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Sample records for atlantic bluefin tuna

  1. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus Biometrics and Condition.

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    Enrique Rodriguez-Marin

    Full Text Available The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled, covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR. The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  2. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Lutcavage, Molly E; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A; Hare, Jonathan A

    2016-03-22

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26951668

  3. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Lutcavage, Molly E; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A; Hare, Jonathan A

    2016-03-22

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors.

  4. The development of the northern European fishery for north Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus during 1900-1950

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    North Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, used to migrate to northern European waters (Norwegian Sea, North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Øresund) where it supported important commercial and sportfisheries. The species disappeared from the region in the early 1960s and the species is now still...... increasing. The species was frequently sighted while fishermen were targeting other species (herring, mackerel) and occasionally was caught as bycatch with these and other species. Information from scientifically trained observers demonstrate that tuna schools were common in the North Sea for 2–3 months...... and the capacity of processing facilities for bluefin tuna. Bluefin tuna in this area were generally medium-large (>50 kg whole weight). The most important countries which participated in bluefin tuna fisheries in this period were Norway, Denmark and Sweden, but bluefin tuna were also exploited by France, Germany...

  5. Changes in the distribution of atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Maine 1979-2005.

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    Walter J Golet

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Maine, NW Atlantic Ocean, is a productive, seasonal foraging ground for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, but commercial landings of adult size classes were up to 40% below the allocated total allowable catch between 2004 to 2008 for the rod and reel, harpoon, and purse seine categories in the Gulf of Maine. Reduction in Atlantic bluefin tuna catches in the Gulf of Maine could represent a decline in spawning stock biomass, but given wide-ranging, complex migration patterns, and high energetic requirements, an alternative hypothesis is that their dispersal patterns shifted to regions with higher prey abundance or profitability, reducing availability to U.S. fishing fleets. This study fit generalized linear models to Atlantic bluefin tuna landings data collected from fishermen's logbooks (1979-2005 as well as the distances between bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus, a primary prey species, to test alternative hypotheses for observed shifts in Atlantic bluefin tuna availability in the Gulf of Maine. For the bluefin model, landings varied by day of year, latitude and longitude. The effect of latitude differed by day of year and the effect of longitude differed by year. The distances between Atlantic bluefin tuna schools and Atlantic herring schools were significantly smaller (p<0.05 than would be expected from a randomly distributed population. A time series of average bluefin tuna school positions was positively correlated with the average number of herring captured per tow on Georges Bank in spring and autumn surveys respectively (p<0.01, r(2=0.24, p<0.01, r(2=0.42. Fishermen's logbooks contributed novel spatial and temporal information towards testing these hypotheses for the bluefin tuna fishery.

  6. Seasonal movements, aggregations and diving behavior of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus revealed with archival tags.

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    Andreas Walli

    Full Text Available Electronic tags were used to examine the seasonal movements, aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Implantable archival tags (n = 561 were deployed in bluefin tuna from 1996 to 2005 and 106 tags were recovered. Movement paths of the fish were reconstructed using light level and sea-surface-temperature-based geolocation estimates. To quantify habitat utilization we employed a weighted kernel estimation technique that removed the biases of deployment location and track length. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167+/-33 days were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. Within each region, bluefin tuna experienced distinct temperature regimes and displayed different diving behaviors. The mean diving depths within the high-use areas were significantly shallower and the dive frequency and the variance in internal temperature significantly higher than during transit movements between the high-use areas. Residence time in the more northern latitude high-use areas was significantly correlated with levels of primary productivity. The regions of aggregation are associated with areas of abundant prey and potentially represent critical foraging habitats that have seasonally abundant prey. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with the depth of the thermocline, and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. In this study, with numerous multi-year tracks, there appear to be repeatable patterns of clear aggregation areas that potentially are changing with environmental conditions. The high concentrations of bluefin tuna in predictable locations indicate that Atlantic bluefin tuna are vulnerable to concentrated fishing efforts in the regions of foraging aggregations.

  7. Impending collapse of bluefin tuna in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Mosegaard, Henrik; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, in the east Atlantic and Mediterranean has declined in recent decades. The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), the regional bluefin tuna management authority, has developed a plan to promote recovery by 2022, while...... still permitting fishing to continue during the period 2008-2010. Here we predict that the adult population in 2011 will likely be 75% lower relative to 2005 and that quotas in some intervening years will allow the fishery to capture legally all of the adult fish. Population demographics (proportion...... of older fish and repeat spawners in population) indicate that buffering capacity against years of poor reproduction has been reduced. This population is at risk of collapse (90% decline in adult biomass within three generations, the criterion used by the IUCN for defining populations as Critically...

  8. The spectre of uncertainty in management of exploited fish stocks: The illustrative case of Atlantic bluefin tuna

    OpenAIRE

    Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Kell, Laurence T.

    2014-01-01

    The recent overexploitation of East Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna stock has been well documented in the media where it has become the archetype of overfishing and general mis-management. Beyond the public debate, the crisis also highlighted how the interactions between science and management can change through time according to the awareness of the public opinion. To reflect these issues, the history of Atlantic bluefin tuna overfishing is first described. Then, the major uncertaint...

  9. Comparative influence of ocean conditions on yellowfin and Atlantic bluefin tuna catch from longlines in the Gulf of Mexico.

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    Steven L H Teo

    Full Text Available Directed fishing effort for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM, their primary spawning grounds in the western Atlantic, has been prohibited since the 1980s due to a precipitous decline of the spawning stock biomass. However, pelagic longlines targeted at other species, primarily yellowfin tuna and swordfish, continue to catch Atlantic bluefin tuna in the GOM as bycatch. Spatial and temporal management measures minimizing bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM will likely become important in rebuilding the western Atlantic bluefin stock. In order to help inform management policy and understand the relative distribution of target and bycatch species in the GOM, we compared the spatiotemporal variability and environmental influences on the catch per unit effort (CPUE of yellowfin (target and bluefin tuna (bycatch. Catch and effort data from pelagic longline fisheries observers (1993-2005 and scientific tagging cruises (1998-2002 were coupled with environmental and biological data. Negative binomial models were used to fit the data for both species and Akaike's Information Criterion (corrected for small sample size was used to determine the best model. Our results indicate that bluefin CPUE had higher spatiotemporal variability as compared to yellowfin CPUE. Bluefin CPUE increased substantially during the breeding months (March-June and peaked in April and May, while yellowfin CPUE remained relatively high throughout the year. In addition, bluefin CPUE was significantly higher in areas with negative sea surface height anomalies and cooler sea surface temperatures, which are characteristic of mesoscale cyclonic eddies. In contrast, yellowfin CPUE was less sensitive to environmental variability. These differences in seasonal variability and sensitivity to environmental influences suggest that bluefin tuna bycatch in the GOM can be reduced substantially by managing the spatial and temporal distribution of the pelagic longline effort without

  10. Microarray gene expression profiles from mature gonad tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner Luke D; Jayasundara Nishad; Castilho Pedro C; Block Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bluefin tunas are highly prized pelagic fish species representing a significant economic resource to fisheries throughout the world. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) populations have significantly declined due to overexploitation. As a consequence of their value and population decline, T. thynnus has been the focus of considerable research effort concerning many aspects of their life history. However, in-depth understanding of T. thynnus reproductive biology is stil...

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

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    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  12. Dispersal routes and habitat utilization of juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, tracked with mini PSAT and archival tags.

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    Benjamin Galuardi

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2009, we deployed 58 miniature pop-up satellite archival tags (PSAT and 132 implanted archival tags on juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna (age 2-5 in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data returned from these efforts (n = 26 PSATs, 1 archival tag revealed their dispersal routes, horizontal and vertical movements and habitat utilization. All of the tagged bluefin tuna remained in the northwest Atlantic for the duration observed, and in summer months exhibited core-use of coastal seas extending from Maryland to Cape Cod, MA, (USA out to the shelf break. Their winter distributions were more spatially disaggregated, ranging south to the South Atlantic Bight, northern Bahamas and Gulf Stream. Vertical habitat patterns showed that juvenile bluefin tuna mainly occupied shallow depths (mean= 5-12 m, sd = 15-23.7 m and relatively warm water masses in summer (mean= 17.9-20.9°C, sd= 4.2-2.6°C and had deeper and more variable depth patterns in winter (mean= 41-58 m, sd= 48.9-62.2 m. Our tagging results reveal annual dispersal patterns, behavior and oceanographic associations of juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna that were only surmised in earlier studies. Fishery independent profiling from electronic tagging also provide spatially and temporally explicit information for evaluating dispersals rates, population structure and fisheries catch patterns.

  13. Atlantic bluefin tuna: a novel multistock spatial model for assessing population biomass.

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    Nathan G Taylor

    Full Text Available Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is considered to be overfished, but the status of its populations has been debated, partly because of uncertainties regarding the effects of mixing on fishing grounds. A better understanding of spatial structure and mixing may help fisheries managers to successfully rebuild populations to sustainable levels while maximizing catches. We formulate a new seasonally and spatially explicit fisheries model that is fitted to conventional and electronic tag data, historic catch-at-age reconstructions, and otolith microchemistry stock-composition data to improve the capacity to assess past, current, and future population sizes of Atlantic bluefin tuna. We apply the model to estimate spatial and temporal mixing of the eastern (Mediterranean and western (Gulf of Mexico populations, and to reconstruct abundances from 1950 to 2008. We show that western and eastern populations have been reduced to 17% and 33%, respectively, of 1950 spawning stock biomass levels. Overfishing to below the biomass that produces maximum sustainable yield occurred in the 1960s and the late 1990s for western and eastern populations, respectively. The model predicts that mixing depends on season, ontogeny, and location, and is highest in the western Atlantic. Assuming that future catches are zero, western and eastern populations are predicted to recover to levels at maximum sustainable yield by 2025 and 2015, respectively. However, the western population will not recover with catches of 1750 and 12,900 tonnes (the "rebuilding quotas" in the western and eastern Atlantic, respectively, with or without closures in the Gulf of Mexico. If future catches are double the rebuilding quotas, then rebuilding of both populations will be compromised. If fishing were to continue in the eastern Atlantic at the unregulated levels of 2007, both stocks would continue to decline. Since populations mix on North Atlantic foraging grounds, successful rebuilding

  14. Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean)

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    Alemany, F.; Quintanilla, L.; Velez-Belchí, P.; García, A.; Cortés, D.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; González-Pola, C.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of the TUNIBAL project that focused on Atlantic bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) larval ecology, ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted from 2001 to 2005 off the Balearic archipelago, which is recognized as one of the main spawning areas of the eastern Atlantic stock of this species. In each survey, a regular sampling grid of about 200 stations, 10 nautical miles apart were sampled. CTD casts and oblique Bongo 60 and surface Bongo 90 plankton tows were carried out. The occurrence frequencies of Atlantic bluefin tuna, albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) and bullet tuna ( Auxis rochei) larvae in quantitative Bongo 60 samples were 0.14, 0.29 and 0.49 respectively. Mean larval abundances in these positive samples were relatively high: 31 larvae 10 m -2 for Atlantic bluefin tuna, 17 for albacore tuna and 31 for bullet tuna. All species had patchy distributions since more than 90% of the stations showed larval densities under 10 larvae 100 m -3 (70% showed even less than 2 larvae 100 m -3), whereas in some isolated spots, we recorded abundances as high as 867 (Atlantic bluefin) or 872 (bullet tuna) larvae 10 m -2. These results allowed us to relate larval distribution to mesoscale hydrographic features and to characterize the spawning habitat of these species. Single Quotient Parameter analyses were applied to spatial (depth), physical (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and geostrophic current velocities) and biological (mesozooplankton biomass) variables to determine the environmental preferences of each species for spawning. Results showed that the complex hydrodynamic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, due to the interaction between the inflowing surface Atlantic water masses (AW) and Mediterranean surface waters (MW), play a key role in determining the abundance and distribution of tuna larvae in this area, especially in the case of Atlantic bluefin tuna. Spawning of this species seems to take place mainly in offshore mixed waters, as

  15. Gulf of Mexico Ecological Forecasting - Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Population Assessment and Management using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data

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    Laygo, K.; Jones, I.; Huerta, J.; Holt, B.

    2010-12-01

    Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is one of the largest vertebrates in the world and is in high demand in sushi markets. It is a highly political species and is managed internationally by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna. The Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea are the only two known spawning sites in the world. However, there is a large variance in estimates of adult Atlantic Tuna spawning. This research focuses on extending Earth science research results to existing decision-making systems, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)for population assessment and management of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. The research team is a multi-sector and multi-disciplinary team composed of government (NOAA_NMFS), academic (University of South Florida Institute for Marine Remote Sensing) and commercial (Roffer’s Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc.) institutions. Their goal is to reduce the variance in the estimates of adult Bluefin Tuna spawning stock abundance in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Therefore, this paper will be derived from the innovative use of several earth orbiting satellites focusing on the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to identify Sargassum, which is a floating marine algae that may be relevant to the presence of Bluefin Tuna aggregations. The SAR imagery will be examined in combination with MODIS and MERIS Chlorophyll-a products to detect fine-scale surface current shear, eddy and frontal features, as well as biological slicks due to the presence of Sargassum. In addition, wind records from NOAA buoy data will be studied to analyze wind patterns in the Gulf of Mexico. The fine-resolution, all-weather capabilities of SAR provide a valuable complement to optical/IR sensors, which are often impacted by cloud cover. This study will provide an assessment of whether or not SAR can contribute to decision support efforts relevant to commercial fisheries

  16. Burst feeding of Pelagia noctiluca ephyrae on Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus eggs.

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    Ana Gordoa

    Full Text Available This study investigates the predation of P. noctiluca ephyrae on Atlantic Bluefin tuna (ABFT eggs under different experimental conditions. The specific factors considered in the experimental design were: a water mix conditions to explore predation under two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D prey distributions, b prey density to investigate the ingestion rate capacity, and c incubation time to inspect gut saturation. The eggs and jellyfish ephyrae were collected during the 2012 ABFT spawning survey off Ibiza (Balearic Isl., Western Mediterranean. The results showed that the proportion of feeding ephyrae increased with size. The mean clearance rate of feeding ephyrae, 4.14 L h(-1, was the highest ever recorded for ephyrae. Under calm conditions the eggs floated at the surface (2D spatial arrangement and the clearance rates, at low prey densities, were at least twice those under mixed conditions (3D spatial arrangement. At high prey density, clearance rate did not differ between mix conditions, probably due to the fast gut saturation, which was reached in c.a. 15 min, as revealed by time series observations of gut contents. The fast saturation of ephyrae and their slow digestion time of approximately 18 h suggest the existence of a diel feeding periodicity. We conclude that in the Western Mediterranean, P. noctiluca ephyrae are capable of predating on ABFT eggs, a highly pulsed and spatially restricted resource that potentially switches from a 3D to a 2D configuration in the absence of wind-generated turbulence. The P. noctiluca and Atlantic Bluefin tuna egg system might represent an example of a general mechanism linking pelagic and neustonic food webs.

  17. Aggregations of wild Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) at Mediterranean offshore fish farm sites: Environmental and management considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Borg, Joseph A.; Ŝegvić-Bubić, Tanja; TOMASSETTI, PAOLO; Özgül, Aytaç; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is being observed to increasingly and more frequently aggregate around Mediterranean offshore fish farms. In the present work, potential interactions between aggregations of this important pelagic species and offshore fish farms and local fisheries were assessed through a questionnaire survey aimed at fish farmers, divers and stakeholders in the Mediterranean. Since the interactions may have implications for aquaculture and marine ecolo...

  18. Habitat suitability of the Atlantic bluefin tuna by size class: An ecological niche approach

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    Druon, Jean-Noël; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Hanke, Alex R.; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Damalas, Dimitrios; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Quílez-Badia, Gemma; Ramirez, Karina; Arregui, Igor; Tserpes, George; Reglero, Patricia; Deflorio, Michele; Oray, Isik; Saadet Karakulak, F.; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Ceyhan, Tevfik; Grubišić, Leon; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Lamkin, John; Afonso, Pedro; Addis, Piero

    2016-03-01

    An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was used to predict the potential feeding and spawning habitats of small (5-25 kg, only feeding) and large (>25 kg) Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), Thunnus thynnus, in the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. The ENM was built bridging knowledge on ecological traits of ABFT (e.g. temperature tolerance, mobility, feeding and spawning strategy) with patterns of selected environmental variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, sea surface current and temperature, sea surface height anomaly) that were identified using an extensive set of precisely geo-located presence data. The results highlight a wider temperature tolerance for larger fish allowing them to feed in the northern - high chlorophyll levels - latitudes up to the Norwegian Sea in the eastern Atlantic and to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the western basin. Permanent suitable feeding habitat for small ABFT was predicted to be mostly located in temperate latitudes in the North Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as in subtropical waters off north-west Africa, while summer potential habitat in the Gulf of Mexico was found to be unsuitable for both small and large ABFTs. Potential spawning grounds were found to occur in the Gulf of Mexico from March-April in the south-east to April-May in the north, while favourable conditions evolve in the Mediterranean Sea from mid-May in the eastern to mid-July in the western basin. Other secondary potential spawning grounds not supported by observations were predicted in the Azores area and off Morocco to Senegal during July and August when extrapolating the model settings from the Gulf of Mexico into the North Atlantic. The presence of large ABFT off Florida and the Bahamas in spring was not explained by the model as is, however the environmental variables other than the sea surface height anomaly appeared to be favourable for spawning in part of this area. Defining key spatial and

  19. Into the deep blue sea: Commons theory and international governance of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

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    Graham Epstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to understand how to sustainably govern oceanic fisheries has become increasingly urgent as their contribution to global food security and livelihoods are threatened by declining stocks. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT is a prominent example of the complexities associated with widely distributed oceanic resources, extending in this case to include much of the North-Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. This distribution has led to limited attention from commons theorists that tend to focus on small-scale social ecological systems. Therefore in order to explore the fit between theories of the commons developed in small-scale systems, we apply the Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database (SESMAD to systematically analyze ABFT governance over a 22 year period. The results, which focus on the effects of resource characteristics, broadly correspond to the expectations of commons theory. Interestingly, however, the addition of resource storage in the form of ABFT ranches appears to be contributing to unsustainable harvests. This stands in contrast to previous findings in the commons literature that storage tends to enhance prospects for sustainable governance. Therefore several alternative hypotheses are developed by comparing and contrasting attributes of ABFT and canal irrigation storage. These hypotheses may be used in future research to evaluate the conditions in which storage enhances prospects for sustainable governance.

  20. Microarray gene expression profiles from mature gonad tissues of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus in the Gulf of Mexico

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    Gardner Luke D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bluefin tunas are highly prized pelagic fish species representing a significant economic resource to fisheries throughout the world. Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus populations have significantly declined due to overexploitation. As a consequence of their value and population decline, T. thynnus has been the focus of considerable research effort concerning many aspects of their life history. However, in-depth understanding of T. thynnus reproductive biology is still lacking. Knowledge of reproductive physiology is a very important tool for determining effective fisheries and aquaculture management. Transcriptome techniques are proving powerful and provide novel insights into physiological processes. Construction of a microarray from T. thynnus ESTs sourced from reproductive tissues has provided an ideal platform to study the reproductive physiology of bluefin tunas. The aim of this investigation was to compare transcription profiles from the ovaries and testes of mature T. thynnus to establish sex specific variations underlying their reproductive physiology. Results Male and females T. thynnus gonad tissues were collected from the wild and histologically staged. Sub-samples of sexually mature tissues were also measured for their mRNA differential expression among the sexes using the custom microarray design BFT 4X44K. A total of 7068 ESTs were assessed for differential expression of which 1273 ESTs were significantly different (p2 fold change in expression according to sex. Differential expression for 13 of these ESTs was validated with quantitative PCR. These include genes involved in egg envelope formation, hydration, and lipid transport/accumulation more highly expressed in ovaries compared with testis, while genes involved in meiosis, sperm motility and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in testis compared with ovaries. Conclusions This investigation has furthered our knowledge of bluefin tunas

  1. Trophic Ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnusthynnus) Larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean Spawning Grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study

    OpenAIRE

    Laiz-Carrión, Raúl; GERARD, Trika; Uriarte, Amaya; Malca, Estrella; Quintanilla, José María; Barbara A Muhling; ALEMANY Francisco; Privoznik, Sarah L.; Shiroza, Akihiro; John T Lamkin; García, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C) as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT) (6–10 mm standard length) in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Balearic Sea (MED). These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophi...

  2. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Klaus Bauer

    Full Text Available Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba from the Golf of Lions (GoL, compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies. Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  3. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). PMID:26458254

  4. Spatio-temporal population structuring and genetic diversity retention in depleted Atlantic Bluefin tuna of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Giulia; Landi, Monica; Ferrara, Giorgia; Milano, Ilaria; Cariani, Alessia; Zane, Lorenzo; Sella, Massimo; Barbujani, Guido; Tinti, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    Fishery genetics have greatly changed our understanding of population dynamics and structuring in marine fish. In this study, we show that the Atlantic Bluefin tuna (ABFT, Thunnus thynnus), an oceanic predatory species exhibiting highly migratory behavior, large population size, and high potential for dispersal during early life stages, displays significant genetic differences over space and time, both at the fine and large scales of variation. We compared microsatellite variation of contemporary (n = 256) and historical (n = 99) biological samples of ABFTs of the central-western Mediterranean Sea, the latter dating back to the early 20th century. Measures of genetic differentiation and a general heterozygote deficit suggest that differences exist among population samples, both now and 96–80 years ago. Thus, ABFTs do not represent a single panmictic population in the Mediterranean Sea. Statistics designed to infer changes in population size, both from current and past genetic variation, suggest that some Mediterranean ABFT populations, although still not severely reduced in their genetic potential, might have suffered from demographic declines. The short-term estimates of effective population size are straddled on the minimum threshold (effective population size = 500) indicated to maintain genetic diversity and evolutionary potential across several generations in natural populations. PMID:20080643

  5. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    species of fish. We conclude that these adaptations would have been necessary for successful local reproduction by bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, and that a locally-adapted reproducing population may have disappeared. Recovery of bluefin tuna in the Black Sea, either for spawning or foraging, will occur......The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity......, but its biogeographic range has contracted since the 1950s. Most recently, the species disappeared from the Black Sea in the late 1980s and has not yet recovered. Reasons for the Black Sea disappearance, and the species-wide range contraction, are unclear. However bluefin tuna formerly foraged...

  6. Molecular Identification of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scombridae Larvae and Development of a DNA Character-Based Identification Key for Mediterranean Scombrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Neils Puncher

    Full Text Available The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, is a commercially important species that has been severely over-exploited in the recent past. Although the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock is now showing signs of recovery, its current status remains very uncertain and as a consequence their recovery is dependent upon severe management informed by rigorous scientific research. Monitoring of early life history stages can inform decision makers about the health of the species based upon recruitment and survival rates. Misidentification of fish larvae and eggs can lead to inaccurate estimates of stock biomass and productivity which can trigger demands for increased quotas and unsound management conclusions. Herein we used a molecular approach employing mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1 and ITS1, respectively to identify larvae (n = 188 collected from three spawning areas in the Mediterranean Sea by different institutions working with a regional fisheries management organization. Several techniques were used to analyze the genetic sequences (sequence alignments using search algorithms, neighbour joining trees, and a genetic character-based identification key and an extensive comparison of the results is presented. During this process various inaccuracies in related publications and online databases were uncovered. Our results reveal important differences in the accuracy of the taxonomic identifications carried out by different ichthyoplanktologists following morphology-based methods. While less than half of larvae provided were bluefin tuna, other dominant taxa were bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, albacore (Thunnus alalunga and little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus. We advocate an expansion of expertise for a new generation of morphology-based taxonomists, increased dialogue between morphology-based and molecular taxonomists and increased scrutiny of public sequence databases.

  7. Molecular Identification of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scombridae) Larvae and Development of a DNA Character-Based Identification Key for Mediterranean Scombrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Gregory Neils; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Alemany, Francisco; Cariani, Alessia; Oray, Isik K; Karakulak, F Saadet; Basilone, Gualtiero; Cuttitta, Angela; Mazzola, Salvatore; Tinti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, is a commercially important species that has been severely over-exploited in the recent past. Although the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock is now showing signs of recovery, its current status remains very uncertain and as a consequence their recovery is dependent upon severe management informed by rigorous scientific research. Monitoring of early life history stages can inform decision makers about the health of the species based upon recruitment and survival rates. Misidentification of fish larvae and eggs can lead to inaccurate estimates of stock biomass and productivity which can trigger demands for increased quotas and unsound management conclusions. Herein we used a molecular approach employing mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1 and ITS1, respectively) to identify larvae (n = 188) collected from three spawning areas in the Mediterranean Sea by different institutions working with a regional fisheries management organization. Several techniques were used to analyze the genetic sequences (sequence alignments using search algorithms, neighbour joining trees, and a genetic character-based identification key) and an extensive comparison of the results is presented. During this process various inaccuracies in related publications and online databases were uncovered. Our results reveal important differences in the accuracy of the taxonomic identifications carried out by different ichthyoplanktologists following morphology-based methods. While less than half of larvae provided were bluefin tuna, other dominant taxa were bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus). We advocate an expansion of expertise for a new generation of morphology-based taxonomists, increased dialogue between morphology-based and molecular taxonomists and increased scrutiny of public sequence databases.

  8. On Making Statistical Inferences Regarding the Relationship between Spawners and Recruits and the Irresolute Case of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porch, Clay E; Lauretta, Matthew V

    2016-01-01

    Forecasts of the future abundance of western Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) have, for nearly two decades, been based on two competing views of future recruitment potential: (1) a "low" recruitment scenario based on hockey-stick (two-line) curve where the expected level of recruitment is set equal to the geometric mean of the recruitment estimates for the years after a supposed regime-shift in 1975, and (2) a "high" recruitment scenario based on a Beverton-Holt curve fit to the time series of spawner-recruit pairs beginning in 1970. Several investigators inferred the relative plausibility of these two scenarios based on measures of their ability to fit estimates of spawning biomass and recruitment derived from stock assessment outputs. Typically, these comparisons have assumed the assessment estimates of spawning biomass are known without error. It is shown here that ignoring error in the spawning biomass estimates can predispose model-choice approaches to favor the regime-shift hypothesis over the Beverton-Holt curve with higher recruitment potential. When the variance of the observation error approaches that which is typically estimated for assessment outputs, the same model-choice approaches tend to favor the single Beverton-Holt curve. For this and other reasons, it is argued that standard model-choice approaches are insufficient to make the case for a regime shift in the recruitment dynamics of western Atlantic bluefin tuna. A more fruitful course of action may be to move away from the current high/low recruitment dichotomy and focus instead on adopting biological reference points and management procedures that are robust to these and other sources of uncertainty. PMID:27272215

  9. On Making Statistical Inferences Regarding the Relationship between Spawners and Recruits and the Irresolute Case of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay E Porch

    Full Text Available Forecasts of the future abundance of western Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus have, for nearly two decades, been based on two competing views of future recruitment potential: (1 a "low" recruitment scenario based on hockey-stick (two-line curve where the expected level of recruitment is set equal to the geometric mean of the recruitment estimates for the years after a supposed regime-shift in 1975, and (2 a "high" recruitment scenario based on a Beverton-Holt curve fit to the time series of spawner-recruit pairs beginning in 1970. Several investigators inferred the relative plausibility of these two scenarios based on measures of their ability to fit estimates of spawning biomass and recruitment derived from stock assessment outputs. Typically, these comparisons have assumed the assessment estimates of spawning biomass are known without error. It is shown here that ignoring error in the spawning biomass estimates can predispose model-choice approaches to favor the regime-shift hypothesis over the Beverton-Holt curve with higher recruitment potential. When the variance of the observation error approaches that which is typically estimated for assessment outputs, the same model-choice approaches tend to favor the single Beverton-Holt curve. For this and other reasons, it is argued that standard model-choice approaches are insufficient to make the case for a regime shift in the recruitment dynamics of western Atlantic bluefin tuna. A more fruitful course of action may be to move away from the current high/low recruitment dichotomy and focus instead on adopting biological reference points and management procedures that are robust to these and other sources of uncertainty.

  10. Determination of temporal spawning patterns and hatching time in response to temperature of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordoa, Ana; Carreras, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed the temporal pattern of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) spawning in the Balearic spawning ground and examined its reproductive performance after years in captivity. Furthermore, ABFT hatching time at different on-site temperatures was determined for the first time. Spawning surveys were carried out in 4 spawning seasons (2009-2012) aboard tuna transport vessels. Three groups of spawners were monitored: a captive group transported to the spawning region and monitored throughout the four spawning seasons and two wild groups caught in 2009 and 2010 which were transferred to a monitoring transport cage immediately after being caught. Surface plankton samples were collected nightly, beginning immediately after the first purse seine catches were made and concluding after spawning was observed to have ended. All groups displayed the same spawning hours, restricted between 2:00-5:00 a.m. The captive group, as they got older, shifted towards the earliest hour, suggesting an age influence on reproductive time. The onset of spawning varied annually from the end of May to the beginning of June at temperatures around 19 °C-20 °C, ending by the second week of July. The peak of spawning was consistently around the summer solstice, June 15th-30th. The results showed the negative effect of unstable oceanographic conditions in the spawning process which might influence the annual reproductive success of ABFT. The influence of temperature on hatching time was higher than that observed in other tuna species, twice as fast at 26 °C (23 h) as at 19.5 °C (49 h). Overall, this study shows the strength of the internal mechanism in ABFT that controls spawning traits. Spawning in ABFT is cyclical and highly synchronised on diel and annual scales. We consider that the timing of spawning is rather influenced by day length and its adaptive significance is discussed.

  11. Determination of temporal spawning patterns and hatching time in response to temperature of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus in the Western Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gordoa

    Full Text Available This study analysed the temporal pattern of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT spawning in the Balearic spawning ground and examined its reproductive performance after years in captivity. Furthermore, ABFT hatching time at different on-site temperatures was determined for the first time. Spawning surveys were carried out in 4 spawning seasons (2009-2012 aboard tuna transport vessels. Three groups of spawners were monitored: a captive group transported to the spawning region and monitored throughout the four spawning seasons and two wild groups caught in 2009 and 2010 which were transferred to a monitoring transport cage immediately after being caught. Surface plankton samples were collected nightly, beginning immediately after the first purse seine catches were made and concluding after spawning was observed to have ended. All groups displayed the same spawning hours, restricted between 2:00-5:00 a.m. The captive group, as they got older, shifted towards the earliest hour, suggesting an age influence on reproductive time. The onset of spawning varied annually from the end of May to the beginning of June at temperatures around 19 °C-20 °C, ending by the second week of July. The peak of spawning was consistently around the summer solstice, June 15th-30th. The results showed the negative effect of unstable oceanographic conditions in the spawning process which might influence the annual reproductive success of ABFT. The influence of temperature on hatching time was higher than that observed in other tuna species, twice as fast at 26 °C (23 h as at 19.5 °C (49 h. Overall, this study shows the strength of the internal mechanism in ABFT that controls spawning traits. Spawning in ABFT is cyclical and highly synchronised on diel and annual scales. We consider that the timing of spawning is rather influenced by day length and its adaptive significance is discussed.

  12. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiz-Carrión, Raúl; Gerard, Trika; Uriarte, Amaya; Malca, Estrella; Quintanilla, José María; Muhling, Barbara A; Alemany, Francisco; Privoznik, Sarah L; Shiroza, Akihiro; Lamkin, John T; García, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C) as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT) (6-10 mm standard length) in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Balearic Sea (MED). These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  13. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  14. Trophic Ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnusthynnus) Larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean Spawning Grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca, Estrella; Quintanilla, José María; Muhling, Barbara A.; Alemany, Francisco; Privoznik, Sarah L.; Shiroza, Akihiro; Lamkin, John T.; García, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C) as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT) (6–10 mm standard length) in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the Balearic Sea (MED). These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton—zooplankton—larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae. PMID:26225849

  15. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Klaus Bauer; Jean-Marc Fromentin; Hervé Demarcq; Blandine Brisset; Sylvain Bonhommeau

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availabi...

  16. Dietary evidence of mesopelagic and pelagic foraging by Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L. during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droplaug eOlafsdottir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus is a large highly mobile predator fish species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Knowledge of its trophic role in marine food webs in summer feeding areas is presently based on recent (1980s-2010s sampling in the Bay of Biscay, Gulfs of Maine and St. Lawrence, and from historical (1950s-1960s sampling in the Norwegian-North Sea-Kattegat. No study has yet investigated the diets of ABFT in Icelandic waters, where it supported an experimental fishery during 1996-2005, nor in any region north of the Bay of Biscay since the 1960s. However north Atlantic temperatures and fish species distributions, including some ABFT prey species (e. g., mackerel have been changing in the 2000s. New knowledge of ABFT diets in previously understudied parts of the species range will be useful for understanding factors affecting the trophic role, migration behavior and bioenergetics of ABFT. Here we report the dietary composition of ABFT during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin south of the continental shelf of Iceland. A total of 36 prey species or higher taxa were observed in 421 stomach samples: 17 teleost fishes, 4 squid, 1 octopus, 11 crustaceans and 2 other invertebrate species. The most important prey species European flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus (%N=16.70, %W=48.89; %FO=87.65, barracudinas (Paralepididae (%N=14.05, %W=28.59, %FO=76.48 and gonate squid (Gonatus sp. (%N=9.17, %W=7.85, %FO=75.06. Prey sizes were highly variable relative to ABFT sizes indicating highly opportunistic feeding on diverse sizes. The presence of a large proportion of mesopelagic species in the diet indicates feeding in the mesopelagic layer and extensive dive behavior. These results give new baseline knowledge for future comparison with anticipated oceanographic-biological changes in the region in the coming decades and can be used to help parameterize new models of ABFT migration behavior and trophic role.

  17. Migration, residency, and homing of bluefin tuna in the western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Lopuszanski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of an electronic tagging programme on mature Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) that has been conducted since 2007 offshore of the French Mediterranean Coast. The spatial distributions of ABFT showed little year-to-year variation and the fish concentrated in a small area of the central northwestern Mediterranean, where they may stay for several months. The individual tracks display sinuous trajectories in this area, indicating the possibility of feeding behaviour. No...

  18. Bluefin tuna fishing and ranching: a difficult management problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefano, de V.; Heijden, van der P.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The fish processing industry and consumers in Japan are willing to pay high (and sometimes outrageous) prices for fresh bluefin tuna with fat content and flesh colour just right to be served raw as sashimi or sushi. This willingness was and still is the economic incentive for a high fishing pressure

  19. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Payne, Mark; Boje, Jesper;

    in ecological isolation from others. Here we show that a large highly migratory top predator fish species has entered a high latitude sub-polar area. Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus 1758, were captured in waters east of Greenland (65o N) in August 2012 during exploratory fishing for Atlantic mackerel......Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food-webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species......, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11o C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed to a warming trend...

  20. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Brian R; Payne, Mark R; Boje, Jesper; Høyer, Jacob L; Siegstad, Helle

    2014-08-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species in ecological isolation from others. Here, we show that a large highly migratory top predator fish species has entered a high latitude subpolar area beyond its usual range. Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus 1758, were captured in waters east of Greenland (65°N) in August 2012 during exploratory fishing for Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts is restructuring the food web in east Greenland waters.

  1. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.;

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based...... on the international ecosystem survey in the Nordic Seas (IESNS), the bottom trawl survey in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea (EVHOE) and the pelagic survey in the Bay of Biscay (PELGAS). We also present catch data on bluefin tuna, which has been depleted for decades but historically used to be a key predator...... on the other pelagic stocks during summer. The results show that there were substantial changes in the herring and blue whiting distribution during the 1990s and early 2000s. The earliest bluefin tuna catches noted were in 1907. The catches in the Norwegian Sea area peaked in the 1950s and there have been very...

  2. Temporal distribution of size and weight of fattened Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus l. from Tunisian farms: (2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. HATTOUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analysis size and weight-frequency composition of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus fattened in Tunisian farms for the period 2005-2010 and compare these morphometric parameters with those from wild bluefin tuna landed on 2001 at Sfax port (Tunisia. A total of 6,757 wild and fattened bluefin tuna were measured as straight-line fork length and 49,962 were weighted. Average value of K for wild BFT was 1.59 and respectively 2.43, 2.32, 2.15, 1.61, 1.79 and 1.90 for Fattened BFT after 5-6 months from 2005 to 2010. Length frequency of fattened bluefin showed clearly a substantial increase in juvenile rate. The percentage which was 21.4% in 2005 reached 31.3% in 2009. For weight distribution, 73.3% of the fish caught in 2001 are below the annual mean (75.7 kg, while means 71 to 72% of fattened fish were under annual mean weight. Year 2009 is exceptional because only 57% of fattened fish were under the mean weight. This demonstrates that the fish caught are becoming increasingly small. Mean weight for fattening period (77 to 124 kg are obviously higher than those of the wild fish (75,7kg.This study showed an increment in the amount of specimen under first sexual maturity which will not have the chance to spawn.

  3. Global Sushi: The Political Economy of the Mediterranian Bluefin Tuna Fishery in the Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano B. Longo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean has a long history of human interaction. In recent times, this fishery has become the central source of bluefin tuna for core nations, particularly Japan. This process was set off in large part by the growth of global fish markets, driven by the valuable sushi and sashimi market, and overfishing of other bluefin stocks in other parts of the world. The transformation of this fishery from an artisanal trap fishery to a globalized industrial fishery has had a number of social and environmental consequences. Based on in-depth fieldwork and historical research, this paper examines the political economy of the bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean, with a focus on Sicily. It provides a descriptive history of the changing conditions in this fishery, paying special attention to the modern fishery. This research contributes to the discussions regarding the globalization and industrialization of agri-foodsystems and environmental degradation.

  4. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian R.; Payne, Mark R.; Boje, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change...

  5. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian; Iudicone, D.;

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world's most valued fish species. Here we...

  6. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management. PMID:23781100

  7. Genetic Structure of Bluefin Tuna in the Mediterranean Sea Correlates with Environmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Giulia; Stagioni, Marco; Landi, Monica; Ferrara, Giorgia; Barbujani, Guido; Tinti, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Background Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT) shows complex demography and ecological variation in the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic surveys have detected significant, although weak, signals of population structuring; catch series analyses and tagging programs identified complex ABFT spatial dynamics and migration patterns. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic structure of the ABFT in the Mediterranean is correlated with mean surface temperature and salinity. Methodology We used six samples collected from Western and Central Mediterranean integrated with a new sample collected from the recently identified easternmost reproductive area of Levantine Sea. To assess population structure in the Mediterranean we used a multidisciplinary framework combining classical population genetics, spatial and Bayesian clustering methods and a multivariate approach based on factor analysis. Conclusions FST analysis and Bayesian clustering methods detected several subpopulations in the Mediterranean, a result also supported by multivariate analyses. In addition, we identified significant correlations of genetic diversity with mean salinity and surface temperature values revealing that ABFT is genetically structured along two environmental gradients. These results suggest that a preference for some spawning habitat conditions could contribute to shape ABFT genetic structuring in the Mediterranean. However, further studies should be performed to assess to what extent ABFT spawning behaviour in the Mediterranean Sea can be affected by environmental variation. PMID:24260341

  8. Genetic structure of bluefin tuna in the mediterranean sea correlates with environmental variables.

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    Giulia Riccioni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT shows complex demography and ecological variation in the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic surveys have detected significant, although weak, signals of population structuring; catch series analyses and tagging programs identified complex ABFT spatial dynamics and migration patterns. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic structure of the ABFT in the Mediterranean is correlated with mean surface temperature and salinity. METHODOLOGY: We used six samples collected from Western and Central Mediterranean integrated with a new sample collected from the recently identified easternmost reproductive area of Levantine Sea. To assess population structure in the Mediterranean we used a multidisciplinary framework combining classical population genetics, spatial and Bayesian clustering methods and a multivariate approach based on factor analysis. CONCLUSIONS: FST analysis and Bayesian clustering methods detected several subpopulations in the Mediterranean, a result also supported by multivariate analyses. In addition, we identified significant correlations of genetic diversity with mean salinity and surface temperature values revealing that ABFT is genetically structured along two environmental gradients. These results suggest that a preference for some spawning habitat conditions could contribute to shape ABFT genetic structuring in the Mediterranean. However, further studies should be performed to assess to what extent ABFT spawning behaviour in the Mediterranean Sea can be affected by environmental variation.

