the coastal plains are examined, along with phase-specific compositions of monazite, xenotime and zircon. Both monazite and xenotime are present across the coastal plains. The phase-specific compositions allow monazite content to be estimated using La as a geochemical proxy. Similarly, both Y and Yb are geochemical proxies for xenotime, but their additional presence in zircon and monazite require a correction to prevent overestimation of xenotime content. Applying this correction, maps of monazite and xenotime content across the coastal plains were generated using sample coverage from the National Geochemical Database (NGS) and National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). The NGS and NURE approach of sampling stream sediments in small watersheds links samples to nearby lithologies. The results show an approximately 40 km-wide band of primarily Cretaceous, marine sediments bordering the Piedmont province from North Carolina to Alabama in which monazite and xenotime content are relatively high (up to 4.4 wt. % in < 150 μm bulk sediment). Strong correlations between concentrations of the two phases were found, with estimated monazite:xenotime ratios ranging approximately 6:1 to 12:1 depending upon the dataset analyzed. From a resource

  15. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  16. Regional chloride distribution in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Emmanuel G.

    2016-08-31

    The aquifers of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain are the principal source of water supply for the region’s nearly 20 million residents. Water quality and water levels in the aquifers, and maintenance of streamflow, are of concern because of the use of this natural resource for water supply and because of the possible effects of climate change and changes in land use on groundwater. The long-term sustainability of this natural resource is a concern at the local community scale, as well as at a regional scale, across state boundaries. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a regional assessment of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers. An important part of this assessment is a regional interpretation of the extent of saltwater and the proximity of saltwater to fresh-groundwater resources and includes samples and published interpretations of chloride concentrations newly available since the last regional chloride assessment in 1989. This updated assessment also includes consideration of chloride samples and refined interpretations that stem from the 1994 discovery of the buried 35 million year old Chesapeake Bay impact structure that has substantially altered the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework and saltwater distribution in eastern Virginia.

  17. Estimating Pesticide Retention Efficacy for Edge of Field Buffers Using the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) in Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain croplands are vulnerable to runoff; thus agricultural pesticide use may adversely impact surface water quality. Our research group has collected data over the past 5 years indicating that this is not the case in Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) located in co...

  18. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  19. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  20. Hydrology and chemistry of groundwater and seasonal ponds in the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Shedlock, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of small seasonal ponds was investigated by studying relations between ground-water and surface water in a forested Coastal Plain drainage basin. Observation of changes in the water table in a series of wells equipped with automatic water-level recorders showed that the relation between water-table configuration and basin topography changes seasonally, and particularly in response to spring recharge. Furthermore, in this study area the water table is not a subdued expression of the land surface topography, as is commonly assumed. During the summer and fall months, a water-table trough underlies sandy ridges separating the seasonal ponds, and maximum water-table altitudes prevail in the sediments beneath the dry pond bottoms. As the ponds fill with water during the winter, maximum water-table altitudes shift to the upland-margin zone adjacent to the seasonal ponds. Increases in pond stage are associated with the development of transient water-table mounds at the upland-margin wells during the spring. The importance of small local-flow systems adjacent to the seasonal ponds also is shown by the similarities in the chemistry of the shallow groundwater in the upland margin and water in the seasonal ponds. The upland margin and surface water samples have low pH (generally less than 5.0), and contain large concentrations of dissolved aluminum (generally more than 100 μg 1 -1), and low bicarbonate concentrations (2 mg l 4 or less). In contrast, the parts of the surficial aquifer that do not experience transient mounding have higher pH and larger concentrations of bicarbonate. These results suggest that an understanding of the hydrochemistry of seasonally ponded wetlands requires intensive study of the adjacent shallow groundwater-flow system.

  1. Physiological diversity and distributions of heterotrophic bacteria in deep cretaceous sediments of the Atlantic coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Zachara, J.M.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J.; Simmons, M.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Balkwill, D.L. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A series of 23 intact core segments was obtained from two distinct deep subsurface geological formations, the Middendorf and the Cape Fear formations, underlying the southeastern coastal plain of South Carolina. Aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria were enumerated on a dilute medium, and populations ranged from 3.1 to 6.4 log CFU g of sediment[sup [minus]1] in the Middendorf cores and from below detection to 4.3 log CFU g[sup [minus]1] in the Cape Fear cores. A total of 198 morphologically distinct colony types were isolated, purified, and subjected to 108 different physiological measurements. The isolates from the two formations were distinct as were those in different core samples from the same formation. Cluster analysis revealed 21 different biotypes based on similarities of 75% or higher in response patterns to 21 physiological assays. One biotype contained 57 of the subsurface isolates, 10 biotypes contained 5 or more isolates, and the remainder had 4 or fewer. The organic compounds that were most commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria included Tween 40 and [beta]-hydroxybutyric acid. Organic acids, in general, were also commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria. Isolates from the Cape Fear core segments were capable of metabolizing a higher percentage of the substrates than were bacteria isolated from the Middendorf formation. Although the heterogeneous distributions of bacteria in deep subsurface sediments may make it difficult to use aquifer microcosms to predict in situ biotransformation rates, the diversity of the physiological properties of these organisms offers promise for in situ remediation of contaminants.

  2. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.

  3. Quaternary sea level high-stand deposits of the southeast U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain: Age, distribution, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Ghaleb, B.; Portell, R.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Wehmiller, J. F.; Thompson, W. G.; Oches, E. A.; Willard, D. A.; Katz, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerged Quaternary paleo-shorelines and marine deposits provide a more direct way to reconstruct and analyze sea-level variability than methods using oxygen isotope analyses of deep ocean benthic foraminifera. New Uranium-series dates on fossil corals (primarily Astrangia spp. and Septastrea spp.) combined with previously published dates have allowed us to constrain the age, elevation, and geographical distribution of marine sediments deposited in the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) from Virginia to Florida during periods of past high relative sea level (SL). We present new dates from deposits (VA/NC: Tabb/Norfolk, Nassawadox, & Omar Formations; SC: Wando, Socastee, & Canepatch Formations; FL: Anastasia, Ft. Thompson, & Bermont Formations) representing interglacial high-stands during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, 9, and 11. In addition, we incorporate stratigraphic, marine micropaleontologic, and palynologic records with our SL chronology to reconstruct a more complete history of middle-to-late Pleistocene interglacial climates of the ACP. Ultimately, these results will test modeled sea-level fingerprint studies based on various melting scenarios of the Greenland and/or Antarctic ice sheets.

  4. Cold-climate slope deposits and landscape modifications of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, W.L.; Dejong, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene cold-climate geomorphology are distributed across the weathered and eroded Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain uplands from the Wisconsinan terminal moraine south to Tidewater Virginia. Cold-climate deposits and landscape modifications are superimposed on antecedent landscapes of old, weathered Neogene upland gravels and Pleistocene marine terraces that had been built during warm periods and sea-level highstands. In New Jersey, sequences of surficial deposits define a long history of repeating climate change events. To the south across the Delmarva Peninsula and southern Maryland, most antecedent topography has been obscured by Late Pleistocene surficial deposits. These are spatially variable and are collectively described as a cold-climate alloformation. The cold-climate alloformation includes time-transgressive details of climate deterioration from at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 through the end of MIS 2. Some deposits and landforms within the alloformation may be as young as the Younger Dryas. Southwards along the trend of the Potomac River, these deposits and their climatic affinities become diffused. In Virginia, a continuum of erosion and surficial deposits appears to be the product of ‘normal’ temperate, climate-forced processes. The cold-climate alloformation and more temperate deposits in Virginia are being partly covered by Holocene alluvium and bay mud.

  5. Uranium-series coral ages from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain-the "80 ka problem" revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Simmons, K.R.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Martin-McNaughton, J.; York, L.L.; Krantz, D.E.; Shen, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium series coral ages for emergent units from the passive continental margin US Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) suggest sea level above present levels at the end of marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5, contradicting age-elevation relations based on marine isotopic or coral reef models of ice equivalent sea level. We have reexamined this problem by obtaining high precision 230Th/238U and 231Pa/235U thermal ionization mass spectrometric ages for recently collected and carefully cleaned ACP corals, many in situ. We recognize samples that show no evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance. Combining new and earlier data, among those ages close to or within the age range of MIS 5, over 85% cluster between 65 and 85 ka BP. Of the corals that we have analyzed, those that show the least evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance have ages between 80 and 85 ka BP, consistent with a MIS 5a correlation. The units from which these samples have been collected are all emergent and have elevations within ???3-5m of those few units where early stage 5 (???125,000 ka BP) coral ages have been obtained. The ACP appears to record an unusual history of relative sea level throughout MIS 5, a history that is also apparent in the dated coral record for Bermuda. We speculate that this history is related to the regional (near-to intermediate-field) effects of ancestral Laurentide Ice sheets on last interglacial shorelines of the western North Atlantic. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  7. The use of mineralogic techniques as relative age indicators for weathering profiles on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, D.R.; Owens, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Textural, geochemical, and mineralogic study of soils and weathering profiles has led to the practice of applying varioys weathering parameters as relative age indicators. In our studies examined the entire thickness of weathered sediment (i.e., the weathering profile) for evidence of weathering-induced changes in both sand- and clay-sized mineralogy, and used two techniques for relative age determinations. These techniques were developed as tools to support geologic mapping. One of our techniques for determining relative ages is based on the depth of weathering as recorded by progressive loss of denrital sand-sized minerals upward in the weathering profile. This is our preferred tool, especially in areas where weathering profiles have been truncated. We have found a gradual trend of increasing loss of labile sand-sized minerals (e.g., hornblendes, feldspars) and increasing depth of weathering with increasing age of the deposit. Of significance to many research programs, this technique does not require expensive instruments such as an X-ray diffractometer. Our other technique depends on accumulation of stable, secondary clay-sized minerals in the upper part of the weathering profile. In our study area on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, the stable assemblage consists of vermiculite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and iron oxides and hydroxides. This technique can be effective for relative age determinations where profiles have not been truncated, and can provide useful information on depositional and erosional history. However, in areas of widespread erosion and profile truncation, such as the Carolinas, the utility of this technique for relative age determinations is limited. There, soils were partially or completely removed in many localities in relatively recent times. ?? 1991.

  8. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  9. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    which was reminiscent of Oligocene and early Miocene ecosystems analyzed in previous studies (e.g. Kotthoff et al. 2014). The ecosystem was characterized by oak-hickory forests which probably dominated in the lowlands, while frequent occurrence of conifer pollen (Pinus, Picea, Abies, Sciadopitys, and Tsuga canadensis) indicate that conifer forests prevailed in higher altitudes during the MMCO. We assume that the Miocene uplift of the Appalachian Mountains (e.g. Gallen et al., 2013) led to the proliferation of mountainous taxa and thus to an increase of related pollen taxa in the palynological record. References: Gallen, S. F., Wegmann, K. W., Bohnenstieh, D. W. R.: Miocene rejuvenation of topographic relief in the southern Appalachians, GSA Today, 23, 4-10, 2013. Kotthoff, U., McCarthy, F.M.G., Greenwood, D.R., Müller-Navarra, K., Prader, S., Hesselbo, S.P., (2014): Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from 33 to 13 million years ago (IODP expedition 313). Climate of the Past 10, 1523-1539.

  10. Sedimentological techniques applied to the hydrology of the Atlantic coastal plain in South Carolina and Georgia near the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to provide the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed

  11. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act), based on the...

  12. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  13. Old groundwater in parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer,Atlantic Coastal Plain, Maryland, USA: Evidence fromradiocarbon, chlorine-36 and helium-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Eggleston, John R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Andreasen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Apparent groundwater ages along two flow paths in the upper Patapsco aquifer of the Maryland Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA, were estimated using 14C, 36Cl and 4He data. Most of the ages range from modern to about 500 ka, with one sample at 117 km downgradient from the recharge area dated by radiogenic 4He accumulation at more than one Ma. Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) water was located about 20 km downgradient on the northern flow path where the radiocarbon age was 21.5 ka, paleorecharge temperatures were 0.5 to 1.5 °C (a maximum cooling of about 12 °C relative to the modern mean annual temperature of 13 °C), and Cl-, Cl/Br, and stable isotopes of water were minimum. Low recharge temperatures (typically 5-7 °C) indicate that recharge occurred predominantly during glacial periods when coastal heads were lowest due to low sea-level stand. Flow velocities averaged about 1.0 ma-1 in upgradient parts of the upper Patapsco aquifer and decreased from 0.13 ma-1 to 0.04 ma-1 at 40 km and 80 km further downgradient, respectively. This study demonstrates that most water in the upper Patapsco aquifer is non-renewable on human timescales under natural gradients, thus highlighting the importance of effective water-supply management to prolong the resource.

  14. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV13 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...-compliance; Declaration of a moratorium. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Atlantic Coastal...

  15. The PETM in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain: A widespread record of unique climate signatures in shallow-shelf Marlboro Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, D. S.; Edwards, L. E.; Kopp, R. E.; Self-Trail, J.; Schultz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Abrupt sedimentary changes mark the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Across the tectonic downwarp known as the Salisbury Embayment (southeastern Virginia to central New Jersey), kaolinite-rich clay (the Marlboro Clay) abruptly replaces glauconite-rich quartz sand, silt, and illite-smectite clay of the late Paleocene. Dozens of cored boreholes obtained by the USGS and other Federal and State agencies, together with geophysical logs from more than 100 boreholes, allow us to document the widespread distribution and depositional, biostratigraphic, paleoecologic, taphonomic, and tectonic characteristics of the Marlboro Clay. In Maryland and Virginia, the Marlboro Clay is a silvery-gray to pale-red plastic clay and locally includes thin laminations and thicker beds of silt, concretions, pyrite nodules, and rare shell fragments (in downdip cores). The clay is unconformity bounded with highly burrowed contacts. The lower contact is locally so bioturbated that it has been reported as gradational. The upper contact in Virginia has glauconite-rich, sand-filled burrows from the overlying Nanjemoy Formation (lower Eocene) that penetrate as much as 8.5 m down into the Marlboro Clay (total thickness only 9 m). Biostratigraphically, the Marlboro Clay is placed in calcareous nannofossil Zone NP9 (and NP10 in downdip cores) and includes the PETM marker dinocyst species Apectodinium augustum (in downdip cores). In New Jersey, a similar clay deposit is described from the subsurface; and based on consistency in lithology, biostratigraphy, stratigraphic position, isotopic composition and its magnetic properties, we apply the name Marlboro Clay to this unique clay unit throughout the Salisbury Embayment. Structure-contour and isopach maps of the present configuration of the Marlboro Clay reveal a widespread deposit with localized truncation or thinning. Tectonic folding and faulting along the inner Coastal Plain and along the James River

  16. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU54 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... provisions of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The...

  17. Patterns of Seasonal Abundance and Social Segregation in Inland and Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows in a Delaware Tidal Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens, CPSS) breeds in the coastal brackish marshes of the North American Mid-Atlantic States. During the non-breeding season, coastal brackish marshes are occupied by both this subspecies and two far more widespread inte...

  18. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of...

  19. Changes in Carbon Pools 50 Years after Reversion of a Landscape Dominated by Agriculture to Managed Forests in the Upper Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.

    2010-12-01

    The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.

  20. 100 Myr record of sequences, sedimentary facies and sea level change from Ocean Drilling Program onshore coreholes, US Mid-Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, J.V.; Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Kominz, M.A.; McLaughlin, P.P.; Kulpecz, A.A.; Feigenson, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the latest Early Cretaceous to Miocene sections (???110-7Ma) in 11 New Jersey and Delaware onshore coreholes (Ocean Drilling Program Legs 150X and 174AX). Fifteen to seventeen Late Cretaceous and 39-40 Cenozoic sequence boundaries were identified on the basis of physical and temporal breaks. Within-sequence changes follow predictable patterns with thin transgressive and thick regressive highstand systems tracts. The few lowstands encountered provide critical constraints on the range of sea-level fall. We estimated paleowater depths by integrating lithofacies and biofacies analyses and determined ages using integrated biostratigraphy and strontium isotopic stratigraphy. These datasets were backstripped to provide a sea-level estimate for the past ???100 Myr. Large river systems affected New Jersey during the Cretaceous and latest Oligocene-Miocene. Facies evolved through eight depositional phases controlled by changes in accommodation, long-term sea level, and sediment supply: (1) the Barremian-earliest Cenomanian consisted of anastomosing riverine environments associated with warm climates, high sediment supply, and high accommodation; (2) the Cenomanian-early Turonian was dominated by marine sediments with minor deltaic influence associated with long-term (107 year) sea-level rise; (3) the late Turonian through Coniacian was dominated by alluvial and delta plain systems associated with long-term sea-level fall; (4) the Santonian-Campanian consisted of marine deposition under the influence of a wave-dominated delta associated with a long-term sea-level rise and increased sediment supply; (5) Maastrichtian-Eocene deposition consisted primarily of starved siliciclastic, carbonate ramp shelf environments associated with very high long-term sea level and low sediment supply; (6) the late Eocene-Oligocene was a starved siliciclastic shelf associated with moderately high sea-level and low sediment supply; (7) late early-middle Miocene consisted of a

  1. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid; Marguerite Madden; Fikry Khalaf; Ibtehal Fathy

    2009-01-01

    Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the are...

  2. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  3. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from...

  4. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... management groups is closed, even across fishing years. On July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40318), NMFS announced the... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY:...

  5. Contrasting soils and landscapes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Buell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces comprise 80 percent of the Atlantic Coastal states from New Jersey to Georgia. The provinces are climatically similar. The soil moisture regime is udic. The soil temperature regime is typically thermic from Virginia through Georgia, although it is mesic at altitudes above 400 m in Georgia and above 320 m in Virginia. The soil temperature regime is mesic for the Piedmont and Coastal Plain from Maryland through New Jersey. The tightly folded, structurally complex crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and the gently dipping "layer-cake" clastic sedimentary rocks and sediments of the Coastal Plain respond differently to weathering, pedogenesis, and erosion. The different responses result in two physiographically contrasting terrains; each has distinctive near-surface hydrology, regolith, drainage morphology, and morphometry. The Piedmont is predominantly an erosional terrain. Interfluves are as narrow as 0.5 to 2 km, and are convex upward. Valleys are as narrow as 0.1 to 0.5 km and generally V-shaped in cross section. Alluvial terraces are rare and discontinuous. Soils in the Piedmont are typically less than 1 m thick, have less sand and more clay than Coastal Plain soils, and generally have not developed sandy epipedons. Infiltration rates for Piedmont soils are low at 6-15 cm/h. The soil/saprolite, soil/rock, and saprolite/rock boundaries are distinct (can be placed within 10 cm) and are characterized by ponding and/or lateral movement of water. Water movement through soil into saprolite, and from saprolite into rock, is along joints, foliation, bedding planes and faults. Soils and isotopic data indicate residence times consistent with a Pleistocene age for most Piedmont soils. The Coastal Plain is both an erosional and a constructional terrain. Interfluves commonly are broader than 2 km and are flat. Valleys are commonly as wide as 1 km to greater than 10 km, and contain numerous alluvial and estuarine terrace

  6. 75 FR 33242 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW45 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... the provisions of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal...

  7. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to environmental change in Jiangsu coastal plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of coastal vulnerability to future environmental change has been emphasized in coastal nations or regions. The Jiangsu coastal plain, located to the north of the Yangtze River Delta in China, is most vulnerable to sea level rise and exacerbating coastal hazards. This paper develops the method of delimiting vulnerable scope and assessing coastal vulnerability through field observations and sampling and by applying remote sensing and GIS, which are suitable for great river delta and coastal plains with large area, relative complex micro-geomorphology and the protection of seawall. Applying this method, the coastal vulnerability of the Jiangsu coastal plain to relative sea level rise (approximately 50 cm up to the year 2050) and exacerbating storm surges have been assessed. The results show that, up to the year 2050, the Jiangsu coastal plain will probably lose 12.8 % of tidal flats (about 5.8′104 hm2) and 7.9 % of cultivated land (about 7.2′104 hm2). Meanwhile, 2.0 % of population, 3.8 % of original value of fixed assets, 3.2% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product), 40.3 % of salt industry and 5.8 % of aquiculture respectively will be affected due to coastal environmental change.

  8. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  9. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1948, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 36 black and white 9x9 inch aerial images of four different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken between 1948-1949 and...

  10. Aerial Image of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of a single aerial image of a single area on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken on 21 June 1955 by the U.S. Air Force and obtained from...

  11. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  12. Calibration of amino acid racemization (AAR) kinetics in United States mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Quaternary mollusks using 87Sr/ 86Sr analyses: Evaluation of kinetic models and estimation of regional Late Pleistocene temperature history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Harris, W.B.; Boutin, B.S.; Farrell, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of amino acid racemization (AAR) for estimating ages of Quaternary fossils usually requires a combination of kinetic and effective temperature modeling or independent age calibration of analyzed samples. Because of limited availability of calibration samples, age estimates are often based on model extrapolations from single calibration points over wide ranges of D/L values. Here we present paired AAR and 87Sr/ 86Sr results for Pleistocene mollusks from the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA. 87Sr/ 86Sr age estimates, derived from the lookup table of McArthur et al. [McArthur, J.M., Howarth, R.J., Bailey, T.R., 2001. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy: LOWESS version 3: best fit to the marine Sr-isotopic curve for 0-509 Ma and accompanying Look-up table for deriving numerical age. Journal of Geology 109, 155-169], provide independent age calibration over the full range of amino acid D/L values, thereby allowing comparisons of alternative kinetic models for seven amino acids. The often-used parabolic kinetic model is found to be insufficient to explain the pattern of racemization, although the kinetic pathways for valine racemization and isoleucine epimerization can be closely approximated with this function. Logarithmic and power law regressions more accurately represent the racemization pathways for all amino acids. The reliability of a non-linear model for leucine racemization, developed and refined over the past 20 years, is confirmed by the 87Sr/ 86Sr age results. This age model indicates that the subsurface record (up to 80m thick) of the North Carolina Coastal Plain spans the entire Quaternary, back to ???2.5Ma. The calibrated kinetics derived from this age model yield an estimate of the effective temperature for the study region of 11??2??C., from which we estimate full glacial (Last Glacial Maximum - LGM) temperatures for the region on the order of 7-10??C cooler than present. These temperatures compare favorably with independent paleoclimate information

  13. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  14. Stratigraphy of Atlantic coastal margin of United States north of Cape Hatteras; brief survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W.J.; Minard, J.P.; Weed, E.G.A.; Robbins, E.I.; Rhodehamel, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis of studies of sea-floor outcrops of the sedimentary wedge beneath the northeastern United States continental shelf and slope and a reassessment of coastal plain Mesozoic stratigraphy, particularly of the coastal margin, provide insight for estimating the oil and gas potential and provide geologic control for marine seismic investigations of the Atlantic continental margin. The oldest strata known to crop out on the continental slope are late Campanian in age. The Cretaceous-Tertiary contact along the slope ranges from a water depth of 0.6 to 1.5 km south of Georges Bank to 1.8 km in Hudson Canyon. Few samples are available from Tertiary and Late Cretaceous outcrops along the slope. Sediments of the Potomac Group, chiefly of Early Cretaceous age, constitute a major deltaic sequence in the emerged coastal plain. This thick sequence lies under coastal Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, southeastern New Jersey, and the adjacent continental shelf. Marine sands associated with this deltaic sequence may be present seaward under the outer continental shelf. South of the Norfolk arch, under coastal North Carolina, carbonate rocks interfinger with Lower Cretaceous clastic strata. From all available data, Mesozoic correlations in coastal wells between coastal Virginia and Long Island have been revised. The Upper-Lower Cretaceous boundary is placed at the transition between Albian and Cenomanian floras. Potential hydrocarbon source beds are present along the coast in the subsurface sediments of Cretaceous age. Potential reservoir sandstones are abundant in this sequence.

  15. Coastal plain dynamics: GIS-solutions to map and catalogue coastal marine architectural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Pierik, H.J.; Cohen, K.M.; Stouthamer, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch coast consists of beach barriers and tidal inlet systems which dynamically developed during the Holocene. The resulting coastal plain geology has been studied extensively since the beginning of the 20th century, in various ways and from different backgrounds. Today, a large amount of heterogeneous data and many regional studies are available. However, the overwhelming quantities make that knowledge tends to stay fragmented. To analyze coastal system dynamics at millennial time scale...

  16. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  17. Coastal plain dynamics: GIS-solutions to map and catalogue coastal marine architectural elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.; Cohen, K.M.; Stouthamer, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch coast consists of beach barriers and tidal inlet systems which dynamically developed during the Holocene. The resulting coastal plain geology has been studied extensively since the beginning of the 20th century, in various ways and from different backgrounds. Today, a large amount of heter

  18. Immature condensate from southeastern Mediterranean coastal plain, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Aizenshtat, Z.; Goldberg, M.

    1985-06-01

    A highly unsaturated, sulfur-rich, naphthenic condensate was discovered in association with dry biogenic gas in the upper Tertiary of the southeastern Mediterranean coastal plain of Israel. Geologic and geochemical evidence suggests that this condensate was generated in thermally immature rocks. Similar material has been reported from the upper Tertiary of the western Mediterranean. We suggest that the immature condensates were formed from resin-rich, terrestrially derived organic matter. Under an equivalent thermal regime, marine material derived primarily from algae and bacteria will produce heavy crude, rich in asphaltenes.

  19. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  20. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  1. 75 FR 31421 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit; Horseshoe Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  2. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC689 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  3. 77 FR 55457 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC220 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  4. 75 FR 34092 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AY41 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Such action is authorized under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act...

  5. Increasing N Retention in Coastal Plain Agricultural Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Staver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, N availability has limited agricultural production as well as primary production in coastal waters. Prior to the middle of the last century, N available for grain production generally was limited to that supplied by previous legume crops, released from soil organic matter, or returned to the soil in animal wastes. The development of infrastructure to produce relatively low-cost inorganic N fertilizers eliminated the need to focus management of the entire agricultural system on increasing soil N availability. Increased N availability has contributed to dramatic increases in agricultural production but also has led to increased losses of both N and C from agricultural systems. N losses from cropland have been linked to increased algal production in the Chesapeake Bay, with N loss from cropland estimated to be the primary N input to the Bay from Coastal Plain regions of the watershed. The decade-long effort to reduce these losses has focused on reducing agricultural N use, but this strategy has yet to yield apparent reductions in N loadings to Coastal Plain tributaries. Although nitrate leaching losses are often attributed to inefficient use of N inputs, soil nitrate data indicate that both corn and soybeans can utilize nearly all available soil nitrate during periods of active growth. However, both crops tend to stop utilizing nitrate before mineralization has ceased, resulting in a late season buildup of root zone nitrate levels and significant leaching losses even when no N was applied. Reducing nitrate losses due to the inherent N inefficiency of summer annual grain crops will require the addition of winter annual crops to rotations or changes in weed management approaches that result in plant N uptake capacity being more closely matched to soil microbial N processes.

  6. 77 FR 32420 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-BA56 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... section 803(b) of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act) 16...

  7. Data-driven models of groundwater salinization in coastal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisa, G.; Ciriello, V.; Antonellini, M.; Di Federico, V.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salinization of shallow coastal aquifers is particularly critical for ecosystems and agricultural activities. Management of such aquifers is an open challenge, because predictive models, on which science-based decisions are to be made, often fail to capture the complexity of relevant natural and anthropogenic processes. Complicating matters further is the sparsity of hydrologic and geochemical data that are required to parameterize spatially distributed models of flow and transport. These limitations often undermine the veracity of modeling predictions and raise the question of their utility. As an alternative, we employ data-driven statistical approaches to investigate the underlying mechanisms of groundwater salinization in low coastal plains. A time-series analysis and auto-regressive moving average models allow us to establish dynamic relations between key hydrogeological variables of interest. The approach is applied to the data collected at the phreatic coastal aquifer of Ravenna, Italy. We show that, even in absence of long time series, this approach succeeds in capturing the behavior of this complex system, and provides the basis for making predictions and decisions.

  8. Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Coastal Plain Aquifer System of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Charles E.; Pope, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater model documented in this report simulates the transient evolution of water levels in the aquifers and confining units of the Virginia Coastal Plain and adjacent portions of Maryland and North Carolina since 1890. Groundwater withdrawals have lowered water levels in Virginia Coastal Plain aquifers and have resulted in drawdown in the Potomac aquifer exceeding 200 feet in some areas. The discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and a revised conceptualization of the Potomac aquifer are two major changes to the hydrogeologic framework that have been incorporated into the groundwater model. The spatial scale of the model was selected on the basis of the primary function of the model of assessing the regional water-level responses of the confined aquifers beneath the Coastal Plain. The local horizontal groundwater flow through the surficial aquifer is not intended to be accurately simulated. Representation of recharge, evapotranspiration, and interaction with surface-water features, such as major rivers, lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean, enable simulation of shallow flow-system details that influence locations of recharge to and discharge from the deeper confined flow system. The increased density of groundwater associated with the transition from fresh to salty groundwater near the Atlantic Ocean affects regional groundwater flow and was simulated with the Variable Density Flow Process of SEAWAT (a U.S. Geological Survey program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and transport). The groundwater density distribution was generated by a separate 108,000-year simulation of Pleistocene freshwater flushing around the Chesapeake Bay impact crater during transient sea-level changes. Specified-flux boundaries simulate increasing groundwater underflow out of the model domain into Maryland and minor underflow from the Piedmont Province into the model domain. Reported withdrawals accounted for approximately

  9. Effects of Concrete Channels on Stream Biogeochemistry, Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Gilbert, L.; Phemister, K.

    2005-05-01

    In the 1950's and 60's, extensive networks of cement-lined channels were built in suburban watersheds near Washington, D.C. to convey storm water to downstream locations. These cement-lined stream channels limit interactions between surface and groundwater and they provide sources of alkalinity in Maryland Coastal Plain watersheds that normally have low alkalinity. This project was designed to 1) compare base flow water chemistry in headwater reaches of urban and non-urban streams, and 2) to evaluate downstream changes in water chemistry in channelized urban streams in comparison with non-urban reference streams. During a drought year, headwater streams in both urban and non-urban sites had significant concentrations of Fe(II) that were discharged from groundwater sources and rapidly oxidized by iron-oxidizing bacteria. During a wet year, the concentrations of Fe(II) were higher in headwater urban streams than in the non-urban streams. This suggests that impervious surfaces in headwater urban watersheds prevent the recharge of oxygen-rich waters during storm events, which maintains iron-rich groundwater discharge to the stream. Downstream changes in water chemistry are prominent in cement-lined urban channels because they are associated with distinctive microbial communities. The headwater zones of channelized streams are dominated by iron-ozidizing bacteria, that are replaced downstream by manganese-oxidizing zones, and replaced further downstream by biofilms dominated by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria. The reaches dominated by cyanobacteria exhibit diurnal changes in pH due to uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis. Diurnal changes range from 7.5 to 8.8 in the summer months to 7.0 to 7.5 in the cooler months, indicating both the impact of photosynthesis and the additional source of alkalinity provided by concrete. The dissolved oxygen, pH, and other characteristics of tributaries dominated by cyanobacteria are similar to the water chemistry characteristics observed in

  10. Aerial breeding pair surveys of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska - 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1996 an aerial breeding pair survey was conducted on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska for the 11th consecutive year. All major species of waterfowl indicated...

  11. Aerial Breeding Pair Surveys of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska : Distribution and Abundance 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial breeding pair survey was conducted on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska for the 10th consecutive year in 1995. The population estimate for the northern...

  12. Terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on the coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Bird census plots were...

  13. Groundwater discharge along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSage, Danita M.; Sexton, Joshua L.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Greb, Stephen F.

    2008-10-01

    SummaryIn the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  14. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita M [Ky Dept for natural resources, Div of Mine Permits; Sexton, Joshua L [JL Sexton and Son; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Fryar, Alan E [Univ of KY, Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences; Greb, Stephen F [Univ of KY, KY Geological Survey

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  15. 76 FR 22875 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA355 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... resulting data would be utilized by NJ DFW staff, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission...

  16. 78 FR 51131 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: Based on Atlantic States Marine...

  17. Glaciation of the Coastal Plain of Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, M. T.; Shur, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Our 15 years of studies of permafrost soils on the coastal plain of northern Alaska show that it was affected by a continental ice sheet during the last glacial maximum. Evidence for this includes: occurrence of buried glacial basal ice at Barter Island; widespread sandy diamicton from Demarcation Bay to Barrow of late Pleistocene age; orientation of surficial deposits; poorly integrated drainage and gentle ridge and swale topography; the continuity of glacial-related deposits from the coast to the Brooks Foothills; and perennially frozen sediments unlike those of unglaciated Arctic regions. We documented a 10-m-high exposure ~1 km long at Barter Island that had abundant basal glacier ice with large-scale deformation structures, complex ice-contact deposits, and highly deformed bedded silt, sand, and gravel inclusions within the basal ice. Similar ice structures were observed at Prudhoe Bay and Cape Halkett. The glacial till is highly unusual in that it is comprised of massive, non-fossiliferous, brackish, slightly pebbly loamy sand with occasional gravel to cobble-sized clasts. In most areas the till is only 2-5 m thick, although at Barter Island the till was up to 10- m thick. Gravel particles, which comprise 1-5% of the deposits, usually are 0.5-2 cm long, mostly durable chert, highly polished, and frequently cracked off at one end, with the broken face faceted and polished. We believe the material mostly originated from marine deposits on the continental shelf, although rocks of Canadian provenance also occur. Prevalent, large (1-5 m) deformation features of discontinuous yellow oxidized and gray reduced sediment suggest deformation of sediment during collapse of the ice sheet. The sandy till is found along most of the Beaufort coast with the exception of deltas and lagoons and is found inland as much as 80 km. The sandy till is easily eroded, causing the morainal margin to be indistinct and the topography subdued. Previous thermoluminescence dating by

  18. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  19. Western Arctic Coastal Plain, IfSAR DSM-derived coastline and coastal features. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute Permafrost Laboratory (2012).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of a polyline depicting the coast and coastal features of the western Arctic Coastal Plain as derived from a mosaic created from an...

  20. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  1. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  2. A new GIS approach for reconstructing and mapping dynamic late Holocene coastal plain palaeogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierik, H. J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.

    2016-10-01

    The geomorphological development of Holocene coastal plains around the world has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century from various disciplines, resulting in large amounts of data. However, the overwhelming quantities and heterogeneous nature of this data have caused the divided knowledge to remain inconsistent and fragmented. To keep improving the understanding of coastal plain geomorphology and geology, cataloguing of data and integration of knowledge are essential. In this paper we present a GIS that incorporates the accumulated data of the Netherlands' coastal plain and functions as a storage and integration tool for coastal plain mapped data. The GIS stores redigitised architectural elements (beach barriers, tidal channels, intertidal flats, supratidal flats, and coastal fresh water peat) from earlier mappings in separate map layers. A coupled catalogue-style database stores the dating information of these elements, besides references to source studies and annotations regarding changed insights. Using scripts, the system automatically establishes palaeogeographical maps for any chosen moment, combining the above mapping and dating information. In our approach, we strip the information to architectural element level, and we separate mapping from dating information, serving the automatic generation of time slice maps. It enables a workflow in which the maker can iteratively regenerate maps, which speeds up fine-tuning and thus the quality of palaeogeographical reconstruction. The GIS currently covers the late Holocene coastal plain development of the Netherlands. This period witnessed widespread renewed flooding along the southern North Sea coast, coinciding with large-scale reclamation and human occupation. Our GIS method is generic and can be expanded and adapted to allow faster integrated processing of growing amounts of data for many coastal areas and other large urbanising lowlands around the world. It allows maintaining actual data

  3. Nitrogen Mineralization of Broiler Litter Applied to Southeastern Coastal Plain Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (clayey, kaoliniti...

  4. MINERALIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM BROILER LITTER AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TEXTURE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted during 2004-2005 to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (...

  5. Forest transpiration from sap flux density measurements in a Southeastern Coastal Plain riparian buffer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forested riparian buffers are prevalent throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region of the United States (US). Because they make up a significant portion of the regional landscape, transpiration within these riparian buffers is believed to have an important impact on the hydrologic budget of r...

  6. Geostatistical Modeling of the Spatial Distribution of Sediment Oxygen Demand Within a Coastal Plain Blackwater Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater streams of the Georgia Coastal Plain are often listed as impaired due to chronically low DO levels. Previous research has shown that high sediment oxygen demand (SOD) values, a hypothesized cause of lowered DO within these waters, are significantly positively correlated with TOC within th...

  7. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone-hosted uranium resources in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hall, Susan M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Tureck, Kathleen R.; Hannon, Mark T.; Breit, George N.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Elliott, Brent

    2015-12-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 220 million pounds of recoverable uranium oxide (U3O8 ) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in southern Texas. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method for Tertiary sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Texas Coastal Plain sedimentary strata (fig.1).

  9. Microclimate and actual evapotranspiration in a humid coastal-plain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.