  9. Retinal ganglion cell topography in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Taeko

    2014-02-01

    The retinal ganglion cell distribution, which is known to reflect fish feeding behavior, was investigated in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis. During the course of examination, regularly arrayed cells with a distinctive larger soma, which may be regarded as motion-sensitive cells, were found. The topographical distribution of ordinary-sized ganglion cells, which is usually utilized to estimate fish visual axis and/or visual field characteristics, showed that the highest-density area, termed the area centralis, was localized in the ventral-temporal retina. The retinal topography of ordinary-sized ganglion cells seems to reflect the bluefin tuna's foraging behavior; while cruising, cells in the area centralis may signal potential prey, such as small schooling pelagic fishes or squids, that are present in the upward-forward direction. Judging from morphological characteristics, the large ganglion cells localized in the small temporal retinal area seem to be equivalent to physiologically categorized off-center Y-cells of cat, which are stimulated by a transient dark spot in a bright visual field. It was inferred that presumed large off-center cells in the temporal retina detect movements of agile prey animals escaping from bluefin tuna as a silhouette against environmental light. PMID:23775518

  10. Analysis of the international fisheries management based on the proposal of including Atlantic bluefin tuna into Appendix Ⅰ of CITES Convention%基于将大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼列入CITES附录Ⅰ提案的国际渔业管理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜斐斐; 唐建业

    2012-01-01

    受国际市场对大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼产品需求的驱动,非法、不报告、不管制捕捞和捕捞能力过剩等现象频频发生,造成该鱼类资源的数量持续下降。瑞典、摩纳哥先后向濒危野生动植物种国际贸易委员会提议将大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼列入《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》附录,禁止捕捞和国际贸易该鱼种,引起了广泛关注和激烈争论。为此,通过分析ICCAT对大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼的管理、相关国家或地区组织的不同意见,研究该提案可能对国际渔业管理及我国带来的影响。一旦该鱼种列入CITES附录,可能导致更多商业开发的水生生物被提到CITES框架上来,从而影响世界渔业的管理格局。对此,中国应采取行动,积极参加国际组织会议,参与规则制定,反映中国关注问题与主张。而作为联合国海洋法公约和ICCAT的一员,我国也有义务与其他国家合作执行ICCAT的养护和管理措施,为提高履约能力,规范国内远洋企业的管理,如按照相关要求及时、准确报送数据等,从而配合国家履行国际义务。%Driven by the demand from international market for Atlantic bluefin tuna(Thunnus thynnus) and their products,overcapacity and illegal,unregulated and unreported(IUU) fishing frequently took place,which resulted in continuous decline of the fish resources.Although relevant Regional Fishery Management Organizations(RFMOs),the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas(ICCAT) in this case,have adopted some conservation and management measures for this fish stock,the outcome is unsatisfied.To find an alternative solution,Monaco in 2009 proposed to include Atlantic bluefin tuna into Appendix Ⅰ of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(CITES),banning capture and trade.In 2010,this proposal was discussed heatedly in the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties,which had attracted

  11. Climate effects on historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzedo, Unai; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Caballero-Alfonso, Ángela M.; Faria, Sérgio H.; Li, Jianke; Castro-Hernández, José J.

    2016-06-01

    Historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter) from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean show pronounced short- and long-term fluctuations. Some of these fluctuations are believed to be associated with biological and ecological process, as well as distinct climate factors. For the period of study (1700-1936) of this work, we found a long-term increasing trend in the BFT captures and in the climate variables. After applying a statistical time series analysis of relevant climate variables and long-term tuna capture records, it is highlighted the role played by sea-surface temperature (SST) on bluefin population variations. The most relevant result of this study is the strong correlation found between the total solar irradiance (TSI) - an external component of the climate system - and bluefin captures. The solar irradiance could have affected storminess during the period under study, mainly during the time interval 1700-1810. We suggest physico-biological mechanisms that explain the BFT catch fluctuations in two consecutive time intervals. In the first period, from 1700 to 1810, this mechanism could be high storm and wind activity, which would have made the BFT fisheries activities more difficult by reducing their efficacy. In contrast, during the interval from 1810 to 1907, the effects of wind and storms could be on spawning behaviour and larval ecology, and hence on year class strength, rather than on fish or fisherman's behaviour. These findings open up a range of new lines of enquiry that are relevant for both, fisheries and climate change research.

  12. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  13. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  14. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  15. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2015-03-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks.

  17. Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks. PMID:25461601

  18. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

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    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  19. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii.

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    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993-1995 and 1999-2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT.

  20. Tissue turnover rates and isotopic trophic discrimination factors in the endothermic teleost, pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis.

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    Daniel J Madigan

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, Thunnus orientalis, 1-2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for (15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for (13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ(15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ(13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of (15N and (13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. (15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ(15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology.

  1. Geographical approaches the bluefin Tuna (thunnus thynnus farmers and farm of Musellim passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüştü Ilgar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study area is important strait of our country and Lesvos Island between on the where the Biga Peninsula and Lesvos Island approach. Greenpeace, Southeast ANSE (Asociacion de Naturalistas del Sureste, WWF (World Wildlife Fund. As a result of these attempts, on April 15-19, 2002 ICCAT (International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna and GFCM (Genaral Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean gathered in Malta and studied on fish stocks and statistic values. At last, on April 29, 2002 they published a moratorium aimed at European Community Ministries in Cartagena. The objective of this work is to tourism process affecting life and safety aquatic biosphere, which the intensive interactions take places and discusses optimization proposals for Thunnus thynnus farmers.

  2. Tracking multiple pathways of waste from a northern bluefin tuna farm in a marine-coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Aquaculture of bluefin tuna in Mediterranean coastal waters has generated growing concern about the negative environmental effects. In the present isotopic study we examined the dispersal and fate of organic matter derived from a Mediterranean tuna farm in the surrounding environment. An overall enrichment in the heavy nitrogen isotope was found in the feed and in farmed tunas, indicating the input of isotopically traceable organic matter in the system. Waste was clearly traceable in the water column up to 1000 m from the cages, while only slight accumulation occurred in the sediment just below the cages. Waste was isotopically shown also to contribute to the diet of demersal and benthopelagic wild fish collected around the cages. As a result, waste undertook multiple pathways. In the water column its was diluted and dispersed due to hydrodynamism, which prevented great accumulation of aquaculture-derived organic matter in sediments. In addition, biological constraints such as benthopelagic and demersal fish further prevented organic matter accumulation through the benthic trophic route. PMID:22464398

  3. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

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    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  4. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, G; Acone, F; Desantis, S; Corriero, A; Ventriglia, G; Addis, P; Genovese, S; Aprea, A; Spedicato, D; Losurdo, M; Deflorio, M; Di Summa, A; De Metrio, G

    2008-01-01

    The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions) as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE) similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (s)GnRH, chicken (c)GnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6) and sea bream (sb)GnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRH-immunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed. PMID:18502719

  5. A standardised abundance index from commercial spotting data of southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii: random effects to the rescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelle Basson

    Full Text Available Commercial aerial spotting of surface schools of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (SBT, Thunnus maccoyii, is conducted as part of fishing operations in the Great Australian Bight in summer. This provides the opportunity to efficiently collect large amounts of data on sightings of SBT. The data can potentially be used to construct a time-series index of relative abundance by standardising the data for issues such as weather, spotter ability and ocean conditions. Unlike a statistically designed survey, the commercial spotting is governed by business considerations and fishing operations. The SBT dataset is therefore highly unbalanced with regard to spotters operating in each season. This complicates the standardisation of the data, particularly with regard to interactions between covariates. We show how a generalized additive model with random effects can simplify both the fitting of the model and the construction of an index, while also avoiding the need to leave out strata or interaction terms that are important. The approach is applicable to standardisation of more traditional catch and effort data.

  6. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) IN wild Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from different FAO capture zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-06-01

    Residues of environmental contaminants in food represent a concern in food safety programs. In this study, the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were evaluated in 79 tuna samples from FAO areas 51 (Indian Ocean), 71 (Pacific Ocean), 34 (Atlantic Ocean), and 37 (Mediterranean Sea). 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 organochlorines (OCs) and 7 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were selected as representative compounds according to EFSA POPs monitoring guidelines. An analytical method, based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), with an "in-line" clean-up step and GC-MS/MS detection, was developed, validated and applied. PCBs were detected in all FAO areas, with a prevalence of 100% for most of them. In the FAO area 37, only, all PBDEs were detected. Only 5 OCs were detected. The results showed that POPs contamination of tuna reflects FAO area contamination; in particular FAO area 37 was the most polluted. Moreover, tuna muscle was an appropriate matrix for monitoring contamination and for obtaining information about food safety. PMID:27016811

  7. The oxidative stability of chilled and frozen pilchards used as feed for captive southern bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitz-Gerald, C.H.; Bremner, Allan

    1998-01-01

    and flavour of cooked samples and by the chemical measures of peroxide value and levels of free fatty acids. There was considerable variability in fat content between individual fish with average content over all samples analysed in the trial being about 4 to 5%. In chilled storage, the pilchards exhibited...... obvious deterioration within two days. Substantial peroxide values were found and oxidised odours and flavours were clearly evident after 4 days' chilled storage. In frozen storage, oxidation occurred after only one month at a temperature of -20°C. This could be delayed if the fish were glazed with water...... demonstrated that the oil in the pilchards is very readily oxidised and careful handling, chilling, freezing and storage procedures need to be adopted to provide a product which is a nutritionally sound feed material for captive tuna. The demerit point scoring system was found to be a rapid evaluative...

  8. 77 FR 44161 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... the effects of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill and the effects of mixing of eastern and western BFT..._final.pdf ) the Team modeled the potential effect of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill on the future... to be the best scientific information of the effect of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill on...

  9. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of organobrominated compounds in bluefin tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Abaurrea, Miren; Covaci, Adrian; Ramos, Lourdes

    2011-09-28

    This study evaluates comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF MS) for the simultaneous analysis of several classes of organobromines (OBs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), several halogenated naturally produced compounds (HNPs) and eight novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivates (PBHDs), 2,4,6-tribromoanisole and a mixed halogenated compound (MHC-1), in bluefin tuna muscles. The proposed methodology maximised separation of both within and among OB families, and among these and other halogenated micropollutants detected in these samples and co-extracted matrix components. Special attention has been paid to solve co-elution problems observed during the analysis of OBs with one-dimensional GC-based techniques. Satisfactory separation among several relevant PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs has been obtained allowing their unambiguous determination in a single run. Additional studies were conducted to identify selected NBFRs and HNPs. 2,4-Dibromoanisole, a dibromophenol isomer and hexabromobenzene were identified in the investigated samples. Several new tri- and tetra-BHD derivates were also identified, indicating that these compounds could apparently exist as structured families in nature. In addition, a tetrabrominated diMeO-biphenyl and two tetrabrominated diMeO-BDEs were also tentatively identified. PMID:21872866

  10. The Kiss2 receptor (Kiss2r) gene in Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii and in Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi - functional analysis and isolation of transcript variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocillado, J N; Biran, J; Lee, Y Y; Levavi-Sivan, B; Mechaly, A S; Zohar, Y; Elizur, A

    2012-10-15

    The kisspeptin system plays an essential role in reproductive function in vertebrates, particularly in the onset of puberty. We investigated the kisspeptin system in two Perciform teleosts, the Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT; Thunnus maccoyii), and the Yellowtail Kingfish (YTK; Seriola lalandi), by characterising their kisspeptin 2 receptor (Kiss2r) genes. In addition to the full length Kiss2r cDNA sequences, we have isolated from SBT and YTK a transcript variant that retained an intron. We have further obtained three ytkKiss2r transcript variants that contained deletions. In vitro functional analysis of the full length SBT and YTK Kiss2r showed higher response to Kiss2-10 than to Kiss1-10, with stronger transduction via PKC than PKA. The full length ytkKiss2r and two deletion variants were differentially expressed in the brain of male, but not in female, juvenile YTK treated with increasing doses of Kiss2-10 peptide. In the gonads, the expression level of the ytkKiss2r transcripts did not vary significantly either in the male or female fish. This is the first time that transcript variants of the Kiss2r gene that contain deletions and show responsiveness to treatments with kisspeptin have been reported in any teleost. PMID:22824208

  11. Bioenergetics, Trophic Ecology, and Niche Separation of Tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R J; Young, J W; Ménard, F; Potier, M; Allain, V; Goñi, N; Logan, J M; Galván-Magaña, F

    2016-01-01

    Tunas are highly specialized predators that have evolved numerous adaptations for a lifestyle that requires large amounts of energy consumption. Here we review our understanding of the bioenergetics and feeding dynamics of tunas on a global scale, with an emphasis on yellowfin, bigeye, skipjack, albacore, and Atlantic bluefin tunas. Food consumption balances bioenergetics expenditures for respiration, growth (including gonad production), specific dynamic action, egestion, and excretion. Tunas feed across the micronekton and some large zooplankton. Some tunas appear to time their life history to take advantage of ephemeral aggregations of crustacean, fish, and molluscan prey. Ontogenetic and spatial diet differences are substantial, and significant interdecadal changes in prey composition have been observed. Diet shifts from larger to smaller prey taxa highlight ecosystem-wide changes in prey availability and diversity and provide implications for changing bioenergetics requirements into the future. Where tunas overlap, we show evidence of niche separation between them; resources are divided largely by differences in diet percentages and size ranges of prey taxa. The lack of long-term data limits the ability to predict impacts of climate change on tuna feeding behaviour. We note the need for systematic collection of feeding data as part of routine monitoring of these species, and we highlight the advantages of using biochemical techniques for broad-scale analyses of trophic relations. We support the continued development of ecosystem models, which all too often lack the regional-specific trophic data needed to adequately investigate climate and fishing impacts. PMID:27573052

  12. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerli Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades I and II, which are assumed to have been originated during the last Pleistocene glacial maxima. We assess genetic structure patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna at the nuclear level, and compare them with mitochondrial evidence. Results We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin. Conclusion Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which

  13. A simulation framework to evaluate management strategies for Atlantic tunas: a preliminary example based on east Atlantic bluefin

    OpenAIRE

    KELL Laurence T.; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Gauthiez, F.; Restrepo, Victor

    2000-01-01

    El Grupo de trabajo Ad Hoc sobre el Enfoque Precautorio (SCRS/99/J J) recomendo el desarrollo de un sistema de modelos de simulacion para investigar el comportamiento de las estrategias de ordenacion especificas dei stock bajo varias hipotesis realistas acerca de la poblacion y la dinamica de pesqueria. Este documento describe un modelo de simulacion preliminar basado en el atun rojo dei Atlantico este, que ha sido desarrollado empleando un programa flexible que permite explorar las implicaci...

  14. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Scientific Committee (76 ] FR 28422 (May 17, 2011)). NMFS recommended that domestic and international actions... catch of PBF had an ex-vessel value of $175,892 (unadjusted for inflation) during 2000-2011. About 66... targeting bluefin tuna in any one year during 2000-2011. Bluefin tuna is also incidentally caught and...

  15. 76 FR 2313 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Bluefin Tuna Bycatch Reduction in the Gulf of Mexico Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... (5) minimize negative ecological impacts on non-target or protected species. As required by current..., prohibited HMS, or non-target species both within the specified or potential closure area(s) and throughout... published in the Federal Register (64 FR 29090) final regulations, effective July 1, 1999, implementing...

  16. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, V.M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna...... (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many...

  17. Age and growth estimation of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Teleostei: Scombridae in the southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Duarte-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to supply the first information on age and growth for Thunnus obesus caught in the equatorial south-western Atlantic using dorsal spines, an approach that has been successfully employed for ageing tuna species. The study was conducted using a multi-model inference based on information theory for back-calculated and observed length-at-age data. Uncertainty associated with the parameter estimation was verified and results were compared to other accounts on the species, considering both the statistical and methodological contexts. Samples were collected in Natal city (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil from February 1999 to January 2000, of tuna vessels and from surveys, aimed at providing information on the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ in the area around São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago. Validation using marginal increment indicated that one ring is deposited per year. Mean length-at-age ranged of 54.3 to 177.5 cm (fork length for ages 1 to 9 years. Von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Gompertz models were considered suitable for the bigeye tuna. Hence, the model-averaged asymptotic length ¯L∞ was estimated. The averaged model generated in the present study by back-calculation was considered appropriate for describing the growth of T. obesus.A proposta do presente estudo foi fornecer a primeira informação sobre idade e crescimento de Thunnus obesus, capturado no Atlântico sudoeste equatorial usando espinhos dorsais, uma abordagem que tem sido utilizada com sucesso na determinação de idade de espécies de atuns. O estudo foi conduzido usando uma inferência de multi-modelos baseada na teoria de informação avaliada para dados de comprimento por idade retrocalculados e observados. Incertezas associadas aos parâmetros foram verificadas e os resultados foram comparados aos de outros estudos realizados para esta espécie, considerando os contextos estatísticos e metodológicos. As amostras foram

  18. 黑鳍生食金枪鱼解冻后不同气体比例气调包装的新鲜度变化%Freshness Changes of Thawed Bluefin Tuna Used for Raw Consumption during Storage in Modified Atmospheres with Different Gas Compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡慧; 杨震; 史智佳; 刘梦; 李少鹏; 陈文华

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on theK value, pH value and sensory quality of thawed bluefin tuna meat during storage at 4℃. The results showed that when the modified atmosphere was CO2:N2= 60:40 (V/V), the freshness of tuna meat was preserved for the longest period of time (96 h), with no obvious acidification. Under refrigeration conditions, theK value can reflect the sensory quality of blackfin tuna meat with respect to taste and flavor.%以黑鳍金枪鱼为对象,研究4℃条件下气调包装对其K值、pH值与感官品质的影响。结果表明:当气调包装的气体比例为CO2∶N2=60∶40(V/V)时,黑鳍金枪鱼保鲜时间最久,可达到96 h,且不会发生明显酸化;在冷藏条件下,K值可以从滋味、气味的角度很好地反映黑鳍金枪鱼的感官品质。

  19. Cetaceans and tuna purse seine fisheries in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans : interactions but few mortalities

    OpenAIRE

    Escalle, L.; Capietto, A.; Chavance, Pierre; Dubroca, L.; De Molina, A. D.; Murua, H.; Gaertner, Daniel; Romanov, E.; Spitz, J.; Kiszka, J. J.; Floch, Laurent; Damiano, Alain; Merigot, B

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is considered to be one of the most significant causes of mortality for many marine species, including vulnerable megafauna. In the open ocean, tuna purse seiners are known to use several cetacean species to detect tuna schools. This exposes the cetaceans to encirclement which can lead to incidental injury or death. While interactions between fishers and cetaceans have been well documented in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, little is known about these interactions and po...

  20. ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY FOR TUNA IN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ende Kasma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant fisheries potency, one of fisheries potency in Indian Ocean is tuna fish. Primary productivity data used as indicator of tuna fisheries potency in Idian Ocean.Research location is in Indian Ocean 070 - 210 S and 1070 - 1210 E. Weekly satellite data in 2007 used are chlorophyl, sea surface temperature, Photosynthetic Available Radiation (PAR and euphotic zone (Zeu data. Daily fisheries data is from tuna fish catching data 2007 in PT. Perikanan Samudera Besar (PT. PSB. Satellite data is processed by Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM formula to obtained primary productivity. Tuna fish catching data correlated to satellite data to know correlation of primary productivity value to fish catching data.Result of this research is there four species of tuna fish catch in Indian Ocean, that are Madidihang or Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores, Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus, Southtern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus macoyii, and Albacore (Thunnus alalunga. Where 73% tuna fish is Bigeye tuna. Bigeye, Albacore and Yellowfin tuna are produced annually, while Southern Bluefin tuna in northwest monsoon is no fish production. Chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and primary productivity value in research location are from 0,06 mg/m3 to 0,38 mg/m3, from 24,640C to 31,820C, and from 73,22mgC/m2 to 658,57 mgC/m2 respectively. Coefficient correlation in primary productivity and fish catching in fishing ground area is small (r = 0.008, its explained that, fish catching number is not influenced by primary productivity. In high or low primary productivity condition tuna fish catched in Indian Ocean area. Potential fishing ground area of Bigeye tuna, Albacore, Yellowfin and Southern Bluefin tuna in Indian Ocean are in 110 – 160 S and 1060 – 1210 E, the primary productivity value is from 73 mgC/m2day to 732 mgC/m2day and differences of sea surface temperature value of tuna fish are from 240 C to 310 C, 240 C to 300 C, and 250 C to 310 C for

  1. Bluefin Tuna Life History (1972-1979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Catch and size data for animals from which a collection of fish parts were done for life history studies. These samples will be used in comparison studies with more...

  2. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, K.; Lepoint, G.; Loizeau, V.; Debacker, V.; Dauby, P.; Bouquegneau, J.M

    2000-02-01

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher {delta}{sup 15}N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher {delta}{sup 13}C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg{sup -1} DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet.

  3. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope (13C/12C and 15N/14N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher δ15N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher δ13C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg-1 DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their δ15N and δ13C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet

  4. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 560790) to implement Resolution C-12-09 of the IATTC by... central Pacific Ocean. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna (76 FR... overexploitation of these stocks and to promote sustainable fisheries. Current IATTC membership includes:...

  5. Changes in population structure and growth of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis during 30 years of exploitation in the southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Garbin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The skipjack tuna is the main tuna species caught in Brazil with pole and live-bait. Samples taken during 1984-1986 and the 2004-2009 periods provided length, weight and age data. A comparison of the population structure was made showing a decrease in the median and means of fork length in the 80's (median: 55 cm and recent years (median: 51 cm, an increased participation of smaller individuals (40 cm in recent catches, a high variability of lengths in each year class and a decrease of the condition factor K. These results indicate alterations in the population structure and dynamics. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters calculated for the recent years were L∞= 669 mm; k = 0.24 yr-1; t o = -3.8. CPUE data for the studied period seems to be stable (mean annual catch of 20,000 ton. However, the unit of effort used in Brazil (fishing days does not reflect changes in fishing power and technology properly as occurred during 30 years of exploitation. It is concluded that the present situation requires a close monitoring of the fishery.

  6. Large-Scale Examination of Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs from Tropical Tuna Fisheries of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maufroy

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, massive use of drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs to aggregate tropical tunas has strongly modified global purse-seine fisheries. For the first time, a large data set of GPS positions from buoys deployed by French purse-seiners to monitor dFADs is analysed to provide information on spatio-temporal patterns of dFAD use in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during 2007-2011. First, we select among four classification methods the model that best separates "at sea" from "on board" buoy positions. A random forest model had the best performance, both in terms of the rate of false "at sea" predictions and the amount of over-segmentation of "at sea" trajectories (i.e., artificial division of trajectories into multiple, shorter pieces due to misclassification. Performance is improved via post-processing removing unrealistically short "at sea" trajectories. Results derived from the selected model enable us to identify the main areas and seasons of dFAD deployment and the spatial extent of their drift. We find that dFADs drift at sea on average for 39.5 days, with time at sea being shorter and distance travelled longer in the Indian than in the Atlantic Ocean. 9.9% of all trajectories end with a beaching event, suggesting that 1,500-2,000 may be lost onshore each year, potentially impacting sensitive habitat areas, such as the coral reefs of the Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and the Seychelles.

  7. 大西洋中部金枪鱼延绳钓性能评估初步研究%A preliminary study on tuna long-line performance in central Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灵智; 黄洪亮; 刘健; 王磊; 徐国栋; 陈帅

    2012-01-01

    According to the tuna long-line fishery data in central Atlantic Ocean in 2009 and 2010, the selectivity and performance of tuna long-line was analyzed. The results showed that : the tuna lone-line fishing gear had a good species selectivity, the big-eye tuna (Thunnus obesus ) catches and number accounted for 73.67% and 76.00% of the total catches respectively; the larva number proportion of big-eye tuna, yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) were 13. 00%, 25. 97% and 48. 93% respectively; from No. 1 to No. 6 hook, the catch rate of big-eye tuna rose with the increases of hook depth, a slightly decline trend was found from No. 6 to No. 8 hook, the maximum catch rate was 9.46 ind/1000 hooks in No. 6 hook ; the catch rate of No. 3 to No. 8 hook were all more than 7 ind/1000 hooks, which indicated that the utilization rate of No. 1 and No. 2 hook was lower; based on the theory depth of hooks, the mainly distributed water layer of big eye tuna would be 220m - 350m. By adjusting the sag ratio and optimizing the float rope length of tuna lone-line, the hook depth would be closer to the big-eye tuna distribution water layer, which can increase utilization rate of hooks.%利用2009~2010年我国大西洋中部金枪鱼延绳钓调查数据,对金枪鱼延绳钓钓具性能进行评估。结果表明:金枪鱼延绳钓具有较好的种类选择性,大眼金枪鱼渔获量和尾数分别占总渔获量的73.67%和76.00%;大眼金枪鱼(Thunnus obesus)、黄鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus albacares)和剑鱼(Xiphias gladius)未达到性成熟的渔获尾数比例分别为13.00%、25.97%和48.93%;1—6号钓钩,大眼金枪鱼上钩率随钓钩深度增加呈递增趋势,6—8号钓钩上钩率呈递减趋势,6号钓钩上钩率最大为9.46尾/千钩;3号至8号钓钩上钩率均大于7尾/千钩,表明1号和2号钓钩利用率偏低;根据钓钩理论深度,推测大眼金

  8. A new compilation of stomach content data for commercially important pelagic fish species in the northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnegar, J. K.; Goñi, N.; Trenkel, V. M.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Melle, W.; Keating, J.; Óskarsson, G.

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing demand for information on predator-prey interactions in the ocean as a result of legislative commitments aimed at achieving sustainable exploitation. However, comprehensive data sets are lacking for many fish species and this has hampered development of multispecies fisheries models and the formulation of effective food-web indicators. This work describes a new compilation of stomach content data for five pelagic fish species (herring, blue whiting, mackerel, albacore and bluefin tuna) sampled across the northeast Atlantic and submitted to the PANGAEA open-access data portal (www.pangaea.de). We provide detailed descriptions of sample origin and of the corresponding database structures. We describe the main results in terms of diet composition and predator-prey relationships. The feeding preferences of small pelagic fish (herring, blue whiting, mackerel) were sampled over a very broad geographic area within the North Atlantic basin, from Greenland in the west, to the Lofoten Islands in the east and from the Bay of Biscay northwards to the Arctic. This analysis revealed significant differences in the prey items selected in different parts of the region at different times of year. Tunas (albacore and bluefin) were sampled in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. Dominant prey items for these species varied by location, year and season. This data compilation exercise represents one of the largest and most wide-ranging ever attempted for pelagic fish in the North Atlantic. The earliest data included in the database were collected in 1864, whereas the most recent were collected in 2012. Data sets are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.820041 and doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.826992.

  9. The real maccoyii: identifying tuna sushi with DNA barcodes--contrasting characteristic attributes and genetic distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H Lowenstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of DNA barcodes for the identification of described species is one of the least controversial and most promising applications of barcoding. There is no consensus, however, as to what constitutes an appropriate identification standard and most barcoding efforts simply attempt to pair a query sequence with reference sequences and deem identification successful if it falls within the bounds of some pre-established cutoffs using genetic distance. Since the Renaissance, however, most biological classification schemes have relied on the use of diagnostic characters to identify and place species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we developed a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I character-based key for the identification of all tuna species of the genus Thunnus, and compared its performance with distance-based measures for identification of 68 samples of tuna sushi purchased from 31 restaurants in Manhattan (New York City and Denver, Colorado. Both the character-based key and GenBank BLAST successfully identified 100% of the tuna samples, while the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD as well as genetic distance thresholds, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree building performed poorly in terms of species identification. A piece of tuna sushi has the potential to be an endangered species, a fraud, or a health hazard. All three of these cases were uncovered in this study. Nineteen restaurant establishments were unable to clarify or misrepresented what species they sold. Five out of nine samples sold as a variant of "white tuna" were not albacore (T. alalunga, but escolar (Lepidocybium flavorunneum, a gempylid species banned for sale in Italy and Japan due to health concerns. Nineteen samples were northern bluefin tuna (T. thynnus or the critically endangered southern bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii, though nine restaurants that sold these species did not state these species on their menus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Convention on

  10. DRY SALTED AND SMOKED TUNA PRODUCTS. CHEMICAL, RHEOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mercogliano

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the presence of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is limited to some fishing areas and the species undergoes a high fishing pressure the commercial answers to this situation might be the diversification of the commercial offer. The commercial value of this species, especially in oriental market, has prompted researches aiming at fully exploiting the potential of this species through the production of innovative tuna based products. Sliceable dry salted and smoked tuna products were manufactured using whole muscles from fresh and frozen subjects. The shelf life was long enough to justify the industrial production (up to 3 months or more. No significant correlations were observed between sensory characteristics and physico-chemical parameters.

  11. ANALISIS EKSPOR IKAN TUNA INDONESIA

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    Indriana - Yudiarosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Facing the  free trade era, Indonesia needs to reorganize its export strategies with not mainly depending on oil and gas sector only. In relation to this, tuna as Indonesia’s export commodity has plate an important role but presently Indonesia can only contribute 7% of the world tuna supply. Being one of the country which have unused tunas potensial  up to 53,7%, Indonesia’s opportunity to supply world market is the large. This studied was aimed at analyzing; factors influencing Indonesia’s tunas export; factors  influencing domestic supply of tunas; predicting tunas export in the next 5 years (2000 –2005 and study marketing strategies that effect Indonesia’s export of tuna. To analyze factors that influenced tunas export and domestic supply of tunas, simultan equation in the form of double logarithma with two stage least square (2SLS methods were used. Meanwhile, export development were analyzed with trend analysis and tunas export strategies with SWOT analysis. Result of this study showed that, tunas export price,  tunas export  tax, exchange rate and tunas export the previous year effected tunas export.Factors that influenced domestic tuna supplies were domestic prices of tunas and domestic supplies of tunas the previous year.       Tunas export prediction from 2000 – 2005 drawn from the trend analysis; shows an increase in export by average of 1.06%. Hopefully this will be followed by increase in tunas production by an average of 1.27%. Increase in tunas export must be supported by marketing strategies.Marketing strategies that can be carried out based on the SWOT analysis are improving infrastucture, transfer of technology for fleet and catch material, improvement in the quality and quantity of the product , marketing research and upgrading cooperation with importing countries.   Keywords: tuna fish, export

  12. 大西洋金枪鱼延绳钓主要兼捕鱼种垂直分布结构研究%VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BYCATCH SPECIES CAPTURED BY TUNA LONGLINE FISHERY IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许友伟; 戴小杰; 庄之栋; 朱江峰; 陈彦

    2012-01-01

    研究延绳钓渔获物的垂直分布结构对于评估延绳钓渔业对目标和兼捕种类的影响具有重要的理论和实际参考价值.根据2007-2010年间2个航次调查采集的热带大西洋公海海域(05°N~15°N,29°W~41°W)金枪鱼延绳钓主要兼捕鱼种的渔获资料,估算了14种渔获物的钓获深度,包括金枪鱼类3种、旗鱼类3种、鲨鱼类3种、其它鱼类3种、海龟2种.当钓钩上浮率假设分别为15%、20%和25%时,最小估算深度分别为122、114和107m,最大估算深度分别为311、293和275m.叉尾长鳍乌鲂的平均钓获深度最深,海龟类的平均钓获深度最浅.四分位距图(IQR)显示,各物种的深度分布范围变化很大,有些种类之间的深度分布中值虽然相近,但深度分布范围却相差很大.除剑鱼外,其余兼捕物种与大眼金枪鱼的深度分布均值均有显著性差异.而除剑鱼和红棱鲂外,其余兼捕物种与大眼金枪鱼的深度分布函数均有显著性差异.聚类分析显示14种渔获物可以分成3种垂直分布结构.%Information of vertical distribution of pelagic species has important value for the assessment of impact of longline fisheries on target and bycatch species. Based on capture hook data of pelagic species in two longline scientific observer trips in the high sea of tropical Atlantic Ocean during 2007~2010, we estimated the capture depths of 14 species, including three species of tunas, three species of billfishes, three species of sharks, two species of sea turtles and others. When the constant shoaling factors were 15%, 20% and 25%, the minimum estimated depths were 122,114 and 107m, and the maximum estimated depths were 311,293 and 275m, respectively. The species with the deepest capture depth was bigscale pomfret. The species with the shallowest capture depth was sea turtles. Interquartile range map (IQR) showed the depth distribution of each species varied greatly. Except for sword-fish, the mean

  13. A validated methodology for genetic identification of tuna species (genus Thunnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Viñas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuna species of the genus Thunnus, such as the bluefin tunas, are some of the most important and yet most endangered trade fish in the world. Identification of these species in traded forms, however, may be difficult depending on the presentation of the products, which may hamper conservation efforts on trade control. In this paper, we validated a genetic methodology that can fully distinguish between the eight Thunnus species from any kind of processed tissue. METHODOLOGY: After testing several genetic markers, a complete discrimination of the eight tuna species was achieved using Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing based primarily on the sequence variability of the hypervariable genetic marker mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR, followed, in some specific cases, by a second validation by a nuclear marker rDNA first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1. This methodology was able to distinguish all tuna species, including those belonging to the subgenus Neothunnus that are very closely related, and in consequence can not be differentiated with other genetic markers of lower variability. This methodology also took into consideration the presence of introgression that has been reported in past studies between T. thynnus, T. orientalis and T. alalunga. Finally, we applied the methodology to cross-check the species identity of 26 processed tuna samples. CONCLUSIONS: Using the combination of two genetic markers, one mitochondrial and another nuclear, allows a full discrimination between all eight tuna species. Unexpectedly, the genetic marker traditionally used for DNA barcoding, cytochrome oxidase 1, could not differentiate all species, thus its use as a genetic marker for tuna species identification is questioned.

  14. Direct ageing of Thunnus thynnus from the eastern Atlantic Ocean and western Mediterranean Sea using dorsal fin spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, P L; Rodriguez-Marin, E; Landa, J; Ruiz, M; Quelle, P; Macias, D; Ortiz De Urbina, J M

    2014-06-01

    This study deals with important methodology issues that affect age estimates of eastern Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus using dorsal fin spines. Nearly 3800 spine sections were used from fish caught in the north-east Atlantic Ocean and western Mediterranean Sea over a 21 year period. Edge type and marginal increment analyses indicated a yearly periodicity of annulus formation with the translucent bands (50% of occurrence) appearing from October to May. Nucleus vascularization seriously affected specimens older than 6 years, with the disappearance of 40-50% of the presumed annuli by that age. An alternate sectioning location was a clear improvement and this finding is an important contribution to the methodology of using this structure for ageing the full-length range of eastern T. thynnus. Finally, there were no significant differences between the coefficients of von Bertalanffy growth model estimated from mean length at age data (L∞  = 327.4; k = 0.097; t0  = -0.838) and those estimated from the growth curves accepted for the eastern and western T. thynnus management units. PMID:24890407

  15. Public opinions pose barriers for tuna consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Polanco, José Manuel; Llorente García, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Safety and sustainability are key concepts affecting consumers’ decisions on tuna consumption. Although the benefits of consumption exceed the potential negative effects, tuna’s harmful attributes tend to egatively impact purchasing in at-risk groups. For regular individuals, tuna consumption is more influenced by tradition, education or other factors. Overfishing of tuna stocks remains an issue for some consumers. Further development of tuna aquaculture can decrease the presence of methylmer...

  16. Aasta esimene Tuna / Vello Helk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helk, Vello, 1923-2014

    2009-01-01

    ajakiri Tuna, 2009, nr. 1 sisust: Mait Kõivu Trooja sõja aineline essee, Tiina Kala Saare-Lääne piiskopi Johannes Kiveli ametissepühitsemine 1515. aastal, Jaan Rossi artikkel teadlaste panusest muusikasse, Riho Saardi Eesti Kirikute Nõukogu sünnilugu, Vello Salo 1924. aasta 1. detsembri lööksalkade juhtkonnast

  17. Aleksander Loit - Tuna laureaat 2010

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    "Tuna" seitsmendast artklipreemiast. Esimest korda läks preemia väljapoole Eestit. Preemia vääriliseks osutus Aleksander Loidi artikkel "Appihüüd põrgust. Ümberpiiratud Tallinna viimased päevad Rootsi võimu all 2010"

  18. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures.

  19. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tim K; Mees, Chris C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures).

  20. Value Chain Model Development of Tuna and Tuna Alike In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateng Supriatna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of tuna and tuna alike fisheries depend on chain value system formed by stakeholders ranging from product fishing, processing/diversification, distribution, and marketing. The objective of this research was to create chain value system model of tuna and tuna alike fisheries, to predict the interaction pattern of stakeholders and to formulate the precise strategy to minimize the synergy resistance of chain value system development strategy of tuna and tuna alike fisheries. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was applied to analyze the chain value model. The stakeholders/the players of tuna and tuna alike fisheries basically have positive interaction (CE>0.The negative interaction occured on retailers and consumers. Interaction of retailers with consumers is significant (p<0.05 0.01. Interaction pattern of fishermen, retailers, collectors, and exporters affected significantlly by pricing and the level of role played by the stakeholders. The strategy to minimize the sinergy resistance of chain value system development are respectivelly the strategy of involving the group of fishermen on products pricing (CE= 1,176 and P= 0,000, the strategy of involving the seller groups on products pricing (CE-PE=1,08, CE-PB= 0,766, CE EKS= 2,028 AND P= 0,000, and the strategy on guaranteeing flexible interaction between retailer and consumers (CE= 0,179 and p = 0,01.Keywords: tuna and tuna alike, interaction, tuna and tuna alike stakeholders, and value chain

  1. ECRM Bluefin(飞龙)令Nashua电讯再次腾飞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    保盈科技有限公司

    2003-01-01

    @@ Bluefin(飞龙)激光照排机于2000年9月问世,是专为高出版量、高时效性的出版机构而设计. 到2001年4月,美国新罕布什尔州电讯出版公司从ECRM公司已购买了两套Bluefin(飞龙)激光照排机.

  2. Global integration of European tuna markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  3. MATERIAL BIOKERAMIK BERBASIS HIDROKSIAPATIT TULANG IKAN TUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Riyanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Material biokeramik berbasis hidroksiapatit memiliki prospek baru dalam industri elektronika danmikroteknologi masa depan. Hidroksiapatit dengan sumber bahan baku alami merupakan potensi besar,terlebih pemanfaatan limbah tulang ikan tuna yang masih belum dilakukan dengan baik. Teknologi sintesisyang ada juga belum efektif serta karakterisasi materialnya belum banyak dikembangkan. Penelitianini bertujuan mensintesis dan mengetahui karakteristik material biokeramik berbasis hidroksiapatittulang ikan tuna. Metode yang digunakan dalam pengekstraksian hidroksiapatit tulang ikan tuna adalahdengan pemanasan suhu tinggi (sintering. Melalui suhu sintering 700ºC telah dapat dihasilkan materialbiokeramik berbasis hidroksiapatit dari tulang ikan tuna dengan rendemen tertinggi (65,61±2,21% danberwarna putih. Semakin tinggi suhu sintering, semakin tinggi derajat kristalinitasnya, sedangkan denganSEM memperlihatkan partikel penyusunnya berukuran 0,050 μm sampai 0,803 μm dan menyerupaibentuk kristal heksagonal. Nilai kapasitansi mengalami penurunan dengan bertambahnya frekuensi yangdiberikan, dengan nilai tertinggi 0,0061 nF, sedangkan nilai konduktivitas mengalami kenaikan seiringdengan bertambahnya frekuensi dengan nilai terendah 7,73 x 10-5 S/m.Kata kunci: biokeramik, hidroksiapatit, sintering, tulang ikan tuna

  4. 热带大西洋金枪鱼延绳钓兼捕鲨鱼种类组成和渔获率及其与表温的关系%Species composition and catch rate of bycatch sharks captured by tuna longline fishery and their relationship with sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜润林; 戴小杰; 许柳雄

    2009-01-01

    根据2007年12月~2008年3月采集的热带大西洋(05°37′~12°01′N、29°00′~36°51′W)金枪鱼延绳钓渔获物数据,分析了金枪鱼延绳钓兼捕鲨鱼的种类组成、渔获量、渔获率及其与表温的关系.本次调查共捕获鲨鱼8种,隶属3目7科7属, 总渔获尾数为633 ind,总渔获量达26 837.4 kg, 其中大青鲨为主要兼捕种类.各种鲨鱼渔获率平均值在0.003~1.524 ind/1 000 hooks之间, 其中大青鲨最高, 其值为1.524 ind/1 000 hooks,大眼砂锥齿鲨最低,其值为0.003 ind/1 000 hooks.各种鲨鱼渔获率月变化不明显(ANOVA, P=0.901).鲨鱼总渔获率和大青鲨渔获率与表温都呈显著性负相关.大青鲨主要出现渔场的表温范围为24.6~25.8 ℃.%Based on catch data collected in the tropical Atlantic Ocean (05°37′N-12°01′N, 29°00′W-36°51′W) from December 2007 to March 2008, the species composition, catch, catch rate of bycatch sharks captured by tuna longline fishery and their relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) are analyzed. Altogether 633 individuals of fish are captured, which belong to 3 orders, 7 families, 7 genera and 8 fish species. The total weight of bycatch sharks is 26837.4kg. And the dominant bycatch shark is blue shark ( Prionace glauca ). Average catch rate of bycatch sharks is 0.003-1.524 individual per 1 000 hooks, of which blue shark is the highest, 1.524 individual per 1 000 hooks, and bigeye sand shark( Odontaspis noronhai ) lowest, 0.003 individual per 1 000 hooks. Catch rate of bycatch sharks shows no obvious monthly fluctuation (ANOVA, P=0.901). An obvious negative correlation is found between SST and catch rate of total bycatch shark and blue shark. The range of SST in the dominant fishing ground where blue sharks appear is 24.6-25.8℃.

  5. Detection Tuna and Processed Products Based Protein and DNA Barcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuring Wulansari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is the second largest fishery commodity in Indonesia after the shrimp. Since the high demand and the limited stock of tuna resulted in fraudulent chance. Authentication is required to meassure consumers regarding the accuracy of its labeling and food safety. In this study, the authentication was based on protein and DNA barcoding using cytochrome-b gene (cyt-b of the mitochondrial DNA as the target of gene. Primer of cyt b gene was designed based on the tuna species. This study aimed to identify the authenticity of tuna fresh and its processed products through protein using SDS-PAGE and DNA barcoding techniques. The phases of this research were protein electrophoresis by SDS-PAGE, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, electrophoresis and sequencing. Samples of fresh fish (Tu1, Tu2, Tu3, Tu4, and Tu5 and processed tuna (canned and steak were successfully extracted. Result showed that SDS-PAGE proved the damage of proteins in the processed tuna, so this method was not appropriate if it is used to identify the authenticity of tuna. PCR electrophoresis results showed that the samples of tuna, tuna steak, sushi, meat ball, abon, and caned tuna were successfully amplified in the range of 500-750 bp except Ka3, which was in line with the target of DNA (620 bp. Resulted sequences of Tu2, Tu3, Tu4 and Tu5 were identified according the results of morphometric namely T. albacares, while Tu1 was identified as T. obesus with homology level of 99%. Processed tunas (steak and canned tuna were identified as T. albacares, as stated on the labels.

  6. Tuna fishing and a review of payaos in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, J; Natividad, Ac

    2000-01-01

    Payao is a traditional concept, which has been successfully commercialized to increase the landings of several species valuable to the country's export and local industries. It has become one of the most important developments in pelagic fishing that significantly contributed to increased tuna production and expansion of purse seine and other fishing gears. The introduction of the payao in tuna fishing in 1975 triggered the rapid development of the tuna and small pelagic fishery. With limited...

  7. Detection Tuna and Processed Products Based Protein and DNA Barcoding

    OpenAIRE

    Nuring Wulansari; Mala Nurilamala; Nurjanah

    2015-01-01

    Tuna is the second largest fishery commodity in Indonesia after the shrimp. Since the high demand and the limited stock of tuna resulted in fraudulent chance. Authentication is required to meassure consumers regarding the accuracy of its labeling and food safety. In this study, the authentication was based on protein and DNA barcoding using cytochrome-b gene (cyt-b) of the mitochondrial DNA as the target of gene. Primer of cyt b gene was designed based on the tuna species. This...

  8. KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN HASIL TANGKAPAN SAMPINGAN TUNA LONGLINE DI SAMUDERA HINDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Nugraha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuna longline atau rawai tuna merupakan salah satu alat tangkap yang sangat efektif untuk menangkap tuna. Selain efektif alat tangkap ini juga merupakan alat tangkap yang selektif terhadap hasil tangkapannya. Namun demikian, alat tangkap ini masih menimbulkan suatu masalah dimana ikan hasil tangkapan yang diperoleh tidak semuanya merupakan hasil tangkapan utama (target species, ada sebagian yang merupakan hasil tangkapan sampingan (by-catch. Sebagian besar hasil tangkapan sampingan tuna longline memiliki nilai ekonomis, hanya jenis pari lumpur dan ikan naga yang tidak memiliki nilai ekonomis. Namun demikian, justru yang tidak memiliki nilai ekonomis mendominasi hasil tangkapan sampingan pada perikanan tuna longline. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya tindak lanjut dengan menyusun peraturan atau regulasi yang terkait dengan pengelolaan ikan hasil tangkapan sampingan dan pengelolaan yang benar terhadap hasil tangkapan tersebut beserta habitatnya agar terjaga kelestarian sumberdayanya dan juga tetap menjadi sumber pendapatan masyarakat.Tulisan ini membahas secara ringkas tentang isu hasil tangkapan sampingan pada perikanan tuna longline, komposisi jenisnya, pemanfaatannya dan kebijakannya. Tuna longline is one of the most effective fishing gears to catch tuna. In addition, this fishing gear is selective to catch tuna. However, this gear is still causing a problem where some species other than their target species were caught as by-catch. Most of by-catch species from the tuna longliners have an economic value, except pelagic stingrays and lancetfish. In fact, these by-catch species (non economical-valued species dominated the longline catch. Therefore, it is needed to develop rules or regulations related to the management of the fish by-products, and properly manage the fishing activities on these by-catch species and habitat preservation to preserve its resources and also remain as a source of income. This paper briefly discusses the issue of by

  9. Present and Future Potential Habitat Distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata By-Catch Species in the Tropical Tuna Purse-Seine Fishery under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Lezama-Ochoa, Nerea; Murua, Hilario; Chust, Guillem; van Loon, Emiel; Ruiz, Jon; Hall, Martin; Chavance, Pierre; Delgado De Molina, Alicia; Villarino, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata) in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM) was developed using data collected by obse...

  10. Present and future potential habitat distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata by-catch species in the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Nerea eLezama Ochoa; Hilario eMurua; Guillem eChust; Emiel eVan Loon; Jon eRuiz; Martin eHall; Pierre eChavance; Alicia eDelgado de Molina; Ernesto eVillarino

    2016-01-01

    By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata) in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM) was developed using data collected by obse...

  11. Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are abundant data and advisories for mercury levels in wild fish, but far fewer for commercial fish that compose a large majority of the fish most people eat. Until recently, relatively little attention has been devoted to examining mercury in canned tuna, despite its great importance in human diets. There is substantial media coverage of the benefits and risk from fish consumption, but few peer-reviewed data on canned tuna, the most commonly consumed fish in the United States. In this paper, we examine the levels of total mercury in canned tuna obtained from a New Jersey grocery store from 1998 to 2003, looking for temporal consistency within this data set and particularly for comparison with the Food and Drug Administration's 1991 study. We analyzed 168 cans individually for total mercury. All values are reported as parts per million (=μg/g) on a wet weight basis. In a subset of samples analyzed for total and inorganic mercury, the inorganic mercury was below detection levels; hence at least 89% of the mercury can be considered methylmercury. We found that white-style tuna had significantly more total mercury (mean 0.407 ppm) than light-style tuna (mean 0.118 ppm), presumably reflecting that 'white' tuna is albacore, a species relatively larger than the skipjack tuna, which is commonly available as 'light' or 'chunk light'. The maximum mercury in a can was 0.997 ppm, but 25% of white tuna samples exceeded 0.5 ppm. Data suggest a slight increase in levels since 1991, and mercury levels were significantly higher in 2001 than in other years. The mean level of mercury in white tuna (mean 0.407 ppm) was significantly higher than the mean value of 0.17 ppm currently used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its risk assessment and public information. There were no significant differences in mercury levels in tuna packed in oil compared to water. Draining contents had no effect on mercury levels, and the fluid, both oil and water, contained little

  12. Tuna longline fishing around West and Central Pacific seamounts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Morato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seamounts have been identified as aggregating locations for pelagic biodiversity including tuna; however the topography and prevailing oceanography differ between seamounts and not all are important for tuna. Although a relatively common feature in oceanic ecosystems, little information is available that identifies those that are biologically important. Improved knowledge offers opportunities for unique management of these areas, which may advance the sustainable management of oceanic resources. In this study, we evaluate the existence of an association between seamounts and tuna longline fisheries at the ocean basin scale, identify significant seamounts for tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean, and quantify the seamount contribution to the tuna longline catch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data collected for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean for bigeye, yellowfin, and albacore tuna at the ocean basin scale. GLMs were applied to a coupled dataset of longline fisheries catch and effort, and seamount location information. The analyses show that seamounts may be associated with an annual longline combined catch of 35 thousand tonnes, with higher catch apparent for yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tuna on 17%, 14%, and 14% of seamounts respectively. In contrast 14%, 18%, and 20% of seamounts had significantly lower catches for yellowfin, bigeye and albacore tuna respectively. Studying catch data in relation to seamount positions presents several challenges such as bias in location of seamounts, or lack of spatial resolution of fisheries data. Whilst we recognize these limitations the criteria used for detecting significant seamounts were conservative and the error in identification is likely to be low albeit unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Seamounts throughout the study area were found to either enhance or reduce tuna catch. This indicates that management of seamounts is important Pacific-wide, but management

  13. Methodological assessment of 2b-RAD genotyping technique for population structure inferences in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Carlo; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Villamor, Adriana; Franch, Rafaella; Papetti, Chiara; Leroy, Bruno; Ortega-Garcia, Sofia; Muir, Jeff; Rooker, Jay; Arocha, Freddy; Murua, Hilario; Zudaire, Iker; Chassot, Emmanuel; Bodin, Nathalie; Tinti, Fausto; Bargelloni, Luca; Cariani, Alessia

    2016-02-01

    Global population genetic structure of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is still poorly understood despite its relevance for the tuna fishery industry. Low levels of genetic differentiation among oceans speak in favour of the existence of a single panmictic population worldwide of this highly migratory fish. However, recent studies indicated genetic structuring at a much smaller geographic scales than previously considered, pointing out that YFT population genetic structure has not been properly assessed so far. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time, the utility of 2b-RAD genotyping technique for investigating population genetic diversity and differentiation in high gene-flow species. Running de novo pipeline in Stacks, a total of 6772 high-quality genome-wide SNPs were identified across Atlantic, Indian and Pacific population samples representing all major distribution areas. Preliminary analyses showed shallow but significant population structure among oceans (FST=0.0273; P-value<0.01). Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components endorsed the presence of genetically discrete yellowfin tuna populations among three oceanic pools. Although such evidence needs to be corroborated by increasing sample size, these results showed the efficiency of this genotyping technique in assessing genetic divergence in a marine fish with high dispersal potential.

  14. Population dynamics and fisheries assessment of the bigeye thresher (Alopias superciliosus) in the Atlantic: a comparison between North Atlantic and South Atlantic stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joana Fernandez de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências do Mar, da Terra e do Ambiente (Biologia Pesqueira), Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 The bigeye thresher shark, Alopias supercilious is an oceanic pelagic shark, occasionally caught as bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries targeting tunas and swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean. It is particularly vulnerable to fishing pressure, with overexploitation occurring even at low levels of fishing, due to their slow growth, extremely low...

  15. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific). PMID:25629476

  16. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific).

  17. 非超低温冻藏金枪鱼理化变化及相关性%Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Meat from Two Different Tuna Varieties during Frozen Storage at Non-Ultralow Temperatures and Correlation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡慧; 杨震; 李梦瑶; 刘梦; 李少鹏; 王守伟

    2016-01-01

    At present, limited research is reported on changes in the sensory quality and physicochemical properties of raw and processed tuna products frozen at non-ultralow temperatures. Most previous research focused on bigeye and yellowfin tuna; however, other tuna varieties have been scarcely researched. In this work, changes inK value and metmyoglobin content of meat from southern bluefin tuna and swordfish during frozen storage at non-ultralow temperatures (−18 and−30℃) were detected, and correlation analysis of theK value and sensory quality was carried out. The results showed that during frozen storage at−18℃,K value and metmyoglobin content increased faster and the sensory quality deteriorated more rapidly. Although the flavor and odor did not change obviously, the texture and taste deteriorated significantly. Based on sensory evaluation, the storage period at−18℃ of tuna to be raw eaten was 14 days, while that at −30℃ was more than 70 days.K values after storage at both temperatures were less than 10%. As a result, the use ofK value to evaluate fish freshness under certain conditions needs to be reconsidered.%研究马苏和剑鳍金枪鱼生食产品在-18℃与-30℃非超低温条件下的K值和高铁肌红蛋白相对含量的变化规律,并进行K值与感官品质的相关性分析。结果表明:-18℃条件下金枪鱼生食产品冻藏期内K值和高铁肌红蛋白相对含量上升和感官品质劣化更快;冻藏期间产品滋味、气味变化不明显,但组织结构和口感劣化明显;以感官评价为依据,在-18℃条件下生食终点约为14 d,而-30℃条件下可达70 d以上,此时K值均小于10%,因此以K值作为产品新鲜度评价在特定条件下需要重新审视。

  18. Die Transurethrale Nadel-Ablation der Prostata (TUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark L

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 Patienten im Alter von 56?92 Jahren (Durchschnitt: 74,9 mit symptomatischer BPH wurden mittels TUNA therapiert. Das Prostatavolumen betrug 19-160 ml (durchschnittlich 56,6. 14 Patienten (56 % wurden aufgrund eines akuten Harnverhaltes therapiert, 9 Patienten (36 % hatten Restharn zwischen 30 und 700 ml, 2 Patienten (8 % wurden wegen irritativer Symptome behandelt. Bei 4 Patienten wurde die TUNA 2-3 mal wiederholt, bei 5 Patienten kombinierten wir die TUNA mit einer transurethralen Resektion einer Mittellappenhyperplasie. Von den 25 Patienten waren 17 Hochrisikopatienten (ASA III-IV. Die Erfolgsquote betrug 68 %. 6 Patienten (24 % benötigten weiterhin eine transurethrale oder suprapubische Harnableitung, 2 Patienten benötigten eine weitere invasive Therapie. Unsere Ergebnisse bestätigen die TUNA als wirkungsvolle und äußerst nebenwirkungsarme Therapiemöglichkeit bei Patienten mit symptomatischer BPH.

  19. HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A SWIMMING BIONIC ROBOT TUNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic model for undulatory locomotion was proposed to study the swimming mechanism of a developed bionic robot tuna. On the basis of inviscid hydrodynamics and rigid-body dynamics, the momentum and propulsive force required for propelling the swimming robot tuna's flexible body was calculated. By solving the established dynamic equations and efficiency formula, the swimming velocity and propulsive efficiency of the bionic robot tuna were obtained. The relationship between the kinematic parameters of the robot tuna's body curve and the hydrodynamic performances was established and discussed after hydrodynamic simulations. The results presented in this article can be used to increase the swimming speed, propulsive thrust, and the efficiency of underwater vehicles effectively.

  20. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards...

  1. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels... allow a distant water tuna fleet vessel to engage foreign citizens under a temporary manning...

  2. 金枪鱼类渔业管理问题的研究之二:金枪鱼渔业区域性管理组织和其管理新趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐美龙

    2008-01-01

    金枪鱼渔业区域性管理组织主要有大西洋金枪鱼养护国际委员会(International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas-ICCAT),印度洋金枪鱼委员会(Indian Ocean Tuna Commission -IOTC), 中西太平洋渔业委员会(Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission -WCPFC),南方蓝鳍金枪鱼养护委员会(Commission for the Conservation of Southern Blue-fin Tuna- CCSBT)等5个。

  3. Mercury accumulation in Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with regards to muscle type, muscle position and fish size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations and relationships between individual mercury species and total mercury were investigated in different muscle parts and sizes of Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Fourteen Yellowfin tuna caught in the South Atlantic off the coast of South Africa had an average total Hg (tHg) concentration of 0.77 mg/kg wet weight. No differences were detected (p > 0.05) in tHg, MethylHg (MeHg) or inorganic Hg (iHg) accumulation among the four white muscle portions across the carcass, but both tHg and iHg were found in higher concentrations (p < 0.001) in dark muscle than white muscle. Positive linear correlations with fish weight were found for both tHg (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and MeHg (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) concentrations. A prediction model was formulated to calculate toxic MeHg concentrations from measured tHg concentrations and fish weight (cMeHg = 0.073 + 1.365 · tHg-0.008 · w). As sampling sites and subsampling methods could affect toxicity measurements, we provide recommendations for sampling guidelines.

  4. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  5. Dynamic optimal foraging theory explains vertical migrations of bigeye tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Sommer, Lene; Evans, Karen;

    2016-01-01

    Bigeye tuna are known for remarkable daytime vertical migrations between deep water, where food is abundant but the water is cold, and the surface, where water is warm but food is relatively scarce. Here we investigate if these dive patterns can be explained by dynamic optimal foraging theory...

  6. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  7. DAYA DUKUNG SUMBER DAYA PERIKANAN TUNA DI SAMUDERA HINDIA DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN INDUSTRIALISASI PERIKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijopriono Wijopriono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pemerintah berupaya untuk meningkatkan produksi dan ekspor hasil perikanan melalui program industrialisasi perikanan. Diantara komoditas utama perikanan yang ditetapkan menjadi target pertumbuhan ekspor adalah tuna dan cakalang. Salah satu area penangkapan penghasil komoditas tersebut adalah Samudera Hindia, yang menyumbang sekitar 17% dari seluruh produksi tuna dan cakalang Indonesia. Namun demikian, beberapa tahun terakhir ini produksi tuna dari perairan ini terus menurun. Peningkatan jumlah kapal yang lebih pada ukuran 10-30 GT belum mampu meningkatkan produksi secara berarti. Kajian stok global menunjukkan bahwa peluang untuk meningkatkan produksi dapat dilakukan untuk jenis tuna mata besar, madidihang dan cakalang. Untuk itu restrukturisasi armada penangkap tuna dan cakalang di Samudera Hindia diperlukan. Indonesian Government has been striving for increasing export of fish and fishery products through fisheries industrialization program. Among the commodities that has been targeted for the program are tuna and skipjack. One of the fishing areas for producing these commodities is Indian Ocean, which has contributed more than 17% to the total Indonesian tuna production. However, tuna production from this area has decreased during last couples of years. The increase of fleet number more on the size of 10-30 GT have not been able to increase tuna production sgnificantly. Global stock assessment suggested that there is an opportunity to increase tuna production, specifically yellowfin (Thunnus albacares, bigeye (T. obesus , and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis. To achieve this objective, restructurization of fishing fleet operated in Indian Ocean is needed.

  8. 金枪鱼类耳石微化学研究进展%Otolith microchemistry of tuna species: Research progress.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平

    2011-01-01

    Microchemistry analysis of trace elements and isotopes in fishes' calcified substances is an emerging approach to analyze the population structure, life history, and migration environmental history of fishes. With the increasing improvement of the researches and applications of otolith microchemistry , this approach has been a good tool for studying the ecology of tuna species. Currently , the research contents of tuna species' otolith microchemistry mainly include trace elements and isotopes, and the former is the emphasis and hotspot in applied research, playing a vital role in the researches of population partitioning, natal origin, migration environmental history, and life history of tuna species, especially bluefin tuna. However, most of the researches are focusing on the variation of otolith' s Sr/Ca ratio, and there is no final conclusion on the relationships between the frac-tionation of isotopes C and 0 in otolith and the temperature. For the sake of exploiting the huge value of otolith microchemistry, it would be necessary to strengthen the researches on the deposition mechanisms of trace elements in otolith, and to analyze the spatio-temporal variations of various trace elements in otolith by comprehensive research methods.%近年来,基于鱼类钙化物质中微量元素和同位素等微化学成分分析已成为分析鱼类种群结构、生活史及洄游环境史等的一种新兴手段.随着鱼类耳石微化学研究及应用的日渐成熟与完善,该手段也日益成为金枪鱼类生态学研究的良好工具.目前金枪鱼类耳石微化学的研究内容主要包括微量元素和同位素等,其中微量元素是应用研究的重点和热点,其在金枪鱼类,尤其是蓝鳍金枪鱼种群划分、出生源、洄游环境史和生活史分析等方面发挥了重要的作用.但多数研究集中在耳石锶钙比率(Sr/Ca)的变化上,且关于耳石碳氧同位素分馏与温度之间的关系尚无定论.为了开

  9. Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Robert J.; Watters, George M.; Kerim Aydin; Isaac C Kaplan; Jefferson T. Hinke; James F. K. Kitchell

    2004-01-01

    We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and the central north Pacific (CNP) Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways are required to support different tuna species and, consequently, the specific fisheries that target differe...

  10. Economic impacts of climate change on tuna fisheries in Fiji Islands and Kiribati

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will le...

  11. Reproductive potential of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Zudaire, Iker; Murua, Hilario; Grande, Maitane; Bodin, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive biology of Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the western Indian Ocean was investigated from samples collected in 2009 and 2010. In our study, 1012 female Yellowfin Tuna were sampled: 320 fish on board a purse seiner and 692 fish at a Seychelles cannery. We assessed the main biological parameters that describe reproductive potential: maturity, spawning seasonality, fish condition, and fecundity. The length at which 50% of the female Yellowfin Tuna population matures (L50) ...

  12. Conservation and Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Indian Ocean and Indian EEZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Satheeshkumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study is to explore the recent trend and stock status of Indian Ocean and Indian EEZ, and its conservation and sustainable management of tuna fishereis. In the Indian Ocean, tuna catches increased rapidly from about 179 959 t in 1980 to about 832 246 t in 1995. They have continued to increase up to 2005; the catch was 1 318 648 t, forming about 26% of the world catch. However, since 2006 onwards there was a decline in tuna catch and in 2010 the catch was only 1 257 908 t. Tuna production in India which was continued to increase with fluctuations from 63 633 t during 2001-2005, average 78 400 t during 2006-2010, and in 2010 the catch was only 65 863 t. Tuna is an important but not a well managed fishery in the Indian Ocean and Indian EEZ. The Indian Ocean stock is currently overfished and has no proper management regulations aimed at with sustaining the stock. In the present study, sustainable management system is evaluated with information on tuna landings, stock status and major issues on tuna fishery. To address these major issues, appropriate tuna fishing policies are proposed to help sustainable development and management of tuna fishery resource in the Indian Ocean.

  13. High connectivity on a global scale in the pelagic wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri (tuna family Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, T C; Bowen, B W; Lanier, W; Baldwin, J D

    2008-10-01

    The population genetic structure and phylogeography of wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri, were investigated on a global scale with intron six of lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldhA6, 8 locations, N = 213) and mtDNA cytochrome b (Cytb, 10 locations, N = 322). Results show extensive sharing of haplotypes across the wahoo's entire global range, and analyses were unable to detect significant structure (nuclear F(ST) = 0.0125, P = 0.106; mtDNA Phi(ST) or = 0.0389 and mtDNA Phi(ST) > or = 0.0148. These findings appear unique, as most other tunas, billfishes, and oceanic sharks exhibit significant population structure on the scale of East-West Atlantic, Atlantic vs. Indian-Pacific, or East-West Pacific. Overall nuclear heterozygosity (H = 0.714) and mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.918) are both high in wahoo, while overall mtDNA nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.006) and nuclear nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.004) are uniformly low, indicating a recent increase in population size. Coalescence analyses yield an estimate of effective female population size (NeF) at approximately 816,000, and a population bottleneck approximately 690,000 years ago. However, conclusions about population history from our Cytb data set are not concordant with a control region survey, a finding that will require further investigation. This is the first example of a vertebrate with a single globally distributed population, a finding we attribute to extensive dispersal at all life stages. The indications of a worldwide stock for wahoo reinforce the mandate for international cooperation on fisheries issues. PMID:19378403

  14. Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Konstantinidis, Peter; Gemballa, Sven; Shadwick, Robert E

    2004-05-01

    The evolution of 'thunniform' body shapes in several different groups of vertebrates, including whales, ichthyosaurs and several species of large pelagic fishes supports the view that physical and hydromechanical demands provided important selection pressures to optimize body design for locomotion during vertebrate evolution. Recognition of morphological similarities between lamnid sharks (the most well known being the great white and the mako) and tunas has led to a general expectation that they also have converged in their functional design; however, no quantitative data exist on the mechanical performance of the locomotor system in lamnid sharks. Here we examine the swimming kinematics, in vivo muscle dynamics and functional morphology of the force-transmission system in a lamnid shark, and show that the evolutionary convergence in body shape and mechanical design between the distantly related lamnids and tunas is much more than skin deep; it extends to the depths of the myotendinous architecture and the mechanical basis for propulsive movements. We demonstrate that not only have lamnids and tunas converged to a much greater extent than previously known, but they have also developed morphological and functional adaptations in their locomotor systems that are unlike virtually all other fishes. PMID:15129279

  15. PERBAIKAN KINERJA PENANGANAN KARGO IKAN TUNA; Di TERMINAL KARGO BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL SOEKARNO HATTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dony Rahmad Pranoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to identify the tuna cargo handling conducted in the export warehouse of PT. XYZ, 2 to determine the main variables that affect the performance of tuna cargo handling in the export warehouse of PT. XYZ, and 3 to determine what policies can be used to improve the performance of tuna cargo handling in the export warehouse of PT. XYZ. This research was conducted by using the descriptive methodology i.e. a discrete simulation model of the process of tuna cargo handling in the export warehouse of PT. XYZ by utilizing ARENA software. In the policy making of tuna cargo handling improvements, the Analytical Network Process, Benefit, Opportunity, Cost, and Risk (ANP BOCR were also used. The simulation results point out that the existing conditions contribute to the delay level of tuna cargo delivery by 12% with the quality level of 22,934%. Delays in tuna cargo delivery have led to an increase in operational costs by 1,5%. ANP BOCR results highlight that opening a special lane for perishable cargo handling will improve the performance of tuna cargo handling in the export warehouse of PT. XYZ. Furthermore, the results of discrete model simulations on the improvement scenario of tuna cargo handling performance show that by opening a special lane for perishable cargo handling, it can ensure delivery schedule to be accurate indicated by the level of on time delivery reaching up to 100%, with an average quality rate of 86.013%. By speeding up the processing period (with an average of 81.519 minutes, the delay of cargo delivery up to 100% will be reduced; therefore, the quality of tuna is maintained in a good condition with the histamine level of 6,7 ppm.Keywords: ANP BOCR, tuna, ARENA simulation system model, air cargo performance, perishable cargo

  16. Changesin Myoglobin of Big Eye Tuna During Chilling Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevi Imelda Murniati Wodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Big eye tuna (Thunnus obesus is one of the species of tuna which is have some value added such as have potential to improve animal protein sources, have high economic values as well as an export commodity.Mishandling and misapplication of high temparatures on the tuna handling at the tropics and sub tropics climate was significantly decreasing the value of myoglobin and affecting the solubility of protein. Myoglobin is a globular protein that have small molecular weight size and it was an important factor for determining the quality of meat and influencing factors of purchasing power by the consumer. The purpose of this experiments is to determining the changes of myoglobin content and the water soluble proteins content at some parts of big eye tuna in 9 days chilling temperatures. The portion which is analized was the ventral area, dorsal area and tail area. Myoglobin content in all portion above, both light and dark meat was analized. The results shows the decreased value of myoglobin content from first handling (day zero until day ninth (days 9th experiment. Each myoglobin contentfrom white meat at at ventral, dorsal and tail meat was decreased from 121.68 mg/100 into 41.35 mg/100, 148.2 mg/100g into 52.01 mg/100g, 105.16 mg/100g into 31.34 gr/100gram, after day ninth. The myoglobin content from dark meat at ventral, dorsal and tail meat, was decreased, too ; from 418.64 mg/100 gr into 121.01 mg/100 g, 446.21 mg/100 g into 58.34 mg/100 r and 145.65 mg/100 gr into 87.98 mg/100g after day ninth.Water soluble protein was derived into protein bands with molecular weight 15,4 kDa and 14 kDa. Its suspected as the myoglobin protein. The molecular weight difference was caused from degradation of protein during the storage.Keywords: Big eye tuna, meat, storage, myoglobin

  17. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a)...

  18. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide. PMID:26634410

  19. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide.

  20. Implications of new economic policy instruments for tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeeting, A.D.; Bush, S.R.; Ram-Bidesi, V.; Bailey, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific is complicated by the conflicting interests of countries and agents exploiting tuna resources in the region. Historically, regulatory attempts by Pacific Island Countries to control fishing effort within their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) have me

  1. Can Cooperative Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Western Pacific Solve the Growth Overfishing Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.; Martell, S.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Tuna fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean are important globally for both food and economic security. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna stocks in this region are declining, in part due to the juvenile bycatch of these species by the purse seine fishery using floating objects and fish aggregati

  2. Low-temperature transitions in cod and tuna determined by differential scanning calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette

    2003-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have revealed different thermal transitions in cod and tuna samples. Transition temperatures detected Lit -11degreesC, -15degreesC and -21degreesC were highly dependent on the annealing temperature. In tuna muscle an additional transition was observed...

  3. 76 FR 3646 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... availability of a draft policy regarding distant water tuna fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility...

  4. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE RELATED TO THE BIG EYE TUNA EXISTANCE IN INDIAN OCEAN ON 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIWI DIAH SETIAWATI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Ocean, particularly on Southern part of ,Java and Bali was identified for some big pelagic fish. Among all of the big pelagic fishes, big eye tuna is the highest commercial value compare with other species There are several research which studied the relationship between the existence of tuna and environmental factor. Sea Smface Temperature (SST was used as a main oceanographic factor to relate with big eye tuna abundance. SST data \\\\aS derived from Level 3 AQUA M0DIS data. In my paper, 1 use additional simple statistical method to prove that SST and big eye tuna has a good con-elation. I used polynomial regression and geographic information system method to improve correlation value of lhe data. There arc three critical value and four equation. Based on the data analysis, SST has significant value to big eye tuna abundance in Indian Ocean and has high correlation.

  5. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  6. Predicting the Distribution of Yellowfin Tuna in Philippine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Leonardo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippines is considered as a major tuna producer in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, both for domestic consumption and on industrial scale. However, with the ever-increasing demand of growing population, it has always been a challenge to achieve sustainable fishing. The creation of satellite-derived potential fishing zone maps is a technology that has been adopted by advanced countries for almost three decades already and has led to reduction in search times by up to 40%. In this study, a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is developed to predict the distribution of the Yellowfin tuna species in seas surrounding the Philippines based on the Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) index. Level 3 gridded chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the main input parameters of the model. Chlorophyll-a is linked with the presence of phytoplankton, which indicates primary productivity and suggests potential regions of fish aggregation. Fish also prefers to stay in regions where the temperature is stable, thus the sea surface temperature fronts serve as a guide to locate concentrations of fish school. Historical monthly tuna catch data from Western and Central Pacific Commissions (WCPFC) is used to train the model. The resulting predictions are converted to potential fishing zone maps and are evaluated within and beyond the historical time range of the training data used. Diagnostic tests involving adjusted R2 value, GAM residual plots and root mean square error value are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The generated maps were able to confirm locations of known tuna fishing grounds in Mindanao and other parts of the country, as well us detect their seasonality and interannual variability. To improve the performance of the model, ancillary data such as surface winds reanalysis from National Centers for

  7. Génesis de la medicina familiar en Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Rodríguez Peña; Nancy Rodríguez Pupo

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una investigación desde los presupuestos de la historia social integral, con el objetivo de analizar momentos importantes de la historia de la medicina familiar en la localidad de Las Tunas. Para la investigación se consultaron diversas fuentes documentales, orales, iconográficas, patrimoniales y bibliográficas, entre ellas la obra de los historiadores de la ciudad y del Ministerio de Salud Pública, así como resultados científicos de proyectos de investigación. Los métodos empleado...

  8. Global pollution monitoring of butyltin compounds using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global pollution monitoring of butyltin in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator. - Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono- (MBT), di- (DBT), tri-butyltin (TBT) and total tin (ΣSn), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from Asian offshore waters (off-Japan, the Japan Sea, off-Taiwan, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, off-Philippines, off-Indonesia, the Bay of Bengal), off-Seychelles, off-Brazil and open seas (the North Pacific). BTs were detected in all the skipjack tuna collected, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs even in offshore waters and open seas on a global scale. Considering specific accumulation, Sex-, body length- differences and migration of skipjack tuna did not seem to affect BT concentrations, indicating rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected. Skipjack tuna is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of BTs in offshore waters and open seas. High concentrations of BTs were observed in skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Japan, a highly developed and industrialized region (up to 400 ng/g wet weight). Moreover skipjack tuna collected from offshore waters around Asian developing countries also revealed the levels comparable to those in Japan (up to 270 ng/g wet weight) which may be due to the recent improvement in economic status in Asian developing countries. High percentages (almost 90%) of BTs in total tin (ΣSn: sum of inorganic tin+organic tin) were found in the liver of skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Asian developing countries. This finding suggests that the anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of Sn accumulation in skipjack tuna from these regions

  9. Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequence conservation and variation patterns in the yellowfin and longtail tunas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar

    such as (longtail tuna). Although these two are different species, morphological differentiation can only be seen in mature individuals, hence misidentification may result in erroneous data set, which ultimately affect conservation strategies. The mitochondrial DNA...

  10. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals three stocks of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.M.

    .001). In addition, spatial analysis of molecular variance identified three genetically heterogeneous groups of yellowfin tuna in Indian waters. Results were further corroborated by significant value of nearest neighbour statistic (S sub(nn)=0.261, P less than...

  11. Determination of element concentration and radioactivity measurements in tuna fish sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 16 elements and the artificial and natural radionuclide levels in Mediterranean homogenate tuna fish (IAEA-350 and IAEA-352 reference materials) have been determined using the instrumental neutron activation method. (Author)

  12. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Dolphin-Tuna Tracking Studies (DTTS) 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was designed to better understand the nature of the dolphin-tuna bond in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. In this study, researchers attempted to...

  13. STATUS STOK, EKSPLOITASI DAN OPSI PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA IKAN TUNA DI LAUT BANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Anung Widodo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Laut Banda merupakan salah satu daerah penangkapan tuna yang potensial di Indonesia, Jenis alat tangkap yang digunakan terdiri dari pukat cincin, huhate, rawai tuna, pancing ulur dan pancing tonda. Hasil tangkapan tuna di Laut Banda meliputi cakalang, madidihang dan tuna mata besar. Sumberdaya tuna di Laut Banda diduga masih merupakan sub stok sumberdaya tuna di perairan Pasifik Tengah dan Barat. Hasil kajian stok tuna oleh Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC pada 2012 melaporkan bahwa stok cakalang dan madidihang tidak mengalami overfishing dan overfished, sedangkan tuna mata besar telah mengalami overfishing dan overfished. Hasil penelitian Pusat Penelitian Pengelolaan Perikanan dan Konservasi Sumber Daya Ikan (P4KSI pada 2012 menunjukkan madidihang dan tuna mata besar tertangkap pukat cincin, huhate serta kombinasi pancing ulur permukaan dan pancing tonda pada stadium yuwana, dengan indikasi nilai LcFmsy while YFT and SKJ are not in overfishing or overfished state. It was also reported by RCFMC that the size of catch of those species by various fishing gear indicating that value of Lctuna resource and market preference, so that to the best fishing practice for resource sustainability it is suggestted for tuna management in Banda sea should be not to develop and increase the effort for purse seine and may shift to pole line, hand line and/or troll line are still openated.

  14. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Rodrigo R.; de Farias, Wialla K. T.; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M.; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are d...

  15. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaza-González, Franklin Isaac; Mora-Cervetto, Alejandra; María Bermúdez-Martínez, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis), yellow fin (Thunnus albacares) and albacore (Thunnus alulunga) tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI) and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI). The temporal series 1983-2012, and 1977-1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO), and 2000-2012 (cold PDO) were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n = 6), the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r = 0.551). The correlation shows high spread from -0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34-0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI) in 2000-2012, 1983-1999 rendered lower R2 (conditions. For the non-linear regression (n = 6) a R2 of 0.374 (MEI) and 0.408 (ONI) were registered, for the 2000-2012, a higher R2 was observed in 1983-1999, 0.443 and 0.711 for MEI and ONI respectively, suggesting that is better to analyze split series (1983-1999, 2000-2012) than as a whole (1983-2012), due to noise produced by the transition from hot to cold PDOs. The highest landings were in the range -0.2 to 0.5 for MEI/ONI. The linear regression of skipjack landings in Ecuador gave an R2 of 0.140 (MEI) and 0.066 (ONI) and the non-linear were 0.440 and 0.183 respectively. Total landings in the EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000-2030) and vice versa on warm phase (1980-1999). The analysis of the skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE) on floating aggregating devices (FADs) suggests higher CPUE on FADs (around 20 mt set-1) when oceanographic indexes ONI/MEI are below

  16. CFD Simulation of Flow Features and Vorticity Structures in Tuna-Like Swimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liang; SU Yu-min

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical research on the propulsive principle of aquatic animal becomes more important and attracted more researchers to make efforts on it.In the present study,a computational fluid dynamic(CFD)simulation of a three-dimensional traveling-wave undulations body of tuna has been developed to investigate the fluid flow features and vorticity structures around this body when moving in a straight line.The undulation only takes place in the posterior half of the fish,and the tuna-tail is considered as a lunate fin oscillating with the mode combined swaying with yawing.A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(BANS)equation is developed,employing a control-volume method and a k-omega SST turbulent model;meanwhile an unstructured tetrahedral grid,which is generated for the three-dimensional geometry,is used based on the deformation of the hind parts of the body and corresponding movement of the tail.We calculated the hydrodynamic performance of tuna-like body when a tuna swims in a uniform velocity,and compared the input power coefficient,output power coefficient and propulsive efficiency of the oscillating tuna-tail with or without body vortex shedding.Additionally,the load distribution on the body,flow features and vorticity structures around the body were demonstrated.The effect of interaction between the body-generated vortices and the tail-generated vorticity on the hydrodynamic performance can be obtained.

  17. Acanthocephalan (Echinorhynchus sp. infection of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares from Nagapattinam, south east coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarsamy Sakthive

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To recored the infection of Acanthocephalan parasite, (Echinorhynchus sp. in adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares. This is the first report of acanthocephalan Echinirhynchus sp attached to yellowfin tuna and moreover prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance was observed. Methods: Totally 1 001 yellowfin tuna fishes were collected throughout the year of 2012 from the coast of Nagapattinam (10°45' 36.25" N and 79°50' 59.54" E, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected fishes were washed with fresh water to remove debris and immediately stored in ice, and brought to the laboratory. Intestines were placed in normal saline (0.85% NaCl. The worms were fixed in alcohol/ formalin /(AFA fixative and in 70% ethanol until processed for identification. Results: Totally 1 001 yellowfin tuna was examined out of 387 (52.67% hosts were infected with acanthocephalan (Echinorhynchus sp.. The proboscis Echinorhynchus sp. was long, cylindrical with cylindrical with a uniform width measured (0.41±0.02 mm in length and (0.12±0.03 mm in width. The endo parasite prevalence, intensity and abundance was recorded as 52.67%, 12.46%, and 5.43% respectively. Conclusions: This current phenomena was carried out to report of acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus sp. attached the new host of yellowfin tuna from Nagapattinam coast. Moreover, parasitological investigations are required to determine endo parasites of host due to its importance and numerous occurring among most important marine food fishes in world wild.

  18. CFD simulation of flow features and vorticity structures in tuna-like swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Su, Yu-Min

    2011-03-01

    The theoretical research on the propulsive principle of aquatic animal becomes more important and attracted more researchers to make efforts on it. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a three-dimensional traveling-wave undulations body of tuna has been developed to investigate the fluid flow features and vorticity structures around this body when moving in a straight line. The undulation only takes place in the posterior half of the fish, and the tuna-tail is considered as a lunate fin oscillating with the mode combined swaying with yawing. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is developed, employing a control-volume method and a k-omega SST turbulent model; meanwhile an unstructured tetrahedral grid, which is generated for the three-dimensional geometry, is used based on the deformation of the hind parts of the body and corresponding movement of the tail. We calculated the hydrodynamic performance of tuna-like body when a tuna swims in a uniform velocity, and compared the input power coefficient, output power coefficient and propulsive efficiency of the oscillating tuna-tail with or without body vortex shedding. Additionally, the load distribution on the body, flow features and vorticity structures around the body were demonstrated. The effect of interaction between the body-generated vortices and the tail-generated vorticity on the hydrodynamic performance can be obtained.

  19. 75 FR 48941 - General Advisory Committee to the U.S. Section to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Scientific Advisory Subcommittee to the U.S. Section to the Inter- American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC.... Section to the Inter- American Tropical Tuna Commission; Meeting Announcement AGENCY: National Marine... Committee (GAC) and a Scientific Advisory Subcommittee (SAS) to the U.S. Section to the IATTC. The...

  20. Present and future potential habitat distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata by-catch species in the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eLezama Ochoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM was developed using data collected by observers in tuna purse seiners. The relative percentage of contribution of some environmental variables (depth, sea surface temperature, salinity and primary production and the potential impact of climate change on species habitat by the end of the century under the A2 scenario (scenario with average concentrations of carbon dioxide of 856 ppm by 2100 were also evaluated. Results showed that by-catch species can be correctly modelled using observed occurrence records and few environmental variables with SDM. Results from projected maps showed that the equatorial band and some coastal upwelling regions were the most suitable areas for both by-catch species in the three oceans in concordance with the main fishing grounds. Sea surface temperature was the most important environmental variable which contributed to explain the habitat distribution of the two species in the three oceans in general. Under climate change scenarios, the largest change in present habitat suitability is observed in the Atlantic Ocean (around 16% of the present habitat suitability area of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata, respectively whereas the change is less in the Pacific (around 10% and 8% and Indian Oceans (around 3% and 2 %. In some regions such as Somalia, the Atlantic equatorial band or Peru’s coastal upwelling areas, these species could lose potential habitat whereas in the south of the equator in the Indian Ocean, the Benguela System and in the Pacific coast of

  1. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jenny; Hinton, Michael G; Webster, D G

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems. PMID:27537545

  2. Génesis de la medicina familiar en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez Peña

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación desde los presupuestos de la historia social integral, con el objetivo de analizar momentos importantes de la historia de la medicina familiar en la localidad de Las Tunas. Para la investigación se consultaron diversas fuentes documentales, orales, iconográficas, patrimoniales y bibliográficas, entre ellas la obra de los historiadores de la ciudad y del Ministerio de Salud Pública, así como resultados científicos de proyectos de investigación. Los métodos empleados partieron de la observación, el análisis histórico-lógico, la síntesis, la inducción y la deducción de la información, que permitieron la sistematización y determinación de los momentos más importantes de este proceso desde su origen en la comunidad primitiva, transitando por diferentes etapas hasta 1984, con la puesta en práctica del Programa del Médico y la Enfermera de la Familia, para el fortalecimiento de la atención primaria de salud, con marcado acento preventivo

  3. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems. PMID:27537545

  4. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  5. Bycatch in the tuna purse-seine fisheries of the western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Romanov, Evgeny V.

    2002-01-01

    Bycatch taken by the tuna purse-seine fishery from the Indian Ocean pelagic ecosystem was estimated from data collected by scientific observers aboard Soviet purse seiners in the western Indian Ocean (WIO) during 1986–92. A total of 494 sets on free-swimming schools, whale-shark-associated schools, whale-associated schools, and log-associated schools were analyzed. More than 40 fish species and other marine animals were recorded. Among them only two species, yellow-fin and skipjack tunas, wer...