    1987-09-01

    Continuous hourly measurements of twelve meteorologic variables recorded during 1983 and 1984 were used to examine the microclimate and actual evapotranspiration at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Barnwell, South Carolina. The study area is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Monthly, daily, and hourly trends in net radiation, incoming and reflected short-wave radiation, incoming and emitted long-wave radiation, soil-heat flux, dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, soil temperatures, wind direction and speed, and precipitation were used to characterize the microclimate. Average daily air temperatures ranged from -9 to 32° Celsius during the period of study. Net radiation varied from about -27 to 251 watts m -2 and was dominated by incoming short-wave radiation throughout the year. The peak net radiation during a summer day generally occurred 2-3h before the peak vapor pressure deficit. In the winter, these peaks occurred at about the same time of day. Monthly precipitation varied from 15 to 241 mm. The Bowen ratio method was used to estimate hourly evapotranspiration, which was summed to also give daily and monthly evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration varied from 0.0 to 0.7 mm h -1, 0.8-5 mm d -1, and 20-140 mm month -1 during 1983 and 1984. The maximum rate of evapotranspiration generally occurred at the same time of day as maximum net radiation, suggesting net radiation was the main driving force for evapotranspiration. Precipitation exceeded evapotranspiration during 14 months of the 2yr study period. Late fall, winter, and early spring contained the majority of these months. The maximum excess precipitation was 115 mm in February 1983.

  10. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  11. Vegetation of Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of vegetation structure and composition at each of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring sites on South Atlantic Geography National Wildlife Refuges....

  12. 78 FR 46922 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC786 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  13. 77 FR 66585 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC304 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration..., Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING...

  14. 75 FR 7227 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 600 and 697 RIN 0648-XT83 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  15. 75 FR 38458 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX07 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Permits (EFP) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., 2010. James P. Burgess Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine...

  16. 76 FR 41764 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA563 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  17. 76 FR 19748 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA312 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration..., National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  18. 78 FR 18960 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC586 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration..., National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  19. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AT31 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... measures in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the authority of section 803(b) of the Atlantic...

  20. Investigations of interior Arctic coastal plain avifauna in National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska: 1977 Singiluk final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers the investigations of interior Arctic coastal plains avifauna in national petroleum reserve of Alaska. The effects of petroleum development on...

  1. Long term effects of winter seismic exploration on the vegetation of the coastal plain of the Arctic Nationa Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When winter seismic exploration was conducted on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR, little data was available on the longterm effects of...

  2. User's Guide for the Land-Cover map of the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A landcover map of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Alaska was produced using LANOSA T Thematic Mapper satellite imagery,...

  3. Effects of winter seismic exploration on vegetation and soil of the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When winter seismic exploration was conducted on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Arctic NWR, little data were available on the longterm...

  4. Laboratory measurements and modeling N mineralization potential in Virginia Coastal Plain agricultural, fallow, and forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, S; Mostaghimi, Saied; Burger, J A

    2000-01-01

    A long-term aerobic incubation and leaching technique was used to measure N mineralization of surface and subsurface soils (sandy loam) from agricultural,forest, and fallow sites in a Virginia Coastal Plain watershed. N mineralization potential was measured to refine models used to describe this process in a watershed-scale nutrient export assessment. Potentially mineralizable N (N-0) and reaction rate constants (k) were estimated using a first-order model and a nonlinear regression procedure...

  5. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Wizen; Avital Gasith

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus . In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-am...

  6. Nitrogen dynamics in the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. M.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important biomes by several things, among them, they are important reservoirs of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water (Bonan, 2008). In Brazil, at Sao Paulo State, the coastal Atlantic Forest runs along an altitudinal gradient from near seal level (Lowland Forest) up to more than 1,000m (Montane Forest). Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as well as above ground biomass are higher at the Montante Forest in relation to the Lowland Forest. In contrast, annual fluxes of N2O and riverine N output are higher lower altitudes, although. Therefore, it seems that lower temperature at higher altitude limits N transfer between different reservoirs, which in turn leads to higher N stocks. In this study we test if the litter decomposition of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves at higher altitudes also decomposes slower than at low altitudes. At the same time we also test if Fabaceae leaves decompose faster than non Fabaceae leaves due to the higher N content and lower C:N ratio of the former in comparison to the later. Preliminary results indicate that both hypothesis seems to be right.

  7. Coastal morphodynamics and Chenier-Plain evolution in southwestern Louisiana, USA: A geomorphic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Randolph A.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Byrnes, Mark R.

    2007-08-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms, and existing hypotheses regarding Chenier-Plain evolution were reconsidered. The Chenier Plain of SW Louisiana, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm-dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This Late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long and up to 30 km wide, and is composed primarily of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that have elevations of up to 4 m. In this study, the term "ridge" is used as a morphologic term for a narrow, linear or curvilinear topographic high that consists of sand and shelly material accumulated by waves and other physical coastal processes. Thus, most ridges in the Chenier Plain represent relict open-Gulf shorelines. On the basis of past movement trends of individual shorelines, ridges may be further classified as transgressive, regressive, or laterally accreted. Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price [Otvos, E.G. and Price, W.A., 1979. Problems of chenier genesis and terminology—an overview. Marine Geology, 31: 251-263] and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. Based on these definitions, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms was refined relative to dominant process for the Louisiana Chenier Plain. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km 2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km 2): chenier complex, beach-ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach

  8. Biogeochemical and Hydrological Controls on Mercury and Methylmercury in First Order Coastal Plain Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, A.; Gilmour, C. C.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 7 years we made use of the long-term research site at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in central Maryland to study the fluxes of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in three small first-order mid-Atlantic coastal plain watersheds. One watershed is entirely forested, one watershed is primarily agriculture with a forested stream buffer, and one watershed is mixed land use but contains a beaver produced wetland pond. Our initial goals were to assess watershed Hg yields in the mid-Atlantic and to establish a baseline prior to implementation of Hg emissions controls. All three studied watersheds produced relatively high yields of Hg, with the greatest yield coming from the forested watershed. Our initial evaluation of three watersheds showed that MeHg production and flux could also be high, but varied dramatically among watersheds and across years and seasons. During each year we observed episodic MeHg production in the spring and sometimes during prolonged high-flow storm events in the fall. The observed spring maxima of MeHg release coincided with development of anoxia in riparian groundwater. MeHg accumulation in riparian groundwater began once nitrate was depleted and either iron accumulation or sulfate depletion of groundwater began. We propose the presence of nitrate was modulating MeHg production through the suppression of sulfate and iron reducers and perhaps methanogens. As sulfate is not limiting in any of the watersheds owing to the sediments marine origin, we hypothesize the depletion of nitrate allows sulfate reducing bacteria to now utilize available carbon. Although wetlands are generally thought of as the primary zones of MeHg production in watersheds, shallow riparian groundwaters very close to the stream appear to play that role in SERC Coastal Plain watersheds. We hypothesize that the balance between nitrate, sulfate and other microbial electron acceptors in watersheds is a major control on MeHg production. Land

  9. Potential Liquefaction of Loose Sand Lenses: Case Study In Surabaya East Coastal Plain, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putera Agung M. Agung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The zone of east coastal Surabaya becomes the object of development for the city, especially to the east coastal plain. Although in the recent years, that area does not have a structure or heavy construction and or a high rise building yet, but in the future the zone will turn into a business area with a variety of activities.. The zone of east coastal Surabaya is an alluvium deposit area. This layer is considered as clay deposited from some rivers and sea. From general information, the typical soil stratigraphy consists of soft clay and silt layers with many sand lenses with or without coarse grained soil with a depth varying from 0.00 to 10.00 meters (m. The saturated sand lenses with a water table depth varies from 0.40 to 1.20 m is susceptible earthquake and it has a relatively large seismic amplification from base-rock due to geological and soil condition nature of the site. Liquefaction hazard of the sand lenses has to be anticipated and evaluated. For development of Surabaya city area toward the east coastal plain, all developer are recommended to give some criteria of sand lenses density and some consideration for anticipating the liquefaction hazard.

  10. Connecting Indigenous Knowledge to Thaw Lake Cycle Research on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, W. R.; Cuomo, C. J.; Hinkel, K. M.; Jones, B. M.; Hurd, J.

    2005-12-01

    Thaw lakes cover about 20% of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Another 26% is scarred by basins that form when lakes drain, and these drained thaw-lake basins are sites for preferential carbon accumulation as plant biomass. Recent studies in the continuous permafrost zone of Western Siberia suggest that lakes have been expanding in the past several decades in response to regional warming. Anticipated regional warming would likely mobilize sequestered soil organic carbon, resulting in the emission of CO2 and CH4. Our understanding of the processes leading to thaw lake formation, expansion, and drainage in northern Alaska has been limited because models are specific to the flat, young Outer (seaward) Coastal Plain comprising 1/3 of the region. Furthermore, spatial and temporal analysis of lake dynamics is largely restricted to the period since 1948, when aerial photographs first became available across large regions of the Coastal Plain. In order to fill these gaps, we have been interviewing Iñupiaq elders, hunters, and berry pickers from the villages of Atqasuk and Barrow. The objective of these interviews is to obtain accounts of lake formation, expansion and drainage that have occurred within living or oral memory, and extend the record back several generations. To date, we have interviewed fifteen Iñupiat; most of these are people who travel the tundra frequently and have done so for decades. They have first-hand experience of lake drainage, sea cliff and river bank erosion, permafrost degradation, and other landscape changes. Many informants expressed concern that landscape changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. They have identified lakes that have drained, areas where the permafrost is thawing, and places where the sea and river coastline is eroding. We have been able to corroborate reports of lake drainage from our informants with a series of aerial photographs, satellite images, and radiocarbon dates. In many instances, the elders have

  11. Pyritization of the Coastal Sediments in the Kelantan Plains in the Malay Peninsula during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S.K. Enio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For a number of geological reasons a proportion of the present coastal plains in the Malay Peninsula were inundated by seawater in the past when pyrite in some of the soils is believed to have been mineralized. Random survey of these sites showed a unique distribution and depth of pyritic layer in the soils along the coastal plains. A study was conducted in order to explain the mechanism of pyritization in the sediments of the present day coastal plains in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: Soil surveys were conducted and soils were sampled and analyzed. Spatial distribution of the pyritic soils was used to construct an imaginary line to indicate the probable position of the shoreline when the sea level was at its highest. Results: Results of the study showed that soils containing pyrite occur sporadically in the plains. This pyrite occurs in the soils at varying depth; some soils have pyritic layer below 2 m from the surface (northern region, while others have pyrite in the surface horizon (southern region. Pyrite was formed by the reaction of ferrous and sulfide ions which were respectively reduced from ferric ions (sediments and sulfate (seawater ions, respectively. In the middle of the study area, pyritic layer overlain by peaty materials were observed. Conclusion: The presence of pyrite in the soils can be used as an evidence for sea level rise in the area during the Holocene. This pyrite is assumed to have been formed about 6,000 years BP when the sea level rose 3-5 m above the present. Its oxidation has caused untold damage to the productivity of the paddy soils in the area.

  12. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  13. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  14. Controls on migration pathways for contaminants in a multiple aquifer system in an up-dip coastal plain setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjacent to the present-day erosional margin of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain in central South Carolina, the Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous section of sediments in the northwestern part of the Savannah River Site thin significantly, and individual units undergo lateral changes both in facies and thickness. The sediments are dominantly marginal marine, interlayered sand and clay beds. Potentiometric differences favor downward migration of water and contaminants with time, but lateral flow patterns are important in beds with high permeability. Over a period of more than twenty-five years, greater than 900,000 kg of degreasing solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) leaked into the groundwater system from several localized sources. The resultant contaminant plumes intermingle, but are distinguishable. Thin, but laterally discontinuous, confining layers direct, and locally slow, plume migration in the upper tens of feet of the section. A thick (locally more than 50 feet) confining unit just above the Tertiary-Cretaceous boundary greatly impedes downward migration of the plumes. This unit thins significantly northward toward the erosional margin. However, flow within the most permeable units is toward the southwest, away from the regions of thinning, and contaminant concentrations are lower in areas where the major confining unit thins. The plumes are relatively isolated within an approximately 10 square mile area and both proven and experimental remediation technologies are being applied. Contaminant concentrations are locally high and dense non-aqueous phase liquids exist in at least one well

  15. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    demonstrated in autumn 2010 when the storm Becky reached the Santander Bay, Spain. As reported by THESEUS, the FP-7 EU project (2009-2013), the peak of nearshore significant wave height was about 8 m, the storm surge reached 0.6 m, with tidal level of 90% of the tidal range. The latest storm in December 2010, which hit the Nile Delta and which was the severest in the last decades showed that generated surges, up to 1.0 m as well as a maximum of 7.5 m wave height in the offshore of Alexandria presented a major natural hazard in coastal zones in terms of wave run up and overtopping. Along the US Atlantic Coast, where Hurricane Sandy this autumn and Hurricane Irene in 2011 left chaos in their wakes, a perfect storm of rising sea levels and dense coastal development at high risk . Super storm Sandy sent a storm surge of 4-5 m onto New Jersey's and New York's fragile barrier island and urban shorelines, causing an estimated 70 billion (USD) in damages and widespread misery for coastal inhabitants. Sea Level Rise and Impact on Upgrade of Coastal Structures: Williams (2013) highlights in his recent paper that adaptation planning on national scales in the USA for projected sea-level rise of 0.5-2 m by A.D. 2100 is advisable. Further he points out that sea-level rise, as a major driving force of change for coastal regions, is becoming increasingly important as a hazard to humans and urban areas in the coastal zone worldwide as global climate change takes effect. During the 20th century, sea level began rising at a global average rate of 1.7 mm/yr (). The current average rise rate is 3.1 mm/yr, a 50% increase over the past two decades. Many regions are experiencing even greater rise rates due to local geophysical (e.g., Louisiana, Chesapeake Bay) and oceanographic (mid-Atlantic coast) forces. Further the Mississippi River Delta plain region of Louisiana has much higher than average rates of LRSL rise due to geologic factors such as subsidence and man-made alterations to the delta plain

  16. Coastal Evolution of the Mississippi River Chenier Plain: A Geomorphic Process-Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, R. A.; Taylor, M. J.; Byrnes, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Mississippi River Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms. The Louisiana Chenier Plain, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm- dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long, less than 30 km wide, and composed of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that are less than 4 m in elevation. Most Chenier-Plain ridges represent open-Gulf paleoshorelines. Past shoreline morphodynamics allow ridges to be classified as transgressive (cheniers), regressive (beach ridges), or laterally accreted (spits). Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price (1979, Marine Geology) and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. As such, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms is devised relative to dominant coastal process. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km2): chenier complex, beach ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach ridge, and spit. To understand long-term evolution of the Chenier Plain, modern tidal-inlet processes operating at Sabine, Calcasieu, and Mermentau river entrances were also examined relative to the inlet-stability ratio. Prior to human modification and stabilization efforts, the Mermentau River entrance is classified as wave-dominated, Sabine Pass as tide-dominated, and Calcasieu Pass as tide-dominated to mixed. Hoyt (1969, American Association of

  17. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Ricardo P Vieira; Alexander M Cardoso; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rodolpho M Albano; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Meth...

  18. Interpretation of crustal structure from regional gravity anomalies, Ouachita Mountains area and adjacent Gulf coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, J.M.; Keller, G.R.

    1986-06-01

    A gravity data base from more than 35,000 stations was used to generate a series of regional gravity maps of the Ouachita Mountains area including adjacent parts of the craton and the Gulf coastal plain. These maps were used in conjunction with information from 96 wells, data from preexisting geophysical and geological investigations, and computer models to interpret four gravity profiles that transect the study area (approximately lat. 30-37/sup 0/N, long. 91.5-99/sup 0/W). These models, gravity maps, and previous investigations were then used to analyze various regional gravity anomalies and to interpret the gross crustal structure of the region and its tectonic implications. These data suggest that variably attenuated continental crust lies beneath the Gulf coastal plain, south of the Ouachita system gravity gradient, as opposed to typical continental crust of the craton north of this gradient. This variation in crustal structure probably reflects the complexity of Eocambrian and early Mesozoic rifting in the area. The Arkoma basin gravity minima may result from the combined effect of a late Paleozoic foreland basin and an Eocambrian northwest-trending, rift-related basin. The Ouachita system interior zone gravity maximum varies along strike of this orogenic belt. This anomaly appears to be a good indicator of the position of the Eocambrian continental margin and associated rift zone. Gravity anomalies in the Gulf coastal plain appear to be a combined effect of variable crustal attenuation, basins and uplifts, and mafic intrusions. Gravity maxima in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen result from uplifts and deep-seated mafic intrusions; gravity minima result from deep sedimentary basins.

  19. Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and human evolution on the southern coastal plain of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, John S.

    2011-03-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where and how remain unclear. Here it is proposed that the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa may have served as a geographical point of origin through periodic expansion and contraction (isolation) in response to glacial/interglacial changes in sea level and climate. During Pleistocene interglacial highstands when sea level was above -75 m human populations were isolated for periods of 360-3400 25-yr generations on the SCP by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt, climate and vegetation barriers. The SCP expands five-fold as sea level falls from -75 to -120 m during glacial maxima to form a continuous, unobstructed coastal plain accessible to the interior. An expanded and wet glacial SCP may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds and resulted in the mixing of previously isolated groups. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Successful adaptations developed on an isolated SCP are predicted to widely disperse during glacial terminations when the SCP rapidly contracts or during the initial opening of the SCP in the transition to glacial maxima. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the SCP, as well as the coastal plain of North Africa, contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years (kyr) is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records. These records generally support the hypothesis, but more complete and well dated records are required to resolve the extent to which sea-level fluctuations influenced the complex history of human evolution.

  20. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiane da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field capacity and -1500 kPa (permanent wilting point for Yellow Argisol and Yellow Latosol from the Brazilian Coastal Plains region. The Coastal Plains soils are mostly developed from Barreiras formation (pre-weathered sediments and their main uses are sugarcane, livestock, forestry and fruticulture. The database to generate the PTFs was composed from the selection of information derived from scientific works and soil survey reports of the region. Specific PTFs were generated for each soil class, in their respective A and B horizons and for solum, through multiple regression by stepwise package of R language programming. Due to the small pedological variability (small number of soil classes containing great geographical expression and mineralogical uniformity, usually observed in this environment, non-stratification of soil classes to create general PTFs presented similar or superior results compared to equations for each soil class. The adjustment of data demonstrated that water retention values at -33 kPa and -1500 kPa potentials can be estimated with adequate accuracy for the main soils of the Brazilian Coastal Plains through PTFs mainly from particle size distribution and secondarily from organic matter data.

  1. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  2. Evidences of Holocene transgression on Domingos Petrolini Swamp, southern coastal plain, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Domingos Petrolini Swamp, located on the Southern Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul, near the town of Rio Grande, constitutes an ample holocene lagoonal deposit. Events related to the holocene transgression and their diverse phases of glacial-eustatic ocillations were found through palynological analysis. Bases on these palynological data, four distinct phases to the paleoenvironmental evolution of the ecosystem were identified. It has also shown a transgressive restricted marine sequence on the base, which suggests the existence of a coastal brackish lagoon or a marisme type of environment. Later, there was a gradation for continentality conditions along with a scarce pollinical record. The third phase is characterized by the presence of marine components and halophyte vegetation, showing another transgressive event in that place. Lastly, the end of direct marine influence over the swamp was recorded and also the vegetation development as it appears these days.

  3. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  4. Soil Fertility and Radicular System Depth of Sand Coastal Plain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, José Carlos; Akemi Sato, Claudia; Reis-Duarte, Rose Mary; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Sérgio Galvão Bueno, Mário

    2010-05-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) is a type of ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity. This vegetation is currently assigned as edaphic communities. In this study we present data on soil fertility in different vegetation physiognomies to discuss on abiotic factors related to Restinga Forest stability and recovery potential. This work was carried out in several points of Restinga Forest in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo, namely: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W); State Park of Anchieta Island, in the city of Ubatuba (45°02' e 45°05' W / 23°31' e 23° 45' S); Restinga Forest in the residential joint ownership Riviera of São Lourenço, in the city of Bertioga (46°08' W e 23°51' S); Ecological Station Juréia-Itatins, Ecological Station of Chauas , in the city of Iguape (24°45' S e 47°33' W) and State Park of Cardoso Island, Pereirinha Restinga Forest, in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W), Brazil. Sampling was carried out as follows in every area above mentioned. One sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. All areas investigated showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil. The nutritional reserve is present primarily in a depth of 15 cm, although mainly in the vegetable biomass. The level of calcium and magnesium were mainly low in the subsurface soil layer, associate with high concentration of

  5. Contribution of landbird migration to the biological diversity of the northwest gulf coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, W.C.; Hamilton, R.B.; Powell, M.A.; Ouchley, K.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined seasonal diversity and feeding behavior of those avian species utilizing that region of the Northwest Gulf Coastal Plain known as the Chenier Plain. Field observations were conducted at three forested locations on coastal cheniers for three years (1993-95) in the spring and at one location for three years (1996-98) in autumn to determine species presence and diet. One hundred and twenty-eight species were present during the spring and 103 species in autumn. The majority of these species were migrants (103 species in spring and 89 species in autumn) and the majority of these were Nearctic/Neotropical species (73 species in spring and 66 species in autumn). The diet of these migrants was more variable than expected. Many insectivorous species were observed to consume seeds, fruit and nectar as well as insects. Because of these varied diets, many species serve as seed dispersers, occasional pollinators and important predators of herbivorus insects. Wooded areas were found to be important in providing food, cover and water for migrating species. A review of historical changes in the landscape of this area is presented and management practices designed to restore wooded habitat to this area are proposed.

  6. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  7. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K;

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  8. Atlantic City, New Jersey Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Spatial distribution of populations of solitarious adult desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsk.) on the coastal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldewahid, G.; Werf, van der W.; Huis, van A.; Stein, A.

    2004-01-01

    1 Densities of solitarious adult desert locusts were measured on regular grids of up to 126 sample sites in the southern part of the coastal plain of Sudan during the winters of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Geostatistical procedures were used to characterize spatial dependence of locust density, to eval

  10. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  11. An integrated system of summer solarization and fallow tillage for Cyperus esculentus and nematode management in the southeastern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarization is a form of pest control using clear plastic mulch that allows sunlight to heat the soil to temperatures lethal to plant pests. Fallow tillage is a proven practice to reduce baseline weed densities. Field trials were conducted at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, GA fro...

  12. Chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from springs and wells in the Damour River basin and coastal plain of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A hydro chemical and isotopic study was achieved on groundwater of the Damour River basin and on wells in the coastal Mediterranean plain in Lebanon. The aim of this study was to determine the origin, the age and the quality of groundwater resources in the limestone aquifer of the Damour river basin. The results showed that most of the groundwater in the coastal plain and pumped from wells for irrigation and drinking water supply is directly recharged in this area. It contains up to 30% of groundwater recharged in the high mountains. The pumped groundwater is not polluted by seawater intrusion. The elevated solute content of the ground waters in the coastal plain compared to that of the spring waters is due to the different intensive agricultural activities. The relatively long mean residence time of the spring waters of around 10 years contradicts the assumption that the low Mg++/Ca++ ratio is due to a non-established hydro chemical equilibrium. The results of this combined hydrochemical and isotopic study in the Damour River basin and the coastal plain yielded new hydrological insights: Most of the groundwater in the coastal plain and pumped from wells for irrigation and drinking water supply is directly recharged in this area. It contains up to 30% of groundwater recharged in the high mountains. The pumped groundwater from shallow wells contains such water only during the summer season; The pumped groundwater is not polluted by seawater intrusion; The elevated solute content of the groundwaters in the coastal plain compared to that of the spring waters is due to the different intensive agricultural activities. There is no relationship to the MRT of the water; The temperature of the spring waters is related to the altitude of the recharge area. The temperature of the groundwater decreases with depth and reflects the admixture of groundwater recharged in higher elevations. The thermal gradient does not play any role; The relatively long mean residence

  13. Early to middle Pleistocene Arctic coastal ice caps in the Northern Interior Plains of Canada, a comparison with northeastern Siberian coastal uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duk-Rodkin, A.; Barendregt, R. W.; Velichko, A. A.; Galloway, J. M.; McNeil, D.

    2012-12-01

    A stratigraphic record of four to five ice-cap developments during the last 2.6 myr was discovered along the Northern Interior Plains (NIP) of the Canadian Continental Arctic Coast below 500 m elevation. Paleomagnetism, macrofossils, foraminifera, till fabrics and pebble lithologies were obtained from outcrops. This glacial stratigraphic record is less extensive than that found west of the continental divide in the Northern Canadian Cordillera, where at least 11 glaciations occurred in the last 2.7 Ma and where uplift along the south side of NW North America during the Pliocene set the stage for large scale glaciations. These coastal mountains and the continental divide created a double rain shadow effect that limited Pacific moisture reaching the NIP. East of the continental divide, moisture supply was only sufficient to form valley glaciers in five of the glacial periods that affected the Cordillera. The NIP was also affected by five glaciations. Ice-caps developed periodically and in the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered all of the NIP. During interglacial times, the NIP experienced dry steppe conditions, similar to modern northern climates found in regions of extreme continentality. The geographic setting along the eastern Siberian coast is comparable to conditions of the NIP, but no record of glaciations exists from upland areas near the Arctic Ocean. Moisture supply and temperature were likely insufficient to form local ice caps at low coastal elevations (rain shadow effect" formed by the Chersky, Suntar-Khayta, and Momsky ranges precluded moisture-bearing air originating from the Sea of Okhotsk to reach the Arctic Ocean. The absence of ice-caps here seems to indicate a frozen Arctic Ocean during most of the Pleistocene. Large scale glaciations (e.g., Cordilleran ice sheets) commenced in NW North America in the late Gauss Chron (Pacific Ocean influence), in Europe during the late Matuyama Chron (Atlantic Ocean influence), and in Siberia

  14. Genetic evidence of local exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a coastal subsistence fishery in the Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Ian R.; Hamilton, Lorraine C.; Rafferty, Sara; Meerburg, David; Poole, Rebecca; Dempson, J. Brian; Robertson, Martha J.; Reddin, David G.; Bourret, Vincent; Dionne, Mélanie; Chaput, Gerald J.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; King, Tim L.; Candy, John R.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries targeting mixtures of populations risk the over utilization of minor stock constituents unless harvests are monitored and managed. We evaluated stock composition and exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a subsistence fishery in coastal Labrador, Canada using genetic mixture analysis and individual assignment with a microsatellite baseline (15 loci, 11 829 individuals, 12 regional groups) encompassing the species western Atlantic range. Bayesian and maximum likelihood mixture analyses of fishery samples over six years (2006-2011; 1 772 individuals) indicate contributions of adjacent stocks of 96-97%. Estimates of fishery associated exploitation were highest for Labrador salmon (4.2-10.6% per year) and generally < 1% for other regions. Individual assignment of fishery samples indicated non-local contributions to the fishery (e.g., Quebec, Newfoundland) were rare and primarily in southern Labrador, consistent with migration pathways utilizing the Strait of Belle Isle. This work illustrates how genetic analysis of mixed stock Atlantic salmon fisheries in the northwest Atlantic using this new baseline can disentangle exploitation and reveal complex migratory behaviours.

  15. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  16. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  17. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (Hg T, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream Hg T. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate Hg T during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate Hg T in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved Hg T concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-Hg T complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed Hg T becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily Hg T loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for Hg T loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in Hg T dynamics. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Coastal and open ocean aerosol characteristics: investigating the representativeness of coastal aerosol sampling over the North-East Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a better understanding of the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of marine aerosol particles during transport from offshore to the coast, size distribution and chemical composition were measured concurrently in clean air masses over the open North Atlantic Ocean and at an Irish coastal site. Open ocean sampling was performed on board the oceanographic vessel Celtic Explorer sailing 100–300 km off the Irish west coast, while coastal measurements were performed at the Mace Head GAW station. The experiment took place between 11 June and 6 July 2006, during the period of phytoplankton bloom.

    The number size distribution and size-resolved chemical composition of coastal and open ocean samples were very similar, indicating homogeneous physical and chemical aerosol properties over a wide region in the marine boundary layer. The results also show that submicron chemical and physical aerosol properties measured at the coastal Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station were not unduly influenced by coastal artefacts and are thus representative of open water properties. Greater differences between the coastal site and the open ocean were observed for the aerosol supermicron sea spray components; this could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from higher local wind speeds at the coastal site over the comparison period, to differences in sampling heights and increased local surf-zone production.

    Evidence of ageing processes was observed: at the costal site the ratio between non-sea-salt sulphate and methanesulphonic acid was higher, and the aerosol water soluble organic compounds were more oxidized than in the open ocean.

  19. Near-bed sediment transport in a heavily modified coastal plain estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-feng LIU; Jia-xue WU; Yuan-ye WANG

    2014-01-01

    Numerous estuaries of the world have been strongly modified by human activities. These interferences can make great adjustments of not only sediment transport processes, but also the collective behavior of the estuary. This paper provides a typical case of a heavily modified coastal plain estuary of Sheyang on the China coast, where a sluice barrage was built in 1956 to stop the intrusions of storm surges and saline water. Four sets of instrumented tripods were simultaneously deployed along a cross-shore transect to continuously observe near-bed flow currents and sediment transport. The in-situ surveys lasted over a spring and neap tide cycle when a strong wind event occurred in the neap tide. Comparisons of flows and sediment transport between tide-dominated and wind-dominated conditions demonstrated the important role of episodic wind events in flows and sediment transport. The wind-induced currents, bottom stresses, and sediment transport rates were significantly greater when wind was present than corresponding quantities induced by the tides. The long-shore sediment transport induced by winds exceeds the cross-shore component, especially near the river mouth bar. These results indicate the noticeable importance of wave-dominated coastal processes in shaping topographic features. A regime shift of estuarine evolution under highly intense human forcing occurs from fluvial to marine processes. This finding suggests that the management strategy of the estuarine system should focus on the restoration of estuarine processes, rather than the present focus on inhibition of marine dynamics.

  20. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  1. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Giulia; Sappa, Giuseppe; Cella, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    They are presented the results of a groundwater modeling study on the Coastal Aquifer of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest-growing coastal cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with with more than 4 million of inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 8 per cent per year. The city faces periodic water shortages, due to the lack of an adequate water supply network. These two factors have determined, in the last ten years, an increasing demand of groundwater exploitation, carried on by quite a number of private wells, which have been drilled to satisfy human demand. A steady-state three dimensional groundwater model has been set up by the MODFLOW code, and calibrated with the UCODE code for inverse modeling. The aim of the model was to carry out a characterization of groundwater flow system in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain. The inputs applied to the model included net recharge rate, calculated from time series of precipitation data (1961-2012), estimations of average groundwater extraction, and estimations of groundwater recharge, coming from zones, outside the area under study. Parametrization of the hydraulic conductivities was realized referring to the main geological features of the study area, based on available literature data and information. Boundary conditions were assigned based on hydrogeological boundaries. The conceptual model was defined in subsequent steps, which added some hydrogeological features and excluded other ones. Calibration was performed with UCODE 2014, using 76 measures of hydraulic head, taken in 2012 referred to the same season. Data were weighted on the basis of the expected errors. Sensitivity analysis of data was performed during calibration, and permitted to identify which parameters were possible to be estimated, and which data could support parameters estimation. Calibration was evaluated based on statistical index, maps of error distribution and test of independence of residuals. Further model

  2. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... established on June 15, 2004 (70 FR 67985). The control date would apply to persons who are contemplating..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the... future access to the king and Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagics...

  3. Effects of winter seismic trails on visual resources, vegetation, and surface stability of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Winter seismic exploration in 1984 and 1985 left visible trails on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Thirtyfour permanent intensive study...

  4. Species accounts of migratory birds at three study areas on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the species accounts of migratory birds at 3 study areas on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska during 1983. The...

  5. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the four subunits of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in the States of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South...

  6. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  7. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  8. Carbon Sources and Sinks in Freshwater and Estuarine Environments of the Arctic Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, V.; Tarin, G.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The source, fate and transport of terrestrially derived carbon as it moves through multiple landscape components (i.e. groundwater, rivers, ponds, wetlands, lakes, lagoons) on a path from land to sea in permafrost-dominated watersheds is poorly understood. Critical to our understanding of Arctic carbon budgets are small, but numerically abundant watersheds that dominate the landscape of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP), which appears to be changing rapidly in response to climate warming and other environmental changes. This study was designed to understand the contribution of freshwater ecosystems in the Arctic to regional carbon budgets. pCO2 was logged continually in ponds, lakes and streams sites near Barrow, AK and recorded across transects in Elson Lagoon, a coastal lagoon on the Beaufort coast. Average pCO2 of the pond over 2 weeks in August (1196 μatm) was double that of lakes and streams, and four times higher than Elson Lagoon (216 μatm); thus, the Lagoon was acting as a small sink while the pond was a substantial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. The uptake of CO2 in Elson Lagoon, combined with an oversaturation of O2, may be due to enhanced primary productivity caused by freshwater nutrient inputs. Conversely, pCO2, chlorophyll-a and DOC increased substantially in the pond after a large rain event, suggesting that run-off introduced large amounts of terrestrially-derived carbon from groundwater. Further studies are required to elucidate the fate and transport of carbon in the numerically abundant smaller watersheds of the Arctic.

  9. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    OpenAIRE

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos; Nilton Curi; Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva; Sebastião da Fonseca; Elidiane da Silva; João José Marques

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size) and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion). The soil map was made using the geographic informatio...

  10. Strontium isotope evidence on the history of oilfield brines, Mediterranean Coastal Plain, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starinsky, A.; Bielski, M.; Lazar, B. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Geology); Steinitz, G.; Raab, M. (Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem)

    1983-04-01

    The isotopic composition of Sr in oil field brines from the Mediterranean Coastal Plain was determined in 18 drillholes. The brines are characterized by salinities ranging from 35 to 93 g/l (TDS), Sr from 28 to 350 mg/l, Sr/Ca molar ratios from 0.011 to 0.053 and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios from 0.7075 to 0.7090. E and A = 0.7081 +- 0.0004 (2sigma). The brines are classified into two groups: (a) Mavqi'im group - brines with relatively high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, sampled from clastics, dolomites and anhydrites of Upper Miocene age. (b) Heletz group - brines with relatively low /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, sampled from sandstones and dolomites of Lower Cretaceous age. Equations were derived to show the relations between /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio of the brines and the processes through which they evolved. It is suggested that both groups of brines originated from Mediterranean evaporated seawater during the Messinian desiccation. The strontium isotope composition of the seawater is reflected in that of both groups of brines, the Mavqi'im group containing the original /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio. The Heletz group evolved later on, through exchange reactions of those primary brines with a carbonate sequence of Cretaceous age and consequently new /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios could have been developed.

  11. Relationship of Forest Vegetation to Soils on Geological Formations of the Oklahoma Gulf Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond John Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Portions of this paper were recently presented at the Cross Timbers Symposium at the Botany 2005 Symposium in Austin, Texas. I have come to realize the importance of this data as a baseline for the composition of forests in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Since the data were collected about 40 years ago, many changes have occurred including our expanding population, increase in rural housing, construction of pipelines, and clearing for pasture and cultivation. Many of the sites studied have been modified or completely disappeared. Another important change is the tremendous expansion of Juniperus virginiana (red cedar due to absence of fire. In the sampling of these 13 forests 40 years ago, this species was found in only one stand, and as a sapling. Other invasive plants include Ligustrum sinense (privet, an evergreen shrub that can expand into clones by underground roots, and the invasive vine Lonicera sempervirens (Japanese honeysuckle which is controlled in many areas by cattle grazing. Both of these species will continue to expand and affect our native flora.

  12. Influence of Seeding Rate on Weed Density in Soybean Planting System for Southeastern Coastal Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wiatrak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing seeding rates may help decrease weed pressure in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] wide row spacing. Approach: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five glyphosate-resistant soybean Maturity Groups (MG (IV, V, VI, VII and VIII and six seeding rates (68,000,136,000, 204,000, 272,000, 340,000 and 408,000 seeds ha-1 on weed density under dryland conditions on the Southeastern coastal plain in 2007-2009. Results: Weed decrease with increasing seeding rate varied over years. Weed density was generally lower at higher seeding rates for most MG soybeans at 30 and 60 DAP, except MG IV and VIII at 30 DAP in 2007 and MG VI at 30 DAP in 2008. At 60 DAP, soybean leaf area index (LAI and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were greater with lower weed density. Conclusion: Additionally, negative correlations were observed between weed density and plant LAI/NDVI for all MG in 2008 and MG IV through VI in 2009. These results suggest that increased seeding rates may help decrease weed pressure and improve soybean growth at early growth stages. However the response of weed pressure to seeding rate may vary over years and depend on MG soybean.

  13. Warming-Induced Shrub Expansion and Lichen Decline Across the Tuktoyaktuk Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, R.; Lantz, T. C.; Olthof, I.; Kokelj, S. V.; Sims, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field and remote sensing studies show that shrub expansion has been widespread in low-Arctic ecosystems. However, there are still uncertainties regarding the extent of these changes, the plant functional groups involved, and the relative importance of climate and disturbance as causes of observed changes. Some authors have suggested that shrub expansion may have caused declines in lichens important for caribou forage, but these changes have not been examined at regional scales. Our research on the Tuktoyaktuk Coastal Plain using 30m resolution Landsat satellite imagery from 1985-2011 and high resolution (1:2000) vertical aerial photographs from 1980 and 2013 shows that shrub expansion has been associated with widespread lichen decline . Our analysis shows that the most likely driver of shrub expansion is a 4°C winter temperature increase over the past 30 years, leading to warmer soils and enhanced supply of growth-limiting nutrients. Natural and human-caused disturbances also stimulated increases in shrub cover, but these effects were limited spatially. Our observations are consistent with plot-scale warming experiments showing reductions in lichen cover from shrub growth, and modeling studies predicting large-scale vegetation shifts in the low-Arctic from climate change. These vegetation changes have implications for caribou forage, wildfire regimes, and permafrost conditions.