  6. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  7. Investigation of Melamine Presence in Canned Tuna Fish by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Er Demirhan, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Yarımkaya Baş, Sezen; Yentür, Gülderen; Bayhan Öktem, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is widely used as a chemical in food industry and may lead to kidney damage. The aim of this study was to determine melamine and pH value of 80 canned tuna fish samples of four different brands (A, B, C, D) sold in Ankara, Turkey. Quantitative determination of melamine in canned tuna fish samples was carried out by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array detector (CZE-DAD). The limits of detection and quantitation for melamine were found to be 0.21 mg kg-1and 0.68 mg kg-1, re...

  8. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  9. Synthesis of Monoacylglycerol Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Tuna Oil with Immobilized Lipase AK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawongrat, Ratchapol; Xu, Xuebing; H-Kittikun, Aran

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce monoacylglycerols (MAG) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), by glycerolysis of tuna oil with lipase AK from Pseudomonas fluorescence immobilized on Accurel EP-100 (IM-AK). tert...... on tuna oil. The temperature was controlled at 45 degrees C. Under these conditions, with a 24 h reaction, the yield of MAG was 24.6%, but containing 56.0 wt% PUFA (EPA and DHA). Stability of the IM-AK was also studied. The hydrolytic activity of the enzyme remained at 88% and 80% of initial activity...

  10. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and...

  11. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  12. The Handling System of Product and Existence of Waste Components in Fishing Operation of Tuna in Bitung, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaruddin Mustaruddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling in fishing vessel is urgent to maintaining the quality of tuna products, while the existenceof waste components can bother the performance of fishing operations. The aims of this research are toevaluate the handling system of tuna products in fishing vessel and to analyze the influences of fishingoperation to the existence of waste components. This research methods are no control chart and regressionmodel approach. Research result shows that the handling system in the fishing operation of tuna in Bitungis not optimum. But the quality of tuna products which landed is still in controlled as shown by amountof rejecting products in UCL-LCL range (0 – 3,63 reject products/processing. The influence of amount oftuna caught per setting (X to existence of bait waste (Y formulated with model Y = - 1,176X+37.794, theinfluence of amount of tuna products (X to the existence of ices remained Y formulated with model Y =- 0,002X + 62,226, and also the influences of fishing operation which deputized by the amount of ABK (X1and number of operating days (X2 to the existence of freshwater remained (Y formulated with model Y= 50,000X1-23,704X2+288,889. The significant impacts are only the influence of amount of tuna productsin existence of ices remained (sigh = 0,036 and number of operating days of the existence of freshwaterremained (sigh = 0,037.Keywords: Bitung, waste components, handling system, tuna

  13. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Fuller, R C; Porfiri, M

    2014-09-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation. PMID:25162832

  14. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation. (paper)

  15. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Crisantema Hernández; Miguel A. Olvera-Novoa; Domenico Voltolina; Hardy, Ronald W.; Blanca González-Rodriguez; Patricia Dominguez-Jimenez; Martin Valverde-Romero; Samuel Agramon-Romero

    2013-01-01

    During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM), or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH). Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM), in diets for fingerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1): a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0); four experime...

  16. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  17. 76 FR 68332 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... coastal fisheries. During the IATTC's 82nd Meeting, IATTC scientific staff showed estimates illustrating a...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine... proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 560790) to revise regulations at 50 CFR part 300, subpart...

  18. 76 FR 60790 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... coastal fisheries. During the IATTC's 82nd Meeting, IATTC scientific staff showed estimates illustrating a...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine... Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39808), to request public comment...

  19. Gender Transformations and Colonial Displacements in Laura Antillano's "Tuna de mar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the trajectories of two characters in Laura Antillano's short story, "Tuna de mar" (1991), as they navigate interrelated systems of power and attempt to position themselves closer to, or further away from, the margins. Set in the late eighteenth century, the tale features a female protagonist who escapes prostitution…

  20. Comparison of Private Incentive Mechanisms for Improving Sustainability of Filipino Tuna Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolentino, Frazen; Berentsen, Paul; Bush, Simon; Idemne, Joseph; Babaran, Ricardo; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of three private incentive mechanisms over decision making related to improved sustainability of fishing practices in Filipino tuna fisheries. The three mechanisms compared are the World Wildlife Fund for Nature's fishery improvement project model, Marine Steward

  1. Reproductive biology of yellowfin tuna T. albacares in the west-central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Song, Liming

    2008-08-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese longliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1 023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is estimated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female’s along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  2. Relationship between sea surface temperatures and dolphin-associated fishing activities by the Mexican tuna fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Muñoz, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Mexican purse seiner fleet operating in the eastern Tropical Pacific, for the year 1985-1990, are used to show that the fraction of surface schools of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares associated with dolphins (Stenella attenuata and others) increases with sea surface temperature. Possible reasons for this correlation are briefly discussed.

  3. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices.

  4. Reproductive Biology of Yeilowfin Tuna T. albacares in the West-Central Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guoping; XU Liuxiong; ZHOU Yingqi; SONG Liming

    2008-01-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese Iongliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is esti- mated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female's along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  5. Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Olson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP and the central north Pacific (CNP Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways are required to support different tuna species and, consequently, the specific fisheries that target different tuna assemblages. These simulations suggest that catches of tunas, sharks, and billfishes have lowered the biomass of the upper trophic levels in both systems, whereas increases in intermediate and lower trophic level animals have accompanied the decline of top predators. Trade-offs between fishing and predation mortality rates that occur when multiple fisheries interact with their respective food webs may lead to smaller changes in biomass than if only the effect of a single fishery is considered. Historical simulations and hypothetical management scenarios further demonstrate that the effects of longline and purse seine fisheries have been strongest in upper trophic levels, but that lower trophic levels may respond more strongly to purse-seine fisheries. The apex predator guild has responded most strongly to longlining. Simulations of alternative management strategies that attempt to rebuild shark and billfish populations in each ecosystem reveal that (1 changes in longlining more effectively recover top predator populations than do changes in purse seining and (2 restrictions on both shallow-set longline gear and shark finning may do more to recover top predators than do simple reductions in fishing effort.

  6. Acanthocephalan (Echinorhynchus sp.) infection of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) from Nagapattinam, south east coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarsamy Sakthivel; Periyasamy Selvakumar; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To recored the infection of Acanthocephalan parasite, (Echinorhynchus sp.) in adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). This is the first report of acanthocephalan Echinirhynchus sp attached to yellowfin tuna and moreover prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance was observed. Methods:Totally 1 001 yellowfin tuna fishes were collected throughout the year of 2012 from the coast of Nagapattinam (10°45' 36.25"N and 79°50' 59.54"E), Tamil Nadu, India. The collected fishes were washed with fresh water to remove debris and immediately stored in ice, and brought to the laboratory. Intestines were placed in normal saline (0.85%NaCl). The worms were fixed in alcohol/formalin/(AFA) fixative and in 70%ethanol until processed for identification. Results:Totally 1 001 yellowfin tuna was examined out of 387 (52.67%) hosts were infected with acanthocephalan (Echinorhynchus sp.). The proboscis Echinorhynchus sp. was long, cylindrical with cylindrical with a uniform width measured (0.41±0.02) mm in length and (0.12±0.03) mm in width. The endo parasite prevalence, intensity and abundance was recorded as 52.67%, 12.46%, and 5.43%respectively. Conclusions: This current phenomena was carried out to report of acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus sp. attached the new host of yellowfin tuna from Nagapattinam coast. Moreover, parasitological investigations are required to determine endo parasites of host due to its importance and numerous occurring among most important marine food fishes in world wild.

  7. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  8. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  9. Analysis of null sets (zero cat ch) made by the Mexican tuna pur se seine fleet (20002013)

    OpenAIRE

    Michel J Dreyfus-León; Adán Mejía-Trejo; Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez

    2015-01-01

    The world tuna fishing fleet is dominated by purse seine boats . Purse seine sets are sometimes unsuccessful in capturing fish ; these unsuccessful attempts are known as null sets. Null sets h ave been widely documented and the numbers indicate that they h appen in large proportions. In Mexico, the tuna fishery represents the second most important fishery by volume and value. The frequency of oc currence of null sets during the period 20002013 wa s analyzed to identify the r egions, perio...

  10. Influence of physical damage and freezing on histamine concentration and microbiological quality of yellowfin tuna during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo García-Tapia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna has a high level of free histidine in their muscle, which can lead to histamine formation by microorganisms if temperature abuse occurs during handling and further processing. The objective of this study was to measure levels of histamine in damaged and undamaged thawed muscle to determine the effect of physical damage on the microbial count and histamine formation during the initial steps of canning processing and to isolate and identify the main histamine-forming microorganisms present in the flesh of yellowfin tuna. Total mesophilic and psicrophilic microorganisms were determined using the standard plate method. The presence of histamine-forming microorganisms was determined in a modified Niven's agar. Strains were further identified using the API 20E kit for enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacilli. Physically damaged tuna did not show higher microbiological contamination than that of undamaged muscle tuna. The most active histamine-forming microorganism present in tuna flesh was Morganella morganii. Other decarboxylating microorganisms present were Enterobacter agglomerans and Enterobacter cloacae. Physical damage of tune during catching and handling did not increase the level of histamine or the amount of microorganisms present in tuna meat during frozen transportation, but they showed a higher risk of histamine-forming microorganism growth during processing.

  11. Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Products? A Study of Eco-Labeled Tuna Steak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzhen Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for seafood leads to overfishing, harms the long-term health of seafood stocks, and threatens environmental sustainability in oceans. Sustainability certification is one of the major sustainability movements and is known as eco-labeling. For instance, in the tuna industry, leading tuna brands have committed to protecting sea turtles by allowing the tracing of the source of their tuna “from catch to can.” This paper relies on an Internet survey on consumers from Kentucky conducted in July 2010. The survey investigates household-level tuna steak (sashimi grade consumption and examines consumer preferences for eco-labeling (“Certified Turtle Safe” (CTS in this study while mimicking individuals’ seafood procurement processes. A random parameter logit model is utilized, and willingness-to-pay measures are calculated based on model estimation results. It was found that respondents on average preferred turtle-safe-labeled tuna steak and were likely to pay more for it; however, they were less likely to purchase wild-caught species, and insignificant results were found for pre-frozen. Moreover, significant heterogeneities were found across individuals regarding tuna steak purchases. The findings indicate evidence of public support for environmental friendliness, particularly with regard to eco-labeling.

  12. Oligonucleotide indexing of DNA barcodes: identification of tuna and other scombrid species in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti Sara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA barcodes are a global standard for species identification and have countless applications in the medical, forensic and alimentary fields, but few barcoding methods work efficiently in samples in which DNA is degraded, e.g. foods and archival specimens. This limits the choice of target regions harbouring a sufficient number of diagnostic polymorphisms. The method described here uses existing PCR and sequencing methodologies to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in complex matrices such as foods. The reported application allowed the discrimination among 17 fish species of the Scombridae family with high commercial interest such as mackerels, bonitos and tunas which are often present in processed seafood. The approach can be easily upgraded with the release of new genetic diversity information to increase the range of detected species. Results Cocktail of primers are designed for PCR using publicly available sequences of the target sequence. They are composed of a fixed 5' region and of variable 3' cocktail portions that allow amplification of any member of a group of species of interest. The population of short amplicons is directly sequenced and indexed using primers containing a longer 5' region and the non polymorphic portion of the cocktail portion. A 226 bp region of CytB was selected as target after collection and screening of 148 online sequences; 85 SNPs were found, of which 75 were present in at least two sequences. Primers were also designed for two shorter sub-fragments that could be amplified from highly degraded samples. The test was used on 103 samples of seafood (canned tuna and scomber, tuna salad, tuna sauce and could successfully detect the presence of different or additional species that were not identified on the labelling of canned tuna, tuna salad and sauce samples. Conclusions The described method is largely independent of the degree of degradation of DNA source and can thus be applied to

  13. EVALUATION OF TUNA FISHING GROUND IN SOUTHERN COAST OF JAVA - SUMBAWA SEA USING SATELLITE OBSERVED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOKHLAS SATIBI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential fishery in territorial water of South Java - Sumbawa Sea has not been exploited maximally. Tuna is one of fisherypotency in the territorial water of South Java - Sumbawa. Tuna is the important economic value because it represent one ofexporting commodity enthused by overseas consumer.Research was conducted in the Southern Java – Sumbawa, Indian Ocean 90 S - 160 S; 1060 E - 1210 E, using fish catch data2003 – 2006. Research location is in the inclusive Region of Fishery Management IX (DKP and PKSPL, 2003. Data weretaken from a daily fish catch of PT. Perikanan Samudra Besar (PSB Benoa Bali 2003 - 2006.Sea level anomaly (SLA data were estimated from Altimetry satellite (Jason 1, wind speed data was from Scatterometersatellite and sea surface temperature (SST data was from Microwave satellite.Based on the result of this research, sea level anomaly of southern coast of Java-Sumbawa was fluctuated according tomonsoon. The highest bigeye tuna fish catched was 40 tuna in June 2003 and the lowest bigeye tuna fish was 2 tuna inNovember 2005. Maximum SLA observe during southeast monsoon was 21.77 cm in august 2005, while minimum SLAobserved during southeast monsoon was -18.15 cm in October 2003. Sea surface temperature of southern coast of Java-Sumbawa also fluctuated according to monsoon. Maximum SST observed during northwest monsoon was 30.450 C in March2006, while minimum SST observed during southeast monsoon was 25.050 C in August 2006. The highest wind speed was10.20 m/sec in June 2004 and the lowest was 2.00 m/sec in October 2004. Wind direction was reversely changed according tomonsoon. Northwest wind monsoon flew eastward and southeast wind monsoon flew westward.Fish production in PT PSB had been done over 4 years since 2003, in northwest and southwest monsoon in constant areaand correlation of linier regression among estimate of fish catching using SLA, SST and wind speed had no correlation. Withfish production during southwest

  14. Numerical Study of Propulsion Mechanism for Oscillating Rigid and Flexible Tuna-Tails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yang; Yumin Su; Qing Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Numerical study on the unsteady hydrodynamic characteristics of oscillating rigid and flexible tuna-tails in viscous flow-field is performed.Investigations are conducted using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a moving adaptive mesh.The effect of swimming speed,flapping amplitude,frequency and flexure amplitude on the propulsion performance of the rigid and flexible tuna-tails are investigated.Computational results reveal that a pair of leading edge vortices develop along the tail surface as it undergoes an oscillating motion.The propulsive efficiency has a strong correlation with various locomotive parameters.Peak propulsive efficiency can be obtained by adjusting these parameters.Particularly,when input power coefficient is less than 2.8,the rigid tail generates larger thrust force and higher propulsive efficiency than flexible tail.However,when input power coefficient is larger than 2.8,flexible tail is superior to rigid tail.

  15. North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Vukcevic, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The author postulates the existence of a high correlation between North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly and the variations of magnetic field over the Hudson Bay region. Post-glacial uplift and convection in the underlying mantle uplift (as reflected in changes of the area's magnetic intensity) are making significant contribution to the Atlantic basin climate change.

  16. Morphometric analysis of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, from the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Kurt M.

    1989-01-01

    ENGLISH: Morphometric data from yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, were collected from various locations in the eastern Pacific Ocean during 1974 to 1976, to assess geographic and temporal variation of morphometric characters. The data were statistically adjusted, using allometric formulae to partition size. Discriminant analyses were applied to the adjusted morphometric characters. Yellowfin sampled from north of 15°N-20oN were different from those sampled from south of 15°N-20oN. The absenc...

  17. Bycatch in the purse seine tuna fisheries in the western Indian Ocean.

    OpenAIRE

    Romanov, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    The yield of associated and dependent species taken as bycatch by the purse seine tuna fishery from the Indian Ocean pelagic ecosystem is estimated from data collected by scientific observers aboard Soviet purse seiners in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), 1986-1992. A total of 494 sets on free swimming schools, whale shark associated schools, whale associated schools, and log associated schools were analyzed. More than 40 fish species and other marine animals were registered. Among them onl...

  18. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti; John David Filmalter; Pascal Bach; Paulo Travassos; Bernard Seret; Laurent Dagorn

    2015-01-01

    Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs) in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring ...

  19. Shark Bycatch - Small Scale Tuna Fishery Interactions along the Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiilu, B.K.; Ndegwa, S.

    2013-01-01

    In Kenya and to a great extent most parts of the WIO region, shark catches majorly occur as by-catch in artisanal tuna fisheries and prawn trawls, including sport fishing activities. However, the extent to which these various fisheries catch sharks is not known but may be significant. The species structure, distribution, catch rates and levels of fisheries-shark interactions are not well documented. This information is, however, necessary to assess exploitation levels of shark spe...

  20. Changes in the Microstructure of Skipjack Tuna During Frozen Storage and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lampila, L. E.; Brown, W D

    1986-01-01

    Samples of fresh, frozen and heat- treated skipjack tuna muscle were observed by scanning electron mieros copy. The photomicrographs were used to assess changes in the microstructure of fish muscle during frozen storage and thermal processing . Differences noted in frozen tissue could be related to the formation of gaps between fibers and the deformation of muscle fibers . No freeze mediated damage to the cell wall was observed at the lower limits, 20,000x, of high resolution scanning electro...

  1. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Tuna Fisheries in Fiji Islands and Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, Asbjoern; Sygna, Linda

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will lead to various changes in the catch in different countries. The price of the fish in the export market may also change as a result. The Pacific islands are generally dependent on fisheries, and may therefore be vulnerable to these changes, although some will probably gain while others will lose. Based on a very simple macroeconomic model, it is shown that the resulting effects for the national economy in general may diverge substantially from the expected. This applies, in particular, if the national economies are inflexible and a large part of the population relies on subsistence production, which is the case for many developing countries. (author)

  2. Isolation of 137-Cs in tuna fish by ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation of 137-Cs in tuna fish (Neithunnus macroptenus) has been carried out using AMP. The energy of 137-Cs was measure using NaI(T1) detector connected to a Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). In standard solution of 137-Cs with activity 160.74 and 80.37 pCi, the addition of 120 mg AMP and 7 hours of absorption time, caused 97% of 137-Cs in the solution was absorbed. The destruction of tuna fish was carried out using two methods namely by wet destruction with sulfuric acid, nitrit acid and hydrogen peroxid mixture and by wet destruction with hydrogen peroxide. The applications of this technique of tuna fish was carried out by spiking 137-Cs standard into the fish before being destructed. The recovery obtained from wet destruction with H2O2 was about 80%, while from destruction with acid mixtures and H2O2 was only about 47%. (authors). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  3. The Handling System of Product and Existence of Waste Components in Fishing Operation of Tuna in Bitung, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaruddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling in fishing vessel is urgent to maintaining the quality of tuna products, while the existence of waste components can bother the performance of fishing operations. The aims of this research are to evaluate the handling system of tuna products in fishing vessel and to analyze the influences of fishing operation to the existence of waste components. This research methods are no control chart and regression model approach. Research result shows that the handling system in the fishing operation of tuna in Bitung is not optimum. But the quality of tuna products which landed is still in controlled as shown by amount of rejecting products in UCL-LCL range (0 – 3,63 reject products/processing. The influence of amount of tuna caught per setting (X to existence of bait waste (Y formulated with model Y = - 1,176X+37.794, the influence of amount of tuna products (X to the existence of ices remained Y formulated with model Y = - 0,002X + 62,226, and also the influences of fishing operation which deputized by the amount of ABK (X1 and number of operating days (X2 to the existence of freshwater remained (Y formulated with model Y = 50,000X1-23,704X2+288,889. The significant impacts are only the influence of amount of tuna products in existence of ices remained (sigh = 0,036 and number of operating days of the existence of freshwater remained (sigh = 0,037.

  4. Food-web inferences of stable isotope spatial patterns in copepods and yellowfin tuna in the pelagic eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert J.; Popp, Brian N.; Graham, Brittany S.; López-Ibarra, Gladis A.; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Bocanegra-Castillo, Noemi; Wallsgrove, Natalie J.; Gier, Elizabeth; Alatorre-Ramírez, Vanessa; Ballance, Lisa T.; Fry, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating the impacts of climate and fishing on oceanic ecosystems requires an improved understanding of the trophodynamics of pelagic food webs. Our approach was to examine broad-scale spatial relationships among the stable N isotope values of copepods and yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares), and to quantify yellowfin tuna trophic status in the food web based on stable-isotope and stomach-contents analyses. Using a generalized additive model fitted to abundance-weighted-average δ 15N values of several omnivorous copepod species, we examined isotopic spatial relationships among yellowfin tuna and copepods. We found a broad-scale, uniform gradient in δ 15N values of copepods increasing from south to north in a region encompassing the eastern Pacific warm pool and parts of several current systems. Over the same region, a similar trend was observed for the δ 15N values in the white muscle of yellowfin tuna caught by the purse-seine fishery, implying limited movement behavior. Assuming the omnivorous copepods represent a proxy for the δ 15N values at the base of the food web, the isotopic difference between these two taxa, “ ΔYFT-COP,” was interpreted as a trophic-position offset. Yellowfin tuna trophic-position estimates based on their bulk δ 15N values were not significantly different than independent estimates based on stomach contents, but are sensitive to errors in the trophic enrichment factor and the trophic position of copepods. An apparent inshore-offshore, east to west gradient in yellowfin tuna trophic position was corroborated using compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids conducted on a subset of samples. The gradient was not explained by the distribution of yellowfin tuna of different sizes, by seasonal variability at the base of the food web, or by known ambit distances (i.e. movements). Yellowfin tuna stomach contents did not show a regular inshore-offshore gradient in trophic position during 2003-2005, but the trophic

  5. Statistics of the French purse seine fishing fleet targeting tropical tunas in the Atlantic ocean (1991-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Floch, Laurent; Damiano, Alain; Tamegnon, A.; Cauquil, Pascal; Chavance, Pierre; Terrier, Isabelle; Chassot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    En 2012, la flottille de senneurs français opérant dans l'Atlantique se composait de neuf navires, chacun ayant une capacité de transport > 600 t, représentant dans leur totalité une capacité de transport de 9.000 t. L'effort nominal cumulé total s'élevait à environ 2.500 et à 2.000 jours de pêche et de recherche, respectivement. Le nombre total d'opérations de pêche s'élevait à environ 1.900, à peu près la moitié étant réalisée sur des bancs associés à des dispositifs de concentration des po...

  6. SUBGLACIAL VOLCANO IN ATLANTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Shigehisa

    2010-01-01

    This is a note to satellite monitoring of the subglacial volcano in the Atlantic. The satellite data are obtained by EUMETSAT and NASA An eruption of a subglacial volcano in Iceland had issued volcanic ash, and the winds transferred the ash to the European Union in April 2010. This volcano is one of the volcanoes in the Atlantic. There are volcanoes in the north and south Atlantic. Some of them are in Azores Islands, in Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Iceland is located on the zone of ...

  7. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Feng Chi; Fa-Yuan Hu; Bin Wang; Zhong-Rui Li; Hong-Yu Luo

    2015-01-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration...

  8. The efficacy of X-ray does on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi, and tuna salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation, we determined the efficacy of X-ray doses on reducing a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate [murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1)] in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna salad. The pure culture (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4), half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna ...

  9. Oxygen utilization and the branchial pressure gradient during ram ventilation of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus: is lamnid shark-tuna convergence constrained by elasmobranch gill morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Lai, N Chin; Bull, Kristina B; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Ram ventilation and gill function in a lamnid shark, the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, were studied to assess how gill structure may affect the lamnid-tuna convergence for high-performance swimming. Despite differences in mako and tuna gill morphology, mouth gape and basal swimming speeds, measurements of mako O(2) utilization at the gills (53.4±4.2%) and the pressure gradient driving branchial flow (96.8±26.1 Pa at a mean swimming speed of 38.8±5.8 cm s(-1)) are similar to values reported for tunas. Also comparable to tunas are estimates of the velocity (0.22±0.03 cm s(-1)) and residence time (0.79±0.14 s) of water though the interlamellar channels of the mako gill. However, mako and tuna gills differ in the sites of primary branchial resistance. In the mako, approximately 80% of the total branchial resistance resides in the septal channels, structures inherent to the elasmobranch gill that are not present in tunas. The added resistance at this location is compensated by a correspondingly lower resistance at the gill lamellae accomplished through wider interlamellar channels. Although greater interlamellar spacing minimizes branchial resistance, it also limits lamellar number and results in a lower total gill surface area for the mako relative to tunas. The morphology of the elasmobranch gill thus appears to constrain gill area and, consequently, limit mako aerobic performance to less than that of tunas. PMID:22162850

  10. Biological characteristics of Thunnus obesus in longlining ground of the Central Atlantic Ocean%大西洋中部金枪鱼延绳钓渔场大眼金枪鱼的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋利明; 陈新军; 许柳雄

    2004-01-01

    Based on the biological data of bigeye tuna measured from the longlining ground of the Central Atlantic Ocean from Jun. 2001 to Oct. 2001, this paper analyzed the bigeye tuna's maturity stages of the gonad, feeding intensity, species composition of prey, sex ratio, fork length distribution, relationships between fork length and dressed weight, fork length and round weight, round weight and dressed weight by statistic and regression methods. The results indicate: ( 1 ) Maturity at Ⅳ-Ⅵ of the gonad are dominant with the highest percentage of Ⅴ (30.11% ). (2)The feeding intensity is mainly in the class 1 ,class 2 or class 3,totally 83.16%. (3)In the bigeye tuna's species composition of prey, the percentage of miscellaneous fish or cephalopod is relatively high, 38.05 % or 30.48 % respectively. Catch rate of bigeye tuna can be enhanced when cephalopod is used as the bait. (4) The male-female ratio is 2 : 1. This pattern might result from elevated mortality of adult females. (5) The fork length distribution is suitable for the normal. The dominant fork length is 1.13 - 1.49m, 64.16%, with the mean value of 1.32m. (6)The relationship between fork length and dressed weight. (7)The relationship between fork length and round weight. If the fork length is the same, the round weight converted in this paper's formula is a little lighter than the round weight converted in Parks's formula concluded at 1981 of the longline bigeye tuna catch. It might be caused by the different sampling areas or sampling time. (8)The relationship between round weight and dressed weight. The round weight conversion factor in this paper is a little higher than the ICCAT. It might be caused by the different processing methods. ICCAT is recommended to adapt this paper's conversion factor.

  11. Persistent Organic Pollutants in albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) from Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) and South Africa in relation to biological and trophic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munschy, C; Bodin, N; Potier, M; Héas-Moisan, K; Pollono, C; Degroote, M; West, W; Hollanda, S J; Puech, A; Bourjea, J; Nikolic, N

    2016-07-01

    The contamination of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), was investigated in individuals collected from Reunion Island (RI) and South Africa's (SA) southern coastlines in 2013, in relation to biological parameters and feeding ecology. The results showed lower PCB and DDT concentrations than those previously reported in various tuna species worldwide. A predominance of DDTs over PCBs was revealed, reflecting continuing inputs of DDT. Tuna collected from SA exhibited higher contamination levels than those from RI, related to higher dietary inputs and higher total lipid content. Greater variability in contamination levels and profiles was identified in tuna from RI, explained by a higher diversity of prey and more individualistic foraging behaviour. PCB and DDT contamination levels and profiles varied significantly in tuna from the two investigated areas, probably reflecting exposure to different sources of contamination. PMID:27084988

  12. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  13. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  14. PRODUCCIÓN Y COMERCIALIZACIÓN DE TUNA EN FRESCO BAJO DIFERENTES MODALIDADES EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Jolalpa Barrera, Jose Luis; Aguilar Zamora, Alejandro; Ortiz Barreto, Omar; Garcia Lopez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio se realizó durante el 2006 con los siguientes objetivos: determinar costos de producción y márgenes de comercialización de la tuna en fresco producida en Hidalgo. Para realizar el estudio se utilizó las metodologías desarrolladas por Morris (1990) y por Caldentey y De Haro (2004). En total se aplicaron 60 encuestas, 44 a productores y 16 a comercializadores de tuna. Los resultados muestran la identificación de tres tipos de productores; de los cuales 9% son líderes, el 61%...

  15. Anti-wrinkle effects of a tuna heart H2O fraction on Hs27 human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Jung, Hee-Jin; Choi, Jae-Sue; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, there is also growing interest in anti-aging treatments and technologies. The development of anti-aging functional drugs for the skin, and foods from natural sources, may offer solutions to this global matter. Aging involves structural, functional and biochemical changes that occur throughout cells and bodily tissues; the amount of hormones secreted from of all human organs, including the skin, decreases over time. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes (MMP-1 and -8) play an important role in the aging of skin fibroblasts. For example, an increased MMP expression causes accelerated aging and the degradation of skin elasticity-related genes. In the present study, we examined the anti-wrinkle effects of tuna heart extract which are mediated through the inhibition of MMPs in skin cells. Generally, tuna contains high concentrations of selenium and antioxidants, which serve to remove free radicals, and is known to delay skin and body aging. In addition, unsaturated fatty acids in tuna help to maintain the natural glossy look of skin, and increase skin elasticity, providing moisture for dry skin. A recent study confirmed the various bio-effects of boiled tuna extract and muscle. However, bioactivity studies using tuna heart are limited. Thus, in the present study, we obtained extracts and fractions of tuna heart, and examined their effects on Hs27 human fibroblast proliferation using an MTS assay. In addition, we measured procollagen type 1 levels and elastase activity, and performed β-galactosidase staining. We then measured the expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MMP-related genes by western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Our results revealed that tuna heart extract decreased MMP expression by upregulating tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and decreasing elastase activity, thus exerting anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effects by increasing collagen synthesis and promoting skin fibroblast

  16. The conservation and management of tunas and their relatives: setting life history research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; Mosqueira, Iago; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval) for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species. PMID:23950930

  17. The conservation and management of tunas and their relatives: setting life history research priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Juan-Jordá

    Full Text Available Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species.

  18. Photobacterium angustum and Photobacterium kishitanii, Psychrotrophic High-Level Histamine-Producing Bacteria Indigenous to Tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, K; McCarthy, S A; Dunlap, P V; Benner, R A

    2016-04-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP) remains the main contributor of fish poisoning incidents in the United States, despite efforts to control its spread. Psychrotrophic histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) indigenous to scombrotoxin-forming fish may contribute to the incidence of SFP. We examined the gills, skin, and anal vents of yellowfin (n = 3), skipjack (n = 1), and albacore (n = 6) tuna for the presence of indigenous HPB. Thirteen HPB strains were isolated from the anal vent samples from albacore (n = 3) and yellowfin (n = 2) tuna. Four of these isolates were identified as Photobacterium kishitanii and nine isolates as Photobacterium angustum; these isolates produced 560 to 603 and 1,582 to 2,338 ppm histamine in marine broth containing 1% histidine (25°C for 48 h), respectively. The optimum growth temperatures and salt concentrations were 26 to 27°C and 1% salt for P. kishitanii and 30 to 32°C and 2% salt for P. angustum in Luria 70% seawater (LSW-70). The optimum activity of the HDC enzyme was at 15 to 30°C for both species. At 5°C, P. kishitanii and P. angustum had growth rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1), respectively, and the activities of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) enzymes were 71% and 63%, respectively. These results show that indigenous HPB in tuna are capable of growing at elevated and refrigeration temperatures. These findings demonstrate the need to examine the relationships between the rate of histamine production at refrigeration temperatures, seafood shelf life, and regulatory limits. PMID:26826233

  19. Encapsulation of mixtures of tuna oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in a spray dried powder formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansri, Luz; Day, Li; Shen, Zhiping; Fagan, Peter; Weerakkody, Rangika; Cheng, Li Jiang; Rusli, Jenny; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-12-01

    Spray dried emulsions are effective for carrying and stabilising combinations of fish oil and tributyrin, fish oil and resveratrol, or fish oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in one formulation. The encapsulation efficiencies were >99% for all three bioactives when a heated mixture of sodium caseinate: glucose: dried glucose syrup matrix (Encapsulant matrix 1) was used. When a heated sodium caseinate: glucose: processed starch matrix (Encapsulant matrix 2) was used, the encapsulation efficiencies were 90-92% for tributyrin and approximately 98% for resveratrol for all formulations but 79-91% for tuna oil where the efficiency was more formulation dependent. There was 84-86% remaining EPA, 85-87% remaining DHA, 85% remaining tributyrin and 94-96% remaining resveratrol after 18 months at 25 °C storage of the spray dried emulsions using Encapsulant matrix 1 across all formulations. In comparison, there was 83-87% remaining EPA and 84-89% remaining DHA, 80-82% remaining tributyrin, and 81-100% remaining resveratrol across all formulations with Encapsulant matrix 2. In vitro studies showed that on sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, <5% tuna oil was found as triglycerides, but all the tributyrin had been lipolysed. The presence of diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids in the in vitro digests suggested that lipolysis of tuna oil had occurred. The type of matrix used for encapsulating the bioactives had little effect on the lipolysis of the oils but affected the amount of solvent extractable resveratrol. The ability of delivering mixtures of bioactives within one formulation was demonstrated. PMID:24121865

  20. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  1. Incidencia de los defectos congénitos asociados al uso de medicamentos en Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    Glenys K. Silva Gonzalez; Yurima Rodriguez Peña; Juana Lupe Muñoz Callol; Elibett Carcases Carcases; Lisset del Carmen Romero Portelles

    2015-01-01

    La Red de Genética Nacional estableció un sistema de vigilancia pre y postnatal, para evaluar los efectos potenciales de la medicación en aquellas gestantes que ocasionalmente o de manera permanente ingieren fármacos durante el embarazo. En la provincia de Las Tunas se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo para describir la incidencia de defectos congénitos en la etapa prenatal y al nacimiento de los fetos en las mujeres que consumieron algún medicamento en el primer trimestre del embar...

  2. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-352 radionuclides in tuna fish flesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of tuna fish flesh from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-352, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 63 laboratories from 31 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (Reference data: 1 January 1989): 137Cs 2.7 Bq kg-1, 90Sr 0.2 Bq Kg-1, 40K 391 Bq Kg-1, 210Pb 0.6 Bq Kg-1, 210Po 2.2 Bq Kg-1. Tabs

  3. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  4. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  5. A continuous time delay-difference type model (CTDDM) applied to stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore Thunnus alalunga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Baochao; Liu, Qun; Zhang, Kui; Baset, Abdul; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Memon, Khadim Hussain; Han, Yanan

    2016-09-01

    A continuous time delay-diff erence model (CTDDM) has been established that considers continuous time delays of biological processes. The southern Atlantic albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) stock is the one of the commercially important tuna population in the marine world. The age structured production model (ASPM) and the surplus production model (SPM) have already been used to assess the albacore stock. However, the ASPM requires detailed biological information and the SPM lacks the biological realism. In this study, we focus on applying a CTDDM to the southern Atlantic albacore ( T. alalunga) species, which provides an alternative method to assess this fishery. It is the first time that CTDDM has been provided for assessing the Atlantic albacore ( T. alalunga) fishery. CTDDM obtained the 80% confidence interval of MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of (21 510 t, 23 118t). The catch in 2011 (24 100 t) is higher than the MSY values and the relative fishing mortality ratio ( F 2011/ F MSY) is higher than 1.0. The results of CTDDM were analyzed to verify the proposed methodology and provide reference information for the sustainable management of the southern Atlantic albacore stock. The CTDDM treats the recruitment, the growth, and the mortality rates as all varying continuously over time and fills gaps between ASPM and SPM in this stock assessment.

  6. A continuous time delay-difference type model (CTDDM) applied to stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore Thunnus alalunga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Baochao; Liu, Qun; Zhang, Kui; Baset, Abdul; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Memon, Khadim Hussain; Han, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    A continuous time delay-diff erence model (CTDDM) has been established that considers continuous time delays of biological processes. The southern Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga) stock is the one of the commercially important tuna population in the marine world. The age structured production model (ASPM) and the surplus production model (SPM) have already been used to assess the albacore stock. However, the ASPM requires detailed biological information and the SPM lacks the biological realism. In this study, we focus on applying a CTDDM to the southern Atlantic albacore (T. alalunga) species, which provides an alternative method to assess this fishery. It is the first time that CTDDM has been provided for assessing the Atlantic albacore (T. alalunga) fishery. CTDDM obtained the 80% confidence interval of MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of (21 510 t, 23 118t). The catch in 2011 (24 100 t) is higher than the MSY values and the relative fishing mortality ratio (F 2011/F MSY) is higher than 1.0. The results of CTDDM were analyzed to verify the proposed methodology and provide reference information for the sustainable management of the southern Atlantic albacore stock. The CTDDM treats the recruitment, the growth, and the mortality rates as all varying continuously over time and fills gaps between ASPM and SPM in this stock assessment.

  7. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention.

  8. From forager tracks to prey distributions: an application to tuna vessel monitoring systems (VMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily; Rivoirard, Jacques; Gaspar, Philippe; Bez, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    In the open ocean, movements of migratory fish populations are typically surveyed using tagging methods that are subject to low sample sizes for archive tags, except for a few notable examples, and poor temporal resolution for conventional tags. Alternatively, one can infer patterns of movement of migratory fish by tracking movements of their predators, i.e., fishing vessels, whose navigational systems (e.g., GPS) provide accurate and frequent VMS (vessel monitoring system) records of movement in pursuit of prey. In this paper, we develop a state-space model that infers the foraging activities of fishing vessels from their tracks. Second, we link foraging activities to probabilities of tuna presence. Finally, using multivariate geostatistical interpolation (cokriging) we map the probability of tuna presence together with their estimation variances and produce a time series of indices of abundance. While the segmentation of the trajectories is validated by observers' data, the present VMS-index is compared to catch rate and proved to be useful for management perspectives. The approach reported in this manuscript extends beyond the case study considered. It can be applied to any foragers that engage in an attempt of capture when they see prey and for whom this attempt is linked to a tractable change in behavior.

  9. 78 FR 20604 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes to revise regulations under the Dolphin Protection Consumer... represent the product as dolphin-safe. This proposed rule would modify the requirements for...

  10. 78 FR 40997 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... April 5, 2013, NMFS published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (78 FR 20604) to revise... conformity with the TBT Agreement. In response to this finding, NMFS proposed (78 FR 20604; April 5, 2013) to... Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products AGENCY: National Marine...

  11. Field biology of Halimeda tuna (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) across a depth gradient : comparative growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, P.S.; Smith, C.M.; Coyer, J.A.; Walters, L.; Hunter, C.L.; Beach, K.S.; Smith, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction of Halimeda tuna, a dominant green alga in many reef systems of the Florida Keys, were monitored at a shallow back reef ( 4 - 7m) and deep reef slope ( 15 - 22 m) on Conch Reef. Despite lower light intensities and similar grazing pressures, amphipo

  12. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.;

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... that the volume of the secondary circulatory system of yellowfin tuna is small, and its exact volume is not measurable by our methods. Although blood volume is not exceptional, circulation time (blood volume/cardiac output) is clearly shorter in yellowfin tuna than in other active teleosts. In a 1 kg yellowfin...... tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg- 1) compared with 1.3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates...

  13. Strategies and tactics of tuna fishers in the payao (anchored FAD) fishery from general Santos city, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macusi, Edison; Babaran, R.P.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Payaos or anchored FADs are used extensively in the Philippine tuna fishery. Currently, spatial regulations on FAD use are implemented with limited observance or understanding of their potential impacts. A combination of semi-structured interviews (n=150) and a total of six focus group discussions (

  14. Fisher-Level Decision Making to Participate in Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs) for Yellowfin Tuna in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolentino-Zondervan, F.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bush, S.R.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the capabilities needed by small-scale fishers to participate in Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) for yellowfin tuna in the Philippines. The current literature provides little empirical evidence on how different models, or types of FIPs, influence the participation of fisher

  15. Sea level height, sea surface temperature, and tuna yields in the Panama bight during El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Pedraza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1988 and 1998, annual tuna landings at Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific are correlated with the sea surface temperature in the central Equatorial Pacific (r=0.78, p<0.05 and the sea level height at Buenaventura (r=0.76, p<0.05 and Balboa (Panama (r=0.79, p<0.05. Seasonal oceanic upwelling is forced by the Panama wind jet, which may favour oceanic fisheries such as tuna. Here we first apply a bivariate correlation method (Pyper and Peterman, 1994 and then a multivariate approach (principal components analysis or PCA to investigate the relationships of these environmental variables with landings. With the first method, we find that landing is best correlated with the sea surface temperature in the Niño 3 region, whereas the other relationships are less clear. In contrast, with PCA we find that PC1 explains 90.6% of the total variance and suggests that sea surface temperature plays a major role in determining tuna availability in the area (especially during El Niño events. Since PC2 is mainly correlated with sea level height at Balboa but only represents 6.8% of the total variance, we suggest that oceanic upwelling effects on tuna landings at Buenaventura are not significant at interannual scales.

  16. Vertical Movements, Behavior and Habitat Utilization of Adult Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) Tagged in West Philippine Sea, Mindoro Island, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macusi, Edison; Babaran, R.P.; Ingles, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the vertical movements, behavior and habitat utilization of an electronically tagged adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) after 17 days of liberty in the Philippines based on analyses of 23,845 datapoints recorded from a recovered electronic popup tag. The exhaustive set pro

  17. Trophic niches of sympatric tropical tuna in the Western Indian Ocean inferred by stable isotopes and neutral fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardenne, Fany; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel; Amiel, Aurélien; Fouché, Edwin; Degroote, Maxime; Hollanda, Stéphanie; Pethybridge, Heidi; Lebreton, Benoit; Guillou, Gaël; Ménard, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the trophic ecology of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye BET, skipjack SKJ, and yellowfin YFT) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean throughout 2013. Specifically we explored inter-specific resource partitioning and ontogenetic variability using neutral fatty acids and stable isotope analysis of liver and muscle from small (⩽100 cm fork length, FL) and large (>100 cm FL) tuna collected in mixed schools at the surface by purse-seine. Both biochemical tracers were used to calculate trophic niche indices that collectively revealed high potential for resource overlap, especially among small tuna. Resource overlap appeared strongest between BET and YFT, with SKJ tissues having high carbon isotope (δ13C) values (-17 ± 0.3‰), lower nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values (11.4 ± 0.6‰), and higher relative proportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the two other species, indicating a different diet. Size was found to be a strong predictor for most biochemical tracers in the three species with δ13C, δ15N and total lipid content in the liver. In the larger species (YFT and BET), proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids typically increased with size, while quantities of PUFA decreased. In addition to ontogenetic variability, trophic markers were shown to vary between sampling area and season: higher lipid reserves and δ15N values, and lower δ13C values occurred during monsoon periods around Seychelles than in the Mozambique Channel (parted from about 1500 km). Our multi-tracer approach reveals the magnitude of potential competitive interactions in mixed tropical tuna schools at both small and large sizes and demonstrates that ontogenetic niche differentiation acts as a major factor of coexistence in tropical tuna.

  18. Atlantic City memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  19. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act), based on the...

  20. KEMAMPUAN DOSIS PUPUK ZA DAN WAKTU PEWIWILAN TUNAS LATERAL TERHADAP HASIL DAN KUALITAS CABAI BESAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH]Chili is one of the horticultural commodities which have high economic value and have a large export opportunities. The development of technology makes great chili farming business will be more profitable. The purpose of research to determine the interaction between fertilizer dosing ZA and pruning time of lateral shoots that are most influential to the outcome and quality of hot pepper. Factorial (3 x 3 research carried out using Random Design Group. The first factor is the fertilizer doses studied with 3 threshold ZA covers: N1, N2, and N3, respectively 14, 28, and 42 grams per plant. The second factor is the time of pruning with 3 degrees include: W1, W2, and W3, each for 0, 15, and 25 days after planting. The results showed that the combination treatment of ZA 28 gram per plant and prunning of lateral shoots in 15 dat tend to the best result on the yield and quality of chilli. Keywords: Chilli; ZA Fertilizer Dose; Nitrogen; Pruning.  [INDONESIAN] Cabai merupakan salah satu komoditas hortikultura yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi serta memiliki peluang eksport yang besar. Perkembangan teknologi menjadikan usaha pertanian cabai besar akan semakin menguntungkan. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui interaksi antara pemberian dosis pupuk ZA dan waktu pewiwilan tunas lateral yang berpengaruh paling baik terhadap hasil dan kualitas cabai besar. Penelitian faktorial (3x3 dilaksanakan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok. Faktor pertama yang diteliti adalah dosis pupuk ZA dengan 3 taraf yang meliputi: N1, N2, dan N3 ,masing-masing 14, 28, dan 42 gram per tanaman. Faktor kedua adalah waktu pewiwilan dengan 3 taraf meliputi: W1, W2, dan W3, masing- masing untuk 0, 15, dan 25 hari setelah tanam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi perlakuan ZA 28g/tanaman dan pewiwilan tunas lateral umur 15 hari setelah tanam cenderung memberikan hasil terbaik terhadap hasil dan kualitas cabai besar. Kata Kunci: Cabai Besar; Dosis Pupuk ZA; Nitrogen

  1. Form and function of the bulbus arteriosus in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans): static properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Marvin H; Brill, Richard W; Gosline, John M; Jones, David R

    2003-10-01

    The juxtaposition of heart and gills in teleost fish means that the Windkessel function characteristic of the whole mammalian arterial tree has to be subserved by the extremely short ventral aorta and bulbus arteriosus. Over the functional pressure range, arteries from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) have J-shaped pressure-volume (P-V) loops, while bulbi from the same species have r-shaped P-V loops, with a steep initial rise followed by a compliant plateau phase. The steep initial rise in pressure is due to the geometry of the lumen. The interactions between radius, pressure and tension require a large initial pressure to open the bulbar lumen for flow. The plateau is due to the unique organization of the bulbar wall. The large elastin:collagen ratio, limited amount of collagen arranged circumferentially, lack of elastin lamellae and low hydrophobicity of the elastin itself all combine to lower stiffness, increase extensibility and allow efficient recoil. Even though the modulus of bulbus material is much lower than that of an artery, at large volumes the overall stiffness of the bulbus increases rapidly. The morphological features that give rise to the special inflation characteristics of the bulbus help to extend flow and maintain pressure during diastole. PMID:12939364

  2. 50 CFR 300.185 - Documentation, reporting and recordkeeping requirements for consignment documents and re-export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... flag country whose vessel caught the fish (regardless of where the fish are first landed). Re-export... requiring a BCD tag on all such bluefin tuna available for sale, must be accompanied by the appropriate...

  3. Behaviour and vulnerability of target and non-target species at drifting fish aggregating devices (FADs) in the tropical tuna purse seine fishery determined by acoustic telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Forget, F. G.; Capello, Manuela; Filmalter, J.D.; Govinden, R.; Soria, Marc; Cowley, P. D.; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the vulnerability of both target and non-target (bycatch) species to a fishing gear is a key step towards an ecosystem-based fisheries management approach. This study addresses this issue for the tropical tuna purse seine fishery that uses fish aggregating devices (FADs). We used passive acoustic telemetry to characterize, on a 24 h scale, the associative patterns and the vertical distribution of skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye tuna (Thu...

  4. Nitrogen isotopic baselines and implications for estimating foraging habitat and trophic position of yellowfin tuna in the Indian and Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, Anne; Graham, Brittany S.; Popp, Brian N.; Allain, Valérie; Olson, Robert J.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Potier, Michel; Fry, Brian; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Menkes, Christophe E. R.; Kaehler, Sven; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of isotopic compositions at the base of food webs is a prerequisite for using stable isotope analysis to assess foraging locations and trophic positions of marine organisms. Our study represents a unique application of stable-isotope analyses across multiple trophic levels (primary producer, primary consumer and tertiary consumer) and over a large spatial scale in two pelagic marine ecosystems. We found that δ15N values of particulate organic matter (POM), barnacles and phenylalanine from the muscle tissue of yellowfin tuna all showed similar spatial patterns. This consistency suggests that isotopic analysis of any of these can provide a reasonable proxy for isotopic variability at the base of the food web. Secondly, variations in the δ15N values of yellowfin tuna bulk-muscle tissues paralleled the spatial trends observed in all of these isotopic baseline proxies. Variation in isotopic composition at the base of the food web, rather than differences in tuna diet, explained the 11‰ variability observed in the bulk-tissue δ15N values of yellowfin tuna. Evaluating the trophic position of yellowfin tuna using amino-acid isotopic compositions across the western Indian and equatorial Pacific Oceans strongly suggests these tuna occupy similar trophic positions, albeit absolute trophic positions estimated by this method were lower than expected. This study reinforces the importance of considering isotopic baseline variability for diet studies, and provides new insights into methods that can be applied to generate nitrogen isoscapes for worldwide comparisons of top predators in marine ecosystems.

  5. The Kinematics and Dynamics of Undulatory Motion of a Tuna-mimetic Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Farideddin Masoomi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the steps for the mathematical modelling of a fish robot with four degrees of freedom (DOF called UC-Ika 1. The swimming motion of the robot, which is inspired by tuna fish, needs to generate an undulatory motion by its tail peduncle and caudal fin. Hence, the robot has the benefit of a tail mechanism that plays a determining role in the dynamic behaviour of the robot. Analysing this tail mechanism and the hydrodynamic forces acting upon the fish robot, the governing equations of motion of the robot are derived. Solving these dynamic equations reveals that the robot has a cruising speed of 0.29 m/s, a slight oscillation in the Y direction, and a small swing around its centre of mass. These results are validated by the experimental results of UC-Ika 1.

  6. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia

    2016-06-07

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data.

  7. Discovery of the strong antioxidant selenoneine in tuna and selenium redox metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumiko; Yamashita; Takeshi; Yabu; Michiaki; Yamashita

    2010-01-01

    A novel selenium-containing compound,selenoneine,has been isolated as the major form of organic selenium in the blood and tissues of tuna.Selenoneine harbors a selenium atom in the imidazole ring,2-selenylNα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine,and is a selenium analog of ergothioneine.This selenium compound has strong antioxidant capacity and binds to heme proteins,such as hemoglobin and myoglobin,to protect them from iron auto-oxidation,and it reacts with radicals and methylmercury(MeHg) .The organic cations/carnitine transporter OCTN1 transports selenoneine and MeHg,regulates Se-enhanced antioxidant activity,and decreases MeHg toxicity.Thus,the dietary intake of selenoneine,by consuming fish,might decrease the formation of reactive oxygen radicals that could oxidize nucleotides in DNA,and thereby inhibit carcinogenesis,chronic diseases,and aging.

  8. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Murua, Hilario; Irigoien, Xabier; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-09-01

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data. PMID:27286653

  9. The sequence and organization of complete mitochondrial genome of the yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jiaohui; Cheng, Qiqun; Sun, Dandan; Zhang, Heng; Jin, Shaofei

    2016-09-01

    Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is one of the most important economic fishes around the world. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and organization of T. albacares. The entire mitochondrial genome is a circular-molecule of 16,528 bp in length, which encodes 37 genes in all. These genes comprise 13 protein-coding genes (ATP6 and 8, COI-III, Cytb, ND1-6 and 4 L), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and 2 ribosomal RNA genes (12S and 16S rRNAs). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. albacares can provide basic information for the studies on molecular taxonomy and conservation genetics of teleost fishes. PMID:25707413

  10. Cirugía refractiva en un quinquenio en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Céspedes Galiano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía refractiva es una subespecialidad de la oftalmología, encargada de los procedimientos quirúrgicos dirigidos al tratamiento de los defectos refractivos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo y longitudinal, para describir los resultados de la cirugía refractiva en el Centro Oftalmológico del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la provincia de Las Tunas, desde noviembre de 2009 a noviembre de 2014. Se realizaron 744 cirugías en 409 pacientes que acudieron a consulta para ser operados por algún defecto refractivo. Un total de 110 ojos fueron intervenidos por LASIK y 619 por LASEK; predominó el sexo femenino en edades entre 20-29 años; el defecto refractivo más frecuente fue el astigmatismo miópico compuesto. Los defectos epiteliales de hipercorrección fueron la complicación con más frecia encontrada. Los resultados visuales hasta la fecha son significativos, una vez que los pacientes han logrado una agudeza visual sin corrección entre 0,8 y 1,0. El láser excimer posibilita el moldeamiento de la curvatura corneal, con vistas a lograr un resultado refractivo con mínimas alteraciones al tejido circundante; por tanto, a escala internacional, se ha convertido en la técnica quirúrgica prevaleciente para el tratamiento de las ametropías. La realización de la intervención quirúrgica refractiva en Las Tunas ha tenido resultados de impacto

  11. Incidencia de los defectos congénitos asociados al uso de medicamentos en Las Tunas

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    Glenys K. Silva Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La Red de Genética Nacional estableció un sistema de vigilancia pre y postnatal, para evaluar los efectos potenciales de la medicación en aquellas gestantes que ocasionalmente o de manera permanente ingieren fármacos durante el embarazo. En la provincia de Las Tunas se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo para describir la incidencia de defectos congénitos en la etapa prenatal y al nacimiento de los fetos en las mujeres que consumieron algún medicamento en el primer trimestre del embarazo, durante el período de enero de 2009 a mayo de 2014. La población de estudio lo constituyeron las 627 embarazadas, que habían consumido algún tipo de fármaco que se identificara como posible agente teratogénico y fueron remitidas al Centro de Genética Provincial para su seguimiento. Los datos obtenidos del registro de morbilidad teratogénica permitieron analizar las variables: casos reportados al registro provincial de medicamentos durante la gestación, medicamentos consumidos durante el embarazo según categoría, momento de la gestación en que se produjo el consumo del fármaco, duración del tratamiento durante el embarazo y evaluación del embarazo o el producto. El consumo de medicamentos fue más abundante en gestantes del municipio Las Tunas. Predominó el consumo de medicamentos antiinfecciosos; el consumo ocurrió con más frecuencia en el primer trimestre; y la duración más probable fue de una semana. A pesar de ello, el consumo de medicamentos durante la gestación no significó un riesgo incrementado de teratogenicidad

  12. Evaluation of three harvest control rules for Bigeye Tuna ( Thunnus obesus) fisheries in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuhe; Chen, Xinjun; Kolody, Dale

    2014-10-01

    The stock of Bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean supports an important international fishery and is considered to be fully exploited. The responsible management agency, the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), does not have an explicit management decision-making framework in place to prevent over-fishing. In this study, we evaluated three harvest control rules, i) constant fishing mortality (CF), from 0.2 to 0.6, ii) constant catch (CC), from 60000 to 140000 t, and iii) constant escapement (CE), from 0.3 to 0.7. The population dynamics simulated by the operating model was based on the most recent stock assessment using Stock Synthesis version III (SS3). Three simulation scenarios (low, medium and high productivity) were designed to cover possible uncertainty in the stock assessment and biological parameters. Performances of three harvest control rules were compared on the basis of three management objectives (over 3, 10 and 25 years): i) the probability of maintaining spawning stock biomass above a level that can sustain maximum sustainable yield (MSY) on average, ii) the probability of achieving average catches between 0.8 MSY and 1.0 MSY, and iii) inter-annual variability in catches. The constant escapement strategy ( CE=0.5), constant fishing mortality strategy ( F=0.4) and constant catch ( CC=80000) were the most rational among the respective management scenarios. It is concluded that the short-term annual catch is suggested at 80000 t, and the potential total allowable catch for a stable yield could be set at 120000 t once the stock had recovered successfully. All the strategies considered in this study to achieve a `tolerable' balance between resource conservation and utilization have been based around the management objectives of the IOTC.

  13. Incidencia prenatal de los defectos congénitos en Las Tunas

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    Juana Lupe Muñoz Callol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos congénitos son la principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal en casi todo el mundo. La introducción del diagnóstico prenatal y el establecimiento de estrategias preventivas en la atención primaria de salud han logrado la disminución de la prevalencia al nacimiento de defectos congénitos y de la mortalidad infantil en nuestro país. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de los casos diagnosticados o confirmados prenatalmente en la consulta de genética provincial, con el objetivo de describir la incidencia prenatal de los defectos congénitos en la provincia Las Tunas, durante el período de enero 2013 a mayo 2014. De un universo de 9462 embarazadas de la provincia, en el periodo de estudio; se escogió una muestra de 110 gestantes que presentaron defectos fetales en diferentes órganos y sistemas. La información se obtuvo del registro provincial, donde se analizaron las variables: comportamiento de defectos congénitos por áreas de salud, edad de las madres por defectos congénitos, defectos congénitos por programas prenatales y los defectos congénitos por sistemas. El mayor número de casos se diagnosticó en el segundo trimestre del embarazo, siendo el sistema cardiovascular donde se encontró un número mayor de defectos congénitos, seguido del sistema digestivo, genitourinarias y del sistema nervioso central. Las edades maternas estuvieron comprendidas entre 21 y 30 años, siendo el municipio Tunas el que aportó un número significativo de afectados

  14. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research.

  15. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  16. Industrial Development in an Island Economy: US Trade Policy and Canned Tuna Production in AmericanSamoa

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    Liam Campling

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely argued that small states and territories have relied upon the strategic trade and economic policies of larger countries to achieve development goals. Using the case of the export-oriented tuna industry in American Samoa (a territory of the United States, we argue that its status as a sub-national island jurisdictions (SNIJ has been essential in jumpstarting and supporting industrial development. However, this relationship and its associated benefits are just one set of factors that influence the economic development opportunities and constraints that American Samoa’s tuna industry faces in the contemporary world economy. Moreover, the maintenance and future possibilities for industrial development in both SNIJs and (arguably more economically vulnerable sovereign small island developing states (SIDS, is increasingly unlikely in the context of a globalizing capitalism and the new international trade regime.

  17. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120 min at 60 °C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160 °C for 1h and 200 °C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. PMID:27080896

  18. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average. PMID:26606067

  19. The Tunas Formation (Permian) in the Sierras Australes foldbelt, east central Argentina: evidence for syntectonic sedimentation in a foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gamundi, O. R.; Conaghan, P. J.; Rossello, E. A.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1995-04-01

    The Tunas Formation, extensively exposed in the Sierras Australes foldbelt of eastern central Argentina, completes the sedimentation of the Gondwanan (Late Carboniferous-Permian) sequence, locally known as the Pillahuincó Group. The underlying units of the Group show an integrated depositional history which can be explained in terms of glaciomarine sedimentation (Sauce Grande Formation) and postglacial transgression (Piedra Azul and Bonete Formations). This succession also has a rather uniform quartz-rich, sand-sized composition indicative of a cratonic provenance from the Tandilia Massif to the northeast. Early to Late Permian deformation folded and thrusted the southwestern basin margin (Sierras Australes) and triggered the deposition of a 1,500 m — thick, synorogenic prograding wedge, the Tunas Formation, in the adjacent foreland basin (Sauce Grande or Claromecó Basin). Sandstone detrital modes for the Tunas deposits show moderate to low contents of quartz and abundant lithics, mostly of volcanic and metasedimentary origin. Paleocurrents are consistently from the SW. Tuffs interbedded with sandstones in the upper half of Tunas Formation (Early — early Late? Permian) are interpreted as being derived from volcanic glass-rich tuffs settled in a body of water. Extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region during that period. The age constraints and similarities in composition between these volcanics and the tuffaceous horizons present in the Sauce Grande, Parana and Karoo Basins suggest a genetic linkage between these two episodes. The intimate relationship between volcanic activity inboard of the paleo-Pacific margin, deformation in the adjacent orogenic belt and subsidence and sedimentation in the contiguous foreland basin constitutes a common motif in the Sauce Grande and Karoo Basins of southwestern Gondwana.

  20. New Record of Pseudocycnus appendiculatus Heller, 1868 Parasites of Yellowfin Tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788 in the Andaman Sea, Thailand

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    Watchariya PURIVIROJKUL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Four samples of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788, were collected from the Andaman Sea in the Exclusive Economic Zone, Thailand in May 2010. All samples were infested by the parasitic copepod Pseudocycnus appendiculatus at their gill filaments. This report documents a new record of the Andaman Sea, Thailand for P. appendiculatus and also a new host, T. albacares, for this apparent parasite in Thailand is recorded.

  1. Incidental catch and estimated discards of pelagic sharks from the swordfish and tuna fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    MEGALOFONOU Persefoni

    2005-01-01

    Large pelagic sharks are caught incidentally in the swordfish and tuna fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. In our study, twelve shark species were documented as bycatch over three years from 1998 to 2000. Blue shark (Prionace glauca) was the predominant species in all gears and areas examined. Shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus), and tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus) were the next most abundant shark species—found in more than half of the areas samp...

  2. The relationship between fat content and biological parameters of bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obseus) in the Western Central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liming; Shen, Zhibin; Li, Jie; Li, Dongjing; Li, Yuwei

    2016-10-01

    Comparing fat content with physiological status can throw light on the reproduction and feeding behavior of the fish. The biological data of 586 bigeye tuna were collected from the longline fishery in the waters of Western Central Indian Ocean from November, 2012 to March, 2013. The spatial or temporal distribution of the fat content, and the relationships of fat content with gender, round weight, gonadal maturity and fork length were analyzed. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the relationships between fat content and fork length (FL), gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (K), and somatic index (SI). Results showed that: 1) the fat content of bigeye tuna was in the range of 3.1%-27.1% with the average 12.8%; 2) there were no significant geographical differences of average fat content ( P > 0.05) among 1° squares in general; 3) there were no significant differences ( P > 0.05) of the fat content for different genders, months, or gonad maturity stages; 4) there was an extremely significant correlation ( P = 0.000) between fat content and FL and GSI. There was no significant correlation ( P = 0.051) between fat content and K. There was a significant correlation ( P = 0.003) between fat content and SI. The results of this study suggest that the fat content of the matured fish was relatively stable. The survey area was in a spawning region, and the survey period was the spawning season for bigeye tuna.

  3. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  4. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance

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    Crisantema Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM, or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH. Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM, in diets for fingerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1: a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0; four experimental diets had increasing inclusion levels of TSH replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the SBM protein. The sixth diet contained TBM as sole protein source, and a commercial feed for tilapia was used as reference diet (RD. The diets were fed for eight weeks to triplicate tanks, each with 15 fry tilapia (initial weight of 0.89 ± 0.29 g. Tilapia fed the TBM diet had greater weight gain and feed intake, and lower feed conversion ratios than those fed diets containing with TSH. The RD, TSH25 and TSH50 diets gave the similar growth response. Fish fed diets TSH0, TSH75% and TSH100% showed reduced growth performance.

  5. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Maria L.G.; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: marialuciaguerra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  6. Evidence of discrete yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) populations demands rethink of management for this globally important resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, P. M.; Feutry, P.; Hill, P. L.; Gunasekera, R. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Itano, D. G.; Fuller, D. W.; Foster, S. D.; Davies, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Tropical tuna fisheries are central to food security and economic development of many regions of the world. Contemporary population assessment and management generally assume these fisheries exploit a single mixed spawning population, within ocean basins. To date population genetics has lacked the required power to conclusively test this assumption. Here we demonstrate heterogeneous population structure among yellowfin tuna sampled at three locations across the Pacific Ocean (western, central, and eastern) via analysis of double digest restriction-site associated DNA using Next Generation Sequencing technology. The differences among locations are such that individuals sampled from one of the three regions examined can be assigned with close to 100% accuracy demonstrating the power of this approach for providing practical markers for fishery independent verification of catch provenance in a way not achieved by previous techniques. Given these results, an extended pan-tropical survey of yellowfin tuna using this approach will not only help combat the largest threat to sustainable fisheries (i.e. illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing) but will also provide a basis to transform current monitoring, assessment, and management approaches for this globally significant species.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF GELATIN FROM SWIM BLADDER OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (THUNNUS ALBACORES AS INFLUENCED BY EXTRACTING TEMPERATURES

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    O. Kaewdang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin was extracted from the swim bladder of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80°C with the extraction yields of 35.6%, 41.1% and 47.3% (dryweight basis, respectively. The α-chains of gelatin decreased with increasing extraction temperatures.Similar amino acid compositions were noticeable among all gelatins, in which glycine constituted the major amino acid. Imino acids ranged from 169 to 172 residues/1,000 residues. Thegel strength of gelatin extracted at lower temperature was higher than that of gelatins extracted at higher temperatures. Gelling and melting temperatures for swim bladder gelatin were 11.07-15.24 and 20.36-22.33°C, respectively. Higher gelling and melting points were observed for gelatin extracted at lower temperatures. Microstructure of gel of gelatin extracted at 60°C was finerwith smaller voids, compared with others. FTIR spectra of obtained gelatins revealed the significant loss of molecular order of the triple-helix. Thus, extraction temperatures showed the directimpact on characteristics of gelatin from swim bladder.

  8. Teenage pregnancy, epidemiological behavior in Las Tunas during the period 2012 - 2014

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    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: teenage pregnancy is a medical risk to be considered, not only for determining an increase of maternal morbidity and an estimated of 2 to 3 times infant mortality, but also as one of the most important factors in the occurrence of congenital malformations.Objective: to determine the epidemiological behavior of teenage pregnancy in Las Tunas province during the period 2012 - 2014.Methods: a descriptive, observational and retrospective study of the behavior of teenage pregnancy was carried out in the province and time period previously stated. The study was performed in municipalities and People's Councils. The universe consisted of 148 169 women of childbearing age and the sample comprised 3 309 pregnant female teenagers from 12 to 19 years old.Results: the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy continues, but the province and its municipalities show favorable data; 2013 was the one of the most negative results, being Manatí and Amancio municipalities the most significant ones; in all the municipalities there are People's Councils with results that are higher than municipal and provincial averages. The adolescent fertility rate in the province was between 39.0 and 45.2 per 1000, being 2013 and Amancio municipality the ones with the highest incidence.Conclusions: although the teenage pregnancy continues, the province and its municipalities show favorable data, resulting from an integrated and successful health programs, involving Provincial Genetics Network work.

  9. Estimate of exploitation rates and population size of skipjack tuna off the southeastern coast of Brazil

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    Silvio Jablonski

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Size compositions and total landings of skipjack tuna caught in the southeastern Brazilian waters by bait-boats are used as the basis of the assessment of the population for 1980-1983 period, employing the length cohort analysis and virtual population analysis. From monthly size frequency data it is suggested that there is constant immigration and emigration of different modal groups in the fishing area with an interval of two to three months. The exploitation rate was very low for length class between 35-45 cm FL, then increased gradually. The weighted mean exploitation rates were 0.060 and 0.448, respectively for length classes smaller and larger than 55 cmFL. The estimate of the average number of fish attaining a size of 43 cm FL (recruit was 11.0 x 10(6 fish for assumed values of M - 0.7 and K = 0.307. Increasing the fishing mortality rate by 30% and 50%, an estimated increment in yield is 8% and 12%, respectively. From virtual population analysis, we obtained the biomass estimate of skipjack population older than two years-old to be 70.3 thousand tonnes for assumed value of M = 0.7 and the estimated MSY was 24.6 thousand tonnes.

  10. Histamine formation and the freshness of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the shelf life of yellowfin tuna (YFT loins by studying of microbial, chemical and organoleptic changes. Shelf life of YFT was determined through changes in total aerobic bacterial plate counts (APC, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N trimethylamine (TMA, organoleptic properties and histamine development during storage at 0, 4 and 7°C. Based on TVB-N value indices, YFT maintained an acceptable shelf life for 21, 17 and 12 days at 0, 4 and 7°C, respectively. Nevertheless, YFT was rejected earlier by the sensory panellists than their TVB-N value indicated. Histamine development was found to be lower than the European Union safety level for 100 mg/kg fish during storage at 0 and 7°C for 21 and 17 days, respectively. Aerobic bacteria initially dominated the micro-flora on YFT; however, as storage time increased, aerobic bacteria became dominant at cold storage, but the numbers exceeded the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF limit of 107 cfu/g in storage at 7°C after 17 days. Therefore, it can be concluded that the storage of fresh YFT in below 4°C has good enough to the shelf life of products (two weeks.

  11. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

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    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  12. Arte, cultura y lucha contra el cáncer en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ernesto Pérez Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Los avances científicos de hoy están permitiendo que el cáncer no se convierta en una sentencia inexorable de muerte. La cronificación del tratamiento plantea retos a los sistemas sanitarios, en su compromiso por ofrecer al enfermo el apoyo para enfrentar su nueva situación y devolverlo a la vida normal. Las complicaciones producto de los tratamientos, los efectos físicos secundarios, la modificación de las rutinas y el sentir que se vive bajo una amenaza, desestabilizan el balance emocional de muchos enfermos. El arte puede captar los más personales aspectos en la experiencia del cáncer. La creación artística puede unir a pacientes, familiares, amigos, al equipo sanitario y a la comunidad en su conjunto, aportando nuevos caminos para ayudar al paciente. La labor artística puede proveer de otros modos de expresión que no se encuentran en las formas tradicionales de tratamiento, permitiendo explorar temas intrínsecos del enfermo de forma creativa y personal. El arte puede comunicar con los aspectos más silenciados de la enfermedad, ayudando a las personas con escasas posibilidades para confesar sus experiencias. Bajo esta premisa el recientemente fundado capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina nuclear ha efectuado en Las Tunas varias actividades a partir del día tres de febrero del actual año, comenzando con la inauguración de la Jornada provincial de lucha contra el cáncer. La estrategia divulgativa contó con la colaboración del Grupo provincial para el control del cáncer, el Centro provincial del cine y el proyecto FILOARTMED de la Universidad médica de Las Tunas, quienes se han interesado en elevar la producción científica de los profesionales de la salud, que luchan por controlar el cáncer en el territorio. En la sala cinematográfica Titón del Teatro Tunas, se dieron cita los miembros del capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina

  13. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV13 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...-compliance; Declaration of a moratorium. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Atlantic Coastal...

  14. Optimum soak time of tuna longline gear%金枪鱼延绳钓钓具的最适浸泡时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋利明; 徐伟云; 曹道梅; 赵昌克

    2013-01-01

      根据2010年10月—2011年1月金枪鱼延绳钓海上调查数据,分两种起绳方式,建立每次作业每一根支绳的浸泡时间计算模型.将钓具的浸泡时间以1 h 为间隔分别统计每个区间的支绳数量及大眼金枪鱼(Thunnus obesus)、黄鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus albacores)的渔获尾数,并计算其钓获率(CPUE).结果表明:1)大眼金枪鱼和黄鳍金枪鱼的CPUE 都随浸泡时间的增加呈现先增后减的趋势,这是由于饵料的诱引效果变化及渔获的丢失引起的;2)二次曲线可拟合浸泡时间与大眼金枪鱼和黄鳍金枪鱼 CPUE 的关系;3)大眼金枪鱼和黄鳍金枪鱼 CPUE 最高的浸泡时间分别为9.9 h 和10.1 h.建议:1)今后在金枪鱼延绳钓作业中,保证每一根支绳在水中的浸泡时间为9.5~10.5 h,以提高捕捞效率并减少副渔获物;2)可把延绳钓钓具的浸泡时间作为有效捕捞努力量,并用于 CPUE 的标准化.研究结果可用于提高捕捞效率并减少副渔获物的技术方案制订,并为渔业生产和 CPUE 的标准化提供科学参考.%On the basis of the data collected from October 2010 to January 2011 in the tuna longline survey, the soak time calculation models of every branch line in each operation were developed by both modes of hook re-trieval. The soak time of longline gear divided into one hour interval for the quantity of hooks and the individuals of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores), respectively. The respective catch rates (CPUEs) of bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna in each hour interval were calculated. The results showed that (1) both CPUE of bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna presented increasing at first and then decreasing trend along the increase of soak time. The reason was the lure effect fluctuation of bait and the lose of hooked fish; (2) the quadratic curves can be fit the relationships between soak time and the CPUE of bigeye tuna, and yellowfin tuna; (3) the CPUE of

  15. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  16. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  17. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  18. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  19. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  20. Population genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Indian coast using sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Kumar, G.; Kunal, S.P.

    . & Majkowski, J. (2005). Status of the tuna stocks of the world. In Proceedings 2 - Second Meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee of the FAO Project Manage- ment of Tuna Fishing Capacity: Conservation and Socio-Economics (Bayliff, W. H., De Leiva Moreno, J...). Evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA: relevance for population biology and systematics. Annual Review of Ecology and Sys- tematics 18, 269–292. doi: 10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001413 Nei, M. (1987). Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York, NY: Columbia...

  1. 公海金枪鱼渔业管理趋势研究%Study on the trend of tuna fishery management on high seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂启义; 黄硕琳

    2011-01-01

    With the recession of fisheries resources on high seas,effective conservation and management of fishery are required urgently.As a kind of important resources on high seas,tuna fishery is managed by many fishery management organizations,takes the leadeship not only in management concepts but also in management practice.This paper breifly introduces the conception of high seas fishery,analyzes the status and trend of tuna fishery management on high seas.On the basis,according to current situation of China's tuna fishery on high seas,this article puts forward some suggestions on developing China's tuna fishery on high seas:(1) strength the policy decision influence in international tuna management organizations;(2) regulate the operations on distant-water tuna fishery,complete the distant-water fishery data base;(3) adjust the structure of distant-water fishery,develop fishing grounds;(4) develop tuna processing industry;(5) develop inland tuna consumption markets;(6) develop distant-water fishery cooperation with Taiwan province of China.%公海渔业资源的衰退迫切要求对公海捕捞作业进行有效的养护和管理。金枪鱼作为一种重要的公海渔业资源,有众多国际渔业管理组织对其进行管理,对公海金枪鱼渔业的管理无论是在管理理念上还是管理实践上都处于领先地位。简要介绍了公海渔业概念,陈述公海金枪鱼渔业管理现状,分析公海金枪鱼渔业管理趋势。在此基础上,根据我国公海金枪鱼渔业现状,提出发展我国公海金枪鱼渔业的建议:(1)加强我国在际金枪鱼管理组织中的政策决策影响力;(2)规范我国公海金枪鱼生产作业,完善远洋渔业数据库;(3)调整远洋渔业结构,积极开发新渔场;(4)发

  2. Maximum sustainable speeds and cost of swimming in juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, C; Dickson, K A

    2000-10-01

    Tunas (Scombridae) have been assumed to be among the fastest and most efficient swimmers because they elevate the temperature of the slow-twitch, aerobic locomotor muscle above the ambient water temperature (endothermy) and because of their streamlined body shape and use of the thunniform locomotor mode. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that juvenile tunas swim both faster and more efficiently than their ectothermic relatives. The maximum sustainable swimming speed (U(max), the maximum speed attained while using a steady, continuous gait powered by the aerobic myotomal muscle) and the net cost of transport (COT(net)) were compared at 24 degrees C in similar-sized (116-255 mm fork length) juvenile scombrids, an endothermic tuna, the kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) and the ectothermic chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). U(max) and COT(net) were measured by forcing individual fish to swim in a temperature-controlled, variable-speed swimming tunnel respirometer. There were no significant interspecific differences in the relationship between U(max) and body mass or fork length or in the relationship between COT(net) and body mass or fork length. Muscle temperatures were elevated by 1.0-2.3 degrees C and 0.1-0.6 degrees C above water temperature in the kawakawa and chub mackerel, respectively. The juvenile kawakawa had significantly higher standard metabolic rates than the chub mackerel, because the total rate of oxygen consumption at a given swimming speed was higher in the kawakawa when the effects of fish size were accounted for. Thus, juvenile kawakawa are not capable of higher sustainable swimming speeds and are not more efficient swimmers than juvenile chub mackerel.

  3. Certification of total arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine contents in a tuna fish powder (BCR-CRM 627)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, F.; Amran, M. B.; Leroy, M. J. F.;

    1999-01-01

    Tuna fishes were collected in the Straits of Messina (Italy), were dissected and dorsal muscles minced, freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The obtained powder was stabilised by gamma-irradiation and filled into brown glass bottles. The homogeneity and stability at +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C were...... verified with regards to the total arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine contents. Ten laboratories participated in the certification study. All participants had demonstrated beforehand their ability to produce accurate results for the As speciation in fish tissue. The certified values are: total...

  4. Bluefin 9M AUV Survey of the Hubbard Glacier Morainal Bank: Proof-of-Concept Study of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Investigations Proximal to a Tidewater Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Lawson, D. E.; O'Halloran, W.

    2014-12-01

    Hubbard Glacier is one of the few advancing tidewater glaciers in the world, offering a premier opportunity for studying ice/sediment/seawater interactions at a tidewater glacier front that is in contact with the stabilizing submarine morainal bank. However, the seafloor and water column proximal to the ice face of a marine-terminating glacier is one of the most challenging and extreme environments imaginable for marine survey work. Frequently choked with constantly-shifting mélange ice at the sea surface and at risk from calving, surface vessels cannot operate safely proximal to the ice face. AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) technology provides an opportunity to survey in areas where surface vessels cannot. Operating well below the sea surface the AUV can operate without hindrance or danger to human operators. In addition, the AUV can be programmed to operate close to the seafloor at a constant altitude, enabling the finest-detail currently possible for acoustic seafloor mapping and consistent resolution irrespective of water depth. With these considerations in mind, we conducted a proof-of-concept survey of the Hubbard Glacier morainal bank in June, 2014. We utilized the Bluefin 9M, the smallest of their line of AUVs. Its size enabled deployment and recovery from a small charter fishing vessel well-suited to navigating through mélange-choked waters. The AUV's payload included a Klein UUV-3500 interferometric sonar (455/900 kHz), which enables acquisition of sidescan backscatter and swath bathymetry up to ~75 m to each side of the instrument from ~10 m altitude over the seabed, and sensors for measuring conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) and optical backscatter (OBS). Although our operations were shortened due to an unfortunate failure in the sonar electronics, sufficient data were collected along the morainal bank to clearly prove the viability of AUV operations in this harsh environment. The data provide centimeter-scale seafloor detail close to the

  5. Comportamiento de la lepra en la provincia de Las Tunas, 2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha O León Cabrales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, para determinar algunas características epidemiológicas de la incidencia de la lepra, que es una enfermedad transmisible, tan antigua como el hombre mismo. El universo estuvo constituido por los 103 casos notificados con lepra en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el período de enero de 2003 a diciembre de 2012. La información se obtuvo por las encuestas epidemiológicas existentes en el Departamento de Estadística de la Dirección Provincial de Salud y en el Centro Provincial de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología. Se creó una base de datos en Epinfo versión 3.3.3, donde se tabularon los datos de las encuestas. El análisis de los resultados se expresó en números absolutos, tasas y porcentajes para su mejor interpretación, obteniéndose como resultado que la tasa de detección de casos tiene un comportamiento irregular, el año de mayor incidencia fue el 2009, con 20 casos. Se notificaron tres casos de lepra infantil; las formas paucibacilares representaron el 51,5%; el modo de detección más frecuente fue el espontáneo. Existe transmisión activa y todo ello puede ser reflejo de la ausencia de un trabajo consolidado en el programa de control de la enfermedad

  6. Reproductive dynamics and potential annual fecundity of South Pacific albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the South Pacific Ocean was investigated with samples collected during broad-scale sampling between 2006 and 2011. Histology was done in a single laboratory according to standard protocols and the data analysed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. The sex ratio of albacore was female biased for fish smaller than approximately 60 cm FL and between 85 and 95 cm, and progressively more male biased above 95 cm FL. Spawning activity was synchronised across the region between 10°S and 25°S during the austral spring and summer where sea surface temperatures were ≥24 °C. The average gonad index varied among regions, with fish in easterly longitudes having heavier gonads for their size than fish in westerly longitudes. Albacore, while capable of spawning daily, on average spawn every 1.3 days during the peak spawning months of October to December. Spawning occurs around midnight and the early hours of the morning. Regional variation in spawning frequency and batch fecundity were not significant. The proportion of active females and the spawning fraction increased with length and age, and mature small and young fish were less active at either end of the spawning season than larger, older fish. Batch fecundity estimates ranged from 0.26 to 2.83 million oocytes with a mean relative batch fecundity of 64.4 oocytes per gram of body weight. Predicted batch fecundity and potential annual fecundity increased with both length and age. This extensive set of reproductive parameter estimates provides many of the first quantitative estimates for this population and will substantially improve the quality of biological inputs to the stock assessment for South Pacific albacore.

  7. Risk Factors for Seabird Bycatch in a Pelagic Longline Tuna Fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gilman

    Full Text Available Capture in global pelagic longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline tuna fishery annually catches hundreds of seabirds, primarily Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis and black-footed (P. nigripes albatrosses. Since seabird regulations were introduced in 2001, the seabird catch rate has declined 74%. However, over the past decade, seabird catch levels significantly increased due to significant increasing trends in both effort and nominal seabird catch rates. We modelled observer data using a spatio-temporal generalized additive mixed model with zero-inflated Poisson likelihood to determine the significance of the effect of various risk factors on the seabird catch rate. The seabird catch rate significantly increased as annual mean multivariate ENSO index values increased, suggesting that decreasing ocean productivity observed in recent years in the central north Pacific may have contributed to the increasing trend in nominal seabird catch rate. A significant increasing trend in number of albatrosses attending vessels, possibly linked to declining regional ocean productivity and increasing absolute abundance of black-footed albatrosses, may also have contributed to the increasing nominal seabird catch rate. Largest opportunities for reductions are through augmented efficacy of seabird bycatch mitigation north of 23° N where mitigation methods are required and during setting instead of during hauling. Both side vs. stern setting, and blue-dyed vs. untreated bait significantly reduced the seabird catch rate. Of two options for meeting regulatory requirements, side setting had a significantly lower seabird catch rate than blue-dyed bait. There was significant spatio-temporal and seasonal variation in the risk of seabird capture with highest catch rates in April and May and to the northwest of the main Hawaiian Islands.

  8. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... management groups is closed, even across fishing years. On July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40318), NMFS announced the... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY:...

  9. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  10. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  11. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban topsoils from Las Tunas city (Cuba) using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the topsoils (0-10 cm) from Las Tunas city were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples (97± 30, 14 ± 2, 35 ± 36, 94 ± 26, 199 ± 87 and 42 ± 29 mg.kg-1 respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world with similar population. Cr content in school grounds, parks and residential areas exceed background level in 20%. Highest content for Ni was determined in residential areas, for Zn in market gardens soils and as for Pb, the highest content ratios were observed for market gardens (2.7) and residential areas (2.3). Spatial distribution maps indicated the same behaviour for Cr-Co-Ni and Pb-Zn, respectively, whereas the spatial distribution of Cu differs from other heavy metals. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation, using (10-20) cm bottom soil contents as background, showed that topsoils in Las Tunas city are severe enriched with lead and not enriched with the rest of determined metals. The average values of integrated pollution index (IPI) indicated that soils are moderate contaminated by heavy metals (1.17 ≤ IPIave ≤ 1.39), but enrichment index values (EI) shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are not above the permissible levels for urban agriculture. (Author)

  12. Growth and mortality rates of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Perciformes: Scombridae, in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters were estimated for the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788. Atotal of 443 individuals were sampled from China longline fisheries in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean from February to November 2006. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L∞ = 175.9 cm fork length, k = 0.52 year-1, and t0 = 0.19 year. The total mortality rate (Z was estimated to be from 1.19 to 1.93 year-1, the fishing mortality (F and the natural mortality (M were calculated to be 0.91 year-1 and 0.65 year-1, respectively. The rate of exploitation (U was estimated to be 0.46. This study provides estimates of growth and mortality rate for yellowfin tuna in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, which may be used as biological input parameters in future stock assessments for the oceanic region. However, age analysis with other techniques, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are also needed.