  14. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  15. Hydrochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in the coastal plain of Al Musanaah, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askri, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    The Al Batinah coastal aquifer is the principal source of water in northwestern Oman. The rainfall in the Jabal Al Akhdar mountain region recharges the plain with freshwater that allowed agricultural and industrial activities to develop. The over-exploitation of this aquifer since the 1970s for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes, excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture and leakage from septic tanks led to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes regulating the groundwater quality in the southwestern section of Al Batinah. From available data collected during the spring of 2010 from 58 wells located in Al Musanaah wilayat, it was determined that the groundwater salinity increased in the direction from the south to the north following the regional flow direction. In addition to salinisation, the groundwater in the upstream and intermediate regions was contaminated with nitrate, while groundwater in the downstream region was affected by fluoride. Calculations of ionic ratios and seawater fraction indicated that seawater intrusion was not dominant in the study area. The primary factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in Al Musanaah appear to be halite dissolution, reverse ion exchange with clay material and anthropogenic pollutants.

  16. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  17. InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykhus, R.P.; Lu, Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven to be an effective tool for monitoring surface deformation from volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and groundwater withdrawal. This paper seeks to expand the list of applications of InSAR data to include monitoring subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement over the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. To test our hypothesis that InSAR data are sufficiently sensitive to detect subsidence associated with thaw settlement, we acquired all Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) L-band data available for the summers of 1996, 1997, and 1998 over two sites on the Alaska North Slope. The least amount of subsidence for both study sites was detected in the interferograms covering the summer of 1996 (2-3 cm), interferograms from 1997 and 1998 revealed that about 3 cm of subsidence occurred at the northern Cache One Lake site, and about 5 cm of subsidence was detected at the southern Kaparuk River site. These preliminary results illustrate the capacity of the L-band (24 cm) wavelength JERS-1 radar data to penetrate the short Arctic vegetation to monitor subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement of the active layer and (or) other hydrologic changes over relatively large areas. ?? 2008 CASI.

  18. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita m [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago; Heraty, Linnea J [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  19. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  20. ENSO components of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and their relation to North Atlantic interannual coastal sea level anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO are known to influence coastal water levels along the east coast of the United States. By identifying empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs which coherently contribute from the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI to the AMO index (AMOI, we characterize both the expression of ENSO in the unsmoothed AMOI, and coherent relationships between these indices and interannual sea level anomalies at six stations in the Gulf of Mexico and Western North Atlantic. Within the ENSO band (2–7 yr periods the total contribution of MEI to unsmoothed AMOI variability is 79%. Cross correlation suggests that the MEI leads expression of the ENSO signature in the AMOI by six months, consistent with the mechanism of an atmospheric bridge. Within the ENSO band, essentially all of the coupling between the unsmoothed AMOI and sea level anomalies is the result of ENSO expression in the AMOI. At longer periods we find decadal components of sea level anomalies linked to the AMOI at three southern stations (Key West, Pensacola, Charleston, but not at the northern stations (Baltimore, Boston, Portland, with values of coherence ranging from 20 to 50%. The coherence of MEI to coastal sea level anomalies has a different structure and is generally weaker than that of the ENSO expressed AMOI influence, suggesting distinct physical mechanisms are influencing sea level anomalies due to a direct ENSO teleconnection when compared to teleconnections based on ENSO expression in the AMOI. It is expected that applying this analysis to extremes of sea level anomalies will reveal additional influences.

  1. Sustainability of subtropical coastal zones in southeastern Florida: Challenges for urbanized coastal environments threatened by development, pollution, water supply, and storm hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Finkl, C.W.; Charlier, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    The subtropical Atlantic coastal zone of southeastern Florida supports nearly 7 million inhabitants on a coastal plain conurbation that stretches from West Palm Beach to Miami. About a quarter of the present population originally settled on higher topography along the shore-parallel Atlantic Coastal Ridge. From about the middle 1900s, however, urbanization intensified along the shore and spread westward into freshwater marshlands. Population densities approaching 2500 persons per km-2 along s...

  2. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  3. A late Quaternary multiple paleovalley system from the Adriatic coastal plain (Biferno River, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Bracone, Vito; Campo, Bruno; D'Amico, Carmine; Rossi, Veronica; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-02-01

    A buried paleovalley system, up to 2 km wide and exceeding 50 m in relief, made up of multiple cross-cutting depressions incised into the Lower Pleistocene bedrock, is reported from the central Adriatic coastal plain at the mouth of Biferno River. Through a multi-proxy approach that included geomorphological, stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleontological (benthic foraminifers, ostracods and molluscs) investigations, the facies architecture of distinct, superposed valley fills is reconstructed and their relative chronology established along a transverse profile with extremely high data density (average borehole spacing 75 m). Regional tectonic uplift appears as the major controlling factor of initial (Middle Pleistocene) river down-cutting and paleovalley formation. In contrast, glacio-eustatic fluctuations drove fluvial-system response over the last 120 ky, when valley incision was primarily induced by the last glacial base-level lowering and climatic forcing. A fragmented record of coastal and shallow-marine deposits is available for the lower paleovalley fill, which is penetrated by a limited borehole dataset. Multiple erosion phases probably related to the post-MIS 5e sea-level fall are reconstructed from the upper paleovalley fill, where a buried fluvial terrace succession is identified a few tens of meters below the ground surface. The flat surfaces of two buried fluvial terraces suggest longer-term, stepped relative sea-level fall, and are correlated with fluvial incisions that took place possibly at the MIS 5/4 transition and at the MIS 3/2 transition, respectively. A laterally extensive gravel body developed on the valley floor during the Last Glacial Maximum. During the ensuing latest Pleistocene-early Holocene sea-level rise the Biferno paleovalley was transformed into an estuary. Upstream from the maximum shoreline ingression, the vertical succession of well-drained floodplain, poorly-drained floodplain, and swamp deposits evidences increasing

  4. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, W R; Bockheim, J G; Hinkel, K M; Brown, T A; Nelson, F E; Peterson, K M; Jones, B M

    2005-01-02

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer with very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost, and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis, and {sup 14}C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow, and heath vegetation); and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP, and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with climatic

  5. Mercury and methylmercury stream concentrations in a Coastal Plain watershed: A multi-scale simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury is a ubiquitous global environmental toxicant responsible for most US fish advisories. Processes governing mercury concentrations in rivers and streams are not well understood, particularly at multiple spatial scales. We investigate how insights gained from reach-scale mercury data and model simulations can be applied at broader watershed scales using a spatially and temporally explicit watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling model, VELMA. We simulate fate and transport using reach-scale (0.1 km2) study data and evaluate applications to multiple watershed scales. Reach-scale VELMA parameterization was applied to two nested sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) and the encompassing watershed (79 km2). Results demonstrate that simulated flow and total mercury concentrations compare reasonably to observations at different scales, but simulated methylmercury concentrations are out-of-phase with observations. These findings suggest that intricacies of methylmercury biogeochemical cycling and transport are under-represented in VELMA and underscore the complexity of simulating mercury fate and transport. - Highlights: • We simulate mercury and methylmercury (MeHg) watershed transport at multiple scales. • Model parameterization for all scales is based on field study observed data. • Results suggest the feasibility of scaling for hydrology and total mercury. • Simulated daily MeHg concentrations are out-of-phase with observations. • Simulated mean and range MeHg concentrations are better than daily. - A grid-based watershed model coupled with biogeochemical cycling is applied at multiple scales to simulate total and methylmercury concentrations in a Coastal Plain watershed

  6. Overview of investigations into mercury in ground water, soils, and septage, New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, investigations by health departments of eight counties in southern New Jersey, by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), and subsequently by the US Geological Survey (USGS), have shown that Hg concentrations in water tapped by about 600 domestic wells exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ??g/L. The wells are finished in the areally extensive unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of New Jersey's Coastal Plain; background concentrations of Hg in water from this system are point sources of Hg, such as landfills or commercial and industrial hazardous-waste sites, is lacking. During 1996-2003, the USGS collected water samples from 203 domestic, irrigation, observation, and production wells using ultraclean techniques; septage, leach-field effluent, soils, and aquifer sediments also were sampled. Elevated concentrations of NH4, B, Cl, NO3, and Na and presence of surfactants in domestic-well water indicate that septic-system effluent can affect water quality in unsewered residential areas, but neither septage nor effluent appears to be a major Hg source. Detections of hydrogen sulfide in ground water at a residential area indicate localized reducing conditions; undetectable SO4 concentrations in water from other residential areas indicate that reducing conditions, which could be conducive to Hg methylation, may be common locally. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly chlorinated solvents, also are found in ground water at the affected areas, but statistically significant associations between presence of Hg and VOCs were absent for most areas evaluated. Hg concentrations are lower in some filtered water samples than in paired unfiltered samples, likely indicating that some Hg is associated with particles or colloids. The source of colloids may be soils, which, when undisturbed, contain higher concentrations of Hg than do disturbed soils and aquifer sediments. Soil disturbance during residential development and

  7. Horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminant solvents introduced during different periods into coastal plain aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a 10 square mile sector in the NW part of the Savannah River Site, degreasing solvents, trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from contaminant plumes primarily within Tertiary Coastal Plain strata. In the central area, TCE has migrated farther down-section than PCE; to the north, TCE concentrations are > PCE, although both are significantly lower. SW groundwater flow characterizes aquifers beneath the region. Vertical migration potentials are downward. Within the central area, maximum contaminant concentrations are confined to the upper part of the Steed Pond aquifer. Wells do not penetrate deep enough in the central area to determine if contaminants > 5 ppb occur below the 30-50 ft thick Crouch Branch confining unit (CBcu). In the NE part of the sector, the confining layers are thinner, and contaminants are in the Crouch Branch aquifer (CRa) beneath the CBcu. The plume originating from the NE part of the area extends steeply downward to a 360+ ft depth below the surface (30--20 ft above mean sea level), and extends laterally as two distinct lobes of high concentration in the Middle Sand aquifer zone (MSa) within the CBcu and in the CBa in the Cretaceous part of the stratigraphic section. The plume extending beneath the NE part of the area has the deepest known vertical extent. The PCE plume shows relatively moderate levels of contamination extending down to the Middle Sand aquifer zone, but only very low concentrations at deeper levels. In the central part of the area, multiple plumes of high contaminant concentration are steeply inclined from the vertical in the Steed Pond aquifer, whereas high concentrations of PCE do not show as much areal distribution as TCE

  8. Prioritizing Watersheds for Conservation Actions in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts.

  9. [Reproductive phenology of three vegetation types from a coastal plain of Paraguana Penninsula, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Jiménez, Luis José; Ramírez, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive phenology of 51 plant species was evaluated according to life form and vegetation types in a coastal plain of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. Plant species distribution according to three vegetation types (herbaceous littoral, herbaceous psamophil, and mangrove area) was determined. Life form frequency was different according to vegetation type. Herbaceous littoral and herbaceous psamophil vegetation were dominated by herbaceous species; woody species were mostly frequent in the mangrove vegetation. Phenological data revealed that 14 (27.5%) plant species flower and fruit year-round; 23 (45.1%) plant species flower and fruit at the beginning of the wet season; seven (13.7%) plant species flower at the end of wet season, and seven (13.7%) more flower at the beginning of the dry season. Flowsring and fruiting phenology showed similar frequency distribution during the year; reproductive phenology was independent of life forms. Flowering and fruiting peaks occurred during the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season for trees and perennial herbs, and from one to three months later for shrubs and annual herbs. The lowest proportion of flowering and fruiting occurred before rain increase for all life forms. Flowering and fruiting phenologies were similar for the three vegetation types evaluated: flowering peak occurred during the lowest value of precipitation, three to four months after precipitation peak, and fruiting peak occurred four months later from the precipitation peak. These results suggest that flowering and fruiting phenology were not affected by life form and vegetation types. The peaks of flowering and fruiting during the lowest values of precipitation may be considered as a slow and late response to the precipitation maximum, and to the proximity between maximum and minimum of precipitation.

  10. Narrow endemics on coastal plains: Miocene divergence of the critically endangered genus Avellara (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Jiménez-Mejías, P; Martín-Bravo, S; Buide, M L; Álvarez, I; Vargas, P

    2016-07-01

    Critically endangered species representing ancient, evolutionarily isolated lineages must be given priority when allocating resources for conservation projects. Sound phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimations are required to detect them, and studies on their population genetics, ecological requirements and breeding system are needed to understand their evolutionary history and to design efficient conservation strategies. Here we present the paradigmatic case of Avellara, a critically endangered monotypic genus of Compositae inhabiting a few swamps in the west-southwest Iberian coastal plains. Our phylogenetic and dating analyses based on nuclear (ITS) and plastid (matK) DNA sequences support a Miocene (>8.6 Ma) divergence between Avellara and closely related genera, resulting in marked morphological and ecological differentiation. We found alarmingly low levels of genetic diversity, based on AFLPs and plastid DNA sequences, and confirmed the prevalence of clonal reproduction. Species distribution modelling suggested a large macroclimatically suitable area for Avellara in the western Iberian Peninsula, but its apparently narrow microecological requirements restrict its distribution to peatlands with low-mineralised waters. Although five populations have been recorded from Spain and Portugal in the past, its current distribution may be reduced to only one population, recurrently found in the last decade but threatened by herbivory and habitat degradation. All this confirms the consideration of Avellara as a threatened species with high phylogenetic singularity, and makes it a flagship species for plant conservation in both Spain and Portugal that should be given priority in the design of in situ and ex situ conservation programmes. PMID:27039878

  11. Effects of flooding and drought on water quality in Gulf Coastal Plain streams in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golladay, Stephen W; Battle, Juliann

    2002-01-01

    Since 1994, water-quality constituents have been measured monthly in three adjacent Coastal Plain watersheds in southwestern Georgia. During 1994, rainfall was 650 mm above annual average and the highest flows on record were observed. From November 1998 through November 2000, 19 months had below average rainfall. Lowest flows on record were observed during the summer of 2000. The watersheds are human-dominated with row-crop agriculture and managed forestlands being the major land uses. However, one watershed (Chickasawhatchee Creek) had 10 to 13% less agriculture and greater wetland area, especially along the stream. Suspended particles, dissolved organic carbon, NH4-N, and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations were greater during wet and flood periods compared with dry and drought periods for each stream. Regional hydrologic conditions had little effect on NO3-N or dissolved inorganic carbon. Chickasawhatchee Creek had significantly lower suspended sediment and NO3-N concentrations and greater organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, reflecting greater wetland area and stronger connection to a regional aquifer system. Even though substantial human land use occurred within all watersheds, water quality was generally good and can be attributed to low stream drainage density and relatively intact floodplain forests. Low drainage density minimizes surface run-off into streams. Floodplain forests reduce nonpoint-source pollutants through biological and physical absorption. In addition to preserving water quality, floodplain forests provide important ecological functions through the export of nutrients and organic carbon to streams. Extreme low flows may be disruptive to aquatic life due to both the lack of water and to the scarcity of biologically important materials originating from floodplain forests.

  12. Management Effects on Soil Respiration in North Carolina Coastal Plain Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, M.; McNulty, S.; Noormets, A.; Treasure, E.

    2012-12-01

    Loblolly pine is the most widely planted tree for plantation management in the southern US. In the southern coastal plain, where much of the original longleaf pine and bottomland hardwood forests have been converted to loblolly pine plantations, inland areas are commonly characterized by deep organic soils that can store up to 80 kg C m-2. Intensive management activities on these sites disturb the forest floor and soil and their impact on soil respiration rates and long term soil storage capabilities is unclear. We measured soil respiration rates in three loblolly pine plantations being managed with a combination of ditching, bedding, clearcutting, thinning and fertilization. Sites and management regimes represented a wide range of real world conditions found in managed southern US forestry plantations. Soil efflux rates along with soil temperature and moisture were measured throughout the year at four to six plots on each site and best fit relationships were developed. Annual soil respiration rates where modeled using 30-minute soil temperature and moisture measurements recorded at a centralized meteorological station on each site. Soil efflux rates were highly correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but interaction between the two effects was uncommon. Soil temperature was the primary driver of soil respiration rates, but rates were suppressed under high soil moisture content. Modeled annual soil efflux rates were higher the first two years following clearcut harvest and thinning operations, but lower two years following fertilization. Rates were lower in the gaps, where entire tree rows were removed, compared to thinned areas, especially on the unfertilized site. Results indicate that soil respiration rates can be strongly impacted by forest management practices; however, the period of increased soil CO2 efflux due to site disturbance may last only a few years.

  13. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  14. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  15. Survival, nesting success, and habitat selection in wild turkey populations in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, William F.

    2007-07-01

    ABSRACT. We compared survival rates between hunted and unhunted wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) gobblers in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina to assess the impact of spring gobbler-only hunts on populations. Gobblers were captured on the Savannah River Site (SRS), which contains long-established populations that have never been hunted, and on Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological reserve (CWMA), which has held spring hunts since 1983. In January-March of 1998-2000, 46 gobblers were captured on SRS and 19 were captured no CWMA. Each turkey was fitted with a backpack radio transmitter and monitored 3 times per week.

  16. Spatial Trends in the Texture, Moisture Content, and pH of a Virginia Coastal Plain Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharais, S.; Heatwole, C.D.; Campbell, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    Soil texture, moisture content, and pH data from an agricultural field area of 48 _ 32 m in a Suffolk sandy loam soil in the Virginia Coastal Plain was examined for spatial trends. Trend surface analysis of sand, silt, and clay content data (n = 35) found that 68%, 74%, and 31% of the total variability in sand, silt, and clay content, respectively, was explained by second-order trend surfaces. Soil moisture content and pH also exhibited spatial trends, which resulted in statistically signific...

  17. Regional structural framework and petroleum assessment of the Brooks Range foothills and southern coastal plain, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Miller, John J.

    2002-01-01

    New interpretations of the frontal part of the Brooks Range orogen beneath the foothills and coastal plain in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) are based on reprocessed regional seismic reflection data, recent geologic field observations, and new apatite fission-track analyses. Three long north-south transects illustrate the configuration of thrust faulting above a basal detachment that, within the southern part of NPRA, steps up from the Triassic Shublik Formation, to the Jurassic Kingak Shale, and finally into Cretaceous Torok mudstones. This thrust system represents the youngest recognized pulse of major shortening, about 60 Ma.

  18. Evidence for Distinct Coastal and Offshore Communities of Bottlenose Dolphins in the North East Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Machiel G.; Visser, Fleur; Englund, Anneli; Rogan, Emer; Ingram, Simon N.

    2015-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphin stock structure in the northeast Atlantic remains poorly understood. However, fine scale photo-id data have shown that populations can comprise multiple overlapping social communities. These social communities form structural elements of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations, reflecting specific ecological and behavioural adaptations to local habitats. We investigated the social structure of bottlenose dolphins in the waters of northwest Ireland and present evidence for distinct inshore and offshore social communities. Individuals of the inshore community had a coastal distribution restricted to waters within 3 km from shore. These animals exhibited a cohesive, fission-fusion social organisation, with repeated resightings within the research area, within a larger coastal home range. The offshore community comprised one or more distinct groups, found significantly further offshore (>4 km) than the inshore animals. In addition, dorsal fin scarring patterns differed significantly between inshore and offshore communities with individuals of the offshore community having more distinctly marked dorsal fins. Specifically, almost half of the individuals in the offshore community (48%) had characteristic stereotyped damage to the tip of the dorsal fin, rarely recorded in the inshore community (7%). We propose that this characteristic is likely due to interactions with pelagic fisheries. Social segregation and scarring differences found here indicate that the distinct communities are likely to be spatially and behaviourally segregated. Together with recent genetic evidence of distinct offshore and coastal population structures, this provides evidence for bottlenose dolphin inshore/offshore community differentiation in the northeast Atlantic. We recommend that social communities should be considered as fundamental units for the management and conservation of bottlenose dolphins and their habitat specialisations. PMID:25853823

  19. Site quality evaluation of loblolly pine on the South Carolina Lower Coastal Plain, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles J. Everett; John H. Thorp

    2008-01-01

    Eleven soil types, which can be identified and delineated using conventional soil survey procedures, were characterized for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity. Four 4-hectare study sites, each containing four measurement plots, were established for every soil type studied. In a stepwise multiple regression, both soil parent material (i.e. a combination of subsoil texture and geology) (p<0.001), and drainage class (p=0.006) were significant predictors of site index (tree age 25), and the overall linear regression model had an R2 value of 0.55. The extremes of soil parent material differed by 3.9 m site index (loamy subsoil on the Wicomico-Penholoway surfaces versus clayey subsoil on the Pamlico-Princess Anne surfaces). Each increment of drainage class differed by 0.7 m site index. For example, a poorly drained soil had 0.7 m lower site index than a somewhat poorly drained soil. For seven of the eleven soil types studied, there is greater than 80% probability that estimated mean site index is within ±0.8 m of the actual soil type mean site index. The other four soil types (labeled G, I, C and K) need to be either redefined or sampled more intensively. Two of these need to be subdivided in order to adequately characterize site quality, one based on geology (Soil type G) and one based on soil drainage class (Soil type I). Variation in soil drainage class and varying amounts of topsoil displaced into windrows were both factors influencing site quality variation of a third soil type (Soil type C). The wide variation in site index data for a fourth soil type (Soil type K) appeared to be due, in part, to sampling study locations and individual measurement plots with less than optimum bedding and/or artificial drainage. Soil parent material (subsoil texture and geology) along with drainage class were found to be important factors influencing site quality on the South Carolina Lower Coastal Plain.

  20. Microbial Responses to Forest Management in the Western Gulf Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, J. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Scott, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    to the more severe harvest treatments; however, while TN was significantly impacted by harvest and varied over time, SOC varied only with time. Temporal variations in SMB-C and -N, TN, and SOC were correlated with temperature, precipitation, and volumetric soil moisture. Data suggest that forest harvest practices that minimize removal of above-ground biomass will favor soil N retention and the maintenance of the SMB pool. Since N limits tree growth in the sandy soils of the western Gulf Coastal Plain, and because SMB plays a key role in N mineralization, harvest practices that favor N retention and SMB will ensure the productivity of future rotations.

  1. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  2. Methods to assess natural and anthropogenic thaw lake drainage on the western Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Beck, Richard A.; Frohn, Robert

    2007-06-01

    Thousands of lakes are found on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska and northwestern Canada. Developed atop continuous permafrost, these thaw lakes and associated drained thaw lake basins are the dominant landscape elements and together cover 46% of the 34,570 km2 western Arctic Coastal Plain (WACP). Lakes drain by a variety of episodic processes, including coastal erosion, stream meandering, and headward erosion, bank overtopping, and lake coalescence. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery from the mid-1970s to Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+) imagery from around 2000 shows that 50 lakes completely or partially drained over the approximately 25 year period, indicating landscape stability. The lake-specific drainage mechanism can be inferred in some cases and is partially dependant on geographic settings conducive to active erosion such as riparian and coastal zones. In many cases, however, the cause of drainage is unknown. The availability of high-resolution aerial photographs for the Barrow Peninsula extends the record back to circa 1950; mapping spatial time series illustrates the dynamic nature of lake expansion, coalescence, and drainage. Analysis of these historical images suggests that humans have intentionally or inadvertently triggered lake drainage near the village of Barrow. Efforts to understand landscape processes and identify events have been enhanced by interviewing Iñupiaq elders and others practicing traditional subsistence lifestyles. They can often identify the year and process by which individual lakes drained, thereby providing greater dating precision and accuracy in assessing the causal mechanism. Indigenous knowledge has provided insights into events, landforms, and processes not previously identified or considered.

  3. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Alewife/Blueback Herring

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Clemon W.; Neves, Richard J.; Pardue, Garland B.

    1983-01-01

    This profile covers life history and environmental requirements of both alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), since their distribution is overlapping and their morphology, ecological role, and environmental requirements are similar. The alewife is an anadromous species found in riverine, estuarine, and Atlantic coastal habitats, depending on life cycle stage, from Newfoundland (Winters et al. 1973) to Soutn Carolina (...

  4. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  5. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Wizen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: E. dejeani and E. circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of E. dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata is described. Only E. dejeani consumed T. vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit.

  6. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit. PMID:21738411

  7. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion. The soil map was made using the geographic information system ArcGIS 9.3. This GIS software was also used to generate the digital elevation model (DEM for identifying the slope classes. SAGA software was used to calculate the topographic wetness index (WI which aided in a more accurate separation of Haplic Organosol from other soils. The predominant soil class in the watershed was the dystrophic/dystrocohesive Yellow Argisol (97%, containing morphological, chemical and physical characteristics representative of the most expressive Coastal Plains soils. Geoprocessing tools and techniques aided to make the watershed soil map.

  8. In situ measurement of some gamma-emitting radionuclides in plant communities of the South Carolina coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ and laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements were taken in nine scrub oak forests and nine old fields to determine the applicability of in situ analysis in the coastal plain. Data collected at each of the 18 sites included a 2-hr count, soil density and moisture estimates, and vegetation measurements. Samples returned to the laboratory for radiometric analysis included litter and herbaceous vegetation and soil cores. Analysis of the gamma-emitter detection frequencies, concentrations, and burdens showed good to excellent agreement between laboratory and in situ methods. Generally, forests were determined to be superior in situ sampling systems. Laboratory analysis of collected samples may be a superior technique for gamma emitters with low energies, low concentrations, or nonuniform distributions in the soil. Three potential uses of in situ Ge(Li) spectrometers were identified and discussed in terms of their limits and of the replicate ecosystems appropriate for in situ analyses. Although the variety and the biogeochemical cycling regimes of southeastern coastal plain ecosystems complicate in situ analyses, it was concluded that comparable and probably accurate results can be achieved using in situ technology

  9. Biogeochemical variations at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Susan; Lampitt, Richard; Schuster, Ute; Jiang, Zongpei; Frigstad, Helene; Ostle, Clare

    2016-04-01

    We examine high-resolution autonomous measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure p(CO2) taken in situ at the FixO3 Porcupine Abyssal Plain sustained observatory (PAP-SO) site in the northeast Atlantic (49° N, 16.5° W; water depth of 4850 m) for the period 2010 to 2012. Measurements of p(CO2) made at 30 m depth on a sensor frame are compared with other autonomous biogeochemical measurements at that depth (including chlorophyll a-fluorescence and nitrate concentration data) to analyze weekly to seasonal controls on p(CO2) flux in the inter-gyre region of the North Atlantic. Comparisons are also made with in situ regional time-series data from a ship of opportunity and mixed layer depth (MLD) measurements from profiling Argo floats. There is a persistent under saturation of CO2 in surface waters throughout the year which gives rise to a perennial CO2 sink. Comparison with an earlier dataset collected at the site (2003 to 2005) confirms seasonal and inter-annual changes in surface seawater chemistry. There is year-to-year variability in the timing of deep winter mixing and the intensity of the spring bloom.

  10. Do Tsunami Deposits Thin Landward? Observations from the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami on the Sendai Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B. M.; Jaffe, B. E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Szczucinski, W.; Goto, K.; Sugawara, D.; Witter, R. C.; Tappin, D. R.; Shigehiro, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Case studies of recent tsunami impacts have proven to be extremely useful in understanding the geologic processes involved during inundation and return flow, and refining the criteria used to identify paleotsunami deposits in the geologic record. Here, we report on the spatial distribution of deposit thickness resulting from the March, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami along a nearly 4.5 km shore-normal sampling transect on the coastal plain near Sendai, Japan. The study area consisted of a broad, low-relief prograding coastal plain which comprised a broad sand beach backed by low (~3 m) sand dunes and forest; a wetland and a shore-parallel engineered drainage canal several meters deep and ~40 m wide; agricultural rice fields marked by low-lying rectangular dyke systems with occasional buildings, canals, and roads; and an elevated highway embankment which generally marked the landward extent of inundation except where gaps in the structure allowed flow to penetrate further inland. Field observations in May 2011 documented a tsunami deposit that generally thinned landward from an average maximum ~30 cm thick sand deposit in the coastal forest to a thin mud drape several mm thick near the inundation limit. Although there was an overall thinning of the deposit, this trend was often interrupted by localized features that led to variability in deposit thickness (from 0 to 20+ cm) over short distances (<10 m) along transect and adjacent to the main transect. The variability in both the along- and transverse flow directions is related to micro-topography, sediment source availability, and gradients in flow speed and duration. Although there is an overall landward thinning of the deposit, localized thinning and thickening occurred in numerous locations along our transect. This information is critical for accurately identifying paleotsunami deposits and for improving tsunami hazard assessment from the geologic record.

  11. Morphological characteristics and sand volumes of different coastal dune types in Essaouira Province, Atlantic Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-Blanco, Germán; Flor, Germán; Lharti, Saadia; Pando, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Altogether three coastal dune fields, one located north and two south of the city of Essaouira, Atlantic Morocco, have been investigated to establish the distribution and overall sand volumes of various dune types. The purpose of the study was to characterize and classify the aeolian landforms of the coastal dune belt, to estimate their sand volumes and to assess the effectiveness of coastal dune stabilization measures. The northern dune field is 9 km long and lined by a wide artificial foredune complex fixed by vegetation, fences and branches forming a rectangular grid. Active and ephemeral aklé dunes border the inner backshore, while some intrusive dunes have crossed the foredune belt and are migrating farther inland. The total sand volume of the northern dune belt amounts 13,910,255 m3. The central coastal sector comprises a much smaller dune field located just south of the city. It is only 1.2 km long and, with the exception of intrusive dunes, shows all other dune types. The overall sand volume of the central dune field amounts to about 172,463 m3. The southern dune field is characterized by a narrower foredune belt and overall lower dunes that, in addition, become progressively smaller towards the south. In this sector, embryonic dunes (coppice, shadow dunes), tongue-like and tabular dunes, and sand sheets intrude from the beach, the profile of which has a stepped appearance controlled by irregular outcrops of old aeolianite and beach rock. The total volume of the southern dune field amounts 1,446,389 m3. For the whole study area, i.e. for all three dune fields combined, a sand volume of about 15,529,389 m3 has been estimated. The sand of the dune fields is derived from coastal erosion and especially the Tensift River, which enters the sea at Souira Qedima some 70 km north of Essaouira. After entering the sea, the sand is transported southwards by littoral drift driven by the mainly north-westerly swell climate and the Trade Winds blowing from the NNE. This

  12. Field and laboratory fomesafen dissipation in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) was discovered in central Georgia (USA) in 2006. Subsequent spread of this highly problematic weed throughout the region prompted growers and registrants to seek labels for herbicides that can provide cost-effective control. To this end, the...

  13. Sustainability of groundwater supplies in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.

    2016-08-31

    Groundwater is the Nation’s principal reserve of freshwater. It provides about half our drinking water, is essential to food production, and facilitates business and industry in developing economic well-being. Groundwater is also an important source of water for sustaining the ecosystem health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. The decreases in groundwater levels and other effects of pumping that result from large-scale development of groundwater resources have led to concerns about the future availability of groundwater to meet all our Nation’s needs. Assessments of groundwater availability provide the science and information needed by the public and decision makers to manage water resources and use them responsibly.

  14. Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Kilgo; C.E. Moorman

    2003-09-01

    Until recently, little information was available on patterns of brood parasitism by Brownheaded Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the southeastern United States, a region into which cowbirds expanded their range only during the last half of the Twentieth Century and where their abundance is relatively low. We compiled parasitism data from several published and unpublished studies conducted in Georgia and South Carolina from 1993-2000 to examine levels of brood parasitism and determine frequent host species. The combined dataset included 1,372 nests of 24 species reported in the literature to have been parasitized by cowbirds. The parasitism rate on all species combined was 8.2%. Considering only those species that served as hosts in these studies (n = I2), the parasitism rate was 9.3%. Seven species were parasitized at rates 2 10%. Based on the extent of parasitism (among studies and locations), their relative abundance, and the sample size of nests, Prairie Warblers (Dendroicta discolor), Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina), Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), all shrub nesters, appear to be the most important cowbird hosts in the region. Parasitism on some species reported as frequent hosts elsewhere was extremely low or not documented. We conclude that the impact of brood parasitism on the seasonal fecundity of hosts in the region probably is minimal, but additional work is warranted on species of concern, such as the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris).

  15. Surface altitude of hydrogeologic layers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — PP1773_unit_alt_grid is a polygon shapefile of surface altitudes for 16 hydrogeologic units as described in report Professional Paper 1773. Surface altitudes were...

  16. Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryak, M.

    1998-10-21

    In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.

  17. Sustainability of groundwater supplies in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the Nation’s principal reserve of freshwater. It provides about half our drinking water, is essential to food production, and facilitates business and industry in developing economic well-being. Groundwater is also an important source of water for sustaining the ecosystem health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. The decreases in groundwater levels and other effects of pumping that result from large-scale development of groundwater resources have led to concerns about the future availability of groundwater to meet all our Nation’s needs. Assessments of groundwater availability provide the science and information needed by the public and decision makers to manage water resources and use them responsibly.

  18. Natural regeneration in a quaternary coastal plain in southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Ibraim Salimon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Composition, structure and dynamics of an eight year old secondary forest was studied at Reserva Volta Velha (26°04'S; 48°38'W, southern Brazil. A 0.72ha plot was divided into 36 subplots of 20X10m, where all trees/shrubs greater than 1m tall were identified, measured (height/diameter and evaluated (successional status. The results were: (1 95 species collected within 68 genera and 44 families; the most species rich families were Myrtaceae and Asteraceae with 8 species each; (2 the most important species (considering biomass and density were Psidium cattleianum, Eupatorium casarettoi, Ocotea pulchella and Ternstroemia brasiliensis; (3 the most similar area was a fallow abandoned 35 years ago; (4 the higher species diversity were found in border subplots, indicating that most of the species do not tolerate extreme conditions in the center of the opening, and are colonizing the area through the borders.A maior parte das áreas florestais no domínio da Floresta Atlântica se encontra degradada devido a diferentes pressões antrópicas. No intuito de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre relictos de florestas nativas intactas, e também de áreas abandonadas para se obter dados sobre os processos naturais de regeneração, foi realizado um estudo da composição florística, estrutura e dinâmica de uma comunidade vegetal em estágio seral inicial de 8 anos. em Floresta Ombrófila Densa das Terras Baixas, na Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoa-SC, Brasil. Foram utilizados os métodos usuais de coleta, herborização e identificação das espécies encontradas, e a análise estrutural foi feita utilizando-se 36 parcelas retangulares de 20 X 10m, sendo incluídas todas as plantas arbustivo/arbóreas com no mínimo 1 metro de altura. Os resultados obtidos foram os seguintes: 1- Foram encontradas 96 espécies, dentro de 68 gêneros e 44 famílias; as famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae e Asteraceae com 8 espécies cada, e o gênero mais representado foi Ilex, com 4 espécies; 2- As espécies mais importantes (parâmetros fitossociológicos no local foram Psidium cattleianum, Eupatorium casarettoi, Ocotea pulchella e Ternstroemia brasiliensis; 4- A área mais similar à do presente estudo foi uma área vizinha abandonada há 35 anos; áreas de restinga também demostraram ser relativamente semelhantes; 5- O grupo ecológico com maior número de espécies foi o de oportunistas (especialistas de pequenas clareiras, e houve um maior número de espécies nas parcelas de borda, mostrando que a maior parte das espécies não toleram as condições extremas do centro da clareira. e sua colonização se dá via bordas.

  19. Soil carbon in natural, cultivated, and restored depressional wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial extent of wetland ecosystems have decreased dramatically since precolonial times due to the conversion of these areas for human use. Wetlands provide various ecosystem services, and conservation efforts are being made to restore wetlands and their functions, including soil carbon storage. Thi...

  20. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist of basal transgressive sands overlain by regressive highstand silts and quartz sands; and (2) although slope lithofacies variations are subdued, reworked sediments constitute lowstand deposits, causing the strongest, most extensive seismic reflections. Despite a primary eustatic control on sequence boundaries, New Jersey sequences were also influenced by changes in tectonics, sediment supply, and climate. During the early to middle Eocene, low siliciclastic and high pelagic input associated with warm climates resulted in widespread carbonate deposition and thin sequences. Late middle Eocene and earliest Oligocene cooling events curtailed carbonate deposition in the coastal

  1. Effects of winter seismic exploration on the coastal plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The impacts of the 1984 winter seismic exploration program upon thevegetation, thermal regime, and visual resources of the Arctic Coastal Plainwere measured....

  2. Late holocene environmental change at the Quiaios-Tocha coastal plain

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Randi

    2010-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências This thesis concerns the palynological investigation of organic sediment series of coastal mire deposits along a transect of sites from the sea to the inland old dune fields, including lagoons, wetlands and lakes. The results have been integrated in an extended view of landscape evolution, taking into consideration many sources of information such as those from coastal geomorphology, sedimentology, malacology and finally from regional history. ...

  3. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  4. Temperature data from thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida by from 01 January 2000 to 31 December 2003 (NODC Accession 0002518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using SBE 39 thermistor casts in the Atlantic Ocean's coastal waters off Florida from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003 as part...