  13. Purification and antioxidant properties of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) dark muscle peptide on free radical-mediated oxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Jae-Young; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2008-12-01

    To produce bioactive peptides from by-products of fish processing, bigeye tuna dark muscle was hydrolyzed using various enzymes (alcalase, alpha-chymotrypsin, neutrase, papain, pepsin, and trypsin), and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Considering the results of degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activities, peptic hydrolysate was used for further studies to identify a potent antioxidant peptide. Antioxidant peptide was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods and was identified as being H-Leu-Asn-Leu-Pro-Thr-Ala-Val-Tyr-Met-Val-Thr-OH (MW 1,222 Da) by quantitative time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Purified antioxidant peptide from bigeye tuna dark muscle (APTDM) was investigated for its antioxidant activities using both free radical scavenging effects and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation inhibitory activity. The results showed that APTDM effectively quenched with low 50% inhibitory concentration values compared to vitamin C as a positive control against four different free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide, and alkyl radical. APTDM also inhibited PUFA peroxidation in a linoleic acid emulsion system, and the activity was similar to that of alpha-tocopherol. We further investigated its antioxidant activities on cellular systems, and the results showed that APTDM significantly scavenged cellular radicals and enhanced the viability of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicate that APTDM or a peptide fraction containing APTDM would be a beneficial ingredient for functional food and/or pharmaceuticals. PMID:19053853

  14. Fisher-Level Decision Making to Participate in Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs) for Yellowfin Tuna in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Paul; Bush, Simon R.; Digal, Larry; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the capabilities needed by small-scale fishers to participate in Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) for yellowfin tuna in the Philippines. The current literature provides little empirical evidence on how different models, or types of FIPs, influence the participation of fishers in their programs and the degree which FIPs are able to foster improvements in fishing practices. To address this literature gap, two different FIPs are empirically analysed, each with different approaches for fostering improvement. The first is the non-governmental organisation-led Partnership Programme Towards Sustainable Tuna, which adopts a bottom-up or development oriented FIP model. The second is the private-led Artesmar FIP, which adopts a top-down or market-oriented FIP approach. The data were obtained from 350 fishers surveyed and were analysed using two separate models run in succession, taking into consideration full, partial, and non-participation in the two FIPs. The results demonstrate that different types of capabilities are required in order to participate in different FIP models. Individual firm capabilities are more important for fishers participation in market-oriented FIPs, which use direct economic incentives to encourage improvements in fisher practices. Collective capabilities are more important for fishers to participate in development-oriented FIPs, which drive improvement by supporting fishers, fisher associations, and governments to move towards market requirements. PMID:27732607

  15. The North Atlantic Oscillation in the Atlantic-European SLP*

    OpenAIRE

    GLOWIENKA-HENSE, RITA

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the signature of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the Atlantic-European sea level pressure (SLP) is presented for observed (German Weather Service) and ECMWF T21 model data. The former time series consists of 1881–1984 January to December fields and the latter of 42 monthly fields from 3 permanent January simulations. The NAO is shown to be one of the dominant eigenmodes of SLP for all calendar months. A very similar NAO anomaly pattern is filtered from the T21 model dat...

  16. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  17. Biomagnification of mercury and its antagonistic interaction with selenium in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the trophic web of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Rosíles-Martínez, Rene; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in muscle of 37 yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured aboard of Mexican purse-seiners boats off western coast of Baja California Sur, between Punta Eugenia and Cabo Falso, from October to December 2006. Also, its prey (mainly, jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planipes) were analyzed from the stomach contents. All the mercury values obtained were lower that mercury content recommended by standard legal limits for seafood adopted by Mexican norms (typically 0.5-1.0μg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations vary between 0.06 and 0.51μg g(-1) in yellowfin tuna, and from 0.01 to 0.20μg g(-1) in its prey, suggesting that mercury can accumulate in prey tissues and that of their predator. Biomagnification factors (BMF) between predator-prey associations were calculated. The BMFs were >1, indicating that mercury biomagnifies along the food web of yellowfin tuna. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium/mercury molar ratios was for pufferfish (42.62)> diamond squid (15.09)>yellowfin tuna (10.29)>pelagic red crab (10.05)>panama lightfish (9.54)> jumbo squid (8.91). The selenium health benefit value (Se-HBV) was calculated to have an improved understanding of the health benefits and risk of fish consumption. PMID:23059106

  18. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  19. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  20. Atlantic versus Indo-Pacific influence on Atlantic-European climate

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Holger; Latif, Mojib

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans on Atlantic-European climate is investigated by analyzing ensemble integrations with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4 forced by anomalous sea surface temperature and sea ice conditions restricted to the Atlantic (AOGA) and Indo-Pacific (I+POGA) oceans. The forcing from both the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic oceans are important for the generation of the sea level pressure (SLP) variability in the Atlantic region in the boreal w...

  1. [Demographic analysis of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, in the North Atlantic Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun-xia; Dai, Xiao-jie; Tian, Si-quan; Wu, Feng; Zhu, Jiang-feng

    2016-02-01

    The blue shark, Prionace glauca, is the main by-catch species in tuna longline fishery. As one of top species in the oceanic food webs, the blue shark plays an important role in the marine ecosystem. Traditional stock assessment methods are difficult to accurately evaluate the population dynamic for this shark because of limited data. Based on life-history parameters of the blue shark in the North Atlantic, demographic analysis was employed to estimate the demographic parameters and evaluate the potential exploitation for the blue shark. Moreover, we discussed the relationship between age at first capture and critical value of fishing mortality corresponding to the value of intrinsic rate of natural increase 0. The results showed that the survival rate (S) of blue shark from 0.719 to 0.820, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r0) from 0.250 to 0.381, time of population doubling (tx2) from 1.819 to 2.773 years, reproduction rate per generation (R0) from 6.600 to 22.255, and generation time (G) from 8.498 to 10.162 years. The sensitivity analysis for the life history parameters revealed that the uncertainties of natural mortality existed in the first age class, age at maturity and maximum age had slight influence on the demographic parameters. Fishing mortality (Fc) increased with the age at first capture. When the age at first capture (tc) was more than five, there was no obvious relationship between Fc and tc.

  2. Effect of Storage Temperature on the Outgrowth and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus in Freeze-Thawed Precooked Tuna Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ai; Enache, Elena; Napier, Carla; Hayman, Melinda; Weddig, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time for a 3-log CFU/g outgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus and its toxin production in previously frozen precooked tuna meat (albacore [Thunnus alalunga] prepared as loin, chunk, and flake or skipjack [Katsuwonus pelamis] prepared as chunk and flake) held either at 21 or 27°C. A five-strain cocktail of enterotoxin-producing S. aureus was surface inoculated with ∼10(3) CFU/g onto tuna samples. The experimental time-temperature conditions were designed to mimic common industry holding conditions. After a 3-h incubation at 37°C, inoculated samples were individually vacuum sealed and stored at 20°C for 4 weeks. Following frozen storage, samples were thawed to the target temperature (21 or 27°C) and then incubated aerobically. Growth of S. aureus in tuna was then monitored using Baird Parker agar; simultaneously, aerobic plate counts, enterotoxin production, and sensory profile (color and odor) were determined. The results showed that the time for a 3-log CFU/g increase was >20 h at 21°C and 8 to 12 h at 27°C for albacore, with toxin production observed at 14 to 16 h at 21°C and at 8 h at 27°C. A 3-log CFU/g increase for skipjack occurred at 22 to 24 h at 21°C and at 10 to 14 h at 27°C. The toxin production in skipjack started at 20 to 22 h at 21°C and at 8 to 10 h at 27°C. Toxin production was observed before a 3-log increase was achieved in albacore samples at 21°C. Under all conditions, toxins were detected when the cell density of S. aureus was 6 log CFU/g. Overall, significantly faster S. aureus growth was observed in albacore compared with skipjack (P aureus and to design manufacturing controls that ensure food safety.

  3. UNIVERSITAS: A PROJECT WITH A HUMANIST AND INTEGRAL CULTURE APPROACH IN LAS TUNAS UNIVERSITY CENTER / UNIVERSITAS: PROYECTO POR UN PERFIL HUMANISTA Y DE CULTURA INTEGRAL EN EL CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO DE LAS TUNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Macías Reyes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available UNIVERSITAS is a project of sociocultural transformation in Las Tunas university center, with the aim to impel the development of the integral culture in the university community. The knowledge and deepening in the needs, interests, hoping, ways of thinking and acting; in an analysis of the reality, ease the elaboration of the project; which enriches the cultural spectrum of the university community. It is supported by a body of theoretical and methodological budget. Its system of actions is based on newness ideas bind to mechanism of supervisory as: the coordinator group of the project, the orientation bureau, and at the same time the functioning of fixed spaces as: the university theater, the room for exhibitions, Univideo, student’ house, ropes, voices, university and creators, a date with craftsman, dance and music.

  4. Specific activity and derived intervention levels for cesium-137 in Costa Rican export goods: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of 235U and 239Pu. After a major nuclear accident, it is released into the atmosphere and in the far field region it will produce radioactively contaminated food and drinking water. This paper will study the specific activity of 137Cs in three Costa Rican export products: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk. The average specific activities found are as follows: 0.89 ± 0.41, 1.16 ± 0.76 and 4.53 ± 2.00 Bq kg-1. They represent low values compared to their derived intervention levels: 1.25 x 107, 1.25 x 107 and 2.44 x 105 Bq kg-1, respectively. (Author)

  5. EL FENÓMENO SOCIO RELIGIOSO EN LAS TUNAS. EL PENTECOSTALISMO Y SU INFLUENCIA PARA UNA CONCEPCIÓN IDENTITARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Antonio Lalana Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El pentecostalismo como componente del campo religioso del territorio de Victoria de Las Tunas, los aportes a la identidad cultural son los hilos conductores de este trabajo. Comprende además un análisis del proceso de asentamiento y desarrollo del mismo a partir del análisis de las fuentes históricas y socioculturales. Su génesis primaria responde a condicionantes propias de las transformaciones de Europa Occidental durante el siglo XVI y, consciente o no sus fundadores promulgaron las bases para el correlato religioso del nuevo orden socio económico que se gestaba: el capitalismo. Las implicaciones a la identidad cultural en las regiones donde se asentaron y desarrollaron este tipo de denominaciones generaron comportamientos interesantes que constituyen un importante objeto de estudio para su mejor comprensión. ABSTRACT Pentecostalism as a component of the religious field of the territory of Victoria de Las Tunas, contributions to cultural identity are the threads of this work. It includes an analysis of the process of settlement and development of the same from the analysis of historical and sociocultural sources. Its primary genesis responds to own conditions of transformations of Western Europe during the sixteenth century and, consciously or not its founders enacted the basis for the religious correlate the new socioeconomic order that was brewing: capitalism. The implications for cultural identity in the regions where they settled and developed this kind of names generated interesting behaviors that constitute an important object of study for better understanding.

  6. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MORTALIDAD EN EL SERVICIO DE NEFROLOGÍA. AÑOS 2009-2010. LAS TUNAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez López Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the fundamental problems that the Nefrología faces in the current time is the growing number of patient with Inadequacy Renal Terminal Chronicle that you/they require substitute treatments of the renal function to survive. Objectives: To analyze the behavior of the mortality and the factors that influenced in the patients that were carried out treatment of chronic hemodiálisis during the years 2009-2010 in the service of Nefrología of the Hospital G. Doc "Dr. Ernesto Guevara of the Serna", Las Tunas City. Method: He/she was carried out a descriptive-retrospective study of traverse court 2 years old 2009-2010, in the service of Nefrología of the Hospital G. Doc. "Dr. Ernesto Guevara of the Serna" of The Tunas that it analyzed the mortality in patient with treatment of chronic hemodiálisis. The sample was constituted by 36 deceaseds. Results: The cause of Inadequacy Renal more frequent Terminal Chronicle was the Arterial Hypertension, most of the deceaseds had more than 65 years of age and a strong association existed among the beginning way, attention previous nefrológica, type of vascular access and time of permanency in hemodiálisis. The cardiovascular illnesses went those more associated to The Inadequacy Renal Chronicle and they constituted the main causes of death, followed by the sepsis. Most of the carried out autopsies had pathological clinical relationship. Conclusions: We recommend to increase the pesquizaje of patient with Inadequacy Renal Chronicle in the Primary Attention of Health for their precocious remission to the nefrólogo, it stops this way to slow their progression to the terminal phase and to achieve their best preparation for the treatment dialítico and the renal transplant, what will allow a better quality of life and a decrease of the mortality.

  7. Quality assessment of ice-stored tropical yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and influence of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbande, Adèle; Adenet, Sandra; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Rochefort, Katia; Leroi, Françoise

    2016-12-01

    Metagenomic, microbial, chemical and sensory analyses of Thunnus albacares from Martinique stored in ice (AIR - 0 °C), vacuum (VP - 4/8 °C) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP - 4/8 °C) (70% CO2 - 30% O2) were carried out. The organoleptic rejection of AIR tuna was observed at day 13 when total bacterial counts equaled 10(6)-10(7) CFU g(-1). No extension of shelf-life was provided by VP and MAP. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analyzed by Illumina MiSeq and PCR-TTGE, Rhodanobacter terrae was the main species of the freshly caught tuna. At the sensory rejection time, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas dominated the AIR products while B. thermosphacta alone or a mix of B. thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the microbiota of MAP and VP products, respectively. The pH value remained stable in all trials, ranging from 5.77 to 5.97. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA-N) concentrations were weak and not significantly different between batches. Lipid oxidation increased in the samples containing O2 (MAP > AIR). The initial concentration of histamine was high (75-78 mg kg(-1)) and stable up to 8 days but then significantly decreased in all trials to reach 25-30 mg kg(-1), probably due to the presence of histamine-decomposing bacteria. PMID:27554147

  8. Evaluation of FAD-associated purse seine fishery reduction strategies for bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Yuhe; CHEN Xinjun; XU Liuxiong; CHEN Yong

    2013-01-01

    In the Indian Ocean,bigeye tuna supports one of the most important fisheries in the world.This fishery mainly consists of two components:longline and purse seine fisheries.Evidence of overfishing and stock depletion of bigeye tuna calls for an evaluation of alternative management strategies.Using an age-structured operating model,parameterized with the results derived in a recent stock assessment,we evaluated the effectiveness of applying constant fishing mortality (CF) and quasi-constant fishing mortality (QCF) strategies to reduce fishing effort of purse seining with fish aggregating devices (FADs) at different rates.Three different levels of productivity accounted for the uncertainty in our understanding of stock productivity.The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar.Average SSB and catch during simulation years would be higher if fishing mortality of FAD-associated purse seining was reduced rapidly.The banning or rapid reduction of purse seining with FAD resulted in a mean catch,and catch in the last simulation year,higher than that of the base case in which no change was made to the purse seine fishery.This could be caused by growth overfishing by purse seine fisheries with FADs according to the per-recruit analysis.These differences would be more obvious when stock productivity was low.Transferring efforts of FAD-associated purse seining to longline fisheries is also not feasible.Our study suggests that changes are necessary to improve the performance of the current management strategy.

  9. Evaluación del estado mental de los pacientes centenarios en Las Tunas, diciembre 2007- agosto 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset del Carmen Romero Portelles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento de la población en Cuba es similar al de muchos países desarrollados, y se encuentra entre los que tienen un índice más elevado dentro del grupo de países en desarrollo. Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo observacional  en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el período diciembre 2007- agosto 2008, con el propósito de caracterizar el estado cognitivo-afectivo de los centenarios. El universo estuvo  constituido por 97 ancianos; una vez validada su edad, la muestra quedó conformada con 95 centenarios. Se aplicaron los instrumentos Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE y Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR y se estudiaron las siguientes variables: estado cognitivo, estado de ánimo, satisfacción con la vida, nivel de tensión y la percepción de eventos vitales. El dato primario provino de las entrevistas realizadas, y para el análisis estadístico se creó una hoja de cálculo en Excel. Se utilizaron técnicas de distribución de frecuencias; para las variables cuantitativas se empleó la proporción en porcentaje. En la muestra de individuos centenarios que vivían en la provincia de Las Tunas, al momento del estudio, predominaron los que no presentaban deterioro cognitivo ni depresión, tuvieron  satisfacción alta con la vida, nivel bajo de tensión y no se afectaban con los eventos vitales. Las positivas características psicológicas y de resiliencia, unidas a un entorno psicosocial favorable, se relacionan con la larga supervivencia de los individuos estudiados.

  10. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Stendardo, I.; Gruber, N.; A. Körtzinger

    2009-01-01

    In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean) project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC) procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the c...

  11. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... but not limited to data and models, used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean... assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was created specifically for Atlantic oceanic sharks, it may be expanded to include other HMS,...

  12. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ..., used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea... sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was created specifically for Atlantic oceanic sharks, it may be expanded to include other HMS, as needed. The...

  13. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... western Atlantic Ocean, white marlin and blue marlin from the North Atlantic Ocean, and longbill spearfish... published an interim rule (63 FR 14030) that increased the minimum size limits for Atlantic blue marlin and... Consolidated HMS FMP (71 FR 58058), which, among other things, included the annual recreational 250 blue...

  14. Three genetic stocks of frigate tuna Auxis thazard thazard (Lacepede, 1800) along the Indian coast revealed from sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.M.

    and maternal mode of inheritance, which makes it a sensitive indicator of genetic drift resulting from geographical subdivision (Lindak & Paul 1994; Garber et al. 2005). Sequence analyses involving the rapidly mutating mtDNA control region has been used... size for Port-Blair was small (N = 14) and, because of maternal mode of inheritance, mtDNA variability offers only a partial view of frigate tuna biology and population histories. Therefore, further studies with complementary genetic markers (i...

  15. Duration of unassisted swimming activity for spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) calves: implications for mother-calf separation during tuna purse-seine sets

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth F.

    2006-01-01

    Size-related differences in power production and swim speed duration may contribute to the observed deficit of nursing calves in relation to lactating females killed in sets by tuna purse-seiners in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP). Power production and swim-speed duration were estimated for northeastern spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), the species (neonate through adult) most often captured by the fishery. Power required by neonates to swim unassisted was 3.6 times that require...

  16. Physical and chemical properties of tuna-skin and bovine-hide gelatin films with added aqueous oregano and rosemary extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Estaca, Joaquín; Montero García, Pilar; Fernández Martín, Fernando; Alemán, A.; Gómez Guillén, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of edible, gelatin-based films with added oregano or rosemary extract (two different concentrations) were studied. Gelatins from different sources (bovine-hides and tuna-skins) were employed with a view to elucidating how inherent gelatin characteristics may affect interaction of the gelatin with the polyphenols in the added extract and hence the properties of the resulting films. The bovine-hide gelatin reacted only slightly with the polyphenols in the extracts as shown by the...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING PELAGIC TUNA FISHING GROUND IN THE NORTH PAPUA WATERS USING MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    OpenAIRE

    VlNCENTIUS SlREGAR; HAROLD JOPPIE DAVIDO WAAS

    2006-01-01

    The North Papua waters as one of the important fi shing grounds in the world contribute approximately 75% of world production of pelagic tunas. These fishing grounds are still determined by hunting method. This method is time consuming and costly. However, in many areas determination of fishing ground using satellited data lias been applied by detecting the important oceanographic parameter of the presence of fish schooling such as, sea surface temperature and chlorophyl. Mostly these paramet...

  18. 远洋金枪鱼围网渔船总布置特征%General Arrangement Features for Pelagic Fishing Boat of Tuna Purse Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文志; 卢振义; 张维英; 李明; 刁有明

    2011-01-01

    在收集一些实船图纸资料,实船调查、总结和分析的基础上,阐述了远洋金枪鱼围网渔船总布置的基本原则及其特征,同时根据远洋金枪鱼围网渔船的渔捞作业特点,说明了渔捞设备布置形式和作业流程,以及"内胆式"浓盐水舱速冻作业流程及其特点.可为远洋金枪鱼围网渔船总布置设计提供参考.%The basic principles and features of general arrangement of pelagic tuna purse net are expounded based on collecting some drawing and deep investigation on existed ships. According to the operating characteristics of tuna purse net, the general form of fishing equipment and technological process are also presented and the quick-freezes operation technological process and their characteristics of brine cabin which form is lining are depicted. It provides a reference model for pelagic fishing boat of tuna purse net general arrangement design.

  19. Enhancement of ACE and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitory potency of protein hydrolysates from sardine and tuna by-products by simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Batista, Irineu; Ramos, Cristina; Montero, Pilar

    2016-04-20

    This work was focused on the study of the bioactive potential of three fish protein hydrolysates, one of them prepared from industrial sardine by-products (head and viscera) and the others from tuna by-products (head, and muscle and viscera). These protein hydrolysates exhibited moderate ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme or ACE (IC50 between 0.24-1.16 mg dry weight per ml) and prolyl oligopeptidase or PO (IC50 between 3.30-9.57 mg ml(-1)), those obtained from tuna by-products being the most effective. Overall, ACE- and PO-inhibiting activities were enhanced by sequential nanofiltration through 3 and 1 kDa MWCO membranes (IC50 between 0.02-0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.10-4.21 mg ml(-1) (PO)). The inhibitory properties of the hydrolysates were greatly improved by in vitro gastric digestion, and were barely affected by further intestinal digestion. The digested tuna hydrolysates, mainly that from heads, proved to be the best source of PO- and ACE- inhibiting molecules (IC50 = 0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.04 mg ml(-1) (PO)) and could be potential new ingredients in food with interest in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. PMID:27045751

  20. Early developmental characteristics of external apparatus of bluefin leatherjacket Thamnaconus modestus%绿鳍马面鲀外部器官的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关健; 刘洪军; 郑永允; 李祥东; 于道德; 陈海滨; 官曙光

    2012-01-01

    This study described the developmental characteristics of external apparatus during early life stages of bluefin leatherjacket, Thamnaconus modestus. The developmental morphological characteristics of 11 external apparatus were recorded and described in detail. 1) Mouth; opened at 2-3 dph(days post hatching), then grew continuously except at the stagnation stage (24-28 dph). 2) Eyes: pigment appeared at 1 dph, choroids formed and the pupil was black at 3 dph, sclera formed at 4 dph, rim of the eye appeared at 14 dph, and the eye form was same with adults at 40 dph basically. 3) First dorsal fin spine: anlage appeared at 3 dph, fin spine formed initially at 7-8 dph, protruded out of body at 10 dph, development finished roughly at 14 dph, and the shape was the same with adult at 60dph basically. 4) Girdles and pelvic fin spine: Girdles appeared at 5 dph, pelvic fin spine grew fast at 5-7 dph, and shunk from l0dph, all pelvic fin spine off at 30 dph. The shape of girdles was the same with adult at 60 dph. 5) Pectoral fin: fin membrane thickened and the fin ray formed at 15dph, developed completely at 30 dph. 6) Dorsal fin and anal fin: fin suspensorium and fin ray appeared at 14 dph, fin ray developed completely at 24dph, and the shape at 60 dph was the same with adult's. 7) Caudal peduncle: caudal vertebra was straight until 14dph, some fin ray anlage appeared under the tail end of notochord at 16 dph. The tail end of notochord up-curved, fin ray developed completely and sub-section at 16-24 dph. Caudal fin turned into rotundity at 50 dph. 8) Scales and skin: epidermis thickened at 8dph, the compact epidermis appeared first at head, full body covered by scales at 40dph, turned into withy leathery epidermis. 9) Abdomen and splanchnic zone: yolk-sac was absorbed, anus and the first intestinal loop formed at 2 dph, oil ball disappeared and the fish larvae fed on the oyster larvae. The anlages of liver, kidney and swim bladder appeared at 8-12 dph, and the three organ

  1. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,...

  2. Governing large-scale social-ecological systems: Lessons from five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest D Fleischman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares lessons drawn from five case studies of large scale governance of common-pool resources: management of forests in Indonesia, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, the Rhine River in western Europe, the Ozone layer (i.e. the Montreal Protocol, and the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (i.e. the International Convention on the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna. The goal is to assess the applicability of Ostrom’s design principles for sustainable resource governance to large scale systems, as well as to examine other important variables that may determine success in large scale systems. While we find support for some of Ostrom’s design principles (boundaries, monitoring, sanctions, fit to conditions, and conflict resolution mechanisms are all supported, other principles have only moderate to weak support. In particular, recognition of rights to organize and the accountability of monitors to resource users were not supported. We argue that these differences are the result of differences between small and large scale systems. At large scales, other kinds of political dynamics, including the role of scientists and civil society organizations, appear to play key roles. Other variables emphasized in common-pool resource studies, such as levels of dependence on resources, group size, heterogeneity, disturbances, and resource characteristics also receive mixed support, pointing to the need to reinterpret the meaning of common-pool resource theories in order for them to be applicable at larger scales.

  3. Aniversario XXX de la creación del Centro Provincial de Información de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenny Reina Castillo Montes de Oca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El 4 de enero de 1984 se inauguró el Centro Provincial de Información de Ciencias Médicas de Las Tunas, lo que permitió organizar la Red Provincial de Bibliotecas Médicas y con ello crear nuevos escenarios para desarrollar la actividad científico - informativa en el territorio; con la apertura de una biblioteca en cada unidad de salud. El Centro inicialmente estuvo ubicado en un pequeño local cercano a la biblioteca del Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”. En el año 1988; con la misión, la visión y los objetivos de trabajo de su objeto social bien definidos, fue trasladado para la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta”, de la provincia de Las Tunas y al crearse la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas en esta provincia, el Centro Provincial de Información pasa a ser una dependencia directa de la misma. En la primera década se sentaron las bases de lo que es hoy el Sistema Provincial de Información de Ciencias de la Salud, constituido por 25 bibliotecas médicas distribuidas en toda la geografía tunera, con la misión de: “garantizar la prestación de servicios de información científico tecnológica a la comunidad de profesionales que conforman el sector de la salud en la provincia, con el fin de elevar la calidad de la asistencia, la investigación, la docencia, la dirección y la cultura médica nueva y propiciar el hallazgo de soluciones que posibiliten enfrentar los problemas de salud”. Durante estos 30 años, los trabajadores de la información en el territorio han laborado con verdadera dedicación para cumplir cada tarea encomendada, asumir los retos del desarrollo continuo de la ciencia, asimilar las nuevas tecnologías y brindar a nuestros usuarios servicios y productos de alto valor informacional. La movilización de recursos lograda a través de los proyectos de la Red Nacional de Salud INFOMED, entre los cuales figuran: Proyecto SIDA, Proyecto para la Promoción de Publicaciones

  4. Vulnerability to longline fisheries of three hammerhead shark Sphyrna species in the south-western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, N P A; Travassos, P; Hazin, F H V

    2016-08-01

    Catch and effort data from 29 418 longline sets from Brazilian tuna longline vessels operating in the south-western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean between 2004 and 2011 were analysed to investigate the distribution, catch rate and size of three species of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna mokarran and Sphyrna zygaena). During that period, 6172 hammerhead sharks were caught. Among the elasmobranchs, the highest percentage of hammerhead sharks were caught in 2007, when they accounted for 3·90% of the group, while the lowest value of 0·40% was recorded in 2010. In general, the spatial distribution of the mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) by years and quarters showed a trend of higher catches near the equatorial region and in southern Brazil. The nominal mean CPUE was 0·12 Sphyrna spp. 1000(-1) hooks, with the highest value being recorded in 2007 (0·30 Sphyrna spp. 1000(-1) hooks). The standardized yearly CPUE estimated by a generalized linear model assuming a zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution were not much different from nominal values. Of the 205 sexed specimens, 117 were females and 88 were males, resulting in a sex ratio with a predominance of females (1·30:1·00), although not statistically significant. The total length of females ranged from 1200 to 2800 mm and of males from 1100 to 3100 mm. Juvenile hammerhead sharks represented 82 and 54% of the sexed female and male specimens, respectively. PMID:27349350

  5. Reproductive aspects of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae, in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Regina dos Santos Tambourgi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to study the reproductive biology of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 234 specimens were collected as bycatch during pelagic longline fisheries targeting tunas and swordfish, between December 2003 and December 2010. The fishing area was located between latitudes 10N and 35S and longitudes 3E and 40W. Of the 234 individuals sampled, 118 were females (with sizes ranging from 81 to 227 cm TL, total length and 116 males (ranging from 80 to 242 cm TL. The reproductive stages of the females were classed as immature, mature, preovulatory and pregnant, while males were divided into immature, maturing and mature. The size at maturity for females was estimated at 170.0 cm TL, while that for males was between 170.0 and 190.0 cm TL. Ovarian fecundity ranged from 1 to 10 follicles and uterine fecundity from 1 to 10 embryos. The reproductive cycle of this species is most likely biennial, with parturition occurring once every two years.

  6. CONTRIBUTE TO THE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF LAS TUNAS CITY OF DIOSCÓRIDE T. FUERTE BORGES / APORTES AL DESARROLLO CULTURAL DE LAS TUNAS DE DIOSCÓRIDE T. BORGES FUERTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Susana Hernández Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation it was carried out a valuation of the elements that distinguish the cultural work of Dioscóride T. Borges Fuerte and their contributions to the cultural development of Las Tunas, through the significance of their cultural chore, to become an artisan Luthiers of great relevance. It is sought to achieve the recognition of a personality of the culture, illustrating in the document that contains their history of life their contributions and taxes from the luthiería to the cultural development of the county. In the investigation it was made use of the History of Life like qualitative method to achieve an approach to Borges' life and to reveal their contributions to the cultural development through their contribution to the music, the construction of guitars, formation of new generations and innovation in the luthiería. The reach and transcendency of the work of the eminent Luthiers stands out among musicians, professors, students, personalities of the culture and manufacturers of guitars in the whole country.

  7. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  8. [Demographic analysis of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, in the North Atlantic Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun-xia; Dai, Xiao-jie; Tian, Si-quan; Wu, Feng; Zhu, Jiang-feng

    2016-02-01

    The blue shark, Prionace glauca, is the main by-catch species in tuna longline fishery. As one of top species in the oceanic food webs, the blue shark plays an important role in the marine ecosystem. Traditional stock assessment methods are difficult to accurately evaluate the population dynamic for this shark because of limited data. Based on life-history parameters of the blue shark in the North Atlantic, demographic analysis was employed to estimate the demographic parameters and evaluate the potential exploitation for the blue shark. Moreover, we discussed the relationship between age at first capture and critical value of fishing mortality corresponding to the value of intrinsic rate of natural increase 0. The results showed that the survival rate (S) of blue shark from 0.719 to 0.820, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r0) from 0.250 to 0.381, time of population doubling (tx2) from 1.819 to 2.773 years, reproduction rate per generation (R0) from 6.600 to 22.255, and generation time (G) from 8.498 to 10.162 years. The sensitivity analysis for the life history parameters revealed that the uncertainties of natural mortality existed in the first age class, age at maturity and maximum age had slight influence on the demographic parameters. Fishing mortality (Fc) increased with the age at first capture. When the age at first capture (tc) was more than five, there was no obvious relationship between Fc and tc. PMID:27396138

  9. Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from the By-product of Tuna Canning Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the optimization conditions for separation and purification of omega-3 (&omega-3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna canning processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion (urea to fatty acid ratio (X1 and crystallization time(X2 were optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM and a model was developed. Optimization results showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y = 24.44X1+5.65X2-8.71XX1 2-0.19X22+1.171X1X2- 12.95. The maximum response was obtained at an urea to fatty acid ratio of 2.99:1 and a crystallization time of 23.64 h and predicted response of 90.44%. Analysis of variance showed that the urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected the response. Verification under optimal conditions showed that the purity of &omega-3 fatty acids was 89.64% and the enrichment was 2.85 fold. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. The urea crystallization process changed oil quality parameters including oxidation level (peroxide, anisidin, and totox values, Fe, Cu and P concentrations and moisture content and this were mostly due to the saponification process before urea crystallization.

  10. Metallomics investigations on potential binding partners of methylmercury in tuna fish muscle tissue using complementary mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Daniel J; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Bettmer, Jörg

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the binding behaviour of methylmercury (MeHg(+)) towards proteins is investigated. Free sulfhydryl groups in cysteine residues are known to be the most likely binding partners, due to the high affinity of mercury to sulphur. However, detailed knowledge about discrete binding sites in living organisms has been so far scarce. A metallomics approach using different methods like size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as well as complementary mass spectrometric techniques (electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry, ESI-MS/MS) are combined to sequence and identify possible target proteins or peptides after enzymatic digestion. Potential targets for MeHg(+) in tuna fish muscle tissue are investigated using the certified reference material CRM464 as a model tissue. Different extraction procedures appropriate for the extraction of proteins are evaluated for their efficiency using isotope dilution analysis for the determination of total Hg in the extracts. Due to the high chemical stability of the mercury-sulphur bond, the bioconjugate can be quantitatively extracted with a combination of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Using different separation techniques such as SEC and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) it can be shown that major binding occurs to a high-molecular weight protein (M(w) > 200 kDa). A potential target protein, skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain, could be identified after tryptic digestion and capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS.

  11. Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of longline catches of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Tasman sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, James T.; Wilcox, Chris; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-03-01

    The spatial distribution of living marine resources in the Tasman Sea is expected to shift due to the impacts of global climate change. Understanding the most likely future locations of valuable pelagic species will inform the sustainable harvest and management of species such as yellowfin tuna (YFT; Thunnus albacares). We estimate future upper ocean structure in the Tasman Sea, using both historical data and dynamically downscaled ocean projections for the 2060s, and apply a catch distribution model to estimate possible changes to the YFT catch in the eastern Australia domestic longline fishery. Both approaches project that locations with concentrated YFT catch in the Tasman Sea will shift poleward in response to likely climate change. By the 2060s, the core fishing areas are projected to have shifted both poleward and offshore of existing high catch areas. Shifts in the distribution and hence availability of this species may require future domestic fishing vessels to modify their fishing behaviors, which in turn may require social and economic adjustments.

  12. CALIDAD DE LAS AGUAS DE LA CUENCA DEL RÍO NARANJO, MUNICIPIO MAJIBACOA, PROVINCIA LAS TUNAS PARA EL RIEGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balmaseda Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de las aguas es uno de los elementos estudiados cuando se valora la sostenibilidad de las cuencas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la aptitud de las aguas de la cuenca del río Naranjo, en la provincia Las Tunas, con fines de riego. Para el estudio, se tomaron seis puntos representativos de la cuenca (tres superficiales y tres subterráneos. El muestreo se hizo en dos momentos, húmedo y seco. La calidad se definió en base a los criterios de FAO y otros indicadores específicos para el riego. Las aguas de las fuentes subterráneas son no aptas para el riego de los cultivos agrícolas y las superficiales tienen restricciones ligeras a moderadas. Existe peligro de alcalinización de los suelos producto de las concentraciones de bicarbonato en las aguas. Por otra parte el sodio de las aguas puede pasar a la solución del suelo y sustituir al calcio y el magnesio causando la degradación de los suelos.

  13. Impact of fish aggregation devices on tropical tuna' s behavioral pattern: A review%人工集鱼装置对热带金枪鱼类行为模式的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学昉; 朱国平; 孙满昌; 许柳雄

    2012-01-01

    金枪鱼类会聚集在漂浮物周围,人类依据该行为特性研制出人工集鱼装置(fish aggregation devices,FADs)诱集金枪鱼,从而使金枪鱼围网的产量和捕捞效率大幅提高.但目前科学界仍不确定FADs为何能够吸引金枪鱼以及其广泛使用是否会对金枪鱼资源和大洋中上层生态系统产生潜在影响.针对这些问题,国外学者展开了大量以FADs周围金枪鱼为研究对象的个体行为学试验.本文归纳并整理了过去30多年中较可靠和经典的相关试验,从金枪鱼的趋向性行为、集群行为、随附行为、摄食行为和垂直移动行为5个方面分别阐述了漂流FADs和锚泊FADs下金枪鱼的行为模式,并对国内今后开展相关研究的重点方向和注意事项进行了展望.%Tuna prefers to aggregate around floating objects. Based on this behavioral characteristic , people developed fish aggregation devices (FADs) to trap tuna, and made the catch and fishing efficiency of tuna purse seine fisheries improved greatly. However, there still exist uncertainties whether the FADs can attract tuna and what' s the potential impact of widely applying FADs in tuna purse seine fishery on tuna resources and oceanic pelagic ecosystem. Aiming at these uncertainties, scientists conducted a great deal experiments to study the behavioral biology of tuna around FADs. This paper reviewed the related classic and more credible experiments in the past 30 years, and summed up five behavioral patterns of the tunas around drifting and anchored FADs, i. e. , tropism behavior, schooling behavior, association behavior, feeding behavior, and vertical movement pattern. The related main research methods currently in use were introduced, and the issues on this subject needed to be paid great attention to were discussed.

  14. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis Dark Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%, hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%, and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03% and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively, small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides, low molecular weights (524.78 kDa, and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11. This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes.

  15. Review on Detecting Techniques of Histamine of Tuna%金枪鱼组胺检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书臣; 廖明涛; 林森森; 赵巧灵; 戴志远

    2014-01-01

    Histamine is an nitrogenous organic compound with low molecular weight. Generally , it has potential hazard to human health, and always existed in food, especially in some red meat fish like tuna. Ingesting excessive histamine could cause toxicity to human , and histamine has been one of the standards to judge the meat quality of tuna. The detecting techniques of histamine of tuna were reviewed in this paper , including spectrophotometry, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, ion chromatograph, thin layer chromatography, capillary electrophoretic, electrochemical method and colorimetric method, and the prospect of the future development was made.%组胺是一种有潜在危害的含氮低分子量有机化合物,广泛存在于各种食品中,在以金枪鱼为代表的红肉鱼中容易大量产生。摄入过量的组胺会对人体产生危害,组胺已经成为判断金枪鱼质量的标准之一。对近年来金枪鱼肉中组胺的检测技术进行了综述,包括分光光度法、反相高效液相色谱法、离子色谱法、薄层色谱法、毛细管电泳法、电化学法和比色法等,并对检测技术的研究前景进行了展望。

  16. Temperature fluctuations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the temperature fluctuations in connection with drought in Africa, the climate in North America, the European heat waves and the frequent tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. Problems with climate modelling and some pollution aspects are mentioned

  17. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  18. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  19. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  20. Ocean science: Vagaries of Atlantic overturning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    2016-07-01

    A weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation has emerged from noise after years of painstaking measurements. Three independent lines of evidence suggest that an anthropogenic influence on this overturning is not yet detectable.

  1. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  2. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  3. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  4. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  5. North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Deleware, and New Jersey.

  6. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  7. Límites máximos de residuos e intervalos de seguridad de plaguicidas en tuna, Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Aldama Aguilera, Cristóbal

    2012-01-01

    Dado que no existen plaguicidas registrados para el manejo fitosanitario de las plagas que afectan la producción de tuna, Opuntia ficus-indica (L) Miller 1768, se propusieron límites máximos de residuos (LMRs) de siete plaguicidas en esta fruta. En la evaluación del riesgo dietético crónico se estimaron los niveles de exposición con los métodos de Ingesta Diaria Teórica Máxima (IDTM) e Ingesta Diaria Estimada (IDE). En 2006, se realizaron dos aplicaciones de los plagui...

  8. Integración Ganadería Agricultura en una pequeña finca familiar. CCSF José Santiago Ercilla, Las Tunas

    OpenAIRE

    González Espinosa, Ángel; Funes Aguilar, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    La integración agroecológica diversificada permite mayor eficiencia, uso racional de recursos, complementando la agricultura y pecuaria y el campesino logra, con recursos propios ser menos vulnerable ante el cambio climático y ataque de plagas. Se presentan resultados de la finca “Las Palmitas” en Villanueva, Las Tunas, en 16.4 ha., con objetivo de diversificar e integrar la producción para lograr alimentos sanos, libres de agrotóxicos de forma eficiente y sostenible, y uso racional de recurs...

  9. Annual estimates of the unobserved incidental kill of pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata attenuata) calves in the tuna purse-seine fishery of the eastern tropical Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Frederick; Gerrodette, Tim; Chivers, Susan; Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the total number of pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) mothers killed without their calves (“calf deficit”) in all tuna purse-seine sets from 1973– 90 and 1996–2000 in the eastern tropical Pacific. Estimates were based on a tally of the mothers killed as reported by color pattern and gender, several color-pattern-based frequency tables, and a weaning model. Over the time series, there was a decrease in the calf deficit from approximately 2800 for the western-souther...

  10. Measurement and analysis of sinking characteristics of tuna purse seine%金枪鱼围网沉降特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许柳雄; 王敏法; 叶旭昌; 兰光查

    2011-01-01

    根据沿围网下纲缚扎的10只温度深度计(TDR-2050型)自动记录的23网次有效数据,对中国中西太平洋金枪鱼围网的下纲沉降速度、沉降深度及其与时间的关系进行了研究.结果表明:(1)网具未达到理论沉降深度,网具中部平均沉降深度为160m,为最大拉紧高度(311.1 m)的51.4%;(2)网具中部沉降深度与时间的关系为h=- 0.000 2t2+ 0.3663 t;(3)网具各部位的沉降速度不同,取鱼部最慢,网具中部次之,后网头最快;(4)下纲各部位沉降速度均随着深度的增加而减小,沉降速度波动幅度随深度增加按“大—小—大”的规则变化;(5)网具中部沉降速度与时间的关系为:v=3×10-7t2-7×10-4t+0.418 9.本研究结果可为改善金枪鱼围网沉降性能提供基础数据,并为海上生产提供指导性参考.%We quantified the sinking depth and sinking speed of tuna purse seines. We attached a micro-temperature and depth recorder (10 TDR-2050) to a purse seine on the "JINHUI NO.6" vessel (Shanghai Pelagic Fishing Company) and collected data from 23 sets in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) between October and December 2006. The sinking depth did not achieve the theoretical maximum sinking depth, instead accounting for 51.4% of the maximum stretched height (311.1m) of the netting. The relationship between the sinking depth (h) and time (t) for the mid section of leadline can be described using the formula: h = -0.000 2 t2+ 0.366 3 t (R2=0.998 3). The sinking speed differed among the sections of the lead line. The fastest sinking speed was recorded at the back wing end, followed by the mid section and the bulk. The sinking speed decreased with depth, the deeper the sinking depth of leadline, the lower the sinking speed. Fluctuations in the confidence interval of the average sinking speed of leadline followed a pattern of large-small-large as the depth increased. The relationship between the sinking speed (v) and time (t) at the

  11. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R Pethybridge

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 fatty acids (EFA measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a (Chla, and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems.

  12. Identification of factors influencing shark catch and mortality in the Marshall Islands tuna longline fishery and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhead, D; Clarke, S; Hoyle, S; Muller, B; Sharples, P; Harley, S

    2012-04-01

    Recent average annual catches of sharks by tuna longline vessels fishing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are estimated to be between 1583 and 2274 t. Although 22 shark species have been recorded by the observer programme for this fishery, 80% of the annual catch comprises only five species: blue shark Prionace glauca, silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis, bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus, pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus and oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus. Wire leaders (i.e. branch lines or traces) were also used by nearly all observed vessels. Generalized additive model (GAM)-based analyses of catch rates indicated that P. glauca and A. superciliosus are caught in higher numbers when vessels fish in relatively cooler waters, at night, close to the full moon, when the 27° C thermocline is close to the surface and during El Niño conditions. In contrast, C. falciformis, A. pelagicus and C. longimanus are caught in higher numbers when shark lines are used (all three species) or hooks are set at a shallow depth (A. pelagicus and C. longimanus and, also, P. glauca). These findings are generally consistent with current knowledge of these species' habitat preferences, movement and distribution. The results of these analyses were combined with information pertaining to shark condition and fate upon capture to compare the likely effectiveness of a range of potential measures for reducing shark mortality in the longline fishery. Of the options considered, the most effective would be to combine measures that reduce the catch rate (e.g. restrictions on the use of wire leaders, shark baits and shark lines) with measures that increase survival rates after post-capture release (e.g. finning bans). PMID:22497410

  13. Comportamiento del síndrome de inmovilización. Hogar de Ancianos, Las Tunas, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Thomas Santiesteban

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para describir el comportamiento de la inmovilización en el Hogar de Ancianos Carlos Pupo Font, de la provincia de Las Tunas, durante el año 2011. El universo lo constituyeron la totalidad de pacientes institucionalizados y la muestra estuvo conformada por 98 pacientes con algún tipo de inmovilización. Las variables a medir fueron: tipo de inmovilidad, edad, sexo, raza, hábitos tóxicos, estado mental, cambios fisiológicos ocurridos con el envejecimiento, enfermedades frecuentes, complicaciones y factores sociales. La información se obtuvo de la revisión de historias clínicas, fue procesada estadísticamente usando el Microsoft Excel, los resultados se mostraron a través de tablas y gráficos y se compararon con la literatura nacional e internacional. Se obtuvo predominio de pacientes con inmovilización relativa; el grupo de edad más afectado fue de 75 a 84 años, el sexo femenino, la raza blanca y el estado mental correspondiente a los demenciados; el hábito tóxico predominante fue el café; los cambios fisiológicos con el envejecimiento y las enfermedades más frecuentes corresponden a las del aparato músculo esquelético; las complicaciones predominantes fueron las digestivas seguidas por las respiratorias.

  14. Factores de riesgo para la enteropatía parasitaria en niños del municipio Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Fajardo Ochoa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico de tipo caso control, con el objetivo de determinar los factores de riesgo para la enteropatía parasitaria, como principal causa del síndrome de malabsorción intestinal en niños del municipio de Las Tunas durante el año 2011. El mismo fue realizado en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas”, con una muestra de 87 pacientes que formaron parte del grupo de estudio, cuyos datos se recolectaron de la consulta médica de gastroenterología en el policlínico de consulta externa de dicha unidad asistencial y 174 en el grupo control, tomados de pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de urología, paralela en tiempo y contigua a la de gastroenterología. A cada grupo se le realizó un interrogatorio y examen físico exhaustivo, que permitió recoger todos los posibles factores de riesgo existentes. Para la determinación de los factores de riesgo se utilizaron los paquetes de programas estadísticos Epinfo versión 6, en el que se realizaron análisis univariados y se evaluó el ODDS RATIO, intervalo de confianza y probabilidad. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó con un 95% de confiabilidad. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la enteropatía parasitaria fueron: pertenecer al sexo masculino, los hábitos higiénicos inadecuados, estado nutricional inadecuado, la ingestión de agua sin hervir y la evacuación de excretas no sanitarias. Se recomienda realizar estudios analíticos para determinar la asociación de otros factores de riesgo, con vistas a establecer programas de intervención en estos pacientes.

  15. Accounting for age uncertainty in growth modeling, the case study of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) of the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortel, Emmanuelle; Massiot-Granier, Félix; Rivot, Etienne; Million, Julien; Hallier, Jean-Pierre; Morize, Eric; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Bousquet, Nicolas; Chassot, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Age estimates, typically determined by counting periodic growth increments in calcified structures of vertebrates, are the basis of population dynamics models used for managing exploited or threatened species. In fisheries research, the use of otolith growth rings as an indicator of fish age has increased considerably in recent decades. However, otolith readings include various sources of uncertainty. Current ageing methods, which converts an average count of rings into age, only provide periodic age estimates in which the range of uncertainty is fully ignored. In this study, we describe a hierarchical model for estimating individual ages from repeated otolith readings. The model was developed within a Bayesian framework to explicitly represent the sources of uncertainty associated with age estimation, to allow for individual variations and to include knowledge on parameters from expertise. The performance of the proposed model was examined through simulations, and then it was coupled to a two-stanza somatic growth model to evaluate the impact of the age estimation method on the age composition of commercial fisheries catches. We illustrate our approach using the sagittal otoliths of yellowfin tuna of the Indian Ocean collected through large-scale mark-recapture experiments. The simulation performance suggested that the ageing error model was able to estimate the ageing biases and provide accurate age estimates, regardless of the age of the fish. Coupled with the growth model, this approach appeared suitable for modeling the growth of Indian Ocean yellowfin and is consistent with findings of previous studies. The simulations showed that the choice of the ageing method can strongly affect growth estimates with subsequent implications for age-structured data used as inputs for population models. Finally, our modeling approach revealed particularly useful to reflect uncertainty around age estimates into the process of growth estimation and it can be applied to any

  16. 75 FR 11133 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Wreckfish Shareholders for the South Atlantic region to discuss draft Amendment 20 to the Snapper Grouper... Shareholders for the South Atlantic region. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES: The meeting will take place... Wreckfish Shareholders on changes the Council is considering for the current ITQ program in Amendment 20...

  17. 78 FR 65974 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... not limited to data and models, used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean... information, including but not limited to data and models, used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the... Atlantic oceanic sharks, it may be expanded to include other HMS, as needed. The primary purpose of...

  18. Response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to South Atlantic sources of buoyancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Sterl, A.; Drijfhout, S.

    2002-01-01

    The heat and salt input from the Indian to Atlantic Oceans by Agulhas Leakage is found to influence the Atlantic overturning circulation in a low-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. The model used is the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model, which is forced by mixed boundary condition

  19. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  20. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... accompanied the 2011 shark quota specifications rule (75 FR 76302; December 8, 2010). Thus, NMFS proposes to... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on...

  1. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    .... As outlined in the September 20, 2010, ANPR (75 FR 57235), sharks have been federally managed since... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine...

  2. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS FOR DETERMINING PELAGIC TUNA FISHING GROUND IN THE NORTH PAPUA WATERS USING MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VlNCENTIUS SlREGAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Papua waters as one of the important fi shing grounds in the world contribute approximately 75% of world production of pelagic tunas. These fishing grounds are still determined by hunting method. This method is time consuming and costly. However, in many areas determination of fishing ground using satellited data lias been applied by detecting the important oceanographic parameter of the presence of fish schooling such as, sea surface temperature and chlorophyl. Mostly these parameters are used integrat edly. The aim of this study is to assess the important oceanographic parameters detected from mu lti-sensor satellites (NO AA/AVHRR, Seawifs and Topex Poisedon for determining fishing ground of pelagic tunas in the North Papua waters at east season. The parameters include Sea Surface Temperature (STT, chlorophyl-a and currents. The ava ilability of data from optic sensor (Seawifs: chl-a and AVHRR: Thermal is limited by the presence of cloud cover. In that case, Topex Poseidon satellite data can be used to provide the currents data. The integration of data from multi-sensors increases the availability of the oceanographic parameters for prediction of the potential fishing zones in the study area.

  4. Colagenosis con afectación dermatológica en edades pediátricas en Las Tunas, 2010 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuska Tamayo Mariño

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las enfermedades del colágeno en edades pediátricas es relativamente joven y no se cuenta en Las Tunas con archivos que permitan evaluar su comportamiento, por ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo en el período comprendido entre los años 2010 al 2012, para caracterizar a los pacientes ingresados con estas enfermedades en el hospital pediátrico Mártires de Las Tunas. Inicialmente se determinaron las conectivopatias diagnosticadas con más frecuencia y luego se estudiaron las variables: sexo, edad, color de la piel, procedencia geográfica y antecedentes patológicos familiares de colagenosis, Los resultados fueron expuestos en tablas y expresados en porcientos. Predominaron la artritis idiopática juvenil, seguido de la fiebre reumática y la morfea. El sexo más frecuente fue el femenino, el grupo de edad más afectado fueron los adolescentes mayores de 13 años, el color de la piel que prevaleció fue el blanco y predominaron los pacientes sin antecedentes patológicos familiares de colagenosis

  5. Sustainability on seafood security and ocean ecosystem conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaeriyama, Masahide

    2009-01-01

    Marine food should be a renewable resource for humans. However, world fish catches have peaked since the 1990s, despite increase in aquaculture production. Fish provide more than 2.9 billion people with at least 15% of their animal protein intake (FAO, 2009). Tuna (Thunnus spp.) abundance decreased severely by overfishing since the 1980s (Myers and Worm, 2003). Bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) is already listed as a 'critical species' in the IUCN. Although production from aquaculture is increasing w...

  6. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E–W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (≈126 Ma when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ≈17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the

  7. Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, S.R.; Rocha, L.A.; Robertson, D.R.; Joyeux, J.C.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Wirtz, P.; Edwards, A.J.; Barreiros, J.P.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Gasparini, J.L.; Brito, A.; Falcon, J.M.; Bowen, B.W.; Bernardi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand why and when areas of endemism (provinces) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean were formed, how they relate to each other, and what processes have contributed to faunal enrichment. Location: Atlantic Ocean. Methods: The distributions of 2605 species of reef fishes were compiled for 25 areas of the Atlantic and southern Africa. Maximum-parsimony and distance analyses were employed to investigate biogeographical relationships among those areas. A collection of 26 phylogenies of various Atlantic reef fish taxa was used to assess patterns of origin and diversification relative to evolutionary scenarios based on spatio-temporal sequences of species splitting produced by geological and palaeoceanographic events. We present data on faunal (species and genera) richness, endemism patterns, diversity buildup (i.e. speciation processes), and evaluate the operation of the main biogeographical barriers and/or filters. Results: Phylogenetic (proportion of sister species) and distributional (number of shared species) patterns are generally concordant with recognized biogeographical provinces in the Atlantic. The highly uneven distribution of species in certain genera appears to be related to their origin, with highest species richness in areas with the greatest phylogenetic depth. Diversity buildup in Atlantic reef fishes involved (1) diversification within each province, (2) isolation as a result of biogeographical barriers, and (3) stochastic accretion by means of dispersal between provinces. The timing of divergence events is not concordant among taxonomic groups. The three soft (non-terrestrial) inter-regional barriers (mid-Atlantic, Amazon, and Benguela) clearly act as 'filters' by restricting dispersal but at the same time allowing occasional crossings that apparently lead to the establishment of new populations and species. Fluctuations in the effectiveness of the filters, combined with ecological differences among provinces, apparently provide a mechanism

  8. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  9. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  10. Nitrous oxide in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a comprehensive picture of the distribution of nitrous oxide (N2O in the North Atlantic Ocean, measurements of dissolved nitrous oxide were made during three cruises in the tropical, subtropical and cold-temperate North Atlantic Ocean in October/November 2002, March/April 2004, and May 2002, respectively. To account for the history of atmospheric N2O, we suggest a new depth-dependent calculation of excess N2O (ΔN2O. N2O depth profiles showed supersaturation throughout the water column with a distinct increasing trend from the cold-temperate to the tropical region. Lowest nitrous oxide concentrations, near equilibrium and with an average of 11.0±1.7 nmol L−1, were found in the cold-temperate North Atlantic where the profiles showed no clear maxima. Highest values up to 37.3 nmol L−1 occurred in the tropical North Atlantic with clear maxima at approximately 400 m. A positive correlation of nitrous oxide with nitrate, as well as excess nitrous oxide with the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU, was only observed in the subtropical and tropical regions. Therefore, we conclude that the formation of nitrous oxide via nitrification occurs in the tropical region rather than in the cold-temperate region of the North Atlantic Ocean

  11. Efectividad del tratamiento acupuntural en la Parálisis Facial Periférica. Puerto Padre, Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorania Cera Barea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental en pacientes mayores de 19 años, con Parálisis Facial Periférica, que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico "Romárico Oro Peña" del municipio de Puerto Padre, provincia de Las Tunas; en el período comprendido entre enero y diciembre del año 2011. La muestra quedó conformada por 40 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión establecidos, a los que se les aplicó el método acupuntural, con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad del mismo en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Los puntos de acupuntura utilizados fueron: Extra 1, 2, 3; Estómago 2, 4, 6, 7; Vaso Concepción 24; Vaso Gobernador 26 y Vesícula Biliar 14. Se aplicó tonificación en el lado sano y dispersión de la energía en el lado de la parálisis. Se recogió la información a través de micro-historias clínicas, donde se incluyeron todas las variables de manera independiente. Los datos se analizaron a través de la estadística descriptiva y el análisis porcentual. Se concluyó que la enfermedad predominó en el sexo femenino y el grupo etáreo de 40 a 49 años; la exposición al frío y/o al calor resultó el factor desencadenante que más incidió; el mayor número de pacientes presentó una evolución clínica favorable; solo se presentaron dos efectos adversos relativos al uso de la acupuntura, demostrando la inocuidad del tratamiento.

  12. Spatial variation in fatty acid trophic markers in albacore tuna from the southwestern Pacific Ocean-A potential 'tropicalization' signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Christopher C.; Pethybridge, Heidi; Young, Jock W.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2015-03-01

    Signature fatty acids were used to explore trophic variations in albacore and skipjack tuna sampled from the southwestern Pacific Ocean. There were clear spatial differences in fatty acid profiles between albacore sampled in the Coral (tropical zone centered at ~20°S) and Tasman (temperate zone centered at ~42°S) Seas; however, few differences were observed in fatty acid profiles of albacore sampled off Tasmania and New Zealand. Fatty acid signatures of the Tasman Sea samples reflected a food web based more on diatoms and included: 20:5ω3 (EPA), 18:1ω7, 22:1ω11, 18:2ω6, 18:4ω3, 18:3ω3, and 20:4ω3. In contrast, albacore from the Coral Sea had a distinct fatty acid signature which included 20:4ω6, 22:5ω6, 17:0, 22:4ω6, 24:0, and 17:1. Multivariate analyses revealed the importance of 22:6ω3 (DHA) in Coral Sea-caught albacore which also had a DHA/EPA ratio more than twice that in all other groups suggesting a greater dinoflagellate contribution and/or a higher trophic position. Fatty acid markers indicative of krill consumption were significantly higher in temperate-caught albacore although skipjack were closest in fatty acid composition to krill. These results were likely due to differences at the base of the food web in these two seas suggesting that signature fatty acids can be used as indicators of ecosystem change: in this case the gradual 'tropicalization' of the eastern seaboard of Australia through the southward extension of the East Australian Current. Our findings also indicate comparatively lower concentrations of healthful ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular the content of DHA and EPA, in the tropical samples. This suggests that tropicalization could adversely affect the dietary intake of albacore and other marine predators in the region. Such changes are readily detectable by fatty acid analysis.

  13. Comportamiento de la polifarmacia en el hogar de ancianos “Carlos Font Pupo”, Las Tunas, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahily de la Caridad Rojas Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento conlleva a un mayor consumo de fármacos en los ancianos, elevando la probabilidad de ocurrencia de interacciones medicamentosas y reacciones adversas, afectando la calidad de vida de este tipo de paciente. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para caracterizar la polifarmacia en el Hogar de Ancianos “Carlos Pupo Font”, en Las Tunas, durante el año 2011. El universo estuvo constituido por la totalidad de pacientes institucionalizados y la muestra por 102 ancianos con criterio de selección de consumo de tres o más medicamentos de forma simultánea en el período de estudio. Se caracterizó la edad y sexo de los ancianos, frecuencia de polifarmacia, los grupos farmacológicos implicados, las principales afecciones clínicas y las posibles interacciones medicamentosas por las prescripciones realizadas. La información se obtuvo de la revisión de historias clínicas y fue procesada mediante la estadística descriptiva. El sexo femenino y el grupo de edad entre 75 y 84 años fueron los predominantes. Un 47% de los ancianos consumió cuatro medicamentos simultáneamente. Los antihipertensivos fueron los medicamentos más usados, seguidos por los AINEs. El 72% de la muestra padece afecciones cardiorrespiratorias y el 68% afecciones músculo esqueléticas. Se identificaron posibles interacciones medicamentosas relacionadas con el proceso de absorción, dadas por uniones de ácidos y bases débiles y por interacciones con alimentos, específicamente con la leche. La polimedicación puede ser racionalizada a través de un uso adecuado de los medicamentos, teniendo en cuenta el intervalo de dosificación, las características químicas de los fármacos, la dosis y las características individuales del paciente.

  14. Metasomatismo en ortoanfibolitas de la Faja máfica-ultramáfica del río de las tunas, Mendoza Metasomatism in orthoamphibolites from the Río de Las Tunas mafic-ultramafic belt, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Gargiulo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron claras evidencias petro-mineralógicas y químicas de metasomatismo en ortoanfibolitas de la faja máficaultramáfica del Río de Las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza. Estas ortoanfibolitas integran el basamento metamórfico de la Cordillera Frontal y pertenecen al Complejo Guarguaráz. La peculiaridad que poseen, es el desarrollo de asociaciones de minerales calcosilicáticos vinculados a texturas que indican condiciones de desequilibrio. Los cristaloblastos de anfíbol están reemplazados en los bordes por clinopiroxeno (diópsido ferroso y los individuos de plagioclasa se encuentran casi completamente reemplazados por un agregado muy fino de granate-epidotos.l -prehnita-pumpellyita-albita, que actúa a modo de matriz de la roca. Los cristales de anfíbol y clinopiroxeno están, a su vez, parcialmente reemplazados por pumpellyita y/o clorita, mientras que la matriz se encuentra alterada débilmente por muscovita y calcita. Los cristales de granate corresponden a la serie grosularia-andradita y su composición promedio es Alm05Adr53Prp01Sps04Grs36Uv01. Cristales con mayor contenido de Cr2O3 (11,69-13,17% en peso y sutil zonalidad composicional, determinada por un núcleo más rico en el componente uvarovítico: Alm03Adr13Prp00Sps02Grs35Uv47, y borde con incremento de la proporción del componente grosulárico: Alm03Adr12Prp00Sps01Grs44Uv40, suelen estar en contacto con cristales de magnetita con hasta un 20% de componente cromítico. La zonalidad composicional presente también en los cristales de anfíbol permitió estimar valores de presión entre 2,5 y 4,2 kbar. Las asociaciones minerales junto con sus características texturales y químicas distinguen a estas rocas del resto de las ortoanfibolitas que afloran en el área de estudio y se las interpreta y clasifica como rodingitas clinopiroxénicas con granate y clinozoisita. Las condiciones de presión obtenidas, junto con el desarrollo de los minerales calcosilic

  15. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  16. CARINA alkalinity data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Velo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic.

    These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these, 75 cruises report alkalinity values.

    Here we present details of the secondary QC on alkalinity for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the alkalinity values for 16 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL alkalinity data to be 3.3 μmol kg−1. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  17. CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanhua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA data base were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 98 were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean and of these 84 cruises report nitrate values, 79 silicate, and 78 phosphate. Here we present details of the secondary QC for nutrients for the Atlantic Ocean part of CARINA. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the nutrient values for 43 of the cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL nutrient data to be: nitrate 1.5%; phosphate 2.6%; silicate 3.1%. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  18. 基于分离式卫星标志信息的金枪鱼垂直移动特性%Vertical movement characteristics of tuna (Thunnus albacares) in Pacific Ocean determined using pop-up satellite archival tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衡; 戴阳; 杨胜龙; 王晓璇; 刘光明; 陈雪忠

    2014-01-01

    Pacific yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is widely distribute in subtropical and tropical waters, extending to 40°N in the North Pacific Ocean. Understanding the biology of tunas requires the knowledge of where it lives and its various movements between different habitats. But, the movement and habitat of yellowfin tuna in the Northwest Pacific Ocean have been poor understood in the world. A total of 36 yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares were tagged using Pop-up Satellite Archival Tags (PSATs) and released in 2010-2012 to examine their vertical movement patterns. The results showed that the return rate of 8 tunas deployed from purse seine fishery was 100%, but the recorded period of tags was only 0.5-5 days. The return rate of those tunas deployed from handline fishery was 75%, while the recorded period of tags was 0.5-91 days and the tag of 2 tunas were normally popped up. In this study, the recorded period was lower than 10 days for 18 tags, was 10-20 days for 3 tags and was longer than 20 days for 8 tags. The longest recorded time of fish ID 33339 was 91 days and its straight-line distance was 822 km from the deployed site. The second longest recorded time of fish ID 33869 was 89 days because of the 3 months set time, while its straight-line distance was only 10 km. The tunas deployed from handline fishery provided loner-time information. About 85.9% of time for yellowfin tunas lived in the 0-150 m depths, 13% of time in≥150-250 m and only 1.1% of time lived in the≥250 m depths. As for as water temperature, 81.7% of time yellowfin tunas lived in≥24℃, 16.2% of time in 16-24℃ and only 2.1% of time lived in≤16℃. In 0-50 m depth, the occurrence frequency of yellowfin tunas in night was 2 times higher than that in day, while the occurrence frequency of them in day was larger than that in night in 50-500 m depths. From the most tags data, we found that the yellowfin tuna can go up to surface water layer (<10 m) and the maximum habitat depth of 53

  19. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-10-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  20. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications...), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red... document is also accessible via the Internet at http://www.nefmc.org . NMFS prepared a Final...

  1. Study on Hydrolyzing of Tuna Meat Protein with Compound Proteases%复合酶解金枪鱼碎肉的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛建美; 王朋; 李双双; 王斌; 罗红宇

    2011-01-01

    Two enzymes as trypsin and papain were chosed because of their high degree of hydrolysis to tuna meat protein.In the two enzymes reaction system,the optimum hydrolysis conditions of tuna meat protein confirmed by orthogonal test were as follows: reaction temperature was 45 ℃,reaction time was 6 h,the amount of trypsin added was 15 000 U/g while adding amount of papain was 45 000 U/g,pH of reaction was 7.0.Under these conditions,the degree of hydrolysis of tuna meat can reach 15.83%.Hydrolyzate was separated by 10 000 Da and 5 000 Da ultra-membranes.Three components whose molecular weights were 10 000 Da,5 000~10 000Da,5 000 Da had been collected.The corresponding yields were 7.69%,30.71% and 19.23%.%以水解度为指标,筛选出水解金枪鱼碎肉蛋白效果较好的两种酶为胰蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶。以这两种酶组成双酶反应体系,经正交试验得到金枪鱼碎肉蛋白最佳水解条件为:反应温度45℃、反应时间6 h、胰蛋白酶添加量15 000 U/g、木瓜蛋白酶添加量为45 000 U/g、体系pH为7.0。在此条件下,金枪鱼肉水解度可以达到15.83%。酶解液采用10 000 Da和5 000 Da超滤膜进行分离,获得〉10 000 Da,5 000~10 000 Da,〈5 000 Da三个组分,得率分别为7.69%,30.71%,19.23%。

  2. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... or hammerhead sharks in the Coastal Fisheries Logbook. Currently, there is no commercial oceanic... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... published in the Federal Register (71 FR 58058) final regulations, effective November 1, 2006...

  3. 78 FR 4129 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... System (VMS), as well as a review of the VMS fact sheet. 2. Receive a presentation on the mobile phone... VMS requirements for vessels with South Atlantic commercial snapper grouper permits. This action...

  4. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... Christopher M. Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Suite 201, 800 N. State... overfishing. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: February 12, 2013. Alan D. Risenhoover, Director,...

  5. 77 FR 8776 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    .... Moore, Executive Director, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Suite 201, 800 N. State Street... Monitoring Committee. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. Dated: February 9, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover,...

  6. Characteristics of fishing operations, environment and life history contributing to small cetacean bycatch in the northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Brown

    Full Text Available Fisheries bycatch is a key threat to cetacean species globally. Managing the impact requires an understanding of the conditions under which animals are caught and the sections of the population affected. We used observer data collected on an albacore tuna gillnet fishery in the northeast Atlantic, to assess operational and environmental factors contributing to bycatch of common and striped dolphins, using generalised linear models and model averaging. Life history demographics of the captured animals were also investigated. In both species, young males dominated the catch. The age ratio of common dolphins was significantly different from that estimated for the population in the region, based on life tables (G = 17.1, d.f. = 2, p = 0.002. Skewed age and sex ratios may reflect varying vulnerability to capture, through differences in behaviour or segregation in populations. Adult females constituted the second largest portion of the bycatch for both species, with potential consequences for population sustainability. Depth was the most important parameter influencing bycatch of both species and reflected what is known about common and striped dolphin habitat use in the region as the probability of catching common dolphins decreased, and striped dolphins increased, with increasing depth. Striped dolphin capture was similarly influenced by the extent to which operations were conducted in daylight, with the probability of capture increasing with increased operations in the pre-sunset and post-sunrise period, potentially driven by increased ability of observers to record animals during daylight operations, or by diurnal movements increasing contact with the fishery. Effort, based on net length and soak time, had little influence on the probability of capturing either species. Our results illustrate the importance of assessing the demographic of the animals captured during observer programmes and, perhaps more importantly, suggest that effort

  7. Response of the South Atlantic circulation to an abrupt collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurian, Audine [University of Hawai' i at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Drijfhout, Sybren S. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The South Atlantic response to a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is investigated in the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model. A reduced Agulhas leakage (about 3.1 Sv; 1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) is found to be associated with a weaker Southern Hemisphere (SH) supergyre and Indonesian throughflow. These changes are due to reduced wind stress curl over the SH supergyre, associated with a weaker Hadley circulation and a weaker SH subtropical jet. The northward cross-equatorial transport of thermocline and intermediate waters is much more strongly reduced than Agulhas leakage in relation with an AMOC collapse. A cross-equatorial gyre develops due to an anomalous wind stress curl over the tropics that results from the anomalous sea surface temperature gradient associated with reduced ocean heat transport. This cross-equatorial gyre completely blocks the transport of thermocline waters from the South to the North Atlantic. The waters originating from Agulhas leakage flow somewhat deeper and most of it recirculates in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, leading to a gyre intensification. This intensification is consistent with the anomalous surface cooling over the South Atlantic. Most changes in South Atlantic circulation due to global warming, featuring a reduced AMOC, are qualitatively similar to the response to an AMOC collapse, but smaller in amplitude. However, the increased northward cross-equatorial transport of intermediate water relative to thermocline water is a strong fingerprint of an AMOC collapse. (orig.)

  8. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  9. Indian - Atlantic interocean exchange: variability and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Mathijs Wilhelmus

    2003-01-01

    South of Africa, warm Indian Ocean water enters the Atlantic Ocean by means of large Agulhas Rings. These rings, with diameters up to 350 km and reaching all the way to the ocean floor at 5 km depth, form an important link in the global thermohaline circulation, which is the driving force behind the

  10. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  11. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  12. Non-invasive determination of the CO contents in tuna fish using polarization resolved resonance Raman scattering and/or Rayleigh spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is used for Modified Atmosphere Packaging of fresh fish and meat. CO is added because it binds to the Myoglobin of the muscle tissue with high affinity resulting in a bright, cherry-red colored carboxy-Myoglobin complex. The product will because of the red color appear to be ...... with polarization resolved resonance Raman spectra of these molecules, can form the basis of the development of a fast and non-invasive method for the screening of the presence of CO in tuna fish and meat.......Carbon monoxide (CO) is used for Modified Atmosphere Packaging of fresh fish and meat. CO is added because it binds to the Myoglobin of the muscle tissue with high affinity resulting in a bright, cherry-red colored carboxy-Myoglobin complex. The product will because of the red color appear...

  13. REPOSITORIO DIGITAL PARA UNA MEJOR GESTIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD LAS TUNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunior Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la importancia de la implementación de un repositorio digital para una mejor gestión de la información científica en la Universidad de Las Tunas, donde podamos socializar y consultar las tesis de grado, maestría y doctorado, resultados de proyectos de investigación, libros, revistas, manuscritos creados en nuestra Universidad e incluso digitalizar libros de única edición y de difícil acceso. Se ofrecen definiciones de varios autores así como los antecedentes de la gestión de información científica en nuestra universidad, además de las ventajas de su creación. También se muestra el diagnóstico y la estrategia para si implementación.

  14. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  15. Caracterización del mieloma múltiple y de su componente monoclonal durante 14 años en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lina Pupo Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El mieloma múltiple es una neoplasia de células plasmáticas que representa el 10% de las enfermedades hematológicas malignas. La mayoría de los pacientes presentan síntomas, signos y trastornos de laboratorio sugestivos de enfermedad activa, incluyendo lesiones osteolíticas activas, hipercalcemia, anemia y fallo renal. Para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad hay que tener en cuenta las manifestaciones clínicas, los estudios radiológicos, pruebas especiales como citología celular y exámenes de laboratorio como la electroforesis de proteína en suero y orina, inmunoelectroforesis, cuantificación de inmunoglobulinas y proteína de Bence-Jones. Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de evaluar las características de las variables inmunológicas mediante la determinación de inmunoglobulinas (inmunodifusión radial simple o inmunoturbidimetría en un analizador automático HITACHI, proteínas totales (método de Biuret o en el analizador HITACHI y electroforesis de proteínas en suero y orina en pacientes remitidos de la consulta de Hematología del Hospital “Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de Las Tunas, con el diagnóstico de mieloma múltiple. La clase IgG fue la predominante en los 127 casos estudiados (73,3%, seguido de la IgA (16,5% y de cadenas ligeras (9,5%. Se han registrado dos casos de macroglobulinemia de Waldeström. En correspondencia con lo reportado en la literatura, en la provincia de Las Tunas el isotipo más frecuente en pacientes afectados por mieloma múltiple es de clase IgG.

  16. Características de la infección por geohelmintos intestinales en escolares primarios de la provincia de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca M. Laird Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo, en el período comprendido entre los meses de septiembre y diciembre de 2004, con el objetivo de caracterizar la infección por geohelmintos intestinales en escolares de la enseñanza primaria de la provincia de Las Tunas. Se estudiaron 1 342 escolares pertenecientes a 35 escuelas de los estratos urbano y rural de los ocho municipios de la provincia. De cada escolar se procesó una muestra de heces por los procedimientos Directo y Kato Katz y se practicó el método de Harada Moris cuando se observaron huevos de ancylostomídeos. A los escolares parasitados por geohelmintos se les determinó su condición clínica. Se obtuvo una prevalencia general de la infección por geohelmintos intestinales del 16,2%, con predominio de la intensidad general de la infección ligera. Los gusanos trichúridos fueron los más observados, asociados a la mayoría de las infecciones con intensidades ligeras y moderadas. Prevaleció el estado clínico asintomático con muy poca morbilidad específica, siendo el dolor abdominal y la diarrea no disentérica los síntomas más frecuentes. Se caracterizó a la provincia de Las Tunas como una zona hipoendémica de geohelmintos intestinales y se recomienda identificar los determinantes de la infección por estos parásitos en la población escolar

  17. LA GUITARRA DE CONCIERTO COMO EXPRESIÓN DE LA CULTURA EN LAS TUNAS. ESTUDIO DEL PERÍODO 1990- 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tamayo Talavera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente estudio forma parte de una investigación que se encuentra en proceso, sobre el devenir de la guitarra de concierto en el municipio Las Tunas desde el año 1990 hasta el 2014. La guitarra de concierto se cultiva en este territorio desde la segunda mitad siglo XX, generándose a partir del período citado un proceso de desarrollo paulatino en torno a sus expresiones. Sin embargo, aún no se han logrado niveles masivos de aceptación de la guitarra de concierto por parte de la sociedad tunera, lo cual conduce a realizar un análisis sobre las causas de su situación actual desde la definición de cultura. Por otro lado, quedarán identificadas las deficiencias que en la actualidad limitan sus contribuciones al desarrollo cultural del territorio. ABSTRACT This study is part of a research which is still in process, about the development of the concert guitar in Las Tunas municipality in 1990-2014 period. The concert guitar has been cultivated in this territory since the beginning of XX century, and it has been generated a development process around its expressions in the selected period. However, Las Tunas’ society hasn’t accepted these musical expressions in massive levels, which takes to make an analysis of the causes of its actual situation from culture’s definition. On the other hand, the problems that avoid the contributions of the concert guitar to the culture development of Las Tunas’ territory will be also identified.

  18. Effects of longitudinal body position and swimming speed on mechanical power of deep red muscle from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Douglas A; Shadwick, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical power output of deep, red muscle from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was studied to investigate (i) whether this muscle generates maximum power during cruise swimming, (ii) how the differences in strain experienced by red muscle at different axial body locations affect its performance and (iii) how swimming speed affects muscle work and power output. Red muscle was isolated from approximately mid-way through the deep wedge that lies next to the backbone; anterior (0.44 fork lengths, ANT) and posterior (0.70 fork lengths, POST) samples were studied. Work and power were measured at 25 degrees C using the work loop technique. Stimulus phases and durations and muscle strains (+/- 5.5 % in ANT and +/- 8 % in POST locations) experienced during cruise swimming at different speeds were obtained from previous studies and used during work loop recordings. In addition, stimulus conditions that maximized work were determined. The stimulus durations and phases yielding maximum work decreased with increasing cycle frequency (analogous to tail-beat frequency), were the same at both axial locations and were almost identical to those used by the fish during swimming, indicating that the muscle produces near-maximal work under most conditions in swimming fish. While muscle in the posterior region undergoes larger strain and thus produces more mass-specific power than muscle in the anterior region, when the longitudinal distribution of red muscle mass is considered, the anterior muscles appear to contribute approximately 40% more total power. Mechanical work per length cycle was maximal at a cycle frequency of 2-3 Hz, dropping to near zero at 15 Hz and by 20-50% at 1 Hz. Mechanical power was maximal at a cycle frequency of 5 Hz, dropping to near zero at 15 Hz. These fish typically cruise with tail-beat frequencies of 2.8-5.2 Hz, frequencies at which power from cyclic contractions of deep red muscles was 75-100% maximal. At any given frequency over this range, power

  19. THE CRAFT LIKE A CULTURAL PRACTICE THAT CONFIGURES SOCIOCULTURAL PROCESSES: THE BASKETWORK IN THE TUNAS AT THE PRESENT TIME / LA ARTESANÍA COMO UNA PRÁCTICA CULTURAL CONFIGURADORA DE PROCESOS SOCIOCULTURALES: LA CESTERÍA EN LAS TUNAS EN LA ACTUALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumairys Diamela Candó Gámez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the handmade movement in The Tunas is an important cultural fact in which has left condensing the conserved information and renovated in the cultural memoirs of the tunero, as long as it is identity that reflective characteristic that distinguish it and very authentic revealing knowledge and specific creation of a societal group. The years ninety represented a stagnation in the popular craft, it altered and it confused the true sense of the handmade production. The market entered as an element of deregulation of the qualities. He fell in the temptation of the commercialization without control. The art is confused with something easy, the legitimate and necessary commercialization of the productions with the marketing of the candongas, the artisan with the worker self-employed, the promoter with the merolico. The institucionalization of the culture starting from the revolutionary victory with the cultural politics's application in Cuba, together to the economic crisis in the decade of the 90 are sociocultural factors that condition to the craft as that it configures of sociocultural processes that are evidenced in the inherited cultural practices or institutionalized, remunerated (professionals or not remunerated (fans, as approaches that it configures of groups. The types of craft, the techniques, the ethnic composition of the representative groups, the professional formation, the origin (field, city, periphery, and composition of the groups for gender and number (grupal or singular they are indicative that allow to conceptualize the characteristics and types of the craft as cultural practice in The Tunas.

  20. Tuna Genetics Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These samples are collected in order to gain a better understanding of the biological and ecological aspects of this group of fish in this area. It will be used to...

  1. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  2. Wind Stress Increases Glacial Atlantic Overturning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, J.; Schmittner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) showed ambiguous results on transports and structure. Here we analyze the most recent PMIP3 models, which show a consistent increase (on average by 41%) and deepening (580 m) of the AMOC for all models with respect to pre-industrial control (PIC) simulations (see Figure), in contrast to some reconstructions. Changes in wind stress alone lead to similar AMOC responses in a climate-ocean circulation model, suggesting that atmospheric circulation changes in the North Atlantic due to the presence of ice sheets are an important control in the PMIP3 models' LGM response. These results improve our understanding of the LGM AMOC's driving forces and are relevant for the evaluation of models that are used in the IPCC's Assessment Reports for future climate projections, as well as for the currently ongoing design of the next round of PMIP.

  3. Coherent water transport across the South Atlantic

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Beron-Vera, F J

    2015-01-01

    The role of mesoscale eddies in transporting Agulhas leakage is investigated using a recent technique from nonlinear dynamical systems theory applied on geostrophic currents inferred from the over two-decade-long satellite altimetry record. Eddies are found to acquire material coherence away from the Agulhas retroflection, near the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic. Yearly, 1 to 4 coherent material eddies are detected with diameters ranging from 40 to 280 km. A total of 23 eddy cores of about 50 km in diameter and with at least 30% of their contents traceable into the Indian Ocean were found to travel across the subtropical gyre with minor filamentation. No more than 5\\% of such cores pour their contents on the North Brazil Current. While ability of eddies to carry Agulhas leakage northwestward across the South Atlantic is supported by our analysis, this is more restricted than suggested by earlier ring transport assessments.

  4. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  5. Indian - Atlantic interocean exchange: variability and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, Mathijs Wilhelmus

    2003-01-01

    South of Africa, warm Indian Ocean water enters the Atlantic Ocean by means of large Agulhas Rings. These rings, with diameters up to 350 km and reaching all the way to the ocean floor at 5 km depth, form an important link in the global thermohaline circulation, which is the driving force behind the moderate temperatures over Northern Europe. For six years, the shedding of Agulhas rings has been monitored from space, using satellite altimeter measurements of the sea surface height. Rings can ...

  6. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E E; Hansen, M M; Schmidt, C; Meldrup, D; Grønkjaer, P

    2001-09-20

    Most of the world's cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries are now tightly regulated or closed altogether. Being able to link individual fish to their population of origin would assist enormously in policing regulations and in identifying poachers. Here we show that microsatellite genetic markers can be used to assign individual cod from three different populations in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean to their population of origin. PMID:11565021

  7. In Brief: Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Two hurricane forecasters are predicting that 2008 will be an above-average Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season with an above-average probability of a major hurricane making landfall in the United States. During 2008, there could be about seven hurricanes (the annual average is 5.9) and 13 named storms (the average is 9.6), according to a 7 December report by Philip Klotzbach, research scientist at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, and William Gray, university professor emeritus of atmospheric sciences. The forecasters indicate that they believe the Atlantic basin is in an active hurricane cycle that is associated with a strong thermohaline circulation and an active phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The report notes that, ``real-time operational early December forecasts have not shown forecast skill over climatology during this 16-year period [1992-2007]. This has occurred despite the fact that the skill over the hindcast period...showed appreciable skill.'' For more information, visit the Web site: http://hurricane.atmos.colostate.edu/Forecasts/2007/dec2007/dec2007.pdf.

  8. Local and remote impacts of a tropical Atlantic salinity anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Mignot, Juliette; Frankignoul, Claude

    2009-01-01

    The climatic impacts of an enhanced evaporation prescribed during 50 years in the tropical Atlantic are investigated in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. Locally, the salinity increase leads to a rapid deepening and cooling of the surface mixed layer. This induces a deepening of the equatorial undercurrent and an intensification of the south equatorial current. A remote atmospheric response to the tropical Atlantic perturbation is detected in the North Atlantic sector afte...