  5. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  6. Surface-water quality in agricultural watersheds of the North Carolina Coastal Plain associated with concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on water quality were investigated at 54 agricultural stream sites throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain during 2012 and 2013. Three general watershed land-use types were examined during the study, including 18 background watersheds with no active CAFOs (BK sites), 18 watersheds with one or more active swine CAFOs but no poultry CAFOs (SW sites), and 18 watersheds with at least one active swine CAFO and one active dry-litter poultry CAFO (SP sites). The watershed drainage areas for these 54 stream sites ranged from 1.2 to 17.5 square miles. Conventional fertilizers used for crop production are the primary source of nutrients at the BK sites. Animal-waste manures represent an additional source of nutrients at the SW and SP study sites.

  7. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  8. Aerosol extinction properties over coastal West Bengal Gangetic plain under inter-seasonal and sea breeze influenced transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Priyadharshini, B.; Pani, S. K.; Bharath Kumar, D.; Faruqi, A. R.; Bhanja, S. N.; Mandal, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the atmospheric aerosol extinction properties under an influence of inter-seasonal and sea breeze (SB) transport processes over coastal West Bengal (WB) Gangetic plain (WBGP). The predominant frequency of airmass back trajectory path was through the Arabian Sea (AS) during southwest monsoon (SWmon) and that through the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during transition to winter (Twin) season and the Bay of Bengal during transition to summer (Tsumm) season. Aerosol surface concentration (Sconc) and aerosol extinction exhibited heterogeneity in the seasonal variability over coastal WBGP with their highest seasonal mean being during winter and summer seasons respectively. Seasonal mean extinction was respectively 17% and 30% higher during winter and summer seasons than that during SWmon. While angstrom exponent (AE) was less than one during SWmon, Tsumm, and summer seasons, it was near to one during Twin and winter monsoon (Wmon), and was more than one during winter season. Relative contribution (%) of upper (at altitude above 1 km) aerosol layer (UAL) to aerosol extinction during summer was four times of that during winter. Seasonally distinct vertical distribution of aerosol extinction associated with meteorological and SB influenced transport and that due to influence of high rise open burning emissions was inferred. Possible aerosol subtypes extracted during days in Tsumm were inferred to be mostly constituted of dust and polluted dust during daytime, in addition to polluted continental and smoke in UAL during nighttime. In contrast to that at nearby urban location (Kolkata, KOL), intensity of updraft of airmass evaluated during evening/SB activity hour (1730 local time, (LT)) at study site (Kharagpur, KGP) was as high as 3.5 times the intensity during near to noon hour (1130 LT); this intensity was the highest along coast of westBengal-Orissa. Enhanced Sconc and relative contribution of UAL to aerosol extinction (58% compared to 36% only at nearby urban

  9. Pathways for arsenic from sediments to groundwater to streams: Biogeochemical processes in the Inner Coastal Plain, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Mumford, Adam; Young, Lily Y.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Bonin, Jennifer L.; Rosman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments that underlie the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey contain the arsenic-rich mineral glauconite. Streambed sediments in two Inner Coastal Plain streams (Crosswicks and Raccoon Creeks) that traverse these glauconitic deposits are enriched in arsenic (15–25 mg/kg), and groundwater discharging to the streams contains elevated levels of arsenic (>80 μg/L at a site on Crosswicks Creek) with arsenite generally the dominant species. Low dissolved oxygen, low or undetectable levels of nitrate and sulfate, detectable sulfide concentrations, and high concentrations of iron and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the groundwater indicate that reducing environments are present beneath the streambeds and that microbial activity, fueled by the DOC, is involved in releasing arsenic and iron from the geologic materials. In groundwater with the highest arsenic concentrations at Crosswicks Creek, arsenic respiratory reductase gene (arrA) indicated the presence of arsenic-reducing microbes. From extracted DNA, 16s rRNA gene sequences indicate the microbial community may include arsenic-reducing bacteria that have not yet been described. Once in the stream, iron is oxidized and precipitates as hydroxide coatings on the sediments. Arsenite also is oxidized and co-precipitates with or is sorbed to the iron hydroxides. Consequently, dissolved arsenic concentrations are lower in streamwater than in the groundwater, but the arsenic contributed by groundwater becomes part of the arsenic load in the stream when sediments are suspended during high flow. A strong positive relation between concentrations of arsenic and DOC in the groundwater samples indicates that any process—natural or anthropogenic—that increases the organic carbon concentration in the groundwater could stimulate microbial activity and thus increase the amount of arsenic that is released from the geologic materials.

  10. SIMULATION OF NON-POINT POLLUTANTS EVOLUTION IN COASTAL PLAIN ISLAND-A CASE STUDY OF CHONGMING ISLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-long; JIANG Wen-yan; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    The coastal plain region usually shows the agricultural dominated industry mode, so more and more attention is paid to non-point pollutants discharge. In this study, the method for assessing the influence of non-point pollutants discharge on river water quality is probed which is concluded as follows: (1) Considering the costal plain island is characterized as nearly even elevation, the conventional gravitational runoff confluence method based on eight-point gravitational flowing directions (D8) is unable to compute the runoff confluence received by the surrounding rivers, so a new method of triangular confluence based on three-points of grid center and the river segments is presented. Further the equations of non-point pollutants loads estimation and non-point pollutants confluence on rivers are presented. (2) The integration mode of non-point pollutants model and river water quality model is presented so as to further assess the non-point pollutants contribution to river water quality. (3) With the Chongming Island, the third largest island in China, as an example, the above-mentioned equations are specified. For this island, the non-point pollutants loads are estimated and linked to the developed water quality model of the river network in the island, and further the non-point pollution evolution in river network is simulated. In this scenario, the non-point pollution contribution to river water quality over the whole island is clearly displayed, and the area where the river water quality is seriously influenced by non-point pollutants discharge is distinctly depicted. This scenario also shows the water quality contribution ratio of non-point pollution to point pollution can be in the range of 55.5% to 44.5% which proves the importance of non-point pollution control in costal plain islands.

  11. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  12. Physiological characteristics of wild Atlantic salmon post-smolts during estuarine and coastal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, S.O.; Bjornsson, B. Th; Sundell, K.; Nyhammer, G.; McCormick, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Changes were measured in some of the major physiological variables associated with seawater adaptability, growth and energetics in wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and post-smolts migrating from the river and through the estuary, fjord and coastal areas in the River Orkla and the Trondheimsfjord, Norway during late May to early June. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity increased to levels of 12-16 ??mol ADP mg protein-1 h -1 in post-smolts caught in higher salinity zones, probably representing long-term levels of Atlantic salmon post-smolts in oceanic conditions. Muscle moisture was regulated within narrow limits (77.7-78.7%) in fish from all zones during both years, suggesting that post-smolts adapt to marine conditions without any long-term disturbance of hydro-mineral balance. Lipid and glycogen content showed a general trend towards depletion from the river, through the fjord and into the ocean. There was, however, no significant change in protein content. The present results confirm that smolts are naturally 'energy deficient' during downstream migration, and suggest that post-smolts also mobilize energy reserves during their early marine phase, while protein is allocated for somatic growth. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels increased transiently during passage through the estuary and fjord, with lower levels observed in post-smolts caught off-shore, i.e. in fish which were feeding on marine prey and had adapted to the marine environment. These physiological changes may confer substantial selective advantages during the critical early marine phase of anadromous salmonids, and hence are adaptive for long-term survival in sea water. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Phosphorus 32 cycling in the root-litter mat of Pernambuco atlantic coastal forest, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a compartmental model to describe P cycling in the root-litter mat and surface mineral soil of an Atlantic coastal forest. Considerable amounts of P accumulate in this root-litter mat, relative to available P in the underlying mineral soil. We studied the mechanisms responsible for P retention five days after addition of sup(32)P on the surface of the 02 horizon. Total sup(31)P and sup(32)P were determined in leaves, humus, mineral soil and roots. In addition, we determined sup(31)P and sup(32)P in the solution and microbial biomass of the humus material. Fluxes of sup(31)P were obtained from published data and from experimental results of sup(32)P distribution among compartments. The main fluxes taking P out from the soils solution were uptake by the microbial biomass and sorption by the humus (12.9 e 5.2 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1), respectively), while the mean flux into the roots was 3.1 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1). The main compartment responsible for P accumulation was the humus+fragments, which had the highest P content (61% of total P in the forest floor) and the longest turnover time (15.5 months). (author)

  14. Modeling and Optimization of Seawater Intrusion Barriers in Southern California Coastal Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, William W-G.; Bray, Ben

    2006-01-01

    A five-layered confined-unconfined flow and transport models are developed and calibrated for the Alamitos seawater intrusion barrier in Southern California. The conceptual model is based on the geological structure of the coastal aquifer system, and the key parameters in the flow and transport models are calibrated using field measurements of hydraulic conductivity as well as head and concentration observations. Because of the abundance of point measurements of hydraulic conductivity, the he...

  15. Temperature, salinity, and other measurements from bottle casts from the GEORGY USHAKOV and the ERNEST KRENKEL in the North Atlantic and Coastal N Atlantic by the Ukrainian Scientific Centre of the Ecology of Sea from 08 July 1972 to 25 December 1972 (NODC Accession 0000487)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle and other data were collected from the North Atlantic and Coastal North Atlantic from the GEORGY USHAKOV and ERNEST KRENKEL from 08 July 1972 to 25 December...

  16. Mesoscale eddies in the coastal upwelling region of the tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Florian; Brandt, Peter; Karstensen, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The mesoscale variability in the tropical northeast Atlantic (between 12°N - 22°N and 15°W - 26°W) is examined and characterised. We applied two automated methods for eddy identification to 16 years of satellite altimetry measurements: the geometrical method, based on closed streamlines around eddy cores, and the Okubo-Weiß method, based on the relationship between vorticity and the strain tensors. In general, both methods agree well. On average about 125 (±11) eddies per year were identified, separating in 52% cyclones and 48% anticylones. We found an average radius of about 50 (±20) km, a westward propagation speed of about 2.8 (±1.2) km/d and an average lifetime of about 40 days. Several eddies (more anticylones than cyclones) were detectable up to 300 days. Three main eddy formation regions in the coastal upwelling region that can be associated with headlands of the coast are detectable. This suggests that dynamic instability of the along-shore current is an important generation mechanism. We identified that cyclones are produced predominantly during boreal winter, especially in January, whereas anticyclones are generated predominantly during boreal summer. From the three eddy generation areas, almost all eddies propagate westward along distinct corridors with a small polarity depending meridional deflection (anticyclones - equatorward, cyclones - poleward). Considering occupied area and number of eddies, about 17% of the tropical northeast Atlantic region under investigation was occupied by eddies in every moment in time. About 30 (±5) eddies per year originate from the upwelling region off Senegal and Mauretania. Considering in-situ temperature and salinity observations (Argo, ship, mooring data) within and outside of eddies detected by the algorithms the mean vertical structure of the mesoscale eddies were determined. From together 2191 Profiles, 106 (144) profiles were within anticyclonic (cyclonic) mesoscale eddies. On average the maximum

  17. Evolution of Pre-Jurassic basement beneath northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Siclen, D.C.

    1990-09-01

    Data from the northern Gulf Coast region reveal a late Paleozoic wrench fault system along which North America (NA) moved southeast (present directions) alongside the northeastern edge of future South America (SA), to where collision with that continent converted a broad continental embankment off the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen into the Ouachita thrust belt. At the same time, Africa farther east, to which protruding SA was firmly joined, was continuing to advance the Appalachian thrusts on the opposite side of these faults. This relationship left no space between the American continents for the conventional remnant ocean or microcontinents. By Late Triassic time, however, extension south of the Ouachita Mountains was forming the series of Interior rift basins, at both ends of which new wrench faults transferred the extension southward to the DeSoto Canyon and South Texas rift basins. Genetically, the Ouachita thrusts are part of the subduction zone along the front of a former SA forearc basin, which continued to receive marine sediments into middle Permian. The Wiggins arch southeast of it is a sliver of that continent, left with NA when the Interior basin rifting jumped from that forearc basin southward across bordering outer basement highs to begin opening the deep Gulf of Mexico (GOM) basin. The Late Triassic crustal extension resulted from right-lateral translation of NA around the bulge of northwestern Africa. About 200 mi of this placed Cape Hatteras against Africa's Cap Blanc, in the configuration from which the magnetic data indicate spreading began in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. The reality of this translation is confirmed by widespread rifting at the same time in western North Africa and between all three northern Atlantic continents; this drew the tip of the Tethys sea southward to Cape Hatteras and led to deposition of voluminous Late Triassic red beds and evaporites along it.

  18. ANWR progress report number FY83-8: Ecology of brown bears inhabiting the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty brown bears were captured between 23 June and 3 July 1982 in the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of ANWR....

  19. ANWR progress report number FY84-11: Ecology of brown bears inhabiting the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report covers the ecology of brown bears inhabiting the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of the Arctic National...

  20. Validation of Satellite Precipitation (trmm 3B43) in Ecuadorian Coastal Plains, Andean Highlands and Amazonian Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Castro, E.; Campozano, L.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation monitoring is of utmost importance for water resource management. However, in regions of complex terrain such as Ecuador, the high spatio-temporal precipitation variability and the scarcity of rain gauges, make difficult to obtain accurate estimations of precipitation. Remotely sensed estimated precipitation, such as the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis TRMM, can cope with this problem after a validation process, which must be representative in space and time. In this work we validate monthly estimates from TRMM 3B43 satellite precipitation (0.25° x 0.25° resolution), by using ground data from 14 rain gauges in Ecuador. The stations are located in the 3 most differentiated regions of the country: the Pacific coastal plains, the Andean highlands, and the Amazon rainforest. Time series, between 1998 - 2010, of imagery and rain gauges were compared using statistical error metrics such as bias, root mean square error, and Pearson correlation; and with detection indexes such as probability of detection, equitable threat score, false alarm rate and frequency bias index. The results showed that precipitation seasonality is well represented and TRMM 3B43 acceptably estimates the monthly precipitation in the three regions of the country. According to both, statistical error metrics and detection indexes, the coastal and Amazon regions are better estimated quantitatively than the Andean highlands. Additionally, it was found that there are better estimations for light precipitation rates. The present validation of TRMM 3B43 provides important results to support further studies on calibration and bias correction of precipitation in ungagged watershed basins.

  1. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  2. Comparison of Historical and Recent Shoreline Change Rates to Shoreface and Lower Coastal Plain Geomorphology: Geologic Framework Influences on Shoreline Evolution in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. S.; Wright, E. E.; Dufrene, T. A.; Gayes, P. T.; Katuna, M. P.; Putney, T. R.; Bush, D. M.; Schwab, W. C.

    2002-12-01

    The lower Coastal Plain and inner Continental Shelf of the United States East Coast vary coherently in both pre-Holocene and modern morphology, in long-term trends of coastal change, and in respect to critical areas of beach erosion. As a portion of the USGS-SC Sea Grant Consortium coastal erosion program, this study presents a comparison of historical to recent shoreline change rates with the geomorphology of the lower Coastal Plain and inner portions of the Continental Shelf of South Carolina. Shoreline change trends of re-digitized historical data of Anders et al. (1990) and recent aerial photographs were analyzed using ARC/INFO, ArcGIS and scripts modified from the original DSAS program (Thieler and Danforth, 1994) and the currently active National Shoreline Change Program (US Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL). Lower Coastal Plain and coastal geomorphology data come from digital USGS topographic data, Horry County department of engineering (approximately 0.4 m vertical resolution), and NOAA LIDAR data for the immediate coastline. NOAA and USGS processed bathymetry were merged with these data for South Carolina to produce a seamless hypsographic data layer for these physiographic regions. Sidescan sonar surveys over the past eight years in South Carolina provide additional shoreface data for the Charleston and Grand Strand (Myrtle Beach) areas of South Carolina. As expected, the highest and most consistent variances in shoreline change trends are associated with inlets, small swashes, washover barriers, and beach renourishment projects. However, critical trends in coastal change in regions outside those typically associated with hot spots of erosion point to other, non-hydrodynamic influences on the coastal system. These influences may include truncation of modern dune ridges, of low-elevation Pleistocene terraces and beach faces, of highly-varied stratigraphic units, and of indurated near-surface strata, which all have direct influence on long-term average

  3. [The pollination of Krameria bahiana B.B. Simpson by bees in the Coastal Sand Plains of Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Miriam; Lobão, Cybelle da S

    2006-01-01

    The flowers of K. bahiana mainly produce oil as floral resource for their visitors. Oil collecting bees usually show morphological and behavioral adaptation for their collection. This study focused on the analysis of interactions between the flowers of K. bahiana and their visiting bees, aiming for the efficiency of the pollination, in an area of the Coastal Sand Plains of Bahia State, Brazil. From February/2001 to February/2002 and from May to October/2002 observations were accomplished about the phenology and morphology of the plants and the floral visitors' behavior. The flowers of the inflorescences are zigomorphic, small sized, pink and present a pair of petals modified in epithelial elaiophores, which are responsible for the production of oil. These flowers were visited especially by bees of the genus Centris: C. leprieuri Spinola, C. tarsata Smith, C. trigonoides Lepeletier and C. pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana. The bees collected only oil in the flowers, by scratching the elaiophores and then transferring it to scopa located on the tibia and basitarsus of the hind legs. During those actions, the bees often contact the reproductive structures of the flowers, resulting in pollination. C. leprieuri was the most frequent bee during this study, thus considered the effective pollinator. Megachile dentipes Vachal also visited the flowers of K. bahiana, collecting only pollen. However, these bees were considered sporadic pollinators because they were not frequent in the flowers of K. bahiana in the months of observation. PMID:17061790

  4. Digital-simulation and projection of head changes in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, coastal plain, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzier, James E.

    1980-01-01

    The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system of Cretaceous age, which is the principal source of water to the major population and industrial centers in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, has undergone continuous and widespread reduction in head. The reduced head, already below sea level throughout most of the aquifer system, in conjunction with encroachment of salty water toward centers of pumping, threatens the continued use of the aquifer as a source of freshwater in the area. A single layer, two-dimensional finite difference digital model was used to simulate the response of the aquifer system to pumping stresses during the 18-year period, 1956-73. Model simulations were based on close agreement between (1) observed and calculated heads and head trends for 10 observation wells during the period, 1956-73; and (2) the computed nonpumping steady-state potentiometric surface and a potentiometric surface based on early water-level observations (1900±) solutions. In addition, the hydrologic budget estimated by the model appears to be reasonable for the transient (1956-73) and the steady-state (1900±) solutions. The model was used to compute projected potentiometric heads and trends to the year 2000. Three sets of conditions, all using the 1973 distribution of pumping centers, were simulated. The conditions are:

  5. Survival dynamics of fecal bacteria in ponds in agricultural watersheds of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Fisher, Dwight S; Adams, M Paige; Lowrance, Richard; Newton, G Larry; Vellidis, George

    2012-01-01

    Animal agriculture in watersheds produces manure bacteria that may contaminate surface waters and put public health at risk. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (commensal Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci) and manure pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7), and physical-chemical parameters in pond inflow, within pond, pond outflow, and pond sediments in three ponds in agricultural watersheds. Bishop Pond with perennial inflow and outflow is located in the Piedmont, and Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Bromide and chloride tracer experiments at Bishop Pond reflected a residence time much greater than that estimated by two models, and indicated that complete mixing within Bishop Pond was never obtained. The long residence time meant that fecal bacteria were exposed to solar UV-radiation and microbial predation. At Bishop Pond outflow concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were significantly less than inflow concentrations; such was not observed at Ponds A and C. Both Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 were measured when concomitant concentrations of commensal E. coli were below the criterion for surface water impairment indicating problems with the effectiveness of indicator organisms. Bishop Pond improved down stream water quality; whereas, Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow and possibly greater nutrient concentrations within the two ponds appeared to be less effective in improving down stream water quality.

  6. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, G.; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  7. Groundwater and stream E. coli concentrations in coastal plain watersheds served by onsite wastewater and a municipal sewer treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Charles; Finley, Algernon; O'Driscoll, Michael; Manda, Alex; Iverson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWS) were influencing groundwater and surface water Escherichia coli concentrations in a coastal plain watershed. Piezometers for groundwater monitoring were installed at four residences served by OWS and five residences served by a municipal wastewater treatment system (MWS). The residences were located in two different, but nearby (<3 km), watersheds. Effluent from the four septic tanks, groundwater from piezometers, and the streams draining the OWS and MWS watersheds were sampled on five dates between September 2011 and May 2012. Groundwater E. coli concentrations and specific conductivity were elevated within the flow path of the OWS and near the stream, relative to other groundwater sampling locations in the two watersheds. Groundwater discharge in the OWS watershed could be a contributor of E. coli to the stream because E. coli concentrations in groundwater at the stream bank and in the stream were similar. Stream E. coli concentrations were higher for the OWS in relation to MWS watersheds on each sampling date. Water quality could be improved by ensuring OWS are installed and operated to maintain adequate separation distances to water resources. PMID:26540548

  8. Sedimentation patterns across a Coastal Plain floodplain: The importance of hydrogeomorphic influences and cross-floodplain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaase, Christopher T.; Kupfer, John A.

    2016-09-01

    The floodplains of large Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern U.S. are important long-term storage sites for alluvial sediment and nutrients. Yet considerable uncertainty surrounds sediment dynamics on many large river floodplains and, in particular, the local scale factors that affect the flux of sediment and nutrients from rivers onto their floodplains and their subsequent deposition. This research quantifies short-term rates of sediment deposition from 2012 to 2014 on floodplain sites at Congaree National Park using feldspar pads. Sediment deposition rates ranged from 0.1 to 15.6 cm (median = 1.46 cm) and were closely associated with inundation frequency and geomorphic position. Cross-floodplain distributary channels served as particularly important conduits for moving sediment onto the floodplain. Physical and chemical analyses of soil samples demonstrated that the most flood-exposed sites had higher major nutrient and micronutrient levels (especially of phosphorus) and more diverse nutrient compositions. This research advances current understandings of lateral floodplain connectivity by demonstrating the complex effects of regional hydrology and local floodplain environmental characteristics on the supply of sediment and nutrients.

  9. Clear-water abutment and contraction scour in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina, 1996-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, collected observations of clear-water aburment and contraction scour at 146 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of South Carolina. Scour depths ranged from 0 to 23.6 feet. Theoretical scour depths were computed at each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths and often were excessive. A comparison of field data with dimensionless relations for laboratory data showed that the range of dimensionless variables used in laboratory investigations was outside of the range for field data in South Carolina, suggesting laboratory relations may not be applicable to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing scour within laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence within the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions found in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were embankment length, geometric-contraction ratio, approach velocity, and soil cohesion. Envelope curves developed with the field data are useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in South Carolina. These tools are simple to apply and are an improvement over the current methods for predicting theoretical scour.

  10. Effects of Different Soil Management Systems in the Chemical Properties in the Coastal Plains of State Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iêde de Brito Chaves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical characteristics of soils under different management systems, i.e., the culture of sugar cane with and without vinasse compared to forest area in the Coastal Plains ofState Paraiba. For each management system were opened five profiles occurring in the same soil class, dystrophic Ultisol grayish. In each profile, the soil samples were collected at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm depths. These samples, after being air dried and passed through a sieve of 2 mm, were characterized chemically. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% probability. The pH, electrical conductivity, exchangeable aluminum, potential acidity and phosphorus results, in relation to soil management, were significantly affected; in relation to depth, there was a significant effect on the pH results and on the electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, potassium, potential acidity and P results. However, for area x depths there was a significant difference only for aluminum, potential acidity and phosphorus contents. The results of this study show that treatment with vinasse application promotes improvements in soil chemical properties such as pH increases and the availability of K and P in the surface layers of soil.

  11. A conceptual framework and monitoring strategy for movement of saltwater in the coastal plain aquifer system of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, E. Randolph

    2015-09-04

    A conceptual framework synthesizes previous studies to provide an understanding of conditions, processes, and relations of saltwater to groundwater withdrawal in the Virginia Coastal Plain aquifer system. A strategy for monitoring saltwater movement is based on spatial relations between the saltwater-transition zone and 612 groundwater-production wells that were regulated during 2013 by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. The vertical position and lateral distance and direction of the bottom of each production well’s screened interval was calculated relative to previously published groundwater chloride iso-concentration surfaces. Spatial analysis identified 81 production wells completed in the Yorktown-Eastover and Potomac aquifers that are positioned in closest proximity to the 250-milligrams-per-liter chloride surface, and from which chloride concentrations are most likely to increase above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 250-milligrams-per-liter secondary maximum-contaminant level. Observation wells are specified to distinguish vertical upconing from lateral intrusion among individual production wells. To monitor upconing, an observation well is to be collocated with each production well and completed at about the altitude of the 250-milligrams-per-liter chloride iso-concentration surface. To monitor lateral intrusion, a potential location of an observation well is projected from the bottom of each production well’s screened interval, in the lateral direction to the underlying chloride surface to a distance of 1 mile.

  12. Climate driven changes in hydrology, nutrient cycling, and food web dynamics in surface waters of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. C.; Wipfli, M.; Schmutz, J.; Gurney, K.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing rapidly as a result of a warming climate. While many areas of the arctic are expected to dry as a result of warming, the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, which extends from the Brooks Range north to the Beaufort Sea will likely become wetter, because subsurface hydrologic fluxes are constrained by thick, continuous permafrost. This landscape is characterized by large, oriented lakes and many smaller ponds that form in the low centers and troughs/edges of frost polygons. This region provides important breeding habitat for many migratory birds including loons, arctic terns, eiders, shorebirds, and white-fronted geese, among others. Increased hydrologic fluxes may provide a bottom-up control on the success of these species by altering the availability of food resources including invertebrates and fish. This work aimed to 1) characterize surface water fluxes and nutrient availability in the small streams and lake types of two study regions in the ACP, 2) predict how increased hydrological fluxes will affect the lakes, streams, and water chemistry, and 3) use nutrient additions to simulate likely changes in lake chemistry and invertebrate availability. Initial observations suggest that increasing wetland areas and availability of nutrients will result in increased invertebrate abundance, while the potential for drainage and terrestrialization of larger lakes may reduce fish abundance and overwintering habitat. These changes will likely have positive implications for insectivores and negative implications for piscivorous waterfowl.

  13. Estimating the size of juvenile fish populations in southeastern coastal-plain estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the ecological significance of man's activities upon fishery resources requires information on the size of affected fish stocks. The objective of this paper is to provide information to evaluate and plan sampling programs designed to obtain accurate and precise estimates of fish abundance. Nursery habitats, as marsh--tidal creeks and submerged grass beds, offer the optimal conditions for estimating natural mortality rates for young-of-the-year fish in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coast estuaries. The area-density method of abundance estimation using quantitative gears is more feasible than either mark-recapture or direct-count techniques. The blockage method provides the most accurate estimates, while encircling devices enable highly mobile species found in open water to be captured. Drop nets and lift nets allow samples to be taken in obstructed sites, but trawls and seines are the most economical gears. Replicate samples are necessary to improve the precision of density estimates, while evaluation and use of gear-catch efficiencies is feasible and required to improve the accuracy of density estimates. Coefficients of variation for replicate trawl samples range from 50 to 150 percent, while catch efficiencies for both trawls and seines for many juvenile fishes range from approximately 30 to 70 percent

  14. Short-term Holocene climate variability in coastal mid-Norway - the terrestrial response to the North Atlantic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, M.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Rubensdotter, L.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal areas are known to be susceptible to maritime climate variations, especially where prevailing wind directions provide humidity and latent heat to the land masses. Temperature reconstructions from the eastern North Atlantic, and from northern and western Norway show simultaneous changes on millennial to centennial scales during the Holocene. However also latitudinal climatic differences occur during the Holocene. These indicate a more complex system along the Norwegian coast with regional temperature variations depending on more than only North Atlantic's climate. Climate sensitive archives such as lake sediments in coastal mid-Norway provide the opportunity to study the influence of and the terrestrial response to climate variations mediated by the North Atlantic and allow the extension of our knowledge about regional peculiarities along the Norwegian coast. Lake Blomstertjønna, a small lake outside Trondheim at 427 m a.s.l., enables a detailed study of climatic and environmental variations during the Holocene. The entire succession is 590 cm long and is composed of minerogenic sediments at the bottom and dominating biogenic sediments in the upper 495 cm. Radiocarbon dating of macrofossils aided by tephra identification reveal a lake history that started after deglaciation at about 12 kyr BP and shifted to a biogenic productive lake with overall uniform sedimentation rates at about 11 kyr BP. Biogeochemical proxies like total organic carbon and total sulphur and geophysical parameters show a weak, i.e. more even response to climatic variations in the gyttja-rich section and indicate that temperature was not a limiting factor for the lake productivity. In contrast, geochemical elemental ratios from XRF scanning reveal a pronounced long- and short-term variability of elemental composition. The long-term trend of selected elemental ratios reflects the general Holocene temperature evolution with higher values during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and a

  15. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    CERN Document Server

    Erramli, H; Misdaq, M A; Sauvage, T; Ramboz, Claire

    2008-01-01

    In this work PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of the phosphate industry wastes on the concentrations of both radioactive and non-radioactive elements of the samples studied was investigated.

  16. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements' (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of the phosphate industry wastes on the concentrations of both radioactive and non-radioactive elements of the samples studied was investigated

  17. Effects of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal plain drainages in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark S.; Meador, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This review focuses on the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal rivers and estuaries of the southeastern U.S. Influences of salinity on freshwater fish species can be explained partly through responses evidenced by behavior, physiology, growth, reproduction, and food habits during all aspects of life history. Factors influencing the rate of salinity change affect the community structure and dynamics of freshwater fishes in brackish environments. Our understanding of the relation between salinity and the life history of freshwater fishes is limited because little ecological research has been conducted in low-salinity habitats that we consider an “interface” between freshwater streams and the estuary proper. Much of the available data are descriptive in nature and describe best general patterns, but more specific studies are required to better determine the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes. Improved understanding of the influence of human-induced changes on the productivity and viability of these important systems will require a new research focus.

  18. Geophysical investigations of the crust and mantle beneath Texas' Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrola, H.; Pulliam, J.; Knuppel, M.; Agrawal, M.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) and a dense broadband profile (X4) that coincided with TA deployments in Texas formed the basis for higher resolution geophysical investigations than previously possible in the Gulf Coast Plain (GCP). X4 is a 300-km-long array of 26 broadband seismic stations deployed from Matagorda Island across the GCP, ending near the center of the Llano uplift (LU). The study found an 80-100 km wide "lithosphere-asthenosphere transition zone" (LATZ). While a negative Sp phase at ~110 km depth could be interpreted as a shallow LAB, several negative Sp phases were also found in the 110-180 km depth interval and this set of negative Sp phases is bounded by a positive Sp phase at 180-200 km depth that is semi-continuous across the length of the array. We interpret the depth interval's negative anomalies to be the results of partial melt and shearing in a softened or underdeveloped lithosphere, thus the term LATZ. The GCP was also found to have large SKS splitting delay times, which we believe is due to seismic anisotropy in the LATZ (the zone of assumed shearing). Body wave tomography found slightly high Vp but unusually low Vs beneath the GCP; Vs is more sensitive to partial melt and anisotropy than Vp, further supporting the LATZ hypothesis. Ps and Sp Moho phases are observed at ~35 km beneath the LU but both Sp and Ps RFs fail to image a Moho beneath the Balcones Fault zone (BFZ). The Moho may be undetectable due to serpentinization of the upper mantle from water leaking through the BFZ, a possibility supported by the existence of a low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle beneath the BFZ found by surface wave modeling. Ps and Sp RFs also found evidence for a low velocity zone in the 50-70 km depth interval near the shoreline of the GCP. Ps RF imaging suggests this LVZ may be a piece of subducted lower crust emplaced during the Ouachita orogeny with a trapped mantle wedge above it. These observations are supported by gravity modeling.

  19. Contribution To The HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY Of Groundwater In The Northwest Coastal Plain, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the deterioration of water resources in the studied area using the hydrogeochemical and isotopic tools as complementary techniques. Fourteen water samples from the available groundwater and surface water bodies and from rainwater were collected to execute this study. The main source for groundwater recharge is the rainwater falling on the area in winter season (150 mm/year). The quality of this water has been changed in the Pleistocene and Middle Miocene aquifers and excavations due to the effect of different hydrogeochemical processes, leaching, dissolution, evaporation and mixing with sea water. The classic hydrochemical tool alone was not enough to delineate these processes while the stable isotope investigation was very useful in discriminating them. Water from wells tapping the Middle Miocene aquifer, from wells nos. 6 and 9, penetrating the Pleistocene aquifer and from excavation no. 11 have not been influenced by sea water intrusion. Its high salinity and other chemical constituents were due to the effect of leaching and dissolution of rocks and soil salts. The higher salinity, chemical constituents and stable isotopic composition of water from wells 6 and 9 and from excavation no. 10 were attributed to the mixing with sea water. The presence of water levels of these points under mean sea level confirms the intrusion of sea water. Water of Al-Agara spring was highly affected by evaporation process. As a result of this study, the coastal aquifers were vulnerable to sea water invasion. Groundwater over exploitation and drilling of more water wells in the area should be managed wisely

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from coastal environment of Cantabria (northern Spain) and evaluation of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sonia; Gorri, Daniel; Irabien, Angel

    2011-05-01

    This paper documents levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in coastal surface sediments from selected reference sites on the northern Atlantic Spanish coast. One hundred eight samples covering three estuaries in the Cantabrian Coast were sampled in 2006 and analyzed in the finer fraction (<63 μm) for 19 OCs by gas chromatography with electron capture detector after confirmation by mass spectrometry. Detected organochlorine pesticides were endosulfan α, endosulfan β, endosulfan sulfate, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, dieldrin, methoxychlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDD). Total OCs concentrations ranged from 1.8 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) to 3.9 ng g(-1) dw, showing a uniform distribution along the studied area, and being consistent with recorded levels in the literature for coastal sediments in other reference sites with low levels of pollution by OCs along the Atlantic Ocean. Endosulfan, 4,4'-DDD, HCB, aldrin, and dieldrin seemed to be ubiquitous as the legacy of past uses and deposition. OCs concentrations were significantly correlated to organic matter content and particle size distribution. No adverse biological effects derived from these pollutants are expected to take place as it can be concluded from the comparison with the existent marine sediment quality guidelines. PMID:20617459

  1. Developing effective ground and space-based soil moisture sensing techniques for irrigating cotton in coastal plain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xin

    Irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture sensor readings has gained popularity in the past few decades since it can enhance crop yield while saving water. Such method is limited since the representativeness of an individual soil moisture sensor measurement is questionable in a large field with variable soil type and texture. The optimum location of soil moisture sensors needs to be determined within such a production field for effective sensor-based irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the first object of this study was to investigate the optimum sensor location and the number of moisture sensors required for irrigating cotton in coastal plain soils. Replicated tests were conducted during 2012, 2013, and 2014 growing seasons in a cotton field located at the Edisto Research and Education Center of Clemson University, on a typical coastal plain soil. The test field was divided into different management zones based on soil electrical conductivity (EC) measurements. Soil moisture sensors including AquaSpy, Sentek EasyAg-50, Decagon EC-5, Watermark 200SS, and 503 DR Hydroprobe neutron probe access tubes were installed side by side in plots of each management zone. Irrigation treatments were based on sensor readings from various management zones. Results showed that irrigation based on sensor readings from higher electrical conductivity zones, can stabilize or even enhance yield while increasing water use efficiency (WUE) significantly. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of soil moisture sensors mentioned above to determine the most accurate and affordable sensor technology for irrigation scheduling. Season long soil moisture readings of AquaSpy, Sentek EasyAg-50, Decagon EC-5, and Watermark 200SS sensors were collected and compared to neutron probe readings. The results showed that Sentek EasyAg-50 sensor performed the best among tested sensors compared to neutron probe readings with coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.847 and root mean

  2. Widespread Degradation of Ice Wedges on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Northern Alaska in Response to the Recent Warmer Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Pullman, E. R.

    2003-12-01

    The continuous permafrost on the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska has been considered stable because permafrost temperatures remain low, even with an increase of several degrees during the last decades. Ice wedges, however, are particularly susceptible to degradation because only a very thin layer of permafrost (the transient layer) exists between the ice and the bottom of the active layer. An increase in the active layer during unusually warm periods causes the thawing front to encounter the underlying ice wedges and initiate degradation. Field observations and photogrammetric analysis of 1945, 1979, and 2001 aerial photography indicate that there has been widespread degradation of the ice wedges on the Arctic Coastal Plain west of the Colville Delta over the recent 57-year period, and indications are that most of the degradation occurred during the last two decades. Field sampling at 46 polygonal troughs and their intersections showed that ice wedge degradation has been relatively recent as indicated by newly drowned vegetation. We found thermokarst was widespread on a variety of terrain conditions, but most prevalent on, ice-rich centers of old drained lake basins and alluvial-marine terraces, which have the greatest ice wedge development in the studied landscape. Ice wedges on these terrains typically occupy from 10 to 20 % of the upper permafrost. We attributed the natural degradation to warm weather during the last decades, because disturbance of the ground surface, which could have similar impact on ice wedges, was not evident. While, ice-wedge degradation probably has been periodically occurring at low rates over the preceding centuries, it has greatly accelerated during the last several decades. We identified six stages of ice-wedge degradation and stabilization. They include: (1) the loss of transient layer of upper permafrost above ice wedges, leading to enhanced nutrient availability and vegetative growth; (2) thawing of ice wedges and surface

  3. Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, T.J.; Cook, J.D.; Coleman, Mark D.; Amatya, Devendra M.; Trettin, Carl C.