  9. Mechanisms and predictability of North Atlantic - European Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of North Atlantic-European climate using atmosphere general circulation models (AGCMs). Experiments with the AGCM ECHAM4, in which the sea surface temperature (SST) forcing is restricted to either the Atlantic or the Indo-Pacific oceans, show that both oceanic regions have an influence on North Atlantic-European climate in winter. In the experiment with SST forcing restricted to the Indo-Pacific oceans the atmospheric response projects on the North Atlan...

  10. Evidence of remote forcing in the Equatorial Atlantic ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Servain, J.; Picaut, Joël; Merle, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of sea-surface temperature (STT) and surface winds in selected areas of the Tropical Atlantic indicates that the nonseasonal variability of SST in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea) is highly correlated with the nonseasonal variability of the zonal wind stress in the Western Equatorial Atlantic. A negative (positive) anomaly of the zonal wind stress near the North Brazilian coast is followed by a positive (negative) SST anomaly in the Gulf of Guinea about one month l...

  11. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  12. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU54 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... provisions of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The...

  13. 75 FR 33242 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW45 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... the provisions of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal...

  14. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  15. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  16. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  17. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  3. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  4. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  5. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stendardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the comparison of deep ocean data at places that were sampled by different cruises at different times. Initial adjustments to the individual cruises were then determined by an inverse procedure that computes a set of adjustments that requires the minimum amount of adjustment and at the same time reduces the offsets in an optimal manner. The initial adjustments were then reviewed by the CARINA members, and only those that passed the following two criteria were adopted: (i the region is not subject to substantial temporal variability, and (ii the adjustment must be based on at least three stations from each cruise. No adjustment was recommended for cruises that did not fit these criteria. The final CARINA-Oxygen dataset has 103414 oxygen samples from 9491 stations obtained during 98 cruises covering three decades. The sampling density of the oxygen data is particularly good in the North Atlantic north of about 40° N especially after 1987. In contrast, the sample density in the South Atlantic is much lower. Some cruises appear to have poor data quality, and were subsequently omitted from the adjusted dataset. Of the data included in the adjusted dataset, 20% were adjusted with a mean adjustment of 2%. Due to the achieved internal consistency, the resulting product is well suited to produce an improved climatology or to study long-term changes in the oxygen content of the ocean. However, the adjusted dataset is not necessarily better suited than the unadjusted data to

  6. Dinámica de la flota atunera mexicana del Océano Pacífico Oriental Mexican tuna fleet dynamics of the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Solana-Sansores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la dinámica de la flota atunera mexicana del Pacífico Oriental y su relación con señales medioambientales utilizadas en las estrategias de pesca. La información proviene de una muestra sistemática con arranque aleatorio de 176 cruceros de pesca registrados por el programa mexicano de observadores, entre 1992 y 2005. En cada viaje la información se genera secuencialmente en lapsos de tiempo fijos, permitiendo suponer que los registros son un proceso estocástico discreto y puede analizarse como una Cadena de Markov. Los registros se agrupan en: (1 desplazamientos espaciales del barco; (2 observación de señales y (3 maniobras de pesca. En el análisis se reconocen dos tácticas de pesca: una sistemática y otra aleatoria. La primera inicia con una búsqueda de señales (aves o mamíferos marinos, seguido de un lance de pesca sobre cardúmenes asociados a delfines o sobre cardúmenes no asociados. Alternativamente, las tácticas aleatorias no involucran una búsqueda y llevan, con menor probabilidad, a un lance sobre atunes no asociados. Ambas tácticas de pesca son influenciados por factores ambientales, ecológicos, sociales, y económicos. De este modo se observan diferentes estrategias durante un ciclo anual o de mayor duración, que están relacionadas con políticas regionales de manejo pesquero derivadas del Acuerdo del Programa Internacional de Conservación de Delfines. Se concluye que la dinámica de la flota atunera mexicana es un factor que deberá analizarse sistemáticamente en la estimación del Esfuerzo de Pesca para obtener mejores evaluaciones de los rendimientos de esta pesquería.It analyzes the fishing dynamics of the Mexican tuna fleet of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP and its relation with environmental signs which are used for fishing. The information comes from a systematic sample with a random start of 176 fishing cruisers, registered by the observer's Mexican program (1992 to 2005. In each trip the

  7. 提取黄鳍金枪鱼眼窝肉鱼油的方法比较研究%Comparison of different methods of fish oil extraction from yellowfin tuna orbital meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶宁萍; 周敏; 王锡昌

    2011-01-01

    以黄鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus albacores 眼窝肉为研究对象,采用隔水蒸煮法、酶解法、碱水解法和超临界CO2(SC-CO2)萃取法提取鱼油,对所得鱼油的理化性质和脂肪酸组成进行分析测定.结果表明:SC-CO2萃取法和酶解法提取率无显著性差异,但明显高于隔水蒸煮法和碱水解法;SC-CO2萃取法获得的鱼油达到我国水产行业SC/T 3502-2000精制鱼油一级标准,其他3种方法达到SC/T 3502-2000粗鱼油二级标准;SC-CO2 萃取法提取的鱼油不饱和脂肪酸含量最高(74.29%),其中含EPA 5.99%、DHA 27.12%.因此,SC-CO2 较其他3种方法提取金枪鱼眼窝肉中鱼油具有显著优势.%Water bath, enzymatic hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC -CO2 ) methods were used to extract fish oil from the yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacores) orbital meat. The physicochemical properties and fatty acids of unrefined tuna orbital oil were analyzed. The results showed that there was no significant difference between SC -CO2 method and enzymatic hydrolysis method in the oil extraction yield, however, their oil extraction yield were obviously higher than those extracted by water bath and alkaline hydrolysis. The physicochemical properties of tuna orbital oil extracted by SC - CO2 met with the first grade of refined fish oil in China standard ( SC/T 3502 - 2000) , while those extracted by the other three methods met with the secondary grade of unrefined fish oil. The tuna orbital oil extracted by SC- CO2 contained the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids (74.29%), of which, EPA and DHA were 5.99% and 27.12%, respectively. In general ,the SC -CO2 had obvious superiority in extraction of tuna orbital oil.

  8. 大西洋中部金枪鱼延绳钓渔场黄鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus albacares)生物学特性的初步研究%PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YELLOWFIN TUNA THUNNUS ALBACARES IN THE TUNA LONGLINE FISHING GROUND OF THE CENTRAL ATLANTIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋利明; 陈新军; 许柳雄

    2004-01-01

    根据2001年6月16日-10月27日大西洋中部金枪鱼延绳钓渔场现场所作的生物学测定数据,应用统计与回归的方法分别对黄鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus albacares)的性腺成熟度、摄食等级、摄食种类、性比、叉长分布、叉长与纯重的关系、叉长与原条鱼重的关系、原条鱼重与纯重的关系等进行了研究.结果表明,(1)性腺成熟度Ⅵ级占的比例最高,为47.06%.(2)摄食等级以1级为主,其次为0级,分别占45.45%和18.18%.(3)胃含物中以鱿鱼出现的频率为最高,占44.44%,其次是沙丁鱼和杂鱼,分别占27.78%和25.00%.(4)雄性与雌性的性比约为1.43比1.(5)优势叉长为1.31-1.47m,占31.44%,平均叉长为1.39m.(6)不分性别、雄性和雌性黄鳍金枪鱼叉长(FL)与纯重(DW)的关系可表达为:DW=5.6632×10-6FL3.1951.(7)不分性别、雄性和雌性黄鳍金枪鱼叉长(FL)与原条鱼重(RW)的关系分别为:RW=8.5072×10-6FL3.1390、RWM=1.1229×10-5 FLM3.0847、RWF=7.1711×10-6FLF3.1721.(8)不分性别、雄性和雌性黄鳍金枪鱼原条鱼重(RW)与纯重(DW)的关系分别为:RW=1.1339DW、RWM= 1.1320DWM、RWF=1.1399DWF.

  9. Effects of different cold chain logistics situations on quality and microstructure of tuna (Thunnus obesus) fillets%不同冷链物流过程对金枪鱼品质及组织形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤元睿; 谢晶; 李念文; 徐慧文; 苏辉; 黎柳; 潘文龙

    2014-01-01

    为研究物流过程中温度变化对金枪鱼品质及组织形态的影响,试验模拟5种不同物流过程,测定金枪鱼肉感官、色差、持水力、质构以及肌纤维间隙。结果表明,超低温冻藏大目金枪鱼肉的品质受物流过程中温度变化影响显著,储运、销售过程始终保持在-55℃的完整冷链下能够使金枪鱼肉保持良好品质;随着储运过程中温度变化次数增多、幅度增大,鱼肉劣化显著,其中,经2次-18℃运输的金枪鱼肉在冻藏末期组织松散、肌纤维间隙达17.20μm,在4℃家用冰箱中贮藏12 h后感官评分、红度值、持水力、硬度和咀嚼性分别为-0.81、5.2、53.08%、1.128 N和58.03,其质量甚至低于物流过程始终保持在-18℃而不产生温度变化的鱼肉。若运输过程不具备超低温冷藏车,仅靠超低温贮藏并不能减缓鱼肉品质劣变,此时应适当调节贮藏温度,尽量避免储运期间的温度变化;相较于2℃冷藏销售,-18℃冷冻柜销售能够使金枪鱼肉保持较好品质。研究结果可为金枪鱼储运和销售提供参考。%The process of cold chain logistics including storage, transportation, selling, and other steps, requires the temperature to be kept at an ultra-low degree of-55℃at all times-. However, because there is a current lack of mechanical cryogenic transportation vehicles in China that meet this requirement, ordinary refrigerated trucks with a temperature of only-18℃ are widely used for tuna transport. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of variations in storing temperature and selling models on the quality and microstructure of tuna (Thunnus obesus). In this paper, four diverse situations of transportation and storage were performed to simulate:complete ultra-low temperature cold chain (-55℃), normal cold chain (-18℃), and tuna stored at -55℃ but transported afterwards at -18℃ once and twice. Three different sales

  10. STUDY OF POTENTIAL FISHING GROUND FOR SKIPJACK TUNA (Katsuwonus pelamis in SAWU SEA EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE USING REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE AND FISHERY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRMA YULIA MADJID

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's marine waters contain natural resources, especially biological resources, such as fish abundant and diverse. Skipjack tuna is one of the pelagic fish that have a high commercial value and eao be found in the sea water of the eastern part of Indonesia, especially in the sea waler of Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province. This study employed the average composite data of Sea Surface Temperature, Chlorophyll-a and Photosyntetically Active Radiation (PAR are got from Aqua MODJS satellite in 2006, and wind speed data from Quickscat satellite. Vertieally Generalized Production Model (VGPM was proposed by Behrenfeld and Falkowski (1997 was used to estimate the Primary Production (PP. The Fish Production was estimated using the formula wa.???? proposed by Pauly and Christensen (1995. Fish Production in-situ data were provided by Ministry of Ma,ine and Fisheries East N\\lsa Tenggara Province in 2006 that was 4,685.75 ton/year. Potential fishing zone for Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pe/amis was divided in Lo Southeast, Transition II, and Northwest monsoon. At Northwest monsoon was low potential fishing ground. The good fishing zone was observed in western part of Sawu Sea. The Estimation of higher fish catching estimated during Southeast and Transition II monsoon. The results of Primary Production (PP showed the same patterns with Chlorophyll-a. The estiination of fish production in Sawu Sea was 6,563.08 ton/year. With comparing between fish production estimation and fish production from Ministry of Marine and Fisheris data showed the utilization rate was 71.39 % in Sawu Sea. The correlation between SST and fish catching was low (-0.25 and the correlation between Chlorophyll-a and fish catching in Sawu Sea was low (0.12. The correlation between Chlorophyll-a and SST in Sawu Sea showed inversely relationships (correlation coefficient of -0.24 and has a different and opposite patterns. The correlation between Primary Production (PP and Chlorophyll

  11. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 2640 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... status quo management measures for 2011, which would result in a TAL identical to the 2010 TAL, or 29.264... analyzed three alternatives (including a no action/status quo alternative) for the 2011 Atlantic bluefish... recreational sector. Alternative 3 (status quo) would allocate 10.051 million lb (4,559 mt) to the...

  13. 77 FR 72762 - Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries; 2013 Fishing Quotas for Atlantic Surfclams and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog fisheries for 2013 will remain status quo. Regulations governing these... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9177; fax (978) 281-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 648.72(c) of the regulations implementing the fishery management plan...

  14. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...). Alternative 3, the no action alternative, is considered to be synonymous with status quo management measures... a given phase in the rebuilding period, or the status quo F, whichever is less. According to... alternatives (including a no action/status quo alternative) for 2010 Atlantic bluefish fishery. All...

  15. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Register notice on October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62331). The notice also announced NMFS' intent to undertake... contains an error and is in need of correction. Correction Accordingly, in the October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62331... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. 76 FR 62331 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., dusky, and blacknose sharks in the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico were recently completed (76 FR 61092... (August 29, 2011, 76 FR 53652). Commercial regulations for blacknose sharks include, but are not limited... (May 4, 2010, 75 FR 23676). The Assessment Process was conducted via a series of webinars, during...

  17. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... implemented and analyzed in the 2013 shark quota final rule (77 FR 75896, December 26, 2013) and in the final... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal...

  18. 77 FR 31562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... October 7, 2011(76 FR 62331). This amendment is designed to rebuild and/or end overfishing on several... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... considering the inclusion of Gulf of Mexico blacktip sharks in an amendment to the 2006 Consolidated...

  19. 78 FR 24148 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 62331), we published an NOI that announced the stock status determinations for various... Magnuson-Stevens Act. On November 26, 2012, we published a proposed rule (77 FR 70552) for draft Amendment... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  20. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... amendment is Amendment 3 to the 2006 Consolidated HMS FMP (75 FR 30484, June 1, 2010), which was based on... FR 250, January 5, 2010). Depending on the outcome of this ANPR process, NMFS will consider rules or... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  1. Some hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, D.R.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    An account is given of some hydroids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, collected during dives of submersibles "Nautile" (operated by IFREMER, France) and "Alvin" (operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S.A). The specimens came from three main sectors of the ridge: 15 species from localities

  2. OPTIMASI KONDISI PEMURNIAN ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI MINYAK HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN TUNA (Thunnus sp DENGAN KRISTALISASI UREA [Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from By-product of Tuna (Thunnus sp Meal Processing by Urea Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (-3 are proven to have health beneficial effects. Some effort had been done to obtained oil high in -3 fatty acids. Among the methods developed, urea crystallization was preferred because it is simple, economic, and result in high purity of fatty acids. A source that had not been widely explored for -3 fatty acids production is the by-product of tuna meal processing. This research studied the optimization condition for separation and purification of -3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna meal processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion were optimized using the response surface methodology, and the model was developed.Optimization result showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y= 140,52677X1 + 8,38203X2 – 19,85850X12 – 0,12173X22 – 0,74000X1X2 – 240,33546 with X1=urea to fatty acid ratio and X2=crystallization time. Maximum response was obtained at urea to fatty acid ratio of 3,07:1,crystallization time of 25,10 hours, and predicted response was 80,60%. Analysis of variance showed that urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected response. Under optimal conditions, the product was 3.89 times concentrated and the purity of -3 fatty acids was 81,98%. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. Urea crystallization process changed quality parameters that were oxidation level (peroxide value, anisidin value, and totox value, Fe and Cu content, P content, and water content. The changes were caused by adsorption of primary and secondary oxidation products, part of metals, and phosphoric compound onto unsaponifiable matters or soluble into water.

  3. 75 FR 74004 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... data and models, used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico... but not limited to data and models, used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean... sharks, it may be expanded to include other HMS, as needed. The primary purpose of the individuals in...

  4. Geophysical and geodynamic studies of the North Atlantic Realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The geology of the North Atlantic Realm (NAR), including the North Atlantic, Greenland, the Arctic, Iceland, Scandinavia, Northern Europe and Northeast America has been studied for more than a century and inspired some of the most fundamental theories in geoscience, such as plate tectonics...

  5. 78 FR 36753 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Study Initiation. SUMMARY: The Congressional.... The goals of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study authorized under the Disaster...

  6. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  7. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  8. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  9. Origin and fate of the North Atlantic Current at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenfelder, Tilia; Myers, Paul G.; Rhein, Monika; Pennelly, Clark; Hu, Xianmin

    2016-04-01

    Warm, salty tropical and subtropical water is brought into the subpolar gyre by the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The NAC is the northward extension of the Gulf Stream and is part of the upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The warm, salty water is further transported into the Nordic Seas via the Rockall Trough, into the Denmark Strait and, finally into the Labrador Sea, where it plays an important role in the deep water formation process. On its way into the Labrador Sea the water mass increases its density by dissipating heat to the atmosphere and thereby influencing the local climate. To further understand the processes behind warm water transport towards higher latitudes, we start our investigation at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Here, the NAC flows from the western to eastern basin of the North Atlantic and crosses the MAR via the Charlie-Gibbs, Faraday and Maxwell Fracture Zones. The role of the subpolar and subtropical gyre on the different water masses, and their properties, originating or reaching the MAR is studied using the lagrangian tool ARIANE with the 3D velocity fields taken from a 1/12° AGRIF nest set in a regional NEMO configuration. One result of this investigation is that the majority of particles released at the MAR, distributed over the entire water column, recirculate. Most of the remaining particles make their way into the East Greenland Current or turn in the eastern basin towards the south. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by studying the pathways of the NAC and their properties during different NAO phases.

  10. Seafloor Asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S.Gao; K.H.Liu

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of seafloor asymmetry at about 360000 pairs of conjugate points along 1250 profiles across the mid-Atlantic Ridge(MAR)provide new constraints on models for the upwelling of the buoyant asthenosphere. The sign and amplitude of the asymmetry vary systematically and are functions of the distance between the spreading center and the location of the inferred location of maximum regional buoyancy(LMRB)in the asthenosphere. The LMRB is a smooth line derived from the observed asymmetry and is more centered at the regional topographic high than the spreading center. These observations are best explained by active upwelling of the underlying buoyant asthenosphere rather than by pressure-release melting.

  11. MACKINDER'S "HEARTLAND" THEORY AND THE ATLANTIC COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sharapova, Sevara

    2005-01-01

    The term "Atlantic partnership" refers to the strong diplomatic and military links between the U.S. and major Western European countries such as Great Britain, Germany and France. The union established by these countries has been durable and reliable, especially during the Cold War. The European allies consistently supported the U.S. in military actions. However, in spite of dependence on the U.S., even during the Cold War the European states had many trade conflicts with the United States. N...

  12. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-06-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters.

  13. Caracterización de la trombosis protésica en el servicio de cardiología de Las Tunas. 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Santos Medina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la provincia de Las Tunas, con el objetivo de caracterizar la trombosis de prótesis valvular en el período entre 2006 y 2011. El universo estuvo conformado por los 34 pacientes ingresados en el servicio por sospecha de trombosis protésica y la muestra por los 29 casos con diagnóstico definitivo de trombosis valvular protésica. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva a través del análisis porcentual. La edad promedio de los casos fue de 47 años. Predominaron los pacientes del sexo femenino, con prótesis en posición mitral, con anticoagulación inadecuada y con ritmo sinusal en el electrocardiograma al ingreso. El edema agudo del pulmón fue la forma de presentación de disfunción ventricular izquierda que predominó. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con estreptoquinasa, lográndose resolución de la trombosis en la mayoría de los casos, con un número escaso de complicaciones tras el tratamiento trombolítico.

  14. 金枪鱼鱼肉色泽评定方法的研究进展%Review on the evaluation of tuna meat color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖明涛; 刘书臣; 林森森; 赵巧灵; 戴志远

    2013-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the meat color of tuna include sensory evaluation,meat surface optical measurement,spectrophotometry,computer vision technology and electron paramagnetic resonance.After illustrating the coloring mechanism of meat,this article summarized the basic principle,the equipment,operation steps,the current situation of application of the methods,as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method.At last,prospect of the future development was proposed.%金枪鱼鱼肉色泽的评定方法主要包括感官评价法、肉面光学度量法、分光光度法、计算机视觉技术和电子顺磁共振技术等.文中在阐明了鱼肉呈色机理后,从基本原理、所用设备、操作步骤、国内外使用现状等方面对近年来应用于金枪鱼肉色评定的各种方法进行了综述,列举了各方法的优缺点,并对未来发展进行了展望.

  15. Propuestas de mejoras energéticas en el área del tándem de un ingenio azucarero de la provincia Las Tunas, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anislei Santiesteban Velázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se efectuó en ingenio azucarero Antonio Guiteras Holmes, municipio Puerto Padre, provincia Las Tunas en la zafra 2012, con el objetivo de determinar las potencialidades de ahorro de energía eléctrica en el área del tándem, se evalúa el comportamiento de los motores de inducción trifásicos de los molinos en las condiciones actuales de operación con el conocimiento de las mediciones de las magnitudes eléctricas de tensión, corrientes y factor de potencia, con estos elementos mínimos y aplicando el método de los Datos de Placas se obtuvieron sus indicadores energéticos, estos resultados permitieron conocer el factor de carga, la eficiencia, la potencia real de salida de los motores estándares para lograr un uso más racional y eficiente de la energía en la empresa. Se realiza una propuesta para el redimensionado de estos motores.

  16. Índice canadiense de calidad de las aguas para la cuenca del río Naranjo, provincia Las Tunas, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balmaseda Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de índices para valorar la calidad de las aguas facilita su comunicación y entendimiento por especialistas y público en general. Uno de los más empleados es el propuesto por Canadian Council of Ministers of theEnvironment, conocido como CCME_WQI (por sus siglas en inglés por la flexibilidad en la selección de las variables considerar. En este trabajo se utilizó el CCME_WQI para evaluar la calidad de las aguas con fines de riego de fuentes superficiales y subterráneas de la cuenca del río Naranjo, provincia Las Tunas, Cuba. Se utilizaron criterios de FAO y del Instituto de Ingeniería Agrícola de Cuba para definir los valores deseables. Los resultados muestran que las aguas son clasificadas como Pobres para el riego de cultivos agrícolas.

  17. Vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica del sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina en la provincia Las Tunas, 2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La inmunoepidemiología se ha convertido en imprescindible en el sistema de vigilancia moderno de salud, en la evaluación de los programas de vacunación, en la definición de la inmunidad poblacional y en su papel en la prevención de enfermedades. Este estudio describe el comportamiento en la provincia de Las Tunas de la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica de cinco enfermedades prevenibles: sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina. La investigación cubrió el periodo desde el año 2010 hasta el 2013. Los resultados muestran la eficacia de las vacunas empleadas, sin ningún caso positivo registrado y avalan a la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica establecida desde la atención primaria de salud hasta la red de higiene y epidemiología del municipio, la provincia y la nación. Este sistema es necesario para evaluar con antelación posibles riesgos de enfermedades y la decisión oportuna de medidas de intervención

  18. Caracterización hidroquímica de las aguas de riego de la cuenca del río Naranjo, municipio Majibacoa, provincia Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoandris García Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El origen de las aguas, los procesos físico-químicos que las afectan y su calidad son parte de la información que aporta la caracterización hidroquímica de las aguas para hacer una mejor gestión de los recursos hídricos. Se estudiaron seis fuentes de abasto de aguas para el riego (tres superficiales y tres subterráneas, de la cuenca del río Naranjo en la provincia Las Tunas, a partir de sus concentraciones de aniones y cationes minoritarios, el pH y la conductividad eléctrica. La clasificación de las aguas se realizó siguiendo los criterios de Shchoukarev y mediante los diagramas de Schoeller-Berkaloff y de Stiff se representaron los resultados. Las aguas subterráneas son más mineralizadas que las superficiales, los iones que predominan son bicarbonato, cloruro y sodio, de ahí que las aguas que prevalecen son de los tipos HCO3-Cl-Na o Cl-HCO3-Na. Las aguas estudiadas no son aptas para el riego y son un peligro potencial para la alcalinización de los suelos.

  19. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  20. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    CERN Document Server

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the S\\~ao Paulo High. We model an initial E-W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times ($\\approx$126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial $\\approx$17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Br...

  1. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  2. 50 CFR 622.18 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.18 South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access. (a) General. The only valid commercial vessel permits for South Atlantic snapper-grouper are those that have been issued...

  3. 50 CFR 635.29 - Transfer at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tuna, blue marlin, white marlin, or swordfish at sea in the Atlantic Ocean, regardless of where the... not transfer an Atlantic tuna, blue marlin, white marlin, roundscale spearfish, or swordfish at sea in the Atlantic Ocean, regardless of where the fish was harvested. However, an owner or operator of...

  4. Analysing migrations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in the north‐east Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, S.; Righton, D.; Neat, F.;

    2013-01-01

    descriptions, separation of reproductively isolated populations, timing and areas of spawning, tidal transport and use of protected areas. The examples are based on archival tag data from the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea and Faroese and Icelandic Waters. Besides presenting the state......-of-the-art geolocations for cod Gadus morhua in the north-east Atlantic Ocean, the major aim of this review is to raise awareness of gaps in knowledge and to identify ideas for new research...

  5. South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2 kyr event

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, K.; Björck, S.; Renssen, H.; D. Hammarlund

    2007-01-01

    International audience One of the most distinct climate fluctuations during the Holocene is the short and rapid event centred around 8200 years ago, the 8.2 kyr event, which was most likely triggered by glacial melt-water forcing from the receding Laurentide ice-sheet. Evidence for this cooling has primarily been reported from sites around the North Atlantic, but an increasing number of observations imply a more wide-spread occurrence. Palaeoclimate archives from the Southern Hemisphere ha...

  6. Estimation of Atlantic-Mediterranean netflow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Peliz, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The exchanges at the Strait of Gibraltar are extremely difficult to measure due to the strong temporal and across-strait variabilities; yet the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean is extremely important both for climate and to ecosystems. Most of the published numerical modeling studies do not resolve the Strait of Gibraltar realistically. Models that represent the strait at high resolution focus primarily in high frequency dynamics, whereas long-term dynamics are studied in low resolution model studies, and for that reason the Strait dynamics are poorly resolved. Estimating the variability of the exchanges requires long term and high-resolutions studies, thus an improved simulation with explicit and realistic representation of the Strait is necessary. On seasonal to inter-annual timescales the flow is essentially driven by the net evaporation contribution and consequently realistic fields of precipitation and evaporation are necessary for model setup. A comparison between observations, reanalysis and combined products shows ERA-Interim Reanalysis has the most suitable product for Mediterranean Sea. Its time and space variability are in close agreement with NOC 1.1 for the common period (1980 - 1993) and also with evaporation from OAFLUX (1989 - 2014). Subinertial fluctuations, periods from days to a few months, are the second most energetic, after tides, and are the response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations and local winds. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the Mediterranean cause sea level oscillations that induce a barotropic flow through the Strait. Candela's analytical model has been used to quantify this response in later studies, though comparison with observations points to an underestimation of the flow at strait. An improved representation of this term contribution to the Atlantic - Mediterranean exchange must be achieved on longer time-scales. We propose a new simulation for the last 36 years (1979 - 2014) for the Mediterranean - Atlantic

  7. AMO-like variations of holocene sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, S; Hu, Q; Oglesby, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental records of the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST) show a significant 60–80 year cycle, referred to as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). During AMO warm (cold) phases, SST over the entire North Atlantic Ocean is dominated by basin-wide positive (negative) anomalies. We analyzed SST variations in the North Atlantic Ocean for the last 10 ka. The long-term and centennial variations of Holocene SST in the North Atlantic demonstrate a basin-wide mode that clearly ...

  8. An electrical analogy relating the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E Kurtz

    Full Text Available The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC is the northward flow of surface water to subpolar latitudes where deepwater is formed, balanced by southward abyssal flow and upwelling in the vicinity of the Southern Ocean. It is generally accepted that AMOC flow oscillates with a period of 60-80 years, creating a regular variation in North Atlantic sea surface temperature known as the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO. This article attempts to answer two questions: how is the AMOC driven and why does it oscillate? Using methods commonly employed by chemical engineers for analyzing processes involving flowing liquids, apparently not previously applied to trying to understand the AMOC, an equation is developed for AMOC flow as a function of the meridional density gradient or the corresponding temperature gradient. The equation is based on the similarity between the AMOC and an industrial thermosyphon loop cooler, which circulates a heat transfer liquid without using a mechanical pump. Extending this equation with an analogy between the flow of heat and electricity explains why the AMOC flow oscillates and what determines its period. Calculated values for AMOC flow and AMO oscillation period are in good agreement with measured values.

  9. South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2 kyr event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ljung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most distinct climate fluctuations during the Holocene is the short and rapid event centred around 8200 years ago, the 8.2 kyr event, which was most likely triggered by glacial melt-water forcing from the receding Laurentide ice-sheet. Evidence for this cooling has primarily been reported from sites around the North Atlantic, but an increasing number of observations imply a more wide-spread occurrence. Palaeoclimate archives from the Southern Hemisphere have hitherto failed to uncover a distinct climatic anomaly associated with the 8.2 kyr event. Here we present a lake sediment record from Nightingale Island in the central South Atlantic showing enhanced precipitation between 8275 and 8025 cal. yrs BP, most likely as a consequence of increased sea surface temperature (SST. We show that this is consistent with climate model projections of a warming of the South Atlantic in response to reduced north-ward energy transport during the 8.2 kyr event.

  10. South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2 kyr event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ljung

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most distinct climate fluctuations during the Holocene is the short and rapid event centred around 8200 years ago, the 8.2 kyr event, which was most likely triggered by glacial melt-water forcing from the receding Laurentide ice-sheet. Evidence for this cooling has primarily been reported from sites around the North Atlantic, but an increasing number of observations imply a more wide-spread occurrence. Palaeoclimate archives from the Southern Hemisphere have hitherto failed to uncover a distinct climatic anomaly associated with the 8.2 kyr event. Here we present a lake sediment record from Nightingale Island in the central South Atlantic showing enhanced precipitation between 8275 and 8025 cal. yrs BP, most likely as a consequence of increased sea surface temperature (SST. We show that this is consistent with climate model projections of a warming of the South Atlantic in response to reduced north-ward energy transport during the 8.2 kyr event.

  11. Efecto del Almacenamiento a Diferentes Temperaturas sobre la Calidad de Tuna Roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller) Effect of the Storage at Different Temperatures on the Quality of Red Prickle Pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E Ochoa; Guerrero, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Se estudia el efecto del almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas sobre la calidad de tuna roja (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller), variedad San Martín. El fruto se almacenó a 4±1, 9±2 y 28±2°C para determinar su vida útil. Se realizó semanalmente la caracterización fisicoquímica, enzimática, antioxidante y microbiológica durante el almacenamiento, hasta observar características no aptas para el consumo. Se observó que el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento son factores que afectan de m...

  12. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  14. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  15. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges. PMID:26504210

  16. Selectivity of hook type on hooking species for the tuna longline fishery in the Southern and Central Indian Ocean%印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓钓钩钩型对钓获对象的选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 陈锦淘; 许柳雄; 李攀

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data collected from the fishing ground of tuna longliners in the Southern-central Indian Ocean during September 2008 to April 2009, the present study compares and analyzes the catchability and selectivity to hooking species for 3 hook types(traditional tuna hook, "J"-type hook and circle hook).The results show that (1) for traditional tuna hook, the proportion of bigeye tuna( Thunnus obesus, BET)and blue shark( Prionace glauca,BLS)is higher than other species in the catch composition and "J"-type hook and circle hook have a similar hooking proportion for the above two species, however, for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga, ALB), the traditional tuna hook has the highest hooking proportion and followed by "J"-type hook and circle hook.(2) the traditional tuna hook has the highest survival rate and the "J"-type is lowest for BET, the survival rate of "J"-type hook is slightly higher than that of circle hook and the traditional tuna hook is the lowest for ALB, the survival rate of circle hook is highest and followed by traditional tuna hook and "J"-type hook for BLS.(3) the average fork length(FL) of ALB for "J"-type hook is slightly larger than that of traditional tuna hook and circle hook, traditional tuna hook is larger than circle hook and "J"-type hook for BET and "J"-type is larger than circle hook and traditional tuna hook for BLS.(4) significant difference has not been found for the FL distribution of ALB, BET and BLS for 3 hook types.%基于2008年9月至2009年4月在印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓渔场收集的数据,研究分析和比较了3种钓钩钩型(传统金枪鱼钩、"J"形钩和圆形钩)的渔获效益及对钓捕对象的选择性.结果表明:(1)从渔获种类上看,大眼金枪鱼和大青鲨金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,"J"形钩和圆形钩的钓获比例相当;而长鳍金枪鱼则为金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,其次为"J"形钩和圆形钩.(2)大眼金枪鱼存活率以金枪鱼钩最高,"J"形钩最低;长鳍

  17. The impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature errors on the simulation of North Atlantic European region climate

    OpenAIRE

    Keeley, Sarah; Sutton, Rowan; Shaffrey, Len

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art climate models fail to capture accurately the path of the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current. This leads to a warm bias near the North American coast, where the modelled Gulf Stream separates from the coast further north, and a cold anomaly to the east of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, where the North Atlantic Current remains too zonal in this region. Using an atmosphere-only model forced with the sea surface temperature (SST) biases in the North Atlantic, we...

  18. Una propuesta de iniciativas para la producción de agua dulce en la ciudad de Puerto Padre, Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Pérez Fajardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basado en informes técnicos emitidos por instituciones municipales del territorio de Puerto Padre en la provincia de Las Tunas y en los resultados de entrevistas con representantes de esas propias instituciones y habitantes de la referida localidad, se proponen variantes para la regeneralización de las viejas prácticas de captación de agua dulce a la luz de las actuales circunstancias económicas del país y los avances que ha experimentado la industria de materiales en general, así como adaptar variantes tecnológicas de relativamente bajos costos con iguales propósitos respecto a la disponibilidad de agua, como son los sistemas de desalación de agua de mar con el empleo de energía renovable a escala familiar, tan ampliamente utilizados en regiones de nuestro planeta donde la escasez de agua para el consumo humano impone tonos verdaderamente dramáticos a la existencia misma. Se obtuvo la elaboración de un proyecto que contempla todas estas iniciativas y que ha sido aceptado por las autoridades del gobierno en el territorio y revisado por varios representantes de instituciones académicas y científicas en el país. La ejecución de este proyecto por si solo, no resolverá los problemas de alta contaminación del agua de las fuentes de abasto a la población pero incorporado a nuevas iniciativas constituirá un importante paliativo a la grave problemática que hoy enfrenta ese territorio de grandes potencialidades económicas para el país.

  19. 金枪鱼碎肉蛋白的酶解工艺研究%Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process of Meat Protein from Tuna Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 杜帅; 罗红宇

    2013-01-01

    Tuna meat was used as raw material.The DH was regarded as a basis for selecting the proper tool enzyme in the course of selecting compound enzyme.The optimum hydrolysis conditions of pepsin,including the quantity of pepsin,the reaction time,temperature,the pH value,and the substrate concentration(Ratio of fish and water quality),were 800U/g, 3hours,35~40℃,2.0,1∶7.The optimum hydrolysis conditions of flavourzyme were as follows:the quantity of flavourzyme was 52000U/g,2hours,temperature 50~55℃,pH 7.0~7.5.%  采用二步酶解法,以金枪鱼碎肉蛋白为底物,蛋白水解度为指标,分别研究内切酶、端解酶的添加量、酶解时间、酶解温度、酶解pH值对水解度的影响,结果表明:以胃蛋白酶作为第一步水解用酶,胃蛋白酶添加量为800 U/g、酶解时间3 h、温度35~40℃、pH值为2.0、底物浓度(即鱼肉与水质量之比)为1∶7时水解效果最好;风味酶作为第二步水解用酶,添加量为52000 U/g、酶解时间2 h、温度50~55℃、pH值为7~7.5时水解效果最好.

  20. Aspectos clínicos y endoscópicos del adenocarcinoma gástrico en pacientes de Las Tunas, enero de 2013 a enero de 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Fonseca Chong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de caracterizar los pacientes atendidos por adenocarcinoma gástrico en el Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de provincia de Las Tunas, durante el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2013 y el 1 de enero de 2014. El universo quedó constituido por todos los pacientes a los que se les realizó biopsia de estómago, por lesión sospechosa de adenocarcinoma gástrico, y la muestra por todos los pacientes con diagnóstico histológico de esta enfermedad. Para la obtención de los datos primarios se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de 23 pacientes con biopsia positiva. A partir de un cuestionario se recogieron y procesaron los datos y se interpretaron los resultados. Se encontró un predominio en el sexo masculino (69,5%, en los mayores de 51 años (30,4% y en la población de raza negra (47,8% con antecedentes de infección por helicobacter pylori (69,5%. El 43,4% de los pacientes debutó con una dispepsia prolongada, como síntoma predominante, y la imagen endoscópica más observada fue la úlcera cancerosa (12 casos, en relación con el patrón histológico difuso

  1. Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana; Müller, Wolfgang A; Sienz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a major CO2 sink, the North Atlantic, especially its subpolar gyre region, is essential for the global carbon cycle. Decadal fluctuations of CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region are associated with the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ocean mixing and sea surface temperature anomalies. While variations in the physical state of the ocean can be predicted several years in advance by initialization of Earth system models, predictability of CO2 uptake has remained unexplored. Here we investigate the predictability of CO2 uptake variations by initialization of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. We find large multi-year variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and demonstrate that its potential predictive skill in the western subpolar gyre region is up to 4-7 years. The predictive skill is mainly maintained in winter and is attributed to the improved physical state of the ocean. PMID:27026490

  2. Science and Society: The Third Dimension of the Atlantic Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarskis, Michel

    1983-01-01

    Discusses North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) activities related to science and society. NATO Scientific Exchanges Programme; pilot studies (pollution control, natural resources, health and technological risks, quality of life, and planning); and cultural exchanges are among the areas considered. (JN)

  3. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  4. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  5. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  6. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  7. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic areas within an...

  8. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Atlantic Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...

  9. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  10. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  11. Atlantic Sharpnose and Blacknose Shark Congressional Supplemental Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Life history data were collected from Atlantic sharpnose and blacknose sharks during the Congressional Supplemental Program during 2011. Data collected include...

  12. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    , over 20° of latitude and regardless of basalt type and chemistry. This low-Li province and the increasing Li contents of ocean-ridge tholeiites into the S Atlantic are believed to monitor Li heterogeneity in the underlying mantle. Li, like Na, increases gently during the differentiation of several......Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  13. South Atlantic Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart A - General...

  14. Transport of salt and freshwater in the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Andreas; Stocker, Thomas F.; Sandø, Anne Britt

    2016-09-01

    Transport of salt in the Irminger Current, the northern branch of the Atlantic Subpolar Gyre coupling the eastern and western subpolar North Atlantic, plays an important role for climate variability across a wide range of time scales. High-resolution ocean modeling and observations indicate that salinities in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic decrease with enhanced circulation of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG). This has led to the perception that a stronger SPG also transports less salt westward. In this study, we analyze a regional ocean model and a comprehensive global coupled climate model, and show that a stronger SPG transports more salt in the Irminger Current irrespective of lower salinities in its source region. The additional salt converges in the Labrador Sea and the Irminger Basin by eddy transports, increases surface salinity in the western SPG, and favors more intense deep convection. This is part of a positive feedback mechanism with potentially large implications for climate variability and predictability.

  15. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  16. Projected Atlantic hurricane surge threat from rising temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Detection and attribution of past changes in cyclone activity are hampered by biased cyclone records due to changes in observational capabilities. Here, we relate a homogeneous record of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity based on storm surge statistics from tide gauges to changes in global temperature patterns. We examine 10 competing hypotheses using nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis with different predictors (North Atlantic Oscillation, Southern Oscillation, Pacific Decadal ...

  17. Operational numerical prediction of rapid cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    GADD, A. J.; HALL, C. D.; KRUZE, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of operational numerical weather prediction models has shown considerable skill in handling cyclogenesis. This paper assesses the accuracy of forecasts of rapid cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic from the operational NWP system at Bracknell and attempts to isolate the factors relevant to successful prediction. Illustrative material is drawn in particular from the case of the record low pressure centre that developed over the North Atlantic on 14 December 1986.DOI: 10....

  18. Population genetic studies in Northeastern Atlantic minke whales

    OpenAIRE

    Berube, M.; Skaug, Hans Julius; Andersen, Liselotte W.; Haug, Tore; Øien, Nils

    2007-01-01

    Minke whales are the most abundance species of baleen whales in the North Atlantic. As part of current management of minke whales in Norwegian and adjacent waters, a DNA-register have been established. The register ensures that samples are taken of each animal caught under the Norwegian catch quota, and that a DNA-profile is established and stored in a database from each individual whale. Previous studies have indicated that genetic population sub-structure exists within the North Atlantic, b...

  19. On multidecadal and quasi-decadal North Atlantic variability

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Garcia, F.; Latif, Mojib; Biastoch, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic from 1958 through 2000, as well as data from an ocean model simulation driven with the atmospheric variability observed during the same period, are examined using multichannel singular spectrum analysis. The two leading oscillatory modes are associated with a multidecadal and a quasi-decadal period. The former is connected to a basinwide uniform SST pattern and changes in the deep North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation....

  20. Tropical versus high latitude freshwater influence on the Atlantic circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Goelzer, H.; J. Mignot; Levermann, A; Rahmstorf, S.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the model sensitivity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to anomalous freshwater flux in the tropical and northern Atlantic. Forcing in both locations leads to the same qualitative response: a positive freshwater anomaly induces a weakening of the AMOC and a negative freshwater anomaly strengthens the AMOC. Strong differences arise in the temporal characteristics and amplitude of the response. The advection of the tropical anomaly up to the deep water for...