    2004-08-01

    The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square-km watershed draining to Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. We wish to experimentally determine the relative importance of interflow on water yield and water quality at this site. Interflow (shallow subsurface lateral flow) can short-circuit rainfall infiltration, preventing deep seepage and resulting in water and chemical residence times in the watershed much shorter than that if deep seepage were the sole component of infiltration. The soil series at the site (Wagram, Dothan, Fuquay, Ogeechee, and Vaucluse) each have a clay-rich B horizon of decimeter-scale thickness at depths of 1-2 m below surface. As interflow is affected by rainfall intensity and duration and soil properties such as porosity, permeability, and antecedent soil moisture, our calculations made using the Green and Ampt equation show that the intensity and duration of a storm event must be greater than about 3 cm per hour and 2 hours, respectively, in order to initiate interflow for the least permeable soils series (Vaucluse). Tabulated values of soil properties were used in these preliminary calculations. Simulations of the largest rainfall events from 1972-2002 data using the Green and Ampt equation provide an interflow: rainfall ratio of 0 for the permeable Wagram soil series (no interflow) compared to 0.46 for the less permeable Vaucluse soil series. These initial predictions will be compared to storm water hydrographs of interflow collected at the outflow point of each plot and refined using more detailed soil property measurements.

  4. Impacts of Enhanced-Efficiency Nitrogen Fertilizers on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Coastal Plain Soil under Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Runion, G Brett; Smith Nannenga, Katy W; Torbert, H Allen

    2015-11-01

    Enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers (EENFs) have the potential to increase crop yield while decreasing soil N loss. However, the effect of EENFs on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different agricultural systems is not well understood. Thus, studies from a variety of locations and cropping systems are needed to evaluate their impact. An experiment was initiated on a Coastal Plain soil under cotton ( L.) production for comparing EENFs to traditional sources. Nitrogen sources included urea, ammonia sulfate (AS), urea-ammonia sulfate (UAS), controlled-release, polymer-coated urea (Environmental Smart Nitrogen [ESN]), stabilized granular urea (SuperU), poultry litter (PL), poultry litter plus AgrotainPlus (PLA), and an unfertilized control. Carbon dioxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO), and methane (CH) fluxes were monitored regularly after fertilization through harvest from 2009 to 2011 using a closed-chamber method. Poultry litter and PLA had higher CO flux than other N treatments, while ESN and SU were generally lowest following fertilization. Nitrous oxide fluxes were highly variable and rarely affected by N treatments; PL and PLA were higher but only during the few samplings in 2010 and 2011. Methane fluxes were higher in 2009 (wet year) than 2010 or 2011, and N treatments had minimal impact. Global warming potential (GWP), calculated from cumulative GHG fluxes, was highest with PL and PLA and lowest for control, UAS, ESN, and SU. Results suggest that PL application to cotton increases GHG flux, but GHG flux reductions from EENFs were infrequently different from standard inorganic fertilizers, suggesting their higher cost may render them presently impractical. PMID:26641321

  5. Range of Variability in Southern Coastal Plain Forests: Its Historical, Contemporary, and Future Role in Sustaining Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Duncan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical range of variation (HRV has been used as a conceptual tool to determine appropriate management actions to sustain or restore diversity of ecological systems. This concept has come into question for both biological and social considerations, and the southeastern United States is a good model system to test its utility. Southeastern Coastal Plain upland pine savannas and woodlands and their associated wetlands are among the most diverse communities in temperate North America, having both high levels of species richness and large numbers of endemic flora and fauna. However, this diversity is intimately linked with disturbance regimes. Maintaining frequent fire, varied in season based on changing management objectives through time, is the most important management tool for sustaining biodiversity. Moreover, the landscape has been molded by a long history of intense land use that has altered both the biological and the social landscape in which management occurs, and threatens the native diversity. Management must anticipate likely trends and adopt strategies that provide flexibility for managers to deal with the future, both socially and ecologically. In the Southeast, the most dominant trend is associated with urbanization and forest fragmentation, which results from urban sprawl. This issue joins others—fire and smoke, logging, access, in-holdings, and the uncertainty of scientific models, for example—as matters of major concern to the public. Ultimately, it is the public that eventually grants or withholds social permission to manage. We explore, here, the potential and the limitations for how history can inform future management. Rather than being used as a specific management tool, we find that one purpose for which HRV may be well suited is serving as a broad communication framework to help diverse publics understand the concept of landscape dynamics. This approach would provide the fundamental background material for

  6. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  7. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Mid-Atlantic Coast (version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data sets contain information on the probabilities of hurricane-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 1-km section of the Mid-Atlantic...

  8. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Mid-Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data sets contain information on the probabilities of hurricane-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 1-km section of the Mid-Atlantic...

  9. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the concentrations of 226Ra

  10. Carbon and nitrogen stock and fluxes in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil: potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, D M; Mattos, E A de; Pinto, A S; Vieira, S A; Martinelli, L A

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important biomes of Brazil. Originally covering approximately 1.5 million of km², today this area has been reduced to 12% of its original size. Climate changes may alter the structure and the functioning of this tropical forest. Here we explore how increases in temperature and changes in precipitation distribution could affect dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in coastal Atlantic Forest of the southeast region of Brazil The main conclusion of this article is that the coastal Atlantic Forest has high stocks of carbon and nitrogen above ground, and especially, below ground. An increase in temperature may transform these forests from important carbon sinks to carbon sources by increasing loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. However, this conclusion should be viewed with caution because it is based on limited information. Therefore, more studies are urgently needed to enable us to make more accurate predictions.

  11. Arsenic in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams, sediments, and shallow groundwater: effects from different geologic sources and anthropogenic inputs on biogeochemical and physical mobilization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Mumford, Adam C.; Benzel, William M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Young, Lily Y.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams generally exceed the State Surface Water Quality Standard (0.017 micrograms per liter (µg/L)), but concentrations seldom exceed 1 µg/L in filtered stream-water samples, regardless of geologic contributions or anthropogenic inputs. Nevertheless, As concentrations in unfiltered stream water indicate substantial variation because of particle inputs from soils and sediments with differing As contents, and because of discharges from groundwater of widely varying chemistry.

  12. Chemical analyses of ground water for saline-water resources studies in Texas Coastal Plain stored in National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 4,269 water samples from wells in 66 counties in Texas have been processed into the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System by the Gulf Coast Hydrogeology Project of the U. S. Geological Survey. More than 65,000 chemical analyses of saline waters produced by oil test and production wells have been contributed to the project by major oil companies. The computerized tabulation and the computer-drawn map of the locations of sampling sites are the initial release of oil company, State, and Federal data in Texas Coastal Plain from the data bank.

  13. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; McCarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.; Sargent, Sarah; Kilgo, John

    2012-02-06

    ABSTRACT Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995-2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 _ 37,444 fruits; 12,009 _ 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 _ 7,667 fruits; 5,079 _ 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 _ 8,351 fruits; 4,621 _ 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 _ 8,301 fruits; 4,102 _ 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 _ 5,034 fruits; 3,261 _ 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995-2003). Fruit availability was highest June-September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. Land managers could enhance fruit availability for wildlife by

  14. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data for three water bodies, Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.; Hogan, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000?September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas. Segments of the three water bodies are on the State 303(d) list. Continuous monitoring showed that seasonal variations in water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen in all three water bodies were similar to those observed at U.S. Geological Survey stations along the Texas Gulf Coast. In particular, water temperature and dissolved oxygen are inversely related. Periods of smallest dissolved oxygen concentrations generally occurred in the summer months when water temperatures were highest. Water-quality monitors were deployed at three depths in Dickinson Bayou. For periodically collected nutrients, the median concentration of ammonia nitrogen was largest in Dickinson Bayou and smallest in the San Bernard River. Median concentrations of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and orthophosphorus were largest in Armand Bayou. The median concentration of each of the four nutrients was larger for high-flow samples than for low-flow samples. The largest individual nutrient concentrations occurred during spring and summer. Both median and individual concentrations of chlorophyll-a were largest for Armand Bayou; median concentrations of pheophyton were similar for all three water bodies, and individual concentrations were largest for Armand Bayou. Median densities of fecal coliform bacteria and E. coli bacteria were similar for all three water bodies. Flow conditions had minimal effect on concentrations of chlorophyll-a and pheophytin, but the largest bacteria densities were in samples collected during high flow. Yields of most nutrients tended to increase with distance downstream. Yields in the San Bernard River and tributaries were less than yields in Dickinson and Armand Bayous. For Dickinson

  15. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  16. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  17. Demography of coastal Atlantic cod in relation to the establishment of a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Jan-Harald

    2012-01-01

    Use a mark-recapture approach to study the demography of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a small (1 km2) marine protected area (MPA) on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. A total of 9713 Atlantic cod where tagged during 2005-2010. Inside the MPA, only hook and line fishing is allowed. Data are partly live capture-recaptures from the research fishing activity, and partly dead recoveries from commercial and recreational fishers. A high-reward system was applied to quantify the tag reporting rate fro...

  18. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  19. 76 FR 82057 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... in the management unit for the FMP. The overfishing status of these stocks is unknown, except that... regulation as the status quo. As set forth fully in Amendment 18, landings data for all four species proposed... the Gulf and Atlantic migratory groups are either administrative or allow status quo harvest...

  20. Process studies of the carbonate system in coastal and ocean environments of the Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salt, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in anthropogenic, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been largely mitigated by ocean uptake since the start of the Industrial Revolution, with the Atlantic Ocean providing the largest store of anthropogenic carbon. The thesis of Lesley Salt examines how the uptake of CO2 varies in dif

  1. The fault pattern in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological implications for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the southern Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological implications provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.

  2. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  3. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the coastal forests of southern Brazil: diversity, efficiency of sampling methods and comparison with other Atlantic forest surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa C. Mattozo; Luiz R. R. Faria; Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of orchid bees at the Brazilian Atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. For this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at Atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of São Paulo (Sete Barras, Faz. Morro do Capim: SP3) and state of Paraná (Antonina, Reserva Natural do Rio Cachoeira: PR3), in southern Brazil. In PR3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for...

  4. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  5. On the use of InSAR technology to assess land subsidence in Jakarta coastal flood plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifame; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Arnaud, Alain; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2014-05-01

    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. It is situated on the northern coastal alluvial plane of Java which shares boundaries with West Java Province in the south and in the east, and with Banten Province in the west. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. The southern part of the city is hilly. Thirteen major rivers flow through Jakarta to the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River is the most significant river and divides the city West to East. In the last three decades, urban growing of Jakarta has been very fast in sectors as industry, trade, transportation, real estate, among others. This exponential development has caused several environmental issues; land subsidence is one of them. Subsidence in Jakarta has been known since the early part of the 20th century. It is mainly due to groundwater extraction, the fast development (construction load), soil natural consolidation and tectonics. Evidence of land subsidence exists through monitoring with GPS, level surveys and InSAR investigations. InSAR states for "Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar". Its principle is based on comparing the distance between the satellite and the ground in consecutive satellite passes over the same area on the Earth's surface. Radar satellites images record, with very high precision, the distance travelled by the radar signal that is emitted by the satellite is registered. When this distance is compared through time, InSAR technology can provide highly accurate ground deformation measurements. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion

  6. Atlantic Coastal Experiment VI: R/V KNORR cruise, 23 August--11 September 1980, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K. (eds)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of estuaries on the ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Bight was undertaken. Data were collected from excursions into the Hudson, Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries, three across-shelf and one along-shelf transects, and two time series stations. In all, 139 stations were occupied and 164 XBT soundings were taken. In addition to standard hydrographic measurements, nutrient , chlorophyll, particulate carbon and nitrogen, 14C, 15N, DNA, particle size, FTD, phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses were made.

  7. The distribution and seasonal quality of habitat available for key wildlife species of the Arctic coastal plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snow melt, plant phenology, and seasonal availability of forage nutrients and biomass in concentrated and peripheral calving areas of caribou on the Arctic coastal...

  8. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.;

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  9. Gas bubble disease mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, at a coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial mortality of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, occurred in the discharge channel and discharge plume area of the Boston Edison Company's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 during the period April 8 through April 24, 1973. Gas bubble disease was implicated as the cause of their death. Measurements of dissolved gas concentration of the station's intake and discharge water during this fish mortality are presented. Observations on the behavior and results of the pathological examination of menhaden afflicted with gas embolism are discussed

  10. Nutrient and physical profile data from four Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruises collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern Atlantic Ocean from February 17, 1985 to September 7, 1986 (NODC Accession 8800324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruise data collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern...

  11. Microbial and Nutrient Concentration and Load Data During Stormwater Runoff at a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality and hydrologic data collected during 2006-2007 to characterize bacteria and nutrient loads associated with overland runoff and subsurface tile drainage in spray fields at a swine concentrated animal feeding operation. Four monitoring locations were established at the Lizzie Research Site in the North Carolina Coastal Plain Physiographic Province for collecting discharge and water-quality data during stormwater-runoff events. Water stage was measured continuously at each monitoring location. A stage-discharge relation was developed for each site and was used to compute instantaneous discharge values for collected samples. Water-quality samples were collected for five storm events during 2006-2007 for analysis of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. Instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci were computed for selected times during the five storm events.

  12. Structural iron (II of basaltic glass as an energy source for Zetaproteobacteria in an abyssal plain environment, off the Mid Atlantic Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Audrey Henri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W. In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 µm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from

  13. Experimental assessment of factors mediating the naturalization of a globally invasive tree on sandy coastal plains: a case study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Thalita G; Andrade, Antonio C S; Richardson, David M

    2016-01-01

    As all naturalized species are potential invaders, it is important to better understand the determinants of naturalization of alien plants. This study sought to identify traits that enable the alien tree Casuarina equisetifolia to overcome barriers to survival and reproductive and to become naturalized on sandy coastal plains. Restinga vegetation in Brazil was used as a model system to conceptualize and quantify key stressors (high temperature, solar radiation, drought and salinity) which can limit the initial establishment of the plants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these environmental factors on seed persistence in the soil (field), germination (laboratory), survival, growth, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic integration (greenhouse). Results show that the expected viability of the seeds in the soil was 50 months. Seeds germinated in a similar way in constant and alternating temperatures (20-40 °C), except at 40 °C. Low light, and water and salt stresses reduced germination, but seeds recovered germination when stress diminished. Young plants did not tolerate water stress (germination plasticity, although young plants showed low plasticity. The positive effect of phenotypic integration on plastic expression in the shade shows that in stressful environments traits that show greater phenotypic plasticity values may have significant phenotypic correlations with other characters, which is an important factor in the evolutionary ecology of this invasive species. Long-term seed persistence in the soil, broad germination requirements (temperature and light conditions) and the capacity to survive in a wide range of light intensity favours its naturalization. However, C. equisetifolia did not tolerate water stress and deep shade, which limit its potential to become naturalized on sandy coastal plain. PMID:27339050

  14. Assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in Tarsus coastal plain (Mersin, SE Turkey) using fuzzy clustering, multivariate statistics and GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Cüneyt; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Alpaslan, Musa; Akbulut, Can

    2012-01-01

    SummaryTarsus coastal plain (TCP) is an economically and ecologically important area situated in between the fertile fluvio-deltaic plains of two rivers, Deliçay and Tarsus (Mersin, SE Turkey), where anthropogenic activities (agricultural, industrial, and domestic) are very intense. Twenty-four water quality parameters were surveyed at 193 groundwater and 10 surface water sites during August 2008. The objective was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of groundwaters in TCP, assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater hydrology and chemistry, and identify the major hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the area. Groundwater samples were grouped into hydrochemically distinct and spatially continuous four water classes (i.e., C1, C2, C3, and C4) using the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering method, where membership values were interpolated using the ordinary kriging technique. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to decipher various underlying natural and anthropogenic processes creating these distinct water classes. Four principal components (PCs) were extracted in PCA which explained more than 73% of the total variance in water quality. Major factors responsible for the variations in chemistries of water classes are identified as: (1) water-rock interaction and nitrate contamination; (2) salinization by seawater intrusion and evaporite dissolution; (3) geogenic/anthropogenic Cr, Fe, and Mn; and (4) anthropogenic Zn pollution. Overexploitation of the aquifer is clearly evident, especially at settlements located near the coastal zone, where the water table is lowered 2-5 m below the sea level. Salinization is well known in the area and is attributed not only to seawater intrusion, but also to dissolution of evaporitic series from the Handere formation. Hydrochemical evidence also suggest that in the area subsurface paleo-river channels and the deposits infilling the ancient lagoon area within Quaternary-Recent alluvial deposits

  15. Experimental assessment of factors mediating the naturalization of a globally invasive tree on sandy coastal plains: a case study from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Thalita G.; Andrade, Antonio C. S.; Richardson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    As all naturalized species are potential invaders, it is important to better understand the determinants of naturalization of alien plants. This study sought to identify traits that enable the alien tree Casuarina equisetifolia to overcome barriers to survival and reproductive and to become naturalized on sandy coastal plains. Restinga vegetation in Brazil was used as a model system to conceptualize and quantify key stressors (high temperature, solar radiation, drought and salinity) which can limit the initial establishment of the plants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these environmental factors on seed persistence in the soil (field), germination (laboratory), survival, growth, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic integration (greenhouse). Results show that the expected viability of the seeds in the soil was 50 months. Seeds germinated in a similar way in constant and alternating temperatures (20–40 °C), except at 40 °C. Low light, and water and salt stresses reduced germination, but seeds recovered germination when stress diminished. Young plants did not tolerate water stress (soil moisture) or deep shade. Growth was greater in sunny than in shady conditions. Although a low degree of phenotypic plasticity is important in habitats with multiple stress factors, this species exhibited high germination plasticity, although young plants showed low plasticity. The positive effect of phenotypic integration on plastic expression in the shade shows that in stressful environments traits that show greater phenotypic plasticity values may have significant phenotypic correlations with other characters, which is an important factor in the evolutionary ecology of this invasive species. Long-term seed persistence in the soil, broad germination requirements (temperature and light conditions) and the capacity to survive in a wide range of light intensity favours its naturalization. However, C. equisetifolia did not tolerate water stress and deep

  16. Denitrification in restored and constructed wetlands adjacent to crop fields on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizer applications on crop fields are a significant source of nitrate (NO3), and groundwater concentrations are frequently 500-1000 µM. We show that groundwater transport of agricultural NO3 results in significant denitrification in adjacent wetlands in the Choptank Basin on the Delmarva Penins...

  17. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. GRITS (Version 9): Model Description and User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Peter; Kane, Sally Minch [eds.

    1982-04-01

    The Geothermal Resource Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model calculates the cost and revenue streams for the lifetime of a project that utilizes low to moderate temperature geothermal resources. With these estimates, the net present value of the project is determined. The GRITS model allows preliminary economic evaluations of direct-use applications of geothermal energy under a wide range of resource, demand, and financial conditions, some of which change over the lifetime of the project.

  18. Reconstructing conditions during dolomite formation on a Carnian coastal sabkha/alluvial plain using 87Sr/86Sr isotopes - Travenanzes Formation, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Maximilian; Wegner, Wencke; Horschinegg, Monika; Preto, Nereo; Breda, Anna; Klötzli, Urs; Peckmann, Jörn; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The study of large amounts of dolomite that formed in the Triassic Tethyan realm is hampered by late diagenetic or hydrothermal overprint. These dolomites are difficult to link to past environmental and early diagenetic conditions, and their correlation to models for dolomite formation in modern environments is problematic. Preto et al. (2015) suggested, based on evidence from nano-scale structure analysis by transmission electron microscopy and petrographic observations, that dolomites in the Carnian Travenanzes Formation of the Southern Alps (Dolomites area) represent a preserved primary phase. The Travenanzes Formation was deposited in an extended alluvial plain or coastal sabkha environment subject to a semi-arid climate. Beds and nodules of nearly stoichiometric dolomite are embedded in large amounts of clay, which shielded early formed dolomite from diagenetic fluids. This finding of penecontemporaneous dolomite provides an ideal model case for reconstructing past environmental conditions at the time of dolomite precipitation. While Preto et al. (2015) argued that dolomite formation was mediated by extracellular polymeric substances produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria, it remains unclear whether precipitation occurred from evaporating seawater or mainly from brine derived from evaporating continental groundwater. Both cases exist in modern environments of dolomite formation. In the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi and Qatar, dolomite precipitates from concentrated brine derived from seawater, either through seepage and reflux or through evaporative pumping (the sabkha model). In the coastal ephemeral lakes of the Coorong Lagoon system (South Australia) dolomite precipitation occurs from evaporating groundwater. The goal of this study is to distinguish marine from continental influence during formation of Carnian dolomite using 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios. Sr isotopes could reveal different origins of ionic solutions for dolomite precipitation, which is not

  19. Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean Atlantic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Darren Andrew

    2008-11-01

    In this paper I argue that there is a growing body of evidence supporting an increasingly central position of coastal environments in human evolution and dispersals, rather than as merely peripheral habitats. Eustatic fluctuations during glacial cycles have meant that most prehistoric coastlines are now underwater, and lack of evidence to date of a close relationship between people and the coast can be most plausibly ascribed to the limited studies so far on submerged sites. Coastal environments provide high diversity in food resources, consisting of multiple ecotones in close proximity, which reduces the need to forage widely. One of the richest and most easily exploited coastal resources by human populations living on the coast are molluscs from marine rocky intertidal communities, which recent evidence has highlighted as important as far back as the Middle Palaeolithic. However, the density of these resources is limited by a number of factors, and this varies geographically. One of the main large-scale factors limiting rocky intertidal mollusc densities is tidal amplitude, beyond which smaller-scale local factors such as exposure to wave action and shore aspect, further affect species distributions. The area around the Strait of Gibraltar is used as a case study of an area, which is affected by large variations in tidal amplitudes thus allowing for quantitative comparisons between taxonomically and climatically similar regions. Shorelines along the Mediterranean coast, with reduced tidal amplitudes, exhibit compressed zonations and harbour fewer macro-mollusc individuals, with the reverse being the case along the Atlantic coast, which has significantly larger tides. Data from Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites along the Strait are used to establish harvested species and present-day data are used to model the potential distributions and associated variables such as calorific returns of key food species. An optimal foraging model is used to explore the effects of

  20. The Effect of Dissolved Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Microzooplankton Growth Rates in the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Lavrentyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is wide spread among marine phytoplankton, including diatoms, which can produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA. Most studies on diatom-produced PUA have been dedicated to their inhibitory effects on reproduction and development of marine invertebrates. However, little information exists on their impact on key herbivores in the ocean, microzooplankton. This study examined the effects of dissolved 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal on the growth rates of natural ciliate and dinoflagellate populations in the Chesapeake Bay and the coastal Atlantic waters. The overall effect of PUA on microzooplankton growth was negative, especially at the higher concentrations, but there were pronounced differences in response among common planktonic species. For example, the growth of Codonella sp., Leegaardiella sol, Prorodon sp., and Gyrodinium spirale was impaired at 2 nM, whereas Strombidium conicum, Cyclotrichium gigas, and Gymnodinium sp. were not affected even at 20 nM. These results indicate that PUA can induce changes in microzooplankton dynamics and species composition.

  1. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do caracídeo Hollandichthys multifasciatus. Amostras foram obtidas entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005, em dois riachos de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. A dieta, avaliada por métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, inclui insetos aquáticos e terrestres, decápodes, oligoquetos aquáticos, plantas e aranhas. Os maiores indivíduos alimentaram-se principalmente de plantas, insetos terrestres e aranhas, enquanto que os menores indivíduos alimentaram-se basicamente de plantas e oligoquetos aquáticos. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar onívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por material autóctone (principalmente oligoquetos aquáticos e alóctone (plantas e insetos terrestres.

  2. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Black sea bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, L.P.

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The black sea bass, Centropristis striata, is an abundant species associated with the inshore sponge-coral habitat in the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (each individual is first a female and then a male) that spawns from January to June on the Continental shelf. Juveniles utilize estuaries, as well as offshore areas, for nurseries. It is a slow growing species with a life span of about 10 years. Juveniles and adults are bottom-feeding carnivores. Adults have been collected at temperatures as low as 6 /degree/C but are most abundant at temperatures of 8 to 10 /degree/C and above. Juveniles tolerate lower temperatures and greater salinity ranges than adults. Black sea bass are primarily harvested by the recreational hook and line fishery and the commercial trap fishery. Yield-per-recruit analyses indicate that the harvest of black sea bass is less than the maximum possible due to a combination of high fishing pressure and harvest of small fish. 58 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. P.; Donnelly, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Kemp, A.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2012-12-01

    Future inundation of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon both sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. In this proposal, we will employ new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea-level rise along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts has increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic distribution. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. Here, we produce new high resolution proxy data of sea-level and temperature to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset will span the alternation between the "Medieval Climate Anomaly" and "Little Ice Age". Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from six study areas (Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Georgia and Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, in the future, the resultant

  4. Rescuing degrading aquifers in the Central Coastal Plain of North Carolina (USA): Just process, effective groundwater management policy, and sustainable aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Alex K.; Klein, Wendy A.

    2014-07-01

    Strategic management of degrading coastal aquifers in eastern North Carolina (USA) became imperative after a severe imbalance occurred between withdrawal and recharge rates. To ameliorate this growing problem, an aggressive water policy was developed through public input by creating the Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA) to maintain beneficial use of groundwater resources. Insights from social psychology, and socio-legal studies are used to evaluate how procedural justice and public participation played major roles to resolving groundwater resource management problems. A mixed methods approach uses archival data and interviews with various rule-making participants to assess the process of stakeholder involvement that led to creation of the policy. In addition, data analysis techniques are utilized to evaluate the effects of the policy on aquifer health (through water levels) over a ˜10 year period. Results suggest that not only did a stakeholder group participate in a process that was deemed fair, understandable, and relatively easy to administer for users and regulators, but public participation resulted in an effective plan that ensures the long-term sustainable use of groundwater. Declining groundwater withdrawals and recovering water levels suggest that the rule is achieving its intended goal of protecting the aquifers from depletion and degradation. This paper touches on global themes that are essential to water demand and consumption, water management techniques, and water resources protection.

  5. Erosion, deposition and landscape change on the Sendai coastal plain, Japan, resulting from the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce; Szczuciński, Witold; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke; Witter, Rob; Tappin, David R.; Jaffe, Bruce; Fujino, Shigehiro; Nishimura, Yuichi; Goff, James

    2012-12-01

    Case studies of recent tsunami impacts have proven to be extremely useful in understanding the geologic processes involved during inundation and return flow, and refining the criteria used to identify paleotsunami deposits in the geologic record. Here, we report on erosion, deposition and associated landscape change resulting from the March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami along a nearly 4.5 km shore-normal transect on the coastal plain near Sendai, Japan. The study area on the broad, low-relief prograding coastal Sendai plain comprised a sand beach backed by ~ 3 m high sand dunes and a forest, a wetland, the Teizan canal, agricultural rice fields, buildings and roads. Field observations focused on measurements of tsunami flow characteristics (height and direction), mapping of erosion features and assessing sediment deposition based on shallow trenches at 50-100 m spacing. Recorded tsunami inundation heights reached up to about 11 m above mean sea level within the first 500 m from the shoreline and then ranged between 3 and 5 m for the next 2 km, gradually decreasing to about 3 m close to the inundation limit. The tsunami deposit generally thinned landward from an average maximum ~ 30 cm thick sand deposit in the coastal forest to a thin mud drape several mm thick near the inundation limit. A discontinuous sand-dominated sheet was prevalent to about 2800 m from the shoreline where mud content then gradually increased further landward eventually resulting in a mud-dominated deposit ranging from 3.5 cm to a few mm thickness. The overall thinning and fining of the deposit was often interrupted by localized features that led to complex sedimentological relationships over short distances. Satellite imagery taken on 14 March 2011, 3 days after the Tohoku-oki Tsunami shows prominent foreshore incisions with 100 s + meters spacing alongshore, a foredune ridge that underwent severe erosion and development of a prominent shore-parallel elongated scour depression. Our field survey

  6. Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 Ω m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological

  7. Use Of Radar-Rainfall Data for the Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study: Regional Scale Hydrologic and Salinity Modeling and Management Scenario Analysis for Chenier Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meselhe, E. A.; Michot, B.; Chen, C.; Habib, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Chenier Plain, in Southwest Louisiana, extends from Vermilion Bay to Sabine Lake in southeast Texas. It has great economic, industrial, recreational, and ecological value. Over the years, human activities such as dredging ship channels and access canals, building roads, levees, and hydraulic structures have altered the hydrology of the Chenier Plain. These alterations have affected the fragile equilibrium of the marsh ecology. If no action is taken to restore the Chenier Plain, land loss through conversion of marsh to open water would continue. The Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study aims at evaluating proposed protection and restoration measures and ultimately submitting a comprehensive plan to protect and preserve the Chenier Plain at the regional scale. The proposed alternatives include marsh creation, terracing, shoreline protection, and freshwater introduction and salinity control structures. A regional scale hydrodynamic and salinity transport model was developed to screen and assess the proposed restoration measures. A critical component of this modeling effort is local rainfall. The strong spatial variability and limited availability of ground-level precipitation measurements limited our ability to capture local rainfall. Thus, a radar-based rainfall product was used as a viable alternative to the rain gauges. These estimates are based on the National Weather Service from the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) algorithm. Since the model was used to perform long-term (yearly) simulations, the 4x4 km2 MPE estimates were represented as daily accumulations. The use of the radar-rainfall product data improved the model performance especially on our ability to capture the spatial and temporal variations of salinity. Overall, the model is improving our understanding of the circulation patterns and salinity regimes of the region. The circulation model used here is the MIKE FLOOD software (Danish Hydraulic Institute, DHI 2008) which dynamically

  8. Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to

  9. Autumn larval fish assemblages in the northwest African Atlantic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelouahab, Hinde; Berraho, Amina; Baibai, Tarik; Agouzouk, Aziz; Makaoui, Ahmed; Errhif, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    A study on the assemblage composition and vertical distribution of larval fish was conducted in the southern area of the Moroccan Atlantic coast in Autumn 2011. A total of 1 680 fish larvae taxa were identified from 21 families. The majority of the larvae were present in the upper layers. Clupeids were the most abundant larvae taxa followed by Myctophidae, Gadidae and Sparidae, hence the larval fish assemblages (LFA) were variable in diff erent depth layers. Total fish larvae showed a preference for surface layers, and were mainly found above 75 m depth, with some exceptions. The maximum concentration of fish larvae was concentrated up to 25 m essentially above the thermocline, where chlorophyll a and mesozooplankton were abundant. Spatially, neritic families were located near the coast and at some off shore stations especially in the northern part, while oceanic families were more distributed towards off shore along the study area. Cluster analysis showed a segregation of two groups of larvae. However, a clear separation between neritic families and oceanic families was not found. Multivariate analysis highlighted the relationship between the distribution of larvae of diff erent families and environmental parameters. Temperature and salinity seem to have been the factors that acted on associations of fish larvae. Day/night vertical distributions suggest there was not a very significant vertical migration, probably due to adequate light levels for feeding.

  10. InSAR Time Series Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Coastal Plain Subsidence: The Case of Sibari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cianflone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy. Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.

  11. Habitat selection by anurofauna community at rocky seashore in coastal Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, R C; Santori, R T; Gonçalves e Cunha, F C; Pontes, J A L

    2013-08-01

    height of the plant and the diameter on top view were correlated with the occurrence of amphibians, while during the driest period there was no correlation among variables and the bromeliad usage by amphibians. Recorded species were strongly associated to the Atlantic Forest domain. Nevertheless, the occupation of rocky seashores by anurans may be more associated with the specialized reproductive modes presented by species, since there is no permanent water available in ponds or streams. PMID:24212694

  12. Development and evaluation of clear-water pier and contraction scour envelope curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation collected clear-water pier- and contraction-scour data at 116 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces of South Carolina. Pier-scour depths collected in both provinces ranged from 0 to 8.0 feet. Contraction-scour depths collected in the Coastal Plain ranged from 0 to 3.9 feet. Using hydraulic data estimated with a one-dimensional flow model, predicted clear-water scour depths were computed with scour equations from the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 and compared with measured scour. This comparison indicated that predicted clear-water scour depths, in general, exceeded measured scour depths and at times were excessive. Predicted clear-water contraction scour, however, was underpredicted approximately 30 percent of the time by as much as 7.1 feet. The investigation focused on clear-water pier scour, comparing trends in the laboratory and field data. This comparison indicated that the range of dimensionless variables (relative depth, flow intensity, relative grain size) used in laboratory investigations of pier scour, were similar to the range for field data in South Carolina, further indicating that laboratory relations may have some applicability to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing pier scour in laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence on the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were pier width and approach velocity. Envelope curves developed from the field data are useful tools for evaluating reasonable ranges of clear-water pier and contraction scour in South Carolina. A modified version of the Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 pier-scour equation also was developed as a tool for evaluating clearwater pier

  13. Ground-water hydrology, historical water use, and simulated ground-water flow in Cretaceous-age Coastal Plain aquifers near Charleston and Florence, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B.G.; van Heeswijk, Marijke

    1996-01-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional, transient, digital, ground-water flow model representing the Coastal Plain aquifers of South Carolina, has been constructed to assist in defining the ground- water-flow system of Cretaceous aquifers near Charleston and Florence, S.C. Both cities are near the centers of large (greater than 150 feet) potentiometric declines in the Middendorf aquifer. In 1989, the diameter of the depressions was approximately 40 miles at Charleston and 15 miles at Florence. The potentiometric decline occurred between predevelopment (1926) and 1982 near Florence, and between predevelopment (1879) and 1989 near Charleston. The city of Charleston does not withdraw water from these aquifers; however, some of the small communities in the area use these aquifers for a potable water supply. The model simulates flow in and between four aquifer systems. The model has a variable-cell-size grid, and spans the Coastal Plain from the Savannah River in the southwest to the Cape Fear Arch in the northeast, and from the Fall Line in the northwest to approximately 30 miles offshore to the southeast. Model-grid cell size is 1 by 1 mile in a 48 by 48 mile area centered in Charleston, and in a 36 by 48 mile area centered in Florence. The model cell size gradually increases to a maximum of 4 by 4 miles outside the two study areas. The entire grid consists of 115 by 127 cells and covers an area of 39,936 square miles. The model was calibrated to historical water-level data. The calibration relied on three techniques: (1) matching simulated and observed potentiometric map surfaces, (2) statistical comparison of observed and simulated heads, and (3) comparison of observed and simulated well hydrographs. Systematic changes in model parameters showed that simulated heads are most sensitive to changes in aquifer transmissivity. Eight predictive ground-water-use scenarios were simulated for the Mount Pleasant area, which presently (1993) uses the Middendorf aquifer as a sole-source of

  14. Flood Hazard Assessment of the coastal lowland in the Kujukuri Plain of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Huali; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Ito, Yuka; Sawamukai, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Floods, the most common natural disaster in the world, cause serious loss of life and economic damage. Flood is one of the disasters in the coastal lowland along the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Many natural and human activities have changed the surface environment of the Plain. These include agricultural development, urban and industrial development, change of the drainage patterns of the land surface, deposition and/or erosion of the river valleys, and so on. In addition, wide spread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by the abstraction of natural gas dissolved in groundwater. The locations of the groundwater extraction include nearby the coast, and it may increase the flood risk. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to develop hazard maps for protecting surface environment and land-use planning. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides methodology and techniques for analyzing complex decision problems, which often involve incommensurable data or criteria. Also, Geographical Information System (GIS) is the powerful tool since it manages large amount of spatial data involved in MCDA. The purpose of this study is to present a flood hazard model using MCDA techniques with GIS support in a region where primary data are scare. The model incorporates six parameters: river system, topography, land-use, flood control project, passing flood from coast, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 meter resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30,000 scale river watershed map, and precipitation data from precipitation observation stations around the study area. River system map was created by merging the river order, the line density, and the river sink point density layers. Land-use data were derived from Landsat-TM images. A final hazard map for 2004, as an example, was

  15. A new species of Serracutisoma (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Goniosomatinae) from the coastal Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio B. DaSilva

    2014-01-01

    Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is described from the coastal Ombrophylous Dense Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states. It differs from other Serracutisoma by having a retrolateral row of spines on femur IV, a rounded white-mark on the carapace and a low dorsal apophysis on trochanter IV. It is likely the sister-species of S. proximum, and with it and other five species forms the S. proximum group, herein formally proposed. Given that the biologic, phylogenetic and biogeographi...

  16. Implications of Inundation by the 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami for Coastal Agriculture on the Sendai Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Wong, H. K.; Sugawara, D.; SzczuciEski, W.

    2013-05-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami inundated large areas of farmland on the Sendai Plain, leaving behind a discontinuous, but extensive, sandy to muddy deposit coating paddy rice fields. Two months after the tsunami, many areas were still inundated on the low-lying plain. Salt crusts were also observed in many places where saltwater had evaporated. Field surveys were carried out in May, August, October 2011 and February 2012 along a ~ 5 km transect north of Sendai airport, to assess the environmental impact and temporal extent of the tsunami on farmland, with particular emphasis on contamination by salts. Evaporation led to elevated conductivity in ponded water, canals and channels in May 2011 (from brackish to saline), and while rainfall resulted in dilution, brackish water was still recorded in August and October 2011, and even in a few areas in February 2012. Our study revealed that not only the sediment deposited by the tsunami (sand-dominated up to 2.9 km inland, and mud-dominated up to 4.65 km inland) but also the underlying soil was contaminated by saltwater. Concentrations of up to 10.5% Cl, 6.6% Na, 2.8% SO4 and 440 mg kg-1 Br were recorded in May 2011 in surface sediment where seawater had ponded for a long time, as shown by extensive salt crust residues. The underlying rice paddy soil was also contaminated by saltwater, down to 15 cm depth, as revealed by high levels of water-leachable ions and cations. Data gathered over four sampling seasons 2, 5, 9 and 11 months after the tsunami show that the salt content generally decreased with time. Ion concentrations were however higher in February 2012 than in October 2011, probably due to evaporation following long periods with low precipitation. In February 2012, the area with chloride concentrations likely to result in brine damage in rice seedlings still extended from ~2.3 to ~3.3 km inland, with soil contamination by salt measured down to 15 cm depth in some places. Rice production was halted in 2011, and

  17. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Fernandez-Chacon, Albert; Nordahl, Jan-Harald; Moland, Even; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland

    2016-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15-93 cm) were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500) and low-reward tags (NOK 50) were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags) may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5). Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4) of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8) and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4). Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5) of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing-rod and line fishing in particular-is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway.

  18. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Ring Kleiven

    Full Text Available Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15-93 cm were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500 and low-reward tags (NOK 50 were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5. Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4 of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8 and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4. Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5 of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing-rod and line fishing in particular-is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway.

  19. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, and bulk density (BD of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC, water holding capacity (WHC, and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate.

  20. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY FROM UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER CARBONATES THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES AT WOMACK HILL OIL FIELD, CHOCTAW AND CLARKE COUNTIES, EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-05-20

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates are undertaking a focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling and an integrated field demonstration project at Womack Hill Oil Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The principal research efforts for Year 3 of the project have been recovery technology analysis and recovery technology evaluation. The research focus has primarily been on well test analysis, 3-D reservoir simulation, microbial core experiments, and the decision to acquire new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field area. Although Geoscientific Reservoir Characterization and 3-D Geologic Modeling have been completed and Petrophysical and Engineering Characterization and Microbial Characterization are essentially on schedule, a no-cost extension until September 30, 2003, has been granted by DOE so that new seismic data for the Womack Hill Field can be acquired and interpreted to assist in the determination as to whether Phase II of the project should be implemented.

  1. The influence of microbial mats on the formation of sand volcanoes and mounds in the Red Sea coastal plain, south Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Rushdi J.; Aref, Mahmoud A. M.; Schreiber, B. Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Extensive areas covered by microbial mats have been found in the upper intertidal flats and supratidal pools in the Red Sea coastal plain of south Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Numerous microbially controlled sediment-surface morphologies are evident, such as flat cohesive mats that commonly pass into mats with wrinkles, reticulates, and tufts, together with erosion pockets and mat chips. These microbial mats form cohesive surface layers that lead to biostabilization of the sediment surface. Fluidization of the underlying sediments is due to tidal influences and pressurized gas escape from decay and photosynthesis of microbial mats and causes deformation and rupture of the cohesive surface mat layer via vertical and sub-vertical pipes. Extrusion of fluidized sediments and water through these pipes leads to redeposition of sediment grains above the surface mat layer to form sand volcanoes and mounds. Most of the sand volcanoes present in the intertidal flats and supratidal pools show a symmetrical morphology, whereas in tidal channels asymmetrical forms are more common. Extrusion of underlying sediments through several adjacent vents leads to coalescence of sand volcanoes to form sand mounds. In this study sand volcanoes are also compared with other cone-like features from the Red Sea, such as gas domes and crab mounds. This comparison should help in differentiating similar cone-like features associated with microbial mats in the rock record.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of winter cover crop on nitrate reduction in two-paired sub-basins on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I. Y.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Mccarty, G.; Hively, W. D.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely adopted to improve water quality throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCC) use has been highlighted for the reduction of nitrate leaching over the fallow season. Although various WCC practices are currently conducted in local croplands, the water quality improvement benefits of WCC have not been studied thoroughly at the watershed scale. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term impacts of WCC on reducing nitrate loadings using a processed-based watershed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Remote sensing based estimates of WCC biomass will be used to calibrate plant growth processes of SWAT and its nutrient cycling. The study will be undertaken in two-paired agricultural watersheds in the Coastal Plain of CBW. Multiple WCC practice scenarios will be prepared to investigate how nitrate loading varies with crop species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The performance of WCC on two-paired watersheds will be compared in order to understand the effects of different watershed characteristics on nitrate uptake by crops. The results will demonstrate the nitrate reduction efficiency of different WCC practices and identify the targeting area for WCC implementation at the watershed scale. This study will not only integrate remote sensing data into the physically based model but also extend our understandings of WCC functions. This will provide key information for effective conservation decision making. Key words: Water quality, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Winter Cover Crop, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

  3. Arsenic in the water-soil-plant system and the potential health risks in the coastal part of Chianan Plain, Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sandeep; Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the bioavailability, soil to plant transfer and health risks of arsenic (As) in the coastal part of Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan. Groundwater used for irrigation, surface soils from agricultural lands and locally grown foodstuffs were collected from eight locations and analyzed for As to assess the risks associated with consuming these items. The concentration of As in groundwater ranged from 13.8 to 881 μg/L, whereas surface soil showed total As content in the range of 7.92-12.7 mg/kg. The available As content in surface soil accounted for 0.06-6.71% of the total As content, and was significantly correlated with it (R2 = 0.65, p soil (ranging from 0.039 to 0.571) indicate that mustard, rice, amaranth and spinach are the highest accumulators of As. Although the health risk index (HRI) of the studied crops and vegetables ranged from only 0.0068-0.454, with the maximum in rice, the combined HRI indicates an alarming value of 0.88. Therefore, the possible health risks due to long-term consumption of rice and other As-rich foodstuffs could be overcome by controlling the contamination pathways in the water-soil-plant system.

  4. Tertiary thrust systems and fluid flow beneath the Beaufort coastal plain (1002 area), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Grow, John A.; Perry, William J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    Beneath the Arctic coastal plain (commonly referred to as "the 1002 area") in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska, United States, seismic reflection data show that the northernmost and youngest part of the Brookian orogen is preserved as a Paleogene to Neogene system of blind and buried thrust-related structures. These structures involve Proterozoic to Miocene (and younger?) rocks that contain several potential petroleum reservoir facies. Thermal maturity data indicate that the deformed rocks are mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Oil seeps and stains in outcrops and shows in nearby wells indicate that oil has migrated through the region; geochemical studies have identified three potential petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons that were generated from Mesozoic source rocks in the deformed belt were apparently expelled and migrated northward in the Paleogene, before much of the deformation in this part of the orogen. It is also possible that Neogene petroleum, which was generated in Tertiary rocks offshore in the Arctic Ocean, migrated southward into Neogene structural traps at the thrust front. However, the hydrocarbon resource potential of this largely unexplored region of Alaska's North Slope remains poorly known.

  5. Operation of an SVVS reg-sign biosparging system at a number 2 fuel-oil spill site in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An SVVS reg-sign (Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System) in-situ soil and ground-water remediation system is currently operation at a no. 2 fuel-oil spill site at Cross Generating Station in the central Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The remediation program constitutes one of the first large-scale applications of SVVS reg-sign technology to sites impacted by organic constituents with low volatility, where sparging of contaminants from the aqueous to vapor phase is expected to be limited. Application of SVVS reg-sign remediation to such sites is geared toward stimulation of in-situ biodegradation via elevation of dissolved oxygen levels in the saturated zone. Elevated CO2 concentrations in stack gases have been coincident with (1) reductions in contaminant concentrations locally in excess of 99 percent after one year of system operation, and (2) significant reductions in free product thickness. Results obtained during the first year of the Cross Station program strongly suggest that biosparging of diesel-range contamination is a promising application of SVVS reg-sign remedial technology

  6. Geophysical log database for the Floridan aquifer system and southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Raines, Jessica E.; Lanning, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program began two regional studies in the southeastern United States in the fall of 2009 to investigate ground-water availability of fresh and brackish water resources: (1) groundwater availability of the Floridan aquifer system, (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/activities/regional.html), and (2) saline water aquifer mapping in the southeastern United States. A common goal for both studies was to gather available geophysical logs and related data from the State geological surveys and the USGS that would be used as a basis for developing a hydrogeologic framework for the study area. Similar efforts were undertaken by the USGS Floridan and Southeastern Coastal Plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program from the 1970s to mid-1990s (Miller, 1986; Renken, 1996). The logs compiled for these older efforts were difficult to access from the paper files; however, and partly because of this, older and newer logs were compiled into a single digital database for the current study. The purpose of this report is to summarize the different types of logs and related data contained in the database and to provide these logs in a digital format that can be accessed online through the database and files accompanying this report (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/760/).

  7. The Effect of Altitudinal Gradient on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Almeida, D. Q.; Correa, L. O.; Carmo, J. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a vast heterogeneous region with 1.5 million km2, encompassing a large variety of forest physiognomies and compositions, containing large number of species. These forests are distributed in different topographic and climatic conditions, with high levels of precipitation. The rate of deforestation is high, approaching 350 km2 per year, showing be highly fragmented with a large number of species in extinction. The aim of this study was to understanding of the basic biogeochemistry functioning of the coastal Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Forest at sea level; Lowland Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 100m of altitude asl; Submontana Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 400m of altitude asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 1000m of altitude asl. A sampling area of 1 ha in each phytophysiognomies was subdivided in contiguous sub-parcels (10 x 10m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06m2) was collected monthly (n=15), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30m away from each other. Techniques of multivariate like principal components analysis (PCA) were used to determine correlations between the variable. The ordination graphs make possible to observe frequent of standards, representing a significant ratio of the variability of the data. The two first PCA axes cumulatively explained 60% of the total variance of the litter variables. Litter C and δ13C values were strongly influenced by altitude at 1000m. The N and δ15N of litter were influenced by altitude at 100 and 400m. The C/N relation was influenced by altitude at 0m. The lignin was elevated (p<0.01) at sea level in comparison with the other phytophysiognomies. The cellulose values did not vary significantly along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N concentrations progressively increased along the

  8. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Restinga diversity contrasts with a series of adverse environmental conditions that constrain their development, including nutrient limitation. In this sense, the mutualistic symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may contribute in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen. However, this association deeply affects plant nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), since assimilation processes and biochemical reactions within the fungi may reflect in a delivered product with an isotopic composition about 8 to 10 ‰ lower than that observed at the fungal symbiont per se. Here we assessed if the association with AMF affects δ15N values of plant species from a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil. Accordingly, we analyzed the nutritional and isotopic compositions from ecosystem key-compartments (soil, litter and leaves), relating plant δ15N with the colonization rates. The study was carried out in a permanent plot (1 ha) at a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at the Serra do Mar State Park, SP, Brazil. Sampled vegetation is characterized by the lack of a well-defined stratification and a rather open canopy. It also comprises trees ranging from 10 to 15-m high. Soils are deep and sandy, being characterized by high acidity, nutrient deficiency and a dense litter cover. We randomly collected five samples (250 mg) from topsoil (0-10 cm) and five to ten leaves from individuals belonging to 16 plant species of high relevance within the site (IVI index). We also collected superficial (0-10 cm depth) fine roots (5 g) and 13 samples (100 g) of fine litter next to the individuals sampled. Soil samples were air-dried, sieved, homogenized and used in the physical-chemical characterization. The remainder was ground to a fine powder to determine nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Leaves were dried at 50 °C, finely milled and used for the determination of nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios and δ15N values. Root samples were

  9. Rapid bottom-water circulation changes during the last glacial cycle in the coastal low-latitude NE Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallego-Torres, D.; Romero, O.E.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Kim, J.-H.; Donner, B.; Ortega-Huertas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous paleoceanographic studies along the NW African margin focused on the dynamics of surface and intermediate waters, whereas little attention has been devoted to deep-water masses. Currently, these deep waters consist mainly of North Atlantic Deep Waters as part of the Atlantic Meridional Over

  10. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, James H W; Hampp, Joy D; McKenney, Sheila A; Albert, Julie A; Kenney, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007), 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn), with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment). At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h) that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to conservation biology

  11. Swim speed, behavior, and movement of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis in coastal waters of northeastern Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H W Hain

    Full Text Available In a portion of the coastal waters of northeastern Florida, North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis occur close to shore from December through March. These waters are included within the designated critical habitat for right whales. Data on swim speed, behavior, and direction of movement--with photo-identification of individual whales--were gathered by a volunteer sighting network working alongside experienced scientists and supplemented by aerial observations. In seven years (2001-2007, 109 tracking periods or "follows" were conducted on right whales during 600 hours of observation from shore-based observers. The whales were categorized as mother-calf pairs, singles and non-mother-calf pairs, and groups of 3 or more individuals. Sample size and amount of information obtained was largest for mother-calf pairs. Swim speeds varied within and across observation periods, individuals, and categories. One category, singles and non mother-calf pairs, was significantly different from the other two--and had the largest variability and the fastest swim speeds. Median swim speed for all categories was 1.3 km/h (0.7 kn, with examples that suggest swim speeds differ between within-habitat movement and migration-mode travel. Within-habitat right whales often travel back-and-forth in a north-south, along-coast, direction, which may cause an individual to pass by a given point on several occasions, potentially increasing anthropogenic risk exposure (e.g., vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement, harassment. At times, mothers and calves engaged in lengthy stationary periods (up to 7.5 h that included rest, nursing, and play. These mother-calf interactions have implications for communication, learning, and survival. Overall, these behaviors are relevant to population status, distribution, calving success, correlation to environmental parameters, survey efficacy, and human-impacts mitigation. These observations contribute important parameters to

  12. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of leaves, litter and soils of the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil along an altitudinal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, S. M.; Della Coletta, L.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study the carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and stable carbon (δ13C) and stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition were determined in samples of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves, litter, and soil samples in two different altitudes (Lowland and Montane Forests) of the coastal Atlantic Forest situated in the Southeast region of Brazil. In both altitudes there were two main differences between Fabaceae and non Fabaceae specimens. Fabaceae had a higher foliar nitrogen content and lower foliar δ15N than non Fabaceae specimens. As a consequence it seems that most of the Fabaceae specimens are fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere in both altitudes. This fact is contrary to most of other studies that found that most Fabaceae are not fixing nitrogen in tropical forests. We speculate that the main reason that Fabaceae are actively fixing nitrogen in the coastal Atlantic Forest is the steepness of the terrain that leads to frequent landslides, causing frequent disturbances of the nitrogen cycle, fostering nitrogen fixation. The main difference between the Lowland and the Montane Forest plots was the higher δ15N in the former in comparison with the later. We speculated that this difference is caused by larger losses of nitrogen by denitrification and riverine output, leading an enriched 15N substrate.

  13. Advanced data processing of airborne electromagnetic data for imaging hidden conduit networks in the coastal karst plain of Tulum (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of a series of international research cooperations which commenced in 2007 and are still ongoing. The study area is located on the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, and comprises the northern most part of the Sian Kaan biosphere reserve, a coastal wetland of international importance, as well as the city of Tulum in the state of Quintana Roo, and part of the second largest barrier reef in the world some 300 metres to one kilometre off shore. Two airborne surveys, conducted in 2007 and 2008 by the Geological Survey of Austria, covered an area of some 200 square kilometres, including the well-known Ox Bel Ha cave system, already mapped by exploration divers. In order to get additional ground truth data and input for the hydrological model, extended ground geophysical campaigns have been conducted an - nually. The first processing of the airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data revealed not only a clear signature from known caves but also the image of a vast, unexplored, hidden conduit network. However, lateral and depth resolution was limited due to measurement drift and noise as well the specific behaviour of the ap - plied inversion technique. Newly developed algorithms for processing AEM data and inversion results have improved the signal-to-noise ratio significantly and enabled the imaging of well defined structures in the underground. Therefore, the AEM method is now capable of quickly deliver crucial structural information of karst-water regimes in difficult accessible areas with unique depth information compared to previous studies. (Author)

  14. Radar monitoring of hydrology in Maryland's forested coastal plain wetlands: Implications for predicted climate change and improved mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner Lang, Megan

    Wetlands provide important services to society but Mid-Atlantic wetlands are at high risk for loss, with forested wetlands being especially vulnerable. Hydrology (flooding and soil moisture) controls wetland function and extent but it may be altered due to changes in climate and anthropogenic influence. Wetland hydrology must better understood in order to predict and mitigate the impact of these changes. Broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor using ground-based and traditional remote sensing methods. C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could improve the capability to monitor forested wetland hydrology but the abilities and limitations of these data need further investigation. This study examined: (1) the link between climate and wetland hydrology; (2) the ability of ENVISAT SAR (C-HH and C-VV) data to monitor inundation and soil moisture in forested wetlands; (3) limitations inherent to C-band data (incidence angle, polarization, and phenology) when monitoring forested wetland hydrology; and (4) the accuracy of forested wetland maps produced using SAR data. The study was primarily conducted near the Patuxent River in Maryland but the influence of incidence angle was considered along the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This study showed: (1) climate was highly correlated with wetland inundation; (2) significant differences in C-VV and C-HH backscatter existed between forested areas of varying hydrology (uplands and wetlands) throughout the year; (3) C-HH backscatter was better correlated to hydrology than C-VV backscatter; (4) correlations were stronger during the leaf-off season; (5) the difference in backscatter between flooded and non-flooded areas did not sharply decline with incidence angle, as predicted; and (6) maps produced using SAR data had relatively high accuracy levels. Based on these findings, I concluded that hydrology is influenced by climate at the study site, and C-HH data should be able to monitor changes in

  15. Hydrochemical and isotopic (2H, 18O and 37Cl) constraints on evolution of geothermal water in coastal plain of Southwestern Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuzhu; Ma, Teng; Du, Yao; Xiao, Cong; Chen, Xinming; Liu, Cunfu; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-05-01

    Geothermal energy is abundant in Guangdong Province of China, however, majority of it is still unexploited. To take full advantage of this energy, it is essential to know the information of geothermal system. Here, physical parameters such as pH and temperature, major ion (Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Cl-, SO42 - and HCO3-), trace elements (Br-, Sr2 +, Li+ and B3 +) and stable isotopes (2H, 18O and 37Cl) in geothermal water, non-geothermal water (river water, cold groundwater) and seawater were used to identify the origin and evolution of geothermal water in coastal plain of Southwest of Guangdong. Two separate groups of geothermal water have been identified in study area. Group A, located in inland of study area, is characterized by Na+ and HCO3-. Group B, located in coastal area, is characterized by Na+ and Cl-. The relationships of components vs. Cl for different water samples clearly suggest the hydrochemical differences caused by mixing with seawater and water-rock interactions. It's evident that water-rock interactions under high temperature make a significant contribution to hydrochemistry of geothermal water for both Group A and Group B. Besides, seawater also plays an important role during geothermal water evolution for Group B. Mixing ratios of seawater with geothermal water for Group B are calculated by Cl and Br binary diagram, the estimated results show that about geothermal water, and seawater might get into the geothermal system by deep faults. Molar Na/Cl ratios also support these two processes. Geothermal and non-geothermal water samples plot around GMWL in the δ2H vs. δ18O diagram, indicating that these samples have a predominant origin from meteoric water. Most of geothermal water samples display δ37Cl values between those of the non-geothermal water and seawater samples, further reveals three sources of elements supply for geothermal water, including atmospheric deposition, bedrocks and seawater, which show a great potential to trace source of

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Bay anchovy

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The bay anchovy occurs along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Yucatan, Mexico (Hildebrand 1963), except for the Florida Keys where it is apparently absent (Daly 1970). (PDF contains 22 pages)

  17. Arsenic in the water-soil-plant system and the potential health risks in the coastal part of Chianan Plain, Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sandeep; Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the bioavailability, soil to plant transfer and health risks of arsenic (As) in the coastal part of Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan. Groundwater used for irrigation, surface soils from agricultural lands and locally grown foodstuffs were collected from eight locations and analyzed for As to assess the risks associated with consuming these items. The concentration of As in groundwater ranged from 13.8 to 881 μg/L, whereas surface soil showed total As content in the range of 7.92-12.7 mg/kg. The available As content in surface soil accounted for 0.06-6.71% of the total As content, and was significantly correlated with it (R2 = 0.65, p portions of oxides (6.03-38.4%) appear to be the major binding phases of As. The average As content in fourteen studied crops and vegetables varied from 10.3 to 151 μg/kg with maximum in mustard and minimum in radish. All the plants showed considerably higher As content (21.5 ± 3.64-262 ± 36.2 μg/kg) in their roots compared to the edible parts (9.15 ± 1.44-75.8 ± 22.9 μg/kg). The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) based on total As (ranging from 0.0009 to 0.144) and available As in soil (ranging from 0.039 to 0.571) indicate that mustard, rice, amaranth and spinach are the highest accumulators of As. Although the health risk index (HRI) of the studied crops and vegetables ranged from only 0.0068-0.454, with the maximum in rice, the combined HRI indicates an alarming value of 0.88. Therefore, the possible health risks due to long-term consumption of rice and other As-rich foodstuffs could be overcome by controlling the contamination pathways in the water-soil-plant system.

  18. Seasonal and multiannual roost use by Rafinesque's Big-eared Bats in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about factors affecting year-round use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) or the long-term fidelity of this species to anthropogenic or natural roosts. The objectives of this study were to test whether seasonal use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats varied with roost type and environmental conditions within and among seasons and to document multiannual use of natural and anthropogenic structures by this species. We inspected 4 bridges, 1 building, and 59 tree roosts possessing basal cavity openings; roosts were inspected at least once per week from May through October in every year from 2005 through 2008 and once a month from November through April in every year from 2005 through 2009. We found that use of anthropogenic roosts was significantly greater than the use of tree roosts in summer but that the use of structure types did not differ in other seasons. There was significant seasonal variation in use of anthropogenic and tree roosts. Anthropogenic roost use was higher in summer than in all other seasons. There was no significant difference in tree use among spring, summer, and fall, but use in winter was significantly lower in 2 years of the study. Overall use of anthropogenic and tree roosts was positively related to minimum temperature, but the relationship between use of roosts and minimum temperature varied among seasons. Bats showed multiannual fidelity ({ge} 4 years) to all anthropogenic roosts and to some tree roosts, but fidelity of bats to anthropogenic roosts was greater and more consistent than to tree roosts. Our data indicate that Rafinesque's big-eared bats responded differently to environmental conditions among seasons; thus, a variety of structure types and characteristics are necessary for conservation of these bats. We suggest long-term protection of roost structures of all types is necessary for conservation of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in the southeast Coastal Plain.

  19. Integrated stratigraphy of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum in the New Jersey Coastal Plain: Toward understanding the effects of global warming in a shelf environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Peter; Thomas, Ellen; Speijer, Robert P.

    2012-12-01

    In the New Jersey Coastal Plain, a silty to clayey sedimentary unit (the Marlboro Formation) represents deposition during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). This interval is remarkably different from the glauconitic sands and silts of the underlying Paleocene Vincentown and overlying Eocene Manasquan Formation. We integrate new and published stable isotope, biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic and ecostratigraphic records, constructing a detailed time frame for the PETM along a depth gradient at core sites Clayton, Wilson Lake, Ancora and Bass River (updip to downdip). The onset of the PETM, marked by the base of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE), is within the gradual transition from glauconitic silty sands to silty clay, and represented fully at the updip sites (Wilson Lake and Clayton). The CIE “core” interval is expanded at the updip sites, but truncated. The CIE “core” is complete at the Bass River and Ancora sites, where the early part of the recovery is present (most complete at Ancora). The extent to which the PETM is expressed in the sediments is highly variable between sites, with a significant unconformity at the base of the overlying lower Eocene sediments. Our regional correlation framework provides an improved age model, allowing better understanding of the progression of environmental changes during the PETM. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal data document the change from a sediment-starved shelf setting to a tropical, river-dominated mud-belt system during the PETM, probably due to intensification of the hydrologic cycle. The excellent preservation of foraminifera during the PETM and the lack of severe benthic extinction suggest there was no extreme ocean acidification in shelf settings.

  20. Peat accumulation in coastal-plain mires: a model for coals of the Fruitland Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of southern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Roberts L.N.; McCabe, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the northwestern part of the San Juan basin, Colorado, thick high-volatile B bituminous coal deposits in the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation are associated with nearshore marine sandstones of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. Detailed work along the outcrop and examination of drill cores, revealed two coal-bearing zones in the lower 60 m of the Fruitland Formation. Each zone is up to 13 m thick and consists of interbedded bright and dull coal (average ash values of 17 and 34% on a moisture-free basis, respectively), thin fine-grained clastic partings and abundant altered volcanic ash partings. Isopachs of the interval between the top of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and a marker bed (Huerfanito Bentonite Bed) in the underlying Lewis Shale show linear zones where the interval abruptly thickens. These zones, which trend northwest to southeast, represent areas where the shoreline paused during an overall migration to the northeast. Isopach maps of coal in the lower part of the Fruitland Formation and subsurface correlation of shoreface sandstones with coal zones show that the thickest accumulation of coal is 20-25 km landward of these coeval shorelines. The Fruitland coals may be compared to the high-ash peats of the Dismal Swamp in the southeastern U.S.A., which form in pocosin mires about 20 km inland from the Atlantic coast. Clastic deposirion, resulting from coastal processes, precludes the formation of peat in low-lying mires adjacent to the shoreline. The high ash yield, numerous partings and the relationship with the coeval shoreline suggest that the coals in the lower part of the Fruitland Formation accumulated in mires that were transitional from low-lying to raised. ?? 1992.

  1. Baseline Vegetation Plot Data of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plot level raw data, including Cover, Woody Stem, and Plot/Environmental, datasets from the first year of vegetation sampling on Coastal Wetland Elevation...

  2. Baseline Vegetation Photographs of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One representative photo taken from each coastal wetland elevation monitoring site. Photos were taken from one corner of the plot and oriented within the plot. In...

  3. Assessment of Physical, Chemical, and Hydrologic Factors Affecting the Infiltration of Treated Wastewater in theNew Jersey Coastal Plain, with Emphasis on theHammonton Land Application Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Tessler, Steven; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A hydrogeologic and water-quality investigation of the Hammonton Land Application Facility (Hammonton LAF) in Hammonton, New Jersey, was conducted to determine the factors that impede the infiltration of treated wastewater and to assess the potential for similar conditions to exist elsewhere in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey (particularly within the Pinelands National Reserve). Gamma logs, sediment cores, and hydraulic-profile testing indicate that extensive fine-grained strata and iron-cemented sands underlying the Hammonton LAF may impede infiltration and lead to the perching of diluted treated wastewater. Perched water was observed in augured holes adjacent to infiltration trenches, and analysis of wastewater loading and infiltration data indicates that infiltration trenches may receive lateral flow from multiple perched-water sources. Analysis of water-quality properties characteristic of treated wastewater show that although infiltrated wastewater is reaching the underlying aquifer, lengthy holding times and a long recharge pathway greatly reduce the concentrations of nitrate, boron, and many organic compounds typical of wastewater. Conditions at two currently operating facilities and one potential future facility in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were compared to those at the Hammonton Land Application Facility (LAF). Facilities operating as designed are not underlain by the restrictive strata that exist at the Hammonton LAF. Careful characterization of the geology and hydrology of the unsaturated zone underlying infiltration structures of future facilities in the New Jersey Coastal Plain and similar hydrogeologic settings will help to avoid constructing infiltration structures over or within low-hydraulic-conductivity strata that will decrease infiltration rates.

  4. Application of total-count aeroradiometric maps to the exploration for heavy-mineral deposits in the coastal plain of Virginia, with a section on field-spectrometer-data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosz, A.E.; Kosanke, Kenneth L.

    1983-01-01

    Total-count contoured aeroradiometric maps for the Coastal Plain of Virginia were used in an effort to locate economic heavy-mineral placer deposits. The principle behind this approach is that heavy- mineral suites commonly contain radioactive minerals that, if the concentration of heavy minerals is exposed at or within inches of the surface, enable the deposit to be located by use of airborne instruments because of its radiometric contrast with the host sediment. Detailed and regional geologic maps, soil maps, land-use and land- cover maps, information on fertilizer use, and ground-spectrometer data were used to study aeroradiometric anomalies for efficient exploration. Aeroradiometric anomalies in the Coastal Plain of Virginia have three general causes. First, the most intense anomalies are associated with cultural features, such as roads made of granitic material. Second, most anomalies of high to intermediate intensity are associated with land used for agricultural purposes and evidently are caused by applications of radioactive fertilizer. Third, anomalies of intermediate to low intensity are associated with heavy-mineral deposits. Results of this study show that aeroradiometric anomalies associated with heavy-mineral accumulations in the Coastal Plain of Virginia have ground radiometric spectra in which thorium is the strongest component and uranium and potassium are lesser components. Heavy-mineral accumulations found in this study by use of the aeroradiometric data are not considered to be of economic importance, mostly because of the low percentage of economic minerals in the heavy-mineral suites and also because of other factors such as the very fine grained nature of the host sediments and competing land use.

  5. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  6. Climate influence on Vibrio and associated human diseases during the past half-century in the coastal North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Grande, Chiara; Reid, Philip C; Hélaouët, Pierre; Edwards, Martin; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

    2016-08-23

    Climate change is having a dramatic impact on marine animal and plant communities but little is known of its influence on marine prokaryotes, which represent the largest living biomass in the world oceans and play a fundamental role in maintaining life on our planet. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, experimental evidence is provided on the link between multidecadal climatic variability in the temperate North Atlantic and the presence and spread of an important group of marine prokaryotes, the vibrios, which are responsible for several infections in both humans and animals. Using archived formalin-preserved plankton samples collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey over the past half-century (1958-2011), we assessed retrospectively the relative abundance of vibrios, including human pathogens, in nine areas of the North Atlantic and North Sea and showed correlation with climate and plankton changes. Generalized additive models revealed that long-term increase in Vibrio abundance is promoted by increasing sea surface temperatures (up to ∼1.5 °C over the past 54 y) and is positively correlated with the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) climatic indices (P < 0.001). Such increases are associated with an unprecedented occurrence of environmentally acquired Vibrio infections in the human population of Northern Europe and the Atlantic coast of the United States in recent years. PMID:27503882

  7. Warming, euxinia and sea level rise during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum on the Gulf Coastal Plain: implications for ocean oxygenation and nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; van Roij, L.; Harrington, G. J.; Schouten, S.; Sessa, J. A.; LeVay, L. J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-07-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~ 56 Ma) was a ~ 200 kyr episode of global warming, associated with massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Although climate change during the PETM is relatively well constrained, effects on marine oxygen concentrations and nutrient cycling remain largely unclear. We identify the PETM in a sediment core from the US margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Biomarker-based paleotemperature proxies (methylation of branched tetraether-cyclization of branched tetraether (MBT-CBT) and TEX86) indicate that continental air and sea surface temperatures warmed from 27-29 to ~ 35 °C, although variations in the relative abundances of terrestrial and marine biomarkers may have influenced these estimates. Vegetation changes, as recorded from pollen assemblages, support this warming. The PETM is bracketed by two unconformities. It overlies Paleocene silt- and mudstones and is rich in angular (thus in situ produced; autochthonous) glauconite grains, which indicate sedimentary condensation. A drop in the relative abundance of terrestrial organic matter and changes in the dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest that rising sea level shifted the deposition of terrigenous material landward. This is consistent with previous findings of eustatic sea level rise during the PETM. Regionally, the attribution of the glauconite-rich unit to the PETM implicates the dating of a primate fossil, argued to represent the oldest North American specimen on record. The biomarker isorenieratene within the PETM indicates that euxinic photic zone conditions developed, likely seasonally, along the Gulf Coastal Plain. A global data compilation indicates that O2 concentrations dropped in all ocean basins in response to warming, hydrological change, and carbon cycle feedbacks. This culminated in (seasonal) anoxia along many continental margins, analogous to modern trends. Seafloor deoxygenation and widespread (seasonal) anoxia likely

  8. POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENT CYCLES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES IN THE IRRIGATION DITCHES FROM THE RAVENNA COASTAL PLAIN THROUGH TRACE ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While monitoring the physico-chemical characteristics, trace elements and O-H-Sr-B isotopic data were obtained in superficial waters from a number of irrigations canals and ditches in the Ravenna coastal plain, in order to highlight the cycling of potentially toxic elements and the different sources of the solutes. Surveys were conducted during March and July 2008, and considered as representative of the waters in winter and summer, respectively. In summer, the water mass balance in the network is mostly controlled by the ingression of freshwaters from the Canale Emiliano Romagnolo (CER. The O-H isotopic data indicated that, in winter, waters are primarily recharged from Apennine catchments and undergo evaporation to different extents.The boron isotopic signature indicates the important role played by the marine component. A major seawater contribution was evidenced in canals close to the coastline; however, the process controlling the origin of dissolved boron is not solely related to direct mixing with sea water but comprises an additional source probably related to water-soil exchanges and boron of marine origin leaching, owing to the prolonged exposure of alluvial sediments to sea water. An additional boron contribution from the agricultural practice was is also evidenced. Calculation based on the conservative behaviour of chloride ions indicated that in canals and ditches not directly connected with the sea up to the 80% of the Sr budget did not originate from seawater, indicating a source from Al-silicate minerals and supporting the hypothesis of significant soil-water interactions and chemical exchanges.The positive correlation between pH and dissolved oxygen in winter waters is likely to reflect CO2 consumption during algal photosynthesis, favouring the in-situ generation of colloidal particles due to the oxidative precipitation of ferric iron oxy-hydroxides and probably small carbonate particles able to adsorb trace metals on their

  9. Life of the Aquifer: Improving Earth Science Education for Teachers and Students in High Schools of Under-represented Groups on the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, M. B.; Phillips, P. L.; McBroom, R.

    2007-12-01

    Life of the Aquifer is a program to improve Earth Science education in local public high schools. Geologic awareness among the local population is low because southeastern N.C. are on the Coastal Plain where rocks are not visible. This has made instruction in Earth Science, now required in North Carolina high schools, difficult. Our approach is to use groundwater, source of local public water, as a theme to organize instruction in geology. More than 70% of the student population in Robeson County, a rural low-wealth area, is from groups under- represented in the geosciences (46% Native American and 31% African American). Linking basic concepts in geology to groundwater is a way to show how geology is real and affects society. Our project engages teachers and students in active inquiry of the functioning of local aquifers from recharge to groundwater production. Although data on water levels in the Black Creek aquifer have been collected, there has been little formal investigation because serious problems with groundwater have not been noted to date. Nonetheless, the hydraulic head of Black Creek Aquifer wells has been declining. We started by improving skills of local Earth Science teachers, because most have had no formal education in geology. The teachers attended workshops on basic geology, groundwater, and exercises based on local groundwater data. The workshops also included field trips to outcrops exposing the local aquifer, 100 km away in South Carolina. We also showed teachers how each topic addresses Competency Goals in the Standard Course of Study. By using our instructional modules, the teachers assist their students to develop spatial reasoning skills by analyzing maps. Student geologic knowledge is increased by learning how the components of a groundwater system form as a result of geologic processes and collecting data from the Internet on changes in groundwater systems over time. Our remaining implementation activity is installation of wells to

  10. The salt water encroachment along the Lamone river artificial estuary: an issue for the coastal management in the Southern Po Plain Adriatic Coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, M.; Antonellini, M.; Minchio, A.; Stecchi, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the problem of saltwater intrusion in shallow aquifers has been recognized across Europe as one of the major threats for freshwater resources in coastal areas. Italy is indicated as one of the countries most severely affected. The problem of saltwater encroachment into the coastal water system attracted the public opinion attention during the last summers, when, due to low rainfall and low discharge rates, the ingression of seawater along the Po river branches was measured 12 kilometres upstream of the river delta. This situation caused a weakening of agricultural activities (inability to irrigate crops and orchards) and led, in same cases, to the shutdown of electric power generation plants due to the lack of freshwater used for cooling. This study is carried out to quantify the saltwater encroachment along the Lamone river and to estimate its possible contribution to the salinization process of the shallow sandy aquifer in the area. The Lamone River is typical for one of the many small low-discharge rivers flowing from the Appennines and reaching the Adriatic sea after a 88 km course through the southern Po Plain. Its estuary was artificially constrained to the actual position in 1960 and this is the reason of its artificially rectified shape. The salt water encroachment phenomenon has been analyzed during 2008 with a monthly monitoring of electrical conductivity profiles in 31 stations along the terminal 8 kilometres of the river, from its upstream physical boundary (represented by an artificial dam built to collect water for the Ravenna city water treatment plant) and the sea. Measurements point out that the Lamone river estuary has sharp vertical water stratification. Bottom water conductivity values show the presence of saltwater (45 mS/cm) in the first 24 stations (starting from the sea) in almost all monitoring campaigns. At 6.5 km from the sea, the presence of a rocky sill protecting a pipeline represents an efficient threshold that blocks or in

  11. Atlantic coastal experiment 5: R/V advance II cruise (MESEX I) 27 April--2 May 1979, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Bock, K. (ed.)

    1983-03-01

    68 hydrographic stations were arranged as boundary transects, and a proximate calibration matrix, to an array of current meters and fluorometers moored within the coastal boundary layer near southern Long Island. Assessments were made of water-mass characterization, nutrient distribution, chlorophyll variability and phytoplankton composition. Supplemental thermal structure was obtained from expendable bathythermographs.

  12. 77 FR 39648 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... that specific quota is closed, even across fishing years. On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393), NMFS... fisheries remain open, except the commercial porbeagle fishery, which closed on May 30, 2012 (77 FR 32036... Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Non- Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National...

  13. Vulnerability map to erosion of the Uruguayan atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Atlantic Ocean washes about 233 km of coastline in Uruguay from Punta del Este to Barra del Chuy, covering the entire coast of Rocha Department and part of the Department of Maldonado. In this coastal area can be seen a set of landforms that indicate the action of erosion processes that are acting from the highest Quaternary. Mainly highlights the extensive sectors gully nestled on the coastal plain adjoining the strip of beaches , platforms and secondarily the coastal cliffs of more or less active measuring height between these landforms. Approximately 32% of the Atlantic coast (about 74 km) is subjected to the erosive action, especially during times of storms by wind and storm waves . It should also be mentioned that have been estimated at about 86 km2 occupied by mobile dunes area, of which the majority shows evidence of the deflationary action (blow out). With this contribution is to illustrate the distribution of the areas of the Atlantic coast have these landforms of erosion

  14. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  15. Coastal Lagoons and Climate Change: Ecological and Social Ramifications in U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are highly productive coastal features that provide a range of natural services that society values. Their setting within the coastal landscape leaves them especially vulnerable to profound physical, ecological, and associated societal disturbance from global climate change. Expected shifts in physical and ecological characteristics range from changes in flushing regime, freshwater inputs, and water chemistry to complete inundation and loss and the concomitant loss of natural and human communities. Therefore, managing coastal lagoons in the context of global climate change is critical. Although management approaches will vary depending on local conditions and cultural norms, all management scenarios will need to be nimble and to make full use of the spectrum of values through which society views these unique ecosystems. We propose that this spectrum includes pragmatic, scholarly, aesthetic, and tacit categories of value. Pragmatic values such as fishery or tourism revenue are most easily quantified and are therefore more likely to be considered in management strategies. In contrast, tacit values such as a sense of place are more difficult to quantify and therefore more likely to be left out of explicit management justifications. However, tacit values are the most influential to stakeholder involvement because they both derive from and shape individual experiences and beliefs. Tacit values underpin all categories of social values that we describe and can be expected to have a strong influence over human behavior. The articulation and inclusion of the full spectrum of values, especially tacit values, will facilitate and support nimble adaptive management of coastal lagoon ecosystems in the context of global climate change.

  16. Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-12-31

    Pruet Production Co. and the Center for Sedimentary Basin Studies at the University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, Mississippi State University, University of Mississippi, and Wayne Stafford and Associates proposed a three-phase, focused, comprehensive, integrated and multidisciplinary study of Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonates (Class II Reservoir), involving reservoir characterization and 3-D modeling (Phase I) and a field demonstration project (Phases II and III) at Womack Hill Field Unit, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Phase I of the project has been completed. The principal objectives of the project are: increasing the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. The major tasks of the project included reservoir characterization, recovery technology analysis, recovery technology evaluation, and the decision to implement a demonstration project. Reservoir characterization consisted of geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, microbial characterization, and integration of the characterization data. Recovery technology analysis included 3-D geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and microbial core experiments. Recovery technology evaluation consisted of acquiring and evaluating new high quality 2-D seismic data, evaluating the existing pressure maintenance project in the Womack Hill Field Unit, and evaluating the concept of an immobilized enzyme technology project for the Womack Hill Field Unit. The decision to implement a demonstration project essentially resulted in the decision on whether to conduct an infill drilling project in Womack Hill Field. Reservoir performance

  17. Parasites of Urophycis brasiliensis (Gadiformes: Phycidae) as indicators of marine ecoregions in coastal areas of the South American Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aldenice N; Pantoja, Camila; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-11-01

    The potential value of parasites as ecosystem markers was tested by analyzing the metazoan assemblages of Urophycis brasiliensis caught in four locations distributed in three ecoregions of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic. A total of 5,001 metazoan parasites belonging to 33 species were found. The identified parasites varied across locations in terms of presence, prevalence, and abundance, and their multivariate analyses resulted in clear similarity patterns. No differences were observed between two locations of the same ecoregion, whereas an evident separation of samples was observed across ecoregions in support of the existing hypotheses regarding the ecoregional division of the southwestern Atlantic. We proposed that parasite assemblages, which are composed of several metazoan phyla, are potentially useful as ecosystem indicators. This suggestion is derived from the combined evidence of the evolutionary history and biogeography of multiple lineages, which is expected to be more efficient in capturing recurrent patterns in overall biodiversity than individual lineages. Furthermore, as many parasites have complex life cycles, their distribution patterns are dependent not only on environmental conditions but also on the distribution and population density of all hosts involved in their life cycles, adding further sources of distributional variability that act synergistically to define robust geographical patterns. The selection of long-lived parasites and their comparative analysis provided evidence supporting the existence of three different stocks in the four sampled areas. The best parasite tags were those with low specificity in fish hosts, constituting promising biological tags for the stock discrimination of other fish species in the region.

  18. Modelling changes in the coastal geomorphology of Unst, Shetland and the implications for understanding High to Late Medieval harbour changes in the Norse North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John; Dugmore, Andrew; Newton, Anthony; Mudd, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The Norse settlement of the North Atlantic islands relied upon a network of harbours that also played a key role in the development of North European economies through the late Middle Ages. However, many of these harbours fell into disuse, their locations are uncertain and the reasons for this are unclear. A crucial geomorphological characteristic of a successful harbour is structural equilibrium. A harbour must have physical stability (or a dynamic equilibrium in the case of a beach) for boats to use it safely season to season, year on year. In the absence of a major civil engineering effort, something that was not possible in the pre-modern Atlantic islands, the geomorphology of a harbour is a key indicator of its physical equilibrium (or otherwise). Should the harbour be located on a changeable coastline (or one that becomes changeable) it may become unviable. Conversely, a harbour may be located on a coastline stable over centennial timescales, where little geomorphological change occurs, infrastructure can endure and many aspects of the physical environment remain predictable. The geomorphological setting of Norse harbours in the Atlantic is variable, with contrasting landform stability over short, medium and long time scales. We assess geomorphological change on the island of Unst, the most northerly of the British Isles, a coastline used by the Norse as well as earlier and later societies. This island offers a complex coastline of deep fjords and arcuate embayments and thus significant differences in forces acting upon the coastline. There is also evidence for instability in the beaches used by the Norse that could have been driven by the changes in climate conditions from the Medieval Climatic Anomaly to the Little Age and the present day. We model coastlines using the sediment dynamics model MIKE21. Model results agree well with the location of extant sandy beaches on Unst, but model runs with modern environmental drivers also build sandy beaches where

  19. Caracterização de óxidos de ferro de solos do ambiente tabuleiros costeiros Characterizing iron oxides from coastal and central plain soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Metri Correa

    2008-06-01

    apresentou correlação com algumas propriedades cristalográficas das goethitas dos solos estudados, mostrando-se ser uma técnica promissora para o estudo dos óxidos de ferro.There have been several papers in the literature studying the genesis and consequences of particles cohesion in Argisols (Ultisols and Latosols (Oxisols from the Brazilian Inner and Coastal Plains. Just a few, however, provide insights into the clay fraction mineralogy, specially, the iron oxides complete characterization. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical and crystallographic characteristics of iron oxides in red and yellow soils derived from the sediments of the Barreiras Formation or Pre-Cambrian rocks in the region of the coastal and central plateaus of several Brazilian states. The following research procedures were used: X-ray diffraction analyses in iron oxide-concentrated samples; successive extractions with CBD, and ammonium oxalate extraction in clay samples; spectral characterization by DRS; estimation of the crystallographic properties of goethite; quantification of isomorphic substitution of Fe for Al; and electronic transmission microscopy. According to the results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a goethite was the predominant iron oxide in all soils, even in those with 2.5YR hues, of which the hematite value was below 2.5 dag kg-1 clay; (b the values of the isomorphic Fe substitution by Al were 3 to 6 times higher for goethites than for hematites. These values did not agree with those estimated by mathematical models proposed in the scientific literature, which indicates the need for further studies of the relationships between crystallographic parameters of natural goethites and their chemical properties; (c the results obtained by X ray diffractometry and chemical dissolution analysis revealed that the goethites in the soils differ from those cited, to date, in the literature; (d the position of the bands obtained in the spectra of the diffuse

  20. Microtine rodents and ground squirrels of the coastal plain and foothills of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Distribution, densities, and general ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A microtine rodent trapping survey was done at 3 locations across an altitude/coastal influence gradient in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge from 2 June - 18...

  1. A new species of Serracutisoma (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Goniosomatinae from the coastal Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. DaSilva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is described from the coastal Ombrophylous Dense Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná and São Paulo states. It differs from other Serracutisoma by having a retrolateral row of spines on femur IV, a rounded white-mark on the carapace and a low dorsal apophysis on trochanter IV. It is likely the sister-species of S. proximum, and with it and other five species forms the S. proximum group, herein formally proposed. Given that the biologic, phylogenetic and biogeographic aspects of Serracutisoma have been studied, the implications of the discovery of a new species are discussed, for instance the evolution of male fight, aggregation and maternal care, traits that are shared with other species. The geographic range of Serracutisoma gnaspinii sp. nov. is compatible with the "Paraná" area of endemism, but with an unique distribution pattern compared to other endemic harvestmen species, which could indicate a new area of endemism also occupied by the primate Leontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson, 1990.

  2. Vertisoles hidromórficos de la planicie costera del Río de La Plata, Argentina Hydromorphic vertisols of the Rio de La Plata coastal plain, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Imbellone

    2011-12-01

    .Hydromorphic Vertisols are the dominant soils in the coastal plain of the la Plata river, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Four repre-sentative soils in the districts of La Plata, Ensenada and Berazategui were studied. Pedological and sedimentological properties are described and analyzed. The purpose of this contribution is to discuss: a the grain size distribution and mineralogy of hydromorphic Vertisols in the rio de la Plata «mudflat»; b the influence of these properties on the generation of morphological features and c the associated pedogenic processes that take place. The morphology of the soil is related to vertic and hydromorphic features in the upper and middle horizons of the soil. Moderate and strong wedge-shaped and angular aggregates are abundant in the solum, with interpedal slickensides, sometimes striated, visible at various levels of observation. The matrix can be moderately or dominantly anisotropic and shows zones of optical anisotropism that run through the fine material with variegated patterns or anisotropic aureoles surrounding the pores. Hydromorphism is favoured by frequent pluvial flooding, the level landscape and the high water table, which is generally between 0.80 and 1.20 m deep. Therefore, endosa-turation or episaturation can occur at different times of the year. Soils have a variety of redoximorphic features, mainly reduced matrices (2.5Y, 5Y hues; chromas of 2 or less, redox concentrations of manganese and iron as nodules and concretions, surface impregnations of sesquioxides on the peds and some dark subsurface accumulations and ramifications through the matrix; there are also some depleted zones in the matrix. Concretions are hard in hand specimens and occur within the matrix; segregations are soft in hand specimens and they appear in thin sections as impregnations of the matrix with diffuse boundaries. They appear as mottles in the field. Soil textural class is clay. Fine clay markedly predominates over coarse clay. Soils are illitic Vertisols

  3. Census plan of environmental and cultural heritage of Latium Region. The Pontina and Fondi coastal plains; I beni culturali a carattere geologico del Lazio. La Pianura Pontina, Fondana e i Monti Ausoni meridionali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casto, L. [Regione Lazio, Rome (Italy). Assessorato alle Politiche per la Promozione della Cultura, dello Spettacolo, del Turismo e dello Sport. Centro Regionale di Documentazione; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente. Settore Informazione e Diffusione

    1997-12-31

    The geological heritage also indicated as `Geosites` or `Geotopes` in the `Area 4` defined in the Census Plan of Environmental and Cultural Heritage of Latium Region (Delivery R.C. n. 642/1979) in this paper is hereby described. In this area the Pontina and Fondi coastal plains, the Alban Hills Volcanic District Northward, the Mounts Volsci Range Eastward and Southward the Circeo Promontory is present. The geological context is described referring to the geomorphology and the landscape, the paleontology, the stratigraphy, the hydrogeology and the building materials. The museums set in the area also described. Geological history began during Upper Trias (Volsci Range and Circeo promontory) has continued until recent times (Pontina and Fondi plains and Alban Hills Volcanic District). The Mount Volsci Range is mostly constituted by carbonatic rocks (`Latium-Abruzzi series`) with shelf facies, ranging in age from the Upper Trias to the Paleocene, with scarce evidence of the Miocene transgression. From a structural point of view the Volsci chain shows main tectonic alignments trending NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S, folds and overthrusts verging NE.

  4. Cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the Vitória-Trindade Chain, western South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekin, L L; Rossi-Santos, M R; Baracho, C; Cypriano-Souza, A L; Simões-Lopes, P C

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. To fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts. We observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, N = 9 groups), the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, N = 1), the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N = 1), the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis, N = 1), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, N = 2), and the killer whale (Orcinus orca, N = 1). Most humpback whale groups (N = 7; 78%) were observed in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts, especially the mounts close to the Abrolhos Bank. Only one lone humpback whale was observed near Trindade Island after a search effort encompassing more than 520 km. From a total of 28 acoustic stations, humpback whale songs were only detected near the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, where most groups of this species were visually detected (including a competitive group and groups with calves). The presence of humpback whales at the Trindade Island and surroundings is most likely occasional, with few sightings and low density. Finally, we observed a significant number of humpback whales along the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, which may function as a breeding habitat for this species. We also added important records regarding the occurrence of cetaceans in these mounts and in the Western South Atlantic, including the endangered fin whale. PMID:25055095

  5. Analysis of aerosol scattering properties measured by a nephelometer at a coastal-rural site in the Atlantic southwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan F.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Angel M.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol hemispherical scattering and the backscattering coefficients, σsp, σbsc, have been measured using a 3-wavelength (450, 550 and 700 nm) integrating nephelometer over two years (January 2006-May 2008) in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. These coefficients have been carefully analyzed starting with the impact of corrections on the measurements of σsp: i.e., drift calibration constants do not modify the mean value in our data series. However, the selection of dry data (with RH less than 50%) modifies substantially the number of data and the resulting mean value of σsp is now 14% lower, which is compensated when the angular truncation correction is applied. The characterization and features of σsp, σbsc, and the derived parameters αsp (alpha Ångström exponent) and b (the backscatter ratio) has been analyzed, as annual, seasonal and diurnal evolution. A general statistic based on hourly data gives mean values and standard deviation of σsp (500 nm)=48±38 Mm-1 with a median of 38 Mm-1, and σbsc (500 nm)=5.6±3.8 Mm-1 with a median of 4.6 Mm-1. Thus, these values show moderate-low values but with a large range of variation considering the existing measured values over the Iberian Peninsula. The median value of σsp (500 nm) is an indicator that events of high aerosol burden are frequent presenting a substantial influence on the daily averages. The alpha Ångström exponent, αsp, derived from the pairs 450/700 nm gives a mean value 1.35±0.54 with a median of 1.47 and with the most frequent value of 1.7, thus indicating the prevalence of medium size particles but with a significant influence of fine particles. The b ratio has the same value for mean and median, 0.12±0.02, showing a decrease with increasing values of σsp. Annual and daily cycles have been also analyzed showing the complex behaviour of the optical properties at this coastal site where cold and warn periods show very different

  6. COASTAL Analysis Submission for Middlesex County, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping (April 2003) and Atlantic Ocean...

  7. Paleoceanographic interpretations of late Pleistocene to Holocene sedimentological and geochemical proxy-data from SE-Atlantic abyssal plains (Cape, Angola and Guinea Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, W. E.; Müllegger, S.

    2009-04-01

    Sediments of the deep abyssal regions of the Southeast Atlantic (Cape Basin, Angola Basin and Guinea Basin) were studied to reconstruct changes in surface and deep water circulation, bioproductivity, and terrigenous sediment flux. To gain these results various sedimentological and geochemical proxies were imposed, including grain size data, foraminiferal fragmentation, carbonate and organic carbon content, as well as stable oxygen and carbon isotope contents of foraminiferal tests. Samples were gained with a multicorer device during Meteor cruise 63/2 (2005) in water depths between ~5,100 and ~5,600 m. The superficial 30 cm of sediment, sampled in 1/2, 1 and 5 cm steps, were processed for this study. The record covers parts of the Pleistocene and Holocene. Even if the sedimentation conditions seem to be similar in the deep-sea regions of the SE-Atlantic there are clear differences between the three sampled locations. This is caused by major changes in deep water corrosiveness leading to fluctuations in the sedimentation rate and carbonate preservation. Cape Basin localities show a pattern of enhanced carbonate preservation around 12 ka BP possibly indicating a delayed Last Glacial Maximum signal. This pattern, which is typical for Indo-Pacific records, clearly points to an influence of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) at water depths below 5000 m in the Northern Cape Basin. The non-correlation between carbonate content and grain size distribution is owing to a coccoliths' dominated carbonate production possibly caused by low nutrient availability in surface waters and the higher dissolution susceptibility of foraminiferal tests. Angola Basin samples delivered highest sand contents, a carbonate peak and low organic carbon values around 8.2 ka BP which indicate a reduced bioproduction and nutrient supply in superficial waters. A connection of the 8.2 ka cold event in the northern hemisphere and central African precipitation, equatorial East Atlantic (EEA) upwelling

  8. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  9. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  10. A numerical analysis of shipboard and coastal zone color scanner time series of new production within Gulf Stream cyclonic eddies in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribble, J. Raymond; Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-induced upwelling occurs along the western edge of the Gulf Stream between Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Coastal zone color scanner images of 1-km resolution spanning the period April 13-21, 1979, were processed to examine these eddy features in relation to concurrent shipboard and current/temperature measurements at moored arrays. A quasi-one-dimensional (z), time dependent biological model, using only nitrate as a nutrient source, has been combined with a three-dimensional physical model in an attempt to replicate the observed phytoplankton field at the northward edge of an eddy. The model is applicable only to the SAB south of the Charleston Bump, at approximately 31.5 deg N, since no feature analogous to the bump exists in the model bathymetry. The modeled chlorophyll, nitrate, and primary production fields of the euphotic zone are very similar to those obtained from the satellite and shipboard data at the leading edges of the observed eddies south of the Charleston Bump. The horizontal and vertical simulated fluxes of nitrate and chlorophyll show that only approximately 10% of the upwelled nitrate is utilized by the phytoplankton of the modeled grid box on the northern edge of the cyclone, while approximately 75% is lost horizontally, with the remainder still in the euphotic zone after the 10-day period of the model. Loss of chlorophyll due to sinking is very small in this strong upwelling region of the cyclone. The model is relatively insensitive to variations in the sinking parameterization and the external nitrate and chlorophyll fields but is very sensitive to a reduction of the maximum potential growth rate to half that measured. Given the success of this model in simulating the new production of the selcted upwelling region, other upwelling regions for which measurements or successful models of physical and biological quantities and rates exist could be modeled similarly.

  11. MODFLOW-NWT model used to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York to North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional, groundwater flow model was developed with the numerical code MODFLOW-NWT to represent changes in groundwater pumping and aquifer recharge in...

  12. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Renninger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata. We also determined environmental drivers (vapor pressure deficit (VPD, soil moisture, solar radiation of canopy stomatal conductance (GS estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem.

  13. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas J.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-...

  14. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE) via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina) and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata). We also determined environmental drivers [vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture, solar radiation] of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem. PMID:25999966

  15. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per hour) than for the conventional process (36 million BTUs per hour). Lower energy requirements result from improved process energy recovery. Data examined in this study indicate feasible use of eastern geothermal heated waters (150 F) to provide process heat for vacuum (130 mm Hg) ethanol distillation units. Data indicate additional heat sources are needed to raise geothermal temperatures to the 200 F level required by mash cooking. Data also indicate potential savings in overall process energy use through use of vacuum distillation technology. Further study is needed to confirm conclusions reached during this study. Additional work includes obtaining energy use data from vacuum ethanol distillation units currently operating in the 130 millimeter pressure range; economic analysis of different vacuum pressures to select an optimum; and operation of a pilot geothermally heated vacuum column to produce confirmatory process data.

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - East Coast Mesozoic Basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  18. Interaction between continental and estuarine waters in the wetlands of the northern coastal plain of Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Inland and estuarine water flows define wetland hydrology on the Samborombón Bay. • Hydrochemistry in shell-ridges and tidal plains is due to water–rock interaction. • Mixing, evaporation and halite dissolution determine salinity in marshes. • Water flow from the shell-ridges control the overall wetland water quality. • These wetlands are complex hydrological systems with vulnerable water resources. - Abstract: On the Samborombón Bay coastline, located in the Río de la Plata estuary in Buenos Aires province (Argentina), a complex hydrological system has developed at the interface between continental and estuarine water, where significant wetlands develop. The main hydrogeological units, namely the shell ridges, the tidal plain and the marsh areas, have been identified using geomorphological criteria. Water table, hydrochemical and isotopic data have been used to determine their hydrological features, as well as those of the streams and canals. Evaporation processes, in particular, have been considered when depicting chemical and isotopic changes in surface waters in streams and marsh areas. The shell ridges represent a hydrogeological unit in which rainwater is stored, constituting a lens-shaped freshwater aquifer. In this unit, just as in the tidal plain, carbonate dissolution and ion exchange are the main processes regulating water chemistry. On the other hand, in the marsh and surface waters, processes such as mixing with estuarine water and evaporation predominate. These processes control water fluxes and the salinity of the wetland areas and, consequently, their ability to preserve the existing biodiversity. This study shows the importance of knowledge of hydrochemical processes in any proposal concerning the management and preservation of this type of wetland

  19. An assessment of the risk of spreading the fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris to uninfected territories in the European Union with the movement of live Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeler, E.; Thrush, M.; Paisley, Larry;

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater, monogenean fish ecto-parasite, Gyrodactylus salaris, was introduced into Norway through the importation of juvenile salmon from Sweden in the 1970s and resulted in dramatic declines in the number of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in 45 Norwegian rivers. From May 1, 2004, a change....... This risk assessment was undertaken to establish whether exports of live Atlantic salmon from coastal sites increased the risk of G. salaris introduction and establishment in uninfected EU territories. A scenario tree of events necessary for the introduction and establishment of the parasite was constructed......). Transmission from seawater sites, where salinity is greater than 25 parts per thousand, is only possible if infected fish were introduced hours before export. Furthermore, transport via wellboat in full-strength seawater (33 parts per thousand) reduced the risk of introduction to a negligible level. Similarly...

  20. Human resources training in coastal science

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayaraghavan, S.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Trends_Coastal_Mar_Sci_1990_130.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Trends_Coastal_Mar_Sci_1990_130.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  1. Biogeography of Anurans from the Poorly Known and Threatened Coastal Sandplains of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ariane Lima; Guedes, Thaís Barreto; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2015-01-01

    The east coast of Brazil comprises an extensive area inserted in the Tropical Atlantic Domain and is represented by sandy plains of beach ridges commonly known as Restingas. The coastal environments are unique and house a rich amphibian fauna, the geographical distribution patterns of which are incipient. Biogeographical studies can explain the current distributional patterns and provide the identification of natural biogeographical units. These areas are important in elucidating the evolutionary history of the taxa and the areas where they occur. The aim of this study was to seek natural biogeographical units in the Brazilian sandy plains of beach ridges by means of distribution data of amphibians and to test the main predictions of the vicariance model to explain the patterns found. We revised and georeferenced data on the geographical distribution of 63 anuran species. We performed a search for latitudinal distribution patterns along the sandy coastal plains of Brazil using the non-metric multidimensional scaling method (NMDS) and the biotic element analysis to identify natural biogeographical units. The results showed a monotonic variation in anuran species composition along the latitudinal gradient with a break in the clinal pattern from 23°S to 25°S latitude (states of Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo). The major predictions of the vicariance model were corroborated by the detection of four biotic elements with significantly clustered distribution and by the presence of congeneric species distributed in distinct biotic elements. The results support the hypothesis that vicariance could be one of the factors responsible for the distribution patterns of the anuran communities along the sandy coastal plains of eastern Brazil. The results of the clusters are also congruent with the predictions of paleoclimatic models made for the Last Glacial Maximum of the Pleistocene, such as the presence of historical forest refugia and biogeographical patterns already detected

  2. Biogeography of Anurans from the Poorly Known and Threatened Coastal Sandplains of Eastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Lima Xavier

    Full Text Available The east coast of Brazil comprises an extensive area inserted in the Tropical Atlantic Domain and is represented by sandy plains of beach ridges commonly known as Restingas. The coastal environments are unique and house a rich amphibian fauna, the geographical distribution patterns of which are incipient. Biogeographical studies can explain the current distributional patterns and provide the identification of natural biogeographical units. These areas are important in elucidating the evolutionary history of the taxa and the areas where they occur. The aim of this study was to seek natural biogeographical units in the Brazilian sandy plains of beach ridges by means of distribution data of amphibians and to test the main predictions of the vicariance model to explain the patterns found. We revised and georeferenced data on the geographical distribution of 63 anuran species. We performed a search for latitudinal distribution patterns along the sandy coastal plains of Brazil using the non-metric multidimensional scaling method (NMDS and the biotic element analysis to identify natural biogeographical units. The results showed a monotonic variation in anuran species composition along the latitudinal gradient with a break in the clinal pattern from 23°S to 25°S latitude (states of Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo. The major predictions of the vicariance model were corroborated by the detection of four biotic elements with significantly clustered distribution and by the presence of congeneric species distributed in distinct biotic elements. The results support the hypothesis that vicariance could be one of the factors responsible for the distribution patterns of the anuran communities along the sandy coastal plains of eastern Brazil. The results of the clusters are also congruent with the predictions of paleoclimatic models made for the Last Glacial Maximum of the Pleistocene, such as the presence of historical forest refugia and biogeographical patterns

  3. Biogeography of Anurans from the Poorly Known and Threatened Coastal Sandplains of Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ariane Lima; Guedes, Thaís Barreto; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2015-01-01

    The east coast of Brazil comprises an extensive area inserted in the Tropical Atlantic Domain and is represented by sandy plains of beach ridges commonly known as Restingas. The coastal environments are unique and house a rich amphibian fauna, the geographical distribution patterns of which are incipient. Biogeographical studies can explain the current distributional patterns and provide the identification of natural biogeographical units. These areas are important in elucidating the evolutionary history of the taxa and the areas where they occur. The aim of this study was to seek natural biogeographical units in the Brazilian sandy plains of beach ridges by means of distribution data of amphibians and to test the main predictions of the vicariance model to explain the patterns found. We revised and georeferenced data on the geographical distribution of 63 anuran species. We performed a search for latitudinal distribution patterns along the sandy coastal plains of Brazil using the non-metric multidimensional scaling method (NMDS) and the biotic element analysis to identify natural biogeographical units. The results showed a monotonic variation in anuran species composition along the latitudinal gradient with a break in the clinal pattern from 23°S to 25°S latitude (states of Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo). The major predictions of the vicariance model were corroborated by the detection of four biotic elements with significantly clustered distribution and by the presence of congeneric species distributed in distinct biotic elements. The results support the hypothesis that vicariance could be one of the factors responsible for the distribution patterns of the anuran communities along the sandy coastal plains of eastern Brazil. The results of the clusters are also congruent with the predictions of paleoclimatic models made for the Last Glacial Maximum of the Pleistocene, such as the presence of historical forest refugia and biogeographical patterns already detected

  4. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  5. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  6. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maher Gzam; Noureddine El Mejdoub; Younes Jedoui

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at –19 m b.s.l/100 ka and –8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  7. Coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: a preliminary database for the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2001-01-01

    The prediction of coastal evolution is not straightforward. There is no standard methodology, and even the kind of data required to make such predictions are the subject of much scientific debate. Since a viable, quantitative predictive model for coastal evolution is not available. The relative susceptibility of the Nation's coastline to sea-level rise is quantified here at a regional to national scale using basic information on coastal geomorphology, rate of sea-level rise, past shoreline evolution and other factors. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental and conditions, and yields a relative measure of the system's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. This information has immediate application to many of the decisions our society will be making regarding coastal development in both the short- and long-term.

  8. Podzolização em solos de áreas de depressão de topo dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro Podzolization in soils of depressed summit areas on the coastal plains of the brazilian Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros são diferenciados sob vários aspectos ainda pouco estudados no Brasil. Geralmente, à medida que se aproxima dessas depressões, nota-se que a textura dos solos é mais arenosa e o hidromorfismo, mais acentuado, sendo comum a ocorrência de Espodossolos. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar diferentes extrações de Fe, Al, Si e C orgânico com o intuito de compreender o processo de podzolização em solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro. Foram descritos perfis e coletadas amostras de solo em quatro áreas: Coruripe, AL; Neópolis, SE; Acajutiba, BA; e Nova Viçosa, BA. Nas amostras, determinou-se o teor de Fe, Al e Si pelos extratores ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio, oxalato de amônio e pirofosfato de sódio e realizou-se o fracionamento químico da matéria orgânica do solo. Os aumentos nos teores de C orgânico e de Fe e Al pelos diferentes extratores nos horizontes iluviais (de acúmulo de cada solo, relativamente aos horizontes eluviais (de perda, refletiram a morfologia de campo e reforçaram a importância do processo de podzolização nos solos estudados. Complexos Al-húmus dominam inteiramente a matriz dos horizontes iluviais associados ao hidromorfismo, enquanto naqueles sem hidromorfismo a influência das diferentes formas de Fe é variável. O perfil de Espodossolo Ferrihumilúvico é o único, dos quatro estudados, que possui horizontes espódicos com subscrito "s" e, portanto, onde os teores de Fe extraídos refletiram-se diferencialmente na morfologia.The soils associated to depressed summits on the Coastal Plains are still little studied in Brazil and are differentiated in several aspects. Generally, the closer a soil is to these depressions, the sandier is the texture and the more accentuated the hydromorphism, where the occurrence of Spodosols is common. The objective of this

  9. 阿拉斯加北极滨海平原极地湖泊的水深遥感反演%Polar Lake Bathymetry Retrieval from Remote Sensing Data of the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林征; 黎夏; 乔纪纲

    2012-01-01

    Bathymetry of lakes in the Arctic coastal plain plays an important role in understanding the regional geographical processes and environmental changes. Inversion of polar lake depth with remote sensing technique owns the advantage of rapidly processing large-scale data, but so far less research was done in Arctic. The aim of this article is to retrieve the bathymetry of shallow thaw lakes in the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska based on the multispectral remote sensing data. The inversion method proposed by Stumpf was inspected and verified. Then it was applied to retrieve the depth of 3 187 lakes distributed in the area of 16 380 km2. Validation for the model was implemented via field measurements obtained from ship-borne sonar, and the MAE (mean absolute error) and RMSE (root mean square error) were 0. 37 m and 0. 54 m respectively. This method is suitable for bathymetric retrieval from remote sensing data of thousands of lakes in the study area. The spatial pattern of lake depth shows that depth of lake decreases from hill foot of Brooks to the coastline.%北极滨海平原地区的湖泊水体深度对理解极地地表过程和环境变化具有重要意义.利用遥感数据反演极地湖泊水体深度具有快速和大范围的优势,但目前在极地湖泊中的研究较少.以遥感探测阿拉斯加极地湖泊深度为研究目的,实施并验证了 Stumpf水深反演模型对于极地湖泊深度遥感反演的工作方法,且对该地区16380 km2范围内分布的3 187个湖泊进行了同期深度反演,并利用船载声纳仪实测湖泊水体的深度数据对反演结果进行精度验证.结果显示水深反演结果的平均绝对误差和均方根误差分别为0.37与0.54 m,表明利用遥感技术适用于反演极地湖泊的水体深度.实验结果显示阿拉斯加北部滨海平原极地湖泊平均深度具有沿山麓向滨海平原逐渐下降的趋势.

  10. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  11. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  12. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  13. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  14. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  15. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  16. Atlantic Coastal Experiment III: R/V KNORR cruise 68, 4-30 August 1977; FRV ALBATROSS IV cruise 77-07, 1-4, 16-31 August 1977. Data report, volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, D.C.; von Bock, K.

    1983-03-01

    Data are reported from KNORR cruise 68, the major investigation of the third Atlantic Coastal Experiment (ACE), conducted during a period of pro-nounced water-column stratification. One hundred fifty-five stations, including 6 time-series sitings, were occupied within the shelf and shelf- break regimes of New York Bight. Measurements were made to assess water-mass characterization, nutrient cycling, carbon/nitrogen assimilation, bio-mass distribution and diel dynamics and benthic/water-column interfacial exchange. Data are also included from the cruise of ALBATROSS IV carried out contemporaneously with the KNORR investigations, in an area ranging from Nantucket Shoals to the upper reaches of the Gulf of Maine. 20 hydrographic stations were used to augment underway mapping in order to elucidate surface-layer chlorophyll and nutrient distributions occurring at an impor-tant boundary of the New York Bight.

  17. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early

  18. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events.

  19. Frequency and origin of haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster in individuals with trait and sickle cell anemia in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Cristian; Lizarralde-Iragorri, María Alejandra; Rojas-Gallardo, Diana; Barreto, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease with high prevalence in people of African descent. There are five typical haplotypes associated with this disease and the haplotypes associated with the beta-globin gene cluster have been used to establish the origin of African-descendant people in America. In this work, we determined the frequency and the origin of haplotypes associated with hemoglobin S in a sample of individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and sickle cell hemoglobin trait (HbAS) in coastal regions of Colombia. Blood samples from 71 HbAS and 79 HbSS individuals were obtained. Haplotypes were determined based on the presence of variable restriction sites within the β-globin gene cluster. On the Pacific coast of Colombia the most frequent haplotype was Benin, while on the Atlantic coast Bantu was marginally higher than Benin. Eight atypical haplotypes were observed on both coasts, being more diverse in the Atlantic than in the Pacific region. These results suggest a differential settlement of the coasts, dependent on where slaves were brought from, either from the Gulf of Guinea or from Angola, where the haplotype distributions are similar. Atypical haplotypes probably originated from point mutations that lost or gained a restriction site and/or by recombination events. PMID:24385850

  20. Composição florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo de uma Floresta Paludosa na planície costeira da bacia do rio Itaguaré, Bertioga, SP, Brasil. Floristic composition andstructure of an arboreal component of the Paludal Forest in the coastal plain of the Itaguaré river basin, Bertioga (São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina de Gouveia SOUZA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As Florestas Paludosas costeiras ou “caxetais” ocorrem no Domínio Atlântico, em geral associadas a depressões paleolagunares, cujos terrenos são permanentemente encharcados. Essas florestas se caracterizam por apresentar elevada densidade de indivíduos da espécie Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., conhecida popularmente por “caxeta”. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em uma Floresta Paludosa situada na planície costeira do rio Itaguaré, município de Bertioga, Baixada Santista, Estado de São Paulo. A composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica foram investigadas através da amostragem por parcelas, sendo incluídos todos os indivíduos com 10 cm ou mais de diâmetro a 1,3 m de altura do peito (DAP. Foram registradas 20 espécies e 11 famílias botânicas, resultando em uma densidade total de 450 ind./ha-1. A família com maior riqueza de espécies foi Myrtaceae, com quatro espécies. A análise de similaridade indicou dois grupos florísticos. Tabebuia cassinoides foi, de fato, a espécie mais importante, apresentando grande densidade e dominância de indivíduos, o que reforça sua posição de espécie indicadora deste tipo vegetacional, conforme difundido na literatura. The coastal Paludal Forest or “Caxetal” occurs on the Atlantic Domain, associated to wetlands within palaeolagoonal depressions. It is characterized by a high density of individuals of Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., which is popularly known as “caxeta”. A Paludal Forest located in the Itaguaré river coastal plain, in the municipality of Bertioga, Santos Lowland, São Paulo State, Brazil was studied. The floristic composition and phytossociological structure was investigated through a plot method including all individuals with diameter at 1.3 m (DBH ≥ 10 cm. A total of 20species and 11 botanic families were sampled, resulting in a total density of 450 ind./ha-1. Myrtaceae showed the highest species richness. The similarity index indicated

  1. Floristic units and their predictors unveiled in part of the Atlantic Forest hotspot: implications for conservation planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE Z. SAITER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We submitted tree species occurrence and geoclimatic data from 59 sites in a river basin in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil to ordination, ANOVA, and cluster analyses with the goals of investigating the causes of phytogeographic patterns and determining whether the six recognized subregions represent distinct floristic units. We found that both climate and space were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 important in the explanation of phytogeographic patterns. Floristic variations follow thermal gradients linked to elevation in both coastal and inland subregions. A gradient of precipitation seasonality was found to be related to floristic variation up to 100 km inland from the ocean. The temperature of the warmest quarter and the precipitation during the coldest quarter were the main predictors. The subregions Sandy Coastal Plain, Coastal Lowland, Coastal Highland, and Central Depression were recognized as distinct floristic units. Significant differences were not found between the Inland Highland and the Espinhaço Range, indicating that these subregions should compose a single floristic unit encompassing all interior highlands. Because of their ecological peculiarities, the ferric outcrops within the Espinhaço Range may constitute a special unit. The floristic units proposed here will provide important information for wiser conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  2. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  3. TURISMO E AMBIENTES COSTEIROS NOS DOIS LADOS DO ATLÂNTICO: POTENCIALIDADES E IMPLICAÇÕES / TOURISM AND COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS IN TWO SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC: POTENTIAL AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cerqueira Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho resultou das pesquisas realizadas para o desenvolvimento da tese de doutoramento em Geografia, na Universidade de Coimbra. O objetivo principal foi fazer uma análise comparativa sobre a inserção do turismo em duas áreas costeiras, localizadas em pontos diferenciados do Oceano Atlântico, no caso Jaguaripe, no Recôncavo Baiano, e Mira, na Região Centro de Portugal. Os principais resultados obtidos estão relacionados com as diferenças e/ou similitudes encontradas nos dois territórios, resultantes tanto das condições físicas e bióticas, quanto da dinâmica cultural. Palavras-chave: Turismo, ambiente costeiro, Jaguaribe-BA, Mira-Portugal. ABSTRACT This work resulted from research carried out for the development of the doctoral thesis in Geography at the University of Coimbra. The main objective was to make a comparative analysis of the insertion of tourism in two coastal areas, located in different parts of the Atlantic Ocean in Jaguaripe if the Reconcavo Baiano, and Mira, in the Central Region of Portugal. The main results are related to the differences and / or similarities found in the two territories, linked to both the physical and biotic conditions, as to the cultural dynamics. Keywords: Tourism, coastal environment, Jaguaribe-BA, Mira-Portugal.

  4. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821). PMID:24871741

  6. Environmental drivers of temporal succession in recent dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from a coastal site in the North-East Atlantic (Lisbon Bay, Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Amorim, Ana

    2008-01-01

    the river runoff cyst signal is characterised by dominance of autotrophs forming calcareous cysts, mainly Scrippsiella spp. Lingulodinium polyedrum is suggested to be indicative of upwelling conditions in the region but reflecting an ecological niche different from the more classical heterotrophic...... assemblage and G. catenatum. Our results reinforce the applicability of dinoflagellate cysts as environmental tracers in the warm-temperate region of the NE Atlantic, and contribute to the development of palaeoenvironmental cyst-based signals....

  7. O gênero Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta em ambientes lacustres na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Genus Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta in lacustrine environments of the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do gênero Hantzschia em amostragens realizadas em lagoas, banhados, canal e açudes na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul (30°40´-30°10´ S e 50°30´-51°30´ W, no outono e primavera de 2003, revelou a presença de um táxon específico e seis infra-específicos, a saber: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, suas variedades (var. amphioxys e var. vivax Grunow e forma (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow com duas variedades (var. elongata e var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grun. e Hantzschia sp. São apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, chave de identificação e comentários sobre as variações morfológicas e a distribuição dos táxons. Cabe ressaltar a presença de H. elongata var. linearis e Hantzschia sp. como novos registros para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The study of the genus Hantzschia in samples from lakes, wetlands, canals and ponds in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain (30°40'-30°10' S; 50°30'-50°30' W, during fall and spring of 2003, revealed the presence of one specific and six infra-specific taxa, as follows: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, its varieties (var. amphioxys and var. vivax Grunow and form (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow with two varieties (var. elongata and var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grunow and Hantzschia sp. Descriptions, illustrations, identification keys and comments on morphological variation and the distribution of the taxa are presented. It is worth mentioning the presence of H. elongata var. linearis and Hantzschia sp. recorded for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  8. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793. The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica. Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County. While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other

  9. Morphology, mineralogy and micromorphology of soils associated to summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains Morfologia, mineralogia e micromorfologia de solos de depressões de topo de Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of comprehensive characterizations of soils associated to gentle summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains justifies this work, which had as objective to provide basic information for the more diverse agricultural and non-agricultural uses. For that, representative soils (Spodosols or similar soils from these environments were selected in Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia states. This approach included characterization of morphological, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the soil profiles, employing standard procedures. The morphological characterization corroborated the effect of the podzolization process during the formation of these soils. The mineralogy of the clay fraction of these soils was basically composed of kaolinite and quartz, which, associated to the very sandy texture, helped in the understanding of the obtained data. The soil micromorphological study, besides confirming the field morphology, mainly in regard to the strong cementation, aggregated value to the work in terms of the secure identification of the clay illuviation process (non-identified in the field, in association with the dominant podzolization process.A carência de caracterizações abrangentes de solos associados às depressões suaves de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do nordeste brasileiro justifica este trabalho, o qual objetivou fornecer informações básicas para as mais diversas finalidades agrícolas e não-agrícolas. Para tal, foram selecionados solos representativos (Espodossolos ou solos afins desses ambientes nos estados de Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia. A abordagem utilizada englobou a caracterização de atributos morfológicos, mineralógicos e micromorfológicos de perfis dos solos, empregando-se metodologia padronizada. A caracterização morfológica corroborou o efeito do processo de podzolização na formação desses solos. A mineralogia da fração argila desses solos foi composta basicamente por

  10. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species - not hermes - inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2014-01-01

    Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)-type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro-and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia species, H

  11. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia

  12. Response of benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods index to different perturbations in coastal oligotrophic areas (Canary archipelago, North East Atlantic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Oligotrophic areas harbour low macrofaunal abundance and patchy distribution. In these areas it is necessary to test the reliability of biological indicators, especially those based on taxonomic sufficiency where the level of identification is balanced against the need for ecological information and could affect the efficiency of bioindicators. The BOPA (benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods) index was applied in five coastal areas subjected to different perturbations (aquaculture, ...

  13. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... or hammerhead sharks in the Coastal Fisheries Logbook. Currently, there is no commercial oceanic... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... published in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) final regulations, effective November 1, 2006...

  14. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  15. Determinação do índice de qualidade subsuperficial em um Latossolo Amarelo Coeso dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, sob floresta natural Determination of the subsurface quality index in a Cohesive Argisolic Yellow Latosol under natural forest in Coastal Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes de Melo Filho

    2007-12-01

    attributes. The objective of this study was to determine a soil quality index (SQI for the subsurface horizons of a cohesive argisolic Yellow Latosol (LAx of Coastal Plains under natural forest. The study area was located in the natural reserve of the Atlantic Forest in Cruz das Almas-BA, Brazil. The samples were collected in a 18 x 8 m grid at a regular distance of 2 m, with 50 replications. To determine the SQI, 11 quality indicators were evaluated: macroporosity, soil density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, water retention at -33 kPa (Uv33/TP, relationship of water availability in the soil (WA/TP, pH, penetration resistance, cation exchange capacity (CEC, base saturation (V %, aluminum saturation (m %, and organic matter. These indicators were grouped based on three main functions: root growth in depth; water conduction and storage; and nutrient supply. The SQI value was 0.4620, which indicates a soil of poor quality for crop production. The SQI index suggests that nutrient supply, water conduction and storage must be improved for the use of this soil in agricultural systems.

  16. Geology and geochemistry of abyssal plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.P.E.; Thomson, J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    In this publication is assembled a set of 14 papers from the presentations at a meeting of the Marine Studies Group of the Geological Society, held on the 29th and 30th January 1986. The papers cover various aspects of the geophysics, sedimentology, geochemistry and geotechnics of abyssal-plain sediments. During the late 1970s an international research program began to examine selected areas of the N Atlantic and Pacific Ocean sea beds to assess the feasibility of disposal of radioactive wastes in deep-sea sediments. The considerations of sea-floor properties required for such studies had the results that some of the N Atlantic study areas were in abyssal plains. The availability of new geological information from this program provided the impetus for convening this meeting, but the papers are not restricted to those deriving from such studies. All papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the Energy Data Base.

  17. 杭州湾南岸滨海平原土地利用变化对土壤发生层次质量演化的影响%The impact of land use change on quality evolution of soil genetic layers on the coastal plain of south Hangzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李加林; 李伟方; 杨晓平; 张殿发; 童亿勤

    2008-01-01

    Land use change plays an important part in the studies of global environmental change and regional sustainable development. The change of soil quality can particularly reflect the impacts of human socio-economic activities on environment. Taking the coastal plain of south Hangzhou Bay as a study case, we analyzed the effects of land use changes on organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP),available potassium (AK), total salinity (TS), pH value in soil genetic layers, and assessed soil quality change related to different land use types from 1982 to 2003. The results show that: (1)The general change tendency of soil quality in the coastal plain of south Hangzhou Bay declined obviously in A layer and slightly rise in B (or P) layer and C (or W) layer. The contents of TP decreased generally in all soil genetic layers, but the variety difference of other soil quality indices was relatively great. (2) The change of soil quality in the areas where land use changed is far more remarkable than that with land use unchanged. The value of quality variety is A layer B (or P) layer C (or W) layer. (3) The changes of soil tillage, cultivation, fertilization, irrigation and drainage activities related to land use may make some soil-forming processes disappeared and bring in other new processes which will affect the soil quality and soil genetic layers directly.

  18. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  19. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  20. High resolution field monitoring in coastal wetlands of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic to support quantification of storm surge attenuation at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquier, A. E.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.; Garzon Hervas, J. L.; Ferreira, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy (2012) demonstrated the vulnerability of the US East Coast to extreme events, and motivated the exploration of resilient coastal defenses that incorporate both hard engineering and natural strategies such as the restoration, creation and enhancement of coastal wetlands and marshes. Past laboratory and numerical studies have indicated the potential of wetlands to attenuate storm surge, and have demonstrated the complexity of the surge hydrodynamic interactions with wetlands. Many factors control the propagation of surge in these natural systems including storm characteristics, storm-induced hydrodynamics, landscape complexity, vegetation biomechanical properties and the interactions of these different factors. While previous field studies have largely focused on the impact of vegetation characteristics on attenuation processes, few have been undertaken with holistic consideration of these factors and their interactions. To bridge this gap of in-situ field data and to support the calibration of storm surge and wave numerical models such that wetlands can be correctly parametrized on a regional scale, we are carrying out high resolution surveys of hydrodynamics (pressure, current intensity and direction), morphology (topo-bathymetry, micro-topography) and vegetation (e.g. stem density, height, vegetation frontal area) in 4 marshes along the Chesapeake Bay. These areas are representative of the ecosystems and morphodynamic functions present in this region, from the tidal Potomac marshes to the barrier-island back-bays of the Delmarva Peninsula. The field monitoring program supports the investigation of the influence of different types of vegetation on water level, swell and wind wave attenuation and morphological evolution during storm surges. This dataset is also used to calibrate and validate numerical simulations of hurricane storm surge propagation at regional and local scales and to support extreme weather coastal resilience planning in the region

  1. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Chennai, east coast of India using geospatial techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ArunKumar, A.; Kunte, P.D.

    , and mean wave height for assessment of coastal vulnerability of the U.S. Atlantic coast. Pendleton, et al. (2005) assessed the coastal vulnerability of Golden Gate National Recreation area to sea level rise by calculating a coastal vulnerability index... to coastal erosion hazards. Dwarakish et al. (2009) calculated CVI for Udupi coastal zone of Karnataka from shore-line change rate, sea-level change rate, coastal slope, mean tidal range, coastal geomorphology. Srinivasa Kumar et al. (2010) assessed the CVI...

  2. Evolution of mid-Atlantic coastal and back-barrier estuary environments in response to a hurricane: Implications for barrier-estuary connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Brian D.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.; Navoy, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessments of coupled barrier island-estuary storm response are rare. Hurricane Sandy made landfall during an investigation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary that included water quality monitoring, geomorphologic characterization, and numerical modeling; this provided an opportunity to characterize the storm response of the barrier island-estuary system. Barrier island morphologic response was characterized by significant changes in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach volume; morphologic changes within the estuary were less dramatic with a net gain of only 200,000 m3 of sediment. When observed, estuarine deposition was adjacent to the back-barrier shoreline or collocated with maximum estuary depths. Estuarine sedimentologic changes correlated well with bed shear stresses derived from numerically simulated storm conditions, suggesting that change is linked to winnowing from elevated storm-related wave-current interactions rather than deposition. Rapid storm-related changes in estuarine water level, turbidity, and salinity were coincident with minima in island and estuarine widths, which may have influenced the location of two barrier island breaches. Barrier-estuary connectivity, or the transport of sediment from barrier island to estuary, was influenced by barrier island land use and width. Coupled assessments like this one provide critical information about storm-related coastal and estuarine sediment transport that may not be evident from investigations that consider only one component of the coastal system.

  3. Rainfall erosivity and rainfall return period in the experimental watershed of Aracruz, in the coastal plain of Espirito Santo, Brazil Erosividade da chuva e tempo de retorno na bacia experimental da Aracruz, região dos tabuleiros costeiros brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gualberto Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the factors influencing water erosion is fundamental for the choice of the best land use practices. Rainfall, expressed by rainfall erosivity, is one of the most important factors of water erosion. The objective of this study was to determine rainfall erosivity and the return period of rainfall in the Coastal Plains region, near Aracruz, a town in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, based on available data. Rainfall erosivity was calculated based on historic rainfall data, collected from January 1998 to July 2004 at 5 min intervals, by automatic weather stations of the Aracruz Cellulose S.A company. A linear regression with individual rainfall and erosivity data was fit to obtain an equation that allowed data extrapolation to calculate individual erosivity for a 30-year period. Based on this data the annual average rainfall erosivity in Aracruz was 8,536 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Of the total annual rainfall erosivity 85 % was observed in the most critical period October to March. Annual erosive rains accounted for 38 % of the events causing erosion, although the runoff volume represented 88 % of the total. The annual average rainfall erosivity return period was estimated to be 3.4 years.O conhecimento dos fatores que influenciam a erosão hídrica é de fundamental importância no planejamento do uso do solo. Dos fatores que alteram a erosão, a precipitação pluvial, expressa pela erosividade da chuva, é um dos mais importantes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a erosividade e o tempo de retorno para a região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, no município de Aracruz, ES. Para o cálculo da erosividade, foram utilizados dados pluviométricos de janeiro de 1998 a julho de 2004, obtidos em estações climatológicas automatizadas, localizadas em área experimental da Aracruz Celulose AS, que, para este estudo, geraram dados de 5 em 5 min. A análise de regressão linear entre precipitação pluvial e erosidade para esse per

  4. Mata Atlântica, paleoterritórios e história ambiental Brazilian atlantic coastal forest, paleoterritories, and environmental history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da Mata Atlântica e das interferências antrópicas que este bioma sofreu no tempo, tendo por objetivo incluir o legado da atividade humana como parte das suas condições ecológicas. Como forma de análise dos processos sucessionais, é proposto o resgate dos paleoterritórios, aqui entendidos como as resultantes ecológicas decorrentes do uso dos ecossistemas por populações passadas na busca de suas condições de existência.This article deals with the Atlantic Rainforest and the anthropic interferences imposed on this biome throughout time. Its goal is to include the legacy of human activity as part of the explanation for its ecological state. As a way to analyze the sucessional processes, the concept of paleo-territory recovery is proposed in order to understand the ecological resultants due to the use of the ecosystems by traditional populations for means of existence.

  5. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes, with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Mayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay.

  6. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayden, Richard L; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay. PMID:26114110

  7. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Neto, E.; Carmo, J. B.; Keller, M.; Martins, S. C.; Alves, L. F.; Vieira, S. A.; Piccolo, M. C.; Camargo, P.; Couto, H. T. Z.; Joly, C. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture). Annual means of N2O flux were 3.9 (± 0.4), 1.0 (± 0.1), and 0.9 (± 0.2) ng N cm-2 h-1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of -1.0 (± 0.2), -1.8 (± 0.3), and -1.6 (± 0.1) mg m-2 d-1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Estimated mean annual fluxes of CO2 were 3.5, 3.6, and 3.4 μmol m-2 s-1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climatic warming, our results suggest that an increase in air and soil temperatures may result in increases in decomposition rates and gross inorganic nitrogen fluxes that could support consequent increases in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  8. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, A S; Luque, J L

    2004-08-01

    Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815) collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W and 23 degrees 05'S, 44 degrees 30'W), Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91%) specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes) were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957) was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955) showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species.

  9. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaff, J

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  10. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sousa Neto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of Nitrous Oxide (N2O and Carbon Dioxide (CO2 as well as methane (CH4 emissions and consumptions along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture. Annual means of N2O flux were 2.6 (±0.5, 0.9 (±0.1, and 0.7 (±0.2 ng N cm−2 h−1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of −1.0 (±0.2, −1.8 (±0.1, and −1.6 (±0.3 mg m−2 d−1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Although not sampled in the hottest and wettest portion of the year because of instrument malfunctions, mean fluxes of CO2 averaged 3.6 (±0.2, 3.5 (±0.3, and 3.1 (±0.3 μmol m−2 s−1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of methane responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climate warming, our results suggest that increasing temperatures will result in increased in microbial activity with a consequent increase in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  11. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sousa Neto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O, carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture. Annual means of N2O flux were 3.9 (± 0.4, 1.0 (± 0.1, and 0.9 (± 0.2 ng N cm−2 h−1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of −1.0 (± 0.2, −1.8 (± 0.3, and −1.6 (± 0.1 mg m−2 d−1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Estimated mean annual fluxes of CO2 were 3.5, 3.6, and 3.4 μmol m−2 s−1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climatic warming, our results suggest that an increase in air and soil temperatures may result in increases in decomposition rates and gross inorganic nitrogen fluxes that could support consequent increases in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  12. Coesão e resistência ao cisalhamento relacionadas a atributos físicos e químicos de um Latossolo Amarelo de tabuleiro costeiro Cohesion and shear strength as related to physical and chemical properties of a Yellow Latosol of coastal plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os solos coesos de tabuleiros costeiros têm como característica peculiar horizontes minerais subsuperficiais, que apresentam consistência friável quando úmidos, porém, quando secos, têm consistência dura, muito dura ou extremamente dura. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o comportamento mecânico de horizontes coesos e não-coesos de um Latossolo Amarelo de tabuleiro costeiro por meio de características de cisalhamento relacionadas com propriedades físicas, químicas e teor de água do solo. Os resultados mostraram que a coesão do solo e a resistência ao cisalhamento aumentaram expressivamente com a redução do teor de água no horizonte coeso. Este horizonte apresentou os maiores valores de densidade do solo, microporosidade e óxidos de Fe, Si e Al, resultando em maiores valores de coesão do solo e resistência ao cisalhamento, em relação aos horizontes não-coesos. Os maiores valores de coesão do solo resultaram em maiores valores de resistência à penetração no horizonte coeso, em relação aos não-coesos. As características de cisalhamento (coesão do solo, ângulo de atrito interno e resistência ao cisalhamento mostraram-se sensíveis à identificação de horizontes coesos em solos de tabuleiros costeiros.The cohesive soils of Brazilian coastal plain have subsurface horizon with a peculiar characteristic - when wet the consistency is friablet, but of hard, very hard or extremely hard consistency when dry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of cohesive and non-cohesive horizons of a Yellow Latosol of coastal tableland based on shear parameters related with soil physical and chemical properties and moisture. The results showed that soil cohesion and shear strength increased substantially with the reduction of the water content in the cohesive horizon. The cohesive horizon presented the highest values of bulk density, microporosity and Fe, Si and Al oxides, resulting in

  13. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:26602351

  14. Maryland 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2010. The data...

  15. Rhode Island 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2010. The data types...

  16. Georgia 2006 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2006. The data...

  17. North Carolina 2004 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NC in 2004. The data types...

  18. Maine 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2005. The data...

  19. North Carolina 2008 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NC in 2008. The data types...

  20. Florida 2006 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2006....

  1. Virginia 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of VA in 2005. The data types...

  2. New Hampshire 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NH in 2005. The data types...

  3. New Jersey 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NJ in 2005. The data types...

  4. Massachusetts 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2005. The data...

  5. New York 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NY in 2005. The data types...

  6. South Carolina 2006 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of SC in 2006. The data types...

  7. North Carolina 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NC in 2005. The data types...

  8. New Jersey 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NJ in 2010. The data types...

  9. North Carolina 2009 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NC in 2009. The data types...

  10. Massachusetts 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic Coast of MA in 2010. The data types...

  11. Massachusetts 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of MA in the summer of 2007. The...

  12. Virginia 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of VA in 2010. The data types...

  13. Connecticut 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic Coastline, in the summer of 2007. The...

  14. Virginia 2009 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of VA in 2009. The data types...

  15. New Hampshire 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NH in 2010. The data types...

  16. Rhode Island 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2007. The data types...

  17. Maryland 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2005. The data...

  18. South Carolina 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of SC in 2010. The data types...

  19. Georgia 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic Coast in 2010. The data types...

  20. Delaware 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2010. The data...

  1. Maine 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic Coast of ME in 2010. The data types...

  2. New York 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NY in 2010. The data types...

  3. Delaware 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2005. The data...

  4. North Carolina 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NC in 2010. The data types...

  5. New Hampshire 2011 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of NH in 2011. The data types...

  6. Florida 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic Coast and Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The...

  7. Massachusetts 2011 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of MA in 2011. The data types...

  8. Rhode Island 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2005. The data types...

  9. Borehole locations and top surface altitudes of each of the 16 hydrostratigraphic layers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina (pp1773_unit_alt_boreholes)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point data pp1773_unit_alt_boreholes represent the 309 locations of various types of boreholes that were used to determine the altitudes of each of the 16...

  10. Integrated modelling of the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Delhez, E. J. M.; Carabin, G.

    2001-01-01

    The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems.The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This pl...

  11. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  12. Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains: Diagnosis of Mechanisms from SGP ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant Nigam

    2013-02-01

    Work reported included analysis of pentad (5 day) averaged data, proposal of a hypothesis concerning the key role of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains, analysis of recurrent super-synoptic evolution of the Great Plains low-level jet, and study of pentad evolution of the 1988 drought and 1993 flood over the Great Plains from a NARR perspective on the atmospheric and terrestrial water balance.

  13. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected using bottle and BT in the Atlantic from 1974 to 1977 (NODC Accession 0002072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, meterology measurements collected in the coastal N Atlantic and open North Atlanticby ATLANTIC RESEARCH INST OF FISHING ECONOMY AND OCEANOGRAPHY...

  14. Landscape Trends in Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Stehman, S.V.; Loveland, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Landscape pattern and composition metrics are potential indicators for broad-scale monitoring of change and for relating change to human and ecological processes. We used a probability sample of 20-km ?? 20-km sampling blocks to characterize landscape composition and pattern in five US ecoregions: the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southeastern Plains, Northern Piedmont, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge Mountains. Land use/land cover (LULC) data for five dates between 1972 and 2000 were obtained for each sample block. Analyses focused on quantifying trends in selected landscape pattern metrics by ecoregion and comparing trends in land cover proportions and pattern metrics among ecoregions. Repeated measures analysis of the landscape pattern documented a statistically significant trend in all five ecoregions towards a more fine-grained landscape from the early 1970s through 2000. The ecologically important forest cover class also became more fine-grained with time (i.e., more numerous and smaller forest patches). Trends in LULC, forest edge, and forest percent like adjacencies differed among ecoregions. These results suggest that ecoregions provide a geographically coherent way to regionalize the story of national land use and land cover change in the United States. This study provides new information on LULC change in the southeast United States. Previous studies of the region from the 1930s to the 1980s showed a decrease in landscape fragmentation and an increase in percent forest, while this study showed an increase in forest fragmentation and a loss of forest cover.

  15. Grãos de pólen de angiospermas do Holoceno (7908±30 anos AP-atual da Planície Costeira sul-catarinense, Brasil Catalogue of angiosperm pollen from Holocene sediments of the Coastal Plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Cancelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as descrições palinotaxonômicas, a partir da análise palinológica de sedimentos de duas seções turfáceas na Planície Costeira sul do estado de Santa Catarina, nos municípios de Santa Rosa do Sul e São João do Sul. Uma amostra da porção basal dos testemunhos foi datada em (14C em 7908±33 anos AP para Santa Rosa do Sul e 7817±41 anos AP para São João do Sul, ambos referente ao Holoceno inferior. Foram descritos 62 tipos de grãos de pólen relacionados a 49 famílias de angiospermas atuais, que expressam diferentes habitats e hábitos ecológicos. O presente trabalho juntamente com a primeira parte, que trata das descrições palinotaxonômicas de fungos, criptógamas e outros palinomorfos recuperados de sedimentos, contribui com o reconhecimento da vegetação que abrigava a Planície Costeira sul-catarinense, durante o Holoceno. As análises palinotaxonômicas constituem a base das interpretações paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas neste setor da costa brasileira.This paper presents palinotaxonomic descriptions, from a pollen analysis of sediments from two cores taken from the southern Coastal Plain of Santa Catarina State (in the municipalities of Santa Rosa do Sul and São João do Sul. A basal sample from the Santa Rosa do Sul and São João do Sul had a 14C age of 7908±33 and 7817±41 yr BP for the Lower Holocene, respectively. Sixty-two types of pollen grains were described from 49 angiosperm families, which are associated with different habitats and ecological habits. This work is published in association with Part I, which comprises palinotaxonomic descriptions of fungi, cryptogams and other palynomorphs recovered from the sediments, and contributes to the identification of vegetation that occurred on the Coastal Plain of southern Santa Catarina during the Holocene. Palinotaxonomic analyses form the basis of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental interpretations in this region of the Brazilian

  16. Plain Language in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the communicative style Spain inherited from the dictatorship, Spain???s conception of plain language, the goals it set for the four most widely used languages, and the results achieved.

  17. Oceanographic profile; phosphate, silicate and other measurements collected using bottle and high resolution CTD from the DANA, JAN MAYEN (LAHV) and other platforms in the Coastal N Atlantic, Arctic and other locations from 1995 to 1997 (NODC Accession 0000566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, zooplankton, and nutrients data were collected using net and bottle casts from DANA and JAN MAYEN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were...

  18. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  19. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  20. Multiscale patterns in the diversity and organization of benthic intertidal fauna among French Atlantic estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Hugues; Gouillieux, Benoît; Alizier, Sandrine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Bachelet, Guy; Barillé, Anne-Laure; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Derolez, Valérie; Desroy, Nicolas; Grall, Jacques; Grémare, Antoine; Hacquebart, Pascal; Jourde, Jérôme; Labrune, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Meirland, Alain; Nebout, Thiebaut; Olivier, Frédéric; Pelaprat, Corine; Ruellet, Thierry; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Thorin, Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    Based on a parallel sampling conducted during autumn 2008, a comparative study of the intertidal benthic macrofauna among 10 estuarine systems located along the Channel and Atlantic coasts of France was performed in order to assess the level of fauna similarity among these sites and to identify possible environmental factors involved in the observed pattern at both large (among sites) and smaller (benthic assemblages) scales. More precisely this study focused on unraveling the observed pattern of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity observed at among-site scale by exploring both biotic and abiotic factors acting at the among- and within-site scales. Results showed a limited level of similarity at the among-site level in terms of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity. The observed pattern did not fit with existing transitional water classification methods based on fish or benthic assemblages developed in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). More particularly, the coastal plain estuaries displayed higher among-site similarity compared to ria systems. These coastal plain estuaries were characterized by higher influence of river discharge, lower communication with the ocean and high suspended particulate matter levels. On the other hand, the ria-type systems were more dissimilar and different from the coastal plain estuaries. The level of similarity among estuaries was mainly linked to the relative extent of the intertidal “Scrobicularia plana-Cerastoderma edule” and “Tellina tenuis” or “Venus” communities as a possible consequence of salinity regime, suspended matter concentrations and fine particles supply with consequences on the trophic functioning, structure and organization of benthic fauna. Despite biogeographical patterns, the results also suggest that, in the context of the WFD, these estuaries should only be compared on the basis of the most common intertidal habitat occurring throughout all

  1. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... implemented and analyzed in the 2013 shark quota final rule (77 FR 75896, December 26, 2013) and in the final... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal...

  2. Current and other data from meters attached to FIXED PLATFORMS in the coastal waters of Florida in support of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study 3 (STACS) from 10 November 1980 to 07 June 1983 (NODC Accession 8800120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current and other data from meters attached to FIXED PLATFORMS in the coastal waters of Florida. Data were collected by University of Miami; Rosenstiel School of...

  3. Current and other data from meters attached to FIXED PLATFORMS in the coastal waters of Florida in support of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study 4 (STACS) from 08 June 1983 to 13 December 1983 (NODC Accession 8700019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current and other data from meters attached to FIXED PLATFORMS in the coastal waters of Florida. Data were collected by University of Miami; Rosenstiel School of...

  4. Current and other data from meters attached to FIXED PLATFORMS in the coastal waters of Florida in support of the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study 6 (STACS) from 19 June 1984 to 27 March 1987 (NODC Accession 8900060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current and other data from meters attached to FIXED PLATFORMS in the coastal waters of Florida. Data were collected by University of Miami; Rosenstiel School of...

  5. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres...

  6. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  7. Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in datasets OSD and CTD taken from the THALIA, MARION DUFRESNE (Call sign FNGB; built 1973; IMO 7208388) and other platforms in the Coastal N Atlantic, Coastal S Indian and other locations from 1989 to 2003 (NODC Accession 0001026)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients, physical, and other data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Bay of Biscay from 01...

  8. Análise faciológica e estratigráfica da planície costeira de Soure (margem leste da ilha de Marajó-PA, no trecho compreendido entre o canal do Cajuúna e o estuário Paracauari Faciological and stratigraphical analysis of Soure's coastal plain (eastern Marajó island-Pará, between Cajuúna channel and Paracauari estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmena Ferreira de França

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A planície costeira de Soure, na margem leste da ilha de Marajó (Pará, é constituída por áreas de acumulação lamosa e arenosa, de baixo gradiente, sujeitas a processos gerados por marés e ondas. Suas feições morfológicas são caracterizadas por planícies de maré, estuários, canais de maré e praias-barreiras. A análise faciológica e estratigráfica de seis testemunhos a vibração, com profundidade média de 4 m, e de afloramentos de campo permitiu a caracterização dos ambientes deposicionais, sua sucessão temporal e sua correlação lateral, a elaboração de seções estratigráficas e a definição de uma coluna estratigráfica. Foram identificadas cinco associações de facies: (1 facies de planície de maré, (2 facies de manguezal, (3 facies de barra de canal de maré, (4 facies de praia e (5 facies de duna. A história sedimentar da planície costeira de Soure é representada por duas sucessões estratigráficas: (1 a sucessão progradacional, constituída pelas associações de facies de planície de maré, manguezal e barra de canal de maré; e (2 a sucessão retrogradacional, formada pelas associações de facies de praia e de duna. Essas sucessões retratam uma fase de expansão das planícies de maré e manguezais, com progradação da linha de costa (Holoceno médio a superior, e uma posterior fase de retrogradação, com migração dos ambientes de praias e dunas sobre depósitos lamosos de manguezal e planície de maré, no Holoceno atual. A história deposicional da planície costeira de Soure é condizente com o modelo de evolução holocênica das planícies costeiras do nordeste paraense.Soures's coastal plain, eastern Marajó island (Pará, is formed by muddy and sandy deposits, low gradient areas submitted to tidal and wave processes. The morphological features are tidal flats, estuaries, tidal channels and barrier-beach ridges . The faciological and stratigraphical analysis of six vibra-core with medium

  9. Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  10. Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  11. Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  12. Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific Tropical Marine Coastal Ecosystems: Community Structure, Ecological Processes, and Productivity. Results and Scientific Papers of a Unesco/COMAR Workshop (Suva, Fiji, March 24-29, 1986). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Charles, Ed.

    This report presents the Unesco workshop conclusions concerning important differences among tropical seas in terms of ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, and the corresponding implications for resource management guidelines. The conclusions result from the presentation and discussion of eight review papers which are included in this…

  13. Coastal ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.9_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.9_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  14. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, ...

  15. Massachusetts 2005 and 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast in the summer of 2005 and 2007....

  16. Florida 2006 Post Wilma Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic in the summer of 2006. The data types...

  17. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  18. An Appalachian Amazon? Magnetofossil evidence for the development of a tropical river-like system in the mid-Atlantic United States during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Powars, David S.; Godfrey, Linda V.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Maloof, Adam C.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2009-12-01

    On the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, Paleocene sands and silts are replaced during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) by the kaolinite-rich Marlboro Clay. The clay preserves abundant magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria and novel, presumptively eukaryotic, iron-biomineralizing microorganisms. Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy, we map the magnetofossil distribution in the context of stratigraphy and carbon isotope data and identify three magnetic facies in the clay: one characterized by a mix of detrital particles and magnetofossils, a second with a higher magnetofossil-to-detrital ratio, and a third with only transient magnetofossils. The distribution of these facies suggests that suboxic conditions promoting magnetofossil production and preservation occurred throughout inner middle neritic sediments of the Salisbury Embayment but extended only transiently to outer neritic sediments and the flanks of the embayment. Such a distribution is consistent with the development of a system resembling a modern tropical river-dominated shelf.

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  1. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  2. Air-sea CO2 fluxes and the controls on ocean surface pCO2 seasonal variability in the coastal and open-ocean southwestern Atlantic Ocean: a modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    R. Arruda; Calil, P. H. R.; A. A. Bianchi; Doney, S. C.; Gruber, N.; I. Lima; G. Turi

    2015-01-01

    We use an eddy-resolving, regional ocean biogeochemical model to investigate the main variables and processes responsible for the climatological spatio-temporal variability of pCO2 and the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Overall, the region acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 south of 30° S, and is close to equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 to the north. On the shelves, the ocean acts as a weak source of CO2, except for the mid/outer shelves of Patago...

  3. Sustainable groundwater extraction in coastal areas: a Belgian example

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Van Houtte, E.; Lebbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Water extractions in coastal areas have to deal with salt water intrusion and lowering of hydraulic heads in valuable ecosystems. Therefore, sustainable management of fresh water resources in these areas is crucial. This is illustrated here with two water extractions in the western Belgian coastal plain which extract groundwater from a phreatic dune aquifer. One water extraction faced problems with salt water intrusion, while lowering of hydraulic heads was an issue for both. To remedy the sa...

  4. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  5. 75 FR 67251 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Blacknose Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... June 1, 2010 (75 FR 30484), NMFS announced the final rule for Amendment 3 to the Consolidated Atlantic... Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Blacknose Shark and Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark... blacknose shark and non- blacknose small coastal shark (SCS) fisheries. This action is necessary...

  6. Air-sea CO2 fluxes and the controls on ocean surface pCO2 seasonal variability in the coastal and open-ocean southwestern Atlantic Ocean: a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, R.; Calil, P. H. R.; Bianchi, A. A.; Doney, S. C.; Gruber, N.; Lima, I.; Turi, G.

    2015-10-01

    We use an eddy-resolving, regional ocean biogeochemical model to investigate the main variables and processes responsible for the climatological spatio-temporal variability of pCO2 and the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Overall, the region acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 south of 30° S, and is close to equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 to the north. On the shelves, the ocean acts as a weak source of CO2, except for the mid/outer shelves of Patagonia, which act as sinks. In contrast, the inner shelves and the low latitude open ocean of the southwestern Atlantic represent source regions. Observed nearshore-to-offshore and meridional pCO2 gradients are well represented by our simulation. A sensitivity analysis shows the importance of the counteracting effects of temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in controlling the seasonal variability of pCO2. Biological production and solubility are the main processes regulating pCO2, with biological production being particularly important on the shelves. The role of mixing/stratification in modulating DIC, and therefore surface pCO2, is shown in a vertical profile at the location of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) site in the Argentine Basin (42° S, 42° W).

  7. Air–sea CO2 fluxes and the controls on ocean surface pCO2 variability in coastal and open-ocean southwestern Atlantic Ocean: a modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arruda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use an eddy-resolving, regional ocean biogeochemical model to investigate the main variables and processes responsible for the climatological spatio-temporal variability of pCO2 and the air–sea CO2 fluxes in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Overall, the region acts as sink of atmospheric CO2 south of 30° S, and is close to equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 to the north. On the shelves, the ocean acts as a weak source of CO2, except for the mid/outer shelves of Patagonia, which act as sinks. In contrast, the inner shelves and the low latitude open ocean of the southwestern Atlantic represent source regions. Observed nearshore-to-offshore and meridional pCO2 gradients are well represented by our simulation. A sensitivity analysis shows the importance of the counteracting effects of temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in controlling the seasonal variability of pCO2. Biological production and solubility are the main processes regulating pCO2, with biological production being particularly important on the shelf regions. The role of mixing/stratification in modulating DIC, and therefore surface pCO2 is shown in a vertical profile at the location of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI site in the Argentine Basin (42° S, 42° W.

  8. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De;

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  9. Coastal Upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about coastal upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)

  10. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and...

  11. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  12. CentralBeaufort_shorelines.shp - Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  13. Distribution, abundance and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fall staging of the western arctic lesser snow goose population was I. monitored on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Yukon Territory...

  14. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the North Atlantic Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the North Atlantic Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  15. Coastal Plain Rotasonic Boreholes acquired within the lower coastal plain of South Carolina's Grand Strand region (ROTASONIC, Point shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  16. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  17. (SUPERCEDED) High Plains aquifer (SUPERCEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the High Plains aquifer in the states of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas....

  18. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  19. COASTAL, Homer, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  20. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...