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Sample records for atlantic azores islands

  1. Beach debris in the Azores (NE Atlantic): Faial Island as a first case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Catharina; Ventura, Maria A; Martins, Ana; Cunha, Regina T

    2015-12-30

    Marine debris is widely recognised as a global environmental problem. This study assesses density, type, and temporal trends of marine debris in two sandy beaches of Faial Island (Azores, NE-Atlantic). During seven months (six days per month) the beaches were surveyed by performing 10 random transects at each site. Recorded items within the range 2-30 cm were organised into seven categories. Densities of total debris varied from 0 to 1.940 items m(-2), with plastics dominating both areas. Both beaches, presented the highest debris abundance in February, most probably related to prevailing winds and swell. Location and/or time of year also seemed to influence the type of debris present. These findings provide new insights into debris accumulation rates in the Azores, where no previous studies were made. It also confirms the global trend of increased plastics accumulation on shorelines, highlighting the need for further research in remote islands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal and interannual variations in coccolithophore abundance off Terceira Island, Azores (Central North Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Áurea; Gallo, Francesca; Valente, André; Cachão, Mário; Cros, Lluïsa; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; e Ramos, Joana Barcelos

    2016-04-01

    In order to characterize the natural coccolithophore community occurring offshore Azores and to determine their annual and interannual patterns, monthly samples were collected, from September 2010 to December 2014, in the photic zone off Terceira Island. The present study revealed a clear seasonal distribution and a considerable interannual variability of the living coccolithophore community. The highest coccolithophore abundances were observed during spring and winter months, especially due to the smaller species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa ericsonii. In fact, the highest biomass period was registered during April 2011, associated with enhanced abundance of the overcalcified morphotype of E. huxleyi, which was possibly influenced by subpolar waters and subsequent upwelling conditions. The highest abundances of Gephyrocapsa muellerae were recorded during June 2011 and 2014, indicating that this species characterizes the transition between the period of maximum productivity and the subsequent smoother environmental conditions, the first and the later stages of the phytoplankton succession described by Margalef, respectively. During summer to early fall, a gradual decrease of the overall coccolithophore abundance was observed, while the species richness (Margalef diversity index) increased. A subtropical coccolithophore assemblage mainly composed by Umbellosphaera tenuis, Syracosphaera spp., Discosphaera tubifera, Rhabdosphaera clavigera and Coronosphaera mediterranea indicated the presence of surface warmer waters accompanied by reduced mixing and low nutrients concentration. During late fall to winter, the coccolithophore abundance increased again with a concomitant reduction in species diversity. This is potentially linked to low sea surface temperatures, moderate nutrients concentration and surface mixed layer deepening. During 2011, colder and productive waters led to an increase in the total coccolithophore abundances. On contrary, during 2012

  3. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  4. Maximum Historical Seismic Intensity Map of S. Miguel Island (azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, D.; Gaspar, J. L.; Ferreira, T.; Queiroz, G.

    The Azores archipelago is situated in the Atlantic Ocean where the American, African and Eurasian lithospheric plates meet. The so-called Azores Triple Junction located in the area where the Terceira Rift, a NW-SE to WNW-ESE fault system with a dextral component, intersects the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with an approximate N-S direction, dominates its geological setting. S. Miguel Island is located in the eastern segment of the Terceira Rift, showing a high diversity of volcanic and tectonic structures. It is the largest Azorean island and includes three active trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas) placed in the intersection of the NW-SE Ter- ceira Rift regional faults with an E-W deep fault system thought to be a relic of a Mid-Atlantic Ridge transform fault. N-S and NE-SW faults also occur in this con- text. Basaltic cinder cones emplaced along NW-SE fractures link that major volcanic structures. The easternmost part of the island comprises an inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste). Since the settle- ment of the island, early in the XV century, several destructive earthquakes occurred in the Azores region. At least 11 events hit S. Miguel Island with high intensity, some of which caused several deaths and significant damages. The analysis of historical documents allowed reconstructing the history and the impact of all those earthquakes and new intensity maps using the 1998 European Macrosseismic Scale were produced for each event. The data was then integrated in order to obtain the maximum historical seismic intensity map of S. Miguel. This tool is regarded as an important document for hazard assessment and risk mitigation taking in account that indicates the location of dangerous seismogenic zones and provides a comprehensive set of data to be applied in land-use planning, emergency planning and building construction.

  5. Landslides density map of S. Miguel Island, Azores archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, P.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Ferreira, T.

    The Azores archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean and is composed of nine volcanic islands. S. Miguel, the largest one, is formed by three active, E-W trending, trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas). Chains of basaltic cinder cones link those major volcanic structures. An inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste) comprise the easternmost part of the island. Since the settlement of the island early in the 15th century, several destructive landslides triggered by catastrophic rainfall episodes, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occurred in different areas of S. Miguel. One unique event killed thousands of people in 1522. Houses and bridges were destroyed, roads were cut, communications, water and energy supply systems became frequently disrupted and areas of fertile land were often buried by mud. Based on (1) historical documents, (2) aerial photographs and (3) field observations, landslide sites were plotted on a topographic map, in order to establish a landslide density map for the island. Data obtained showed that landslide hazard is higher on (1) the main central volcanoes where the thickness of unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits is considerable high and (2) the old basaltic volcanic complex, marked by deep gullies developed on thick sequences of lava flows. In these areas, caldera walls, fault scarps, steep valley margins and sea cliffs are potentially hazardous.

  6. Variability of zooplankton communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, zooplankton communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, zooplankton community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the zooplankton community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. Zooplankton literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important zooplankton studies from the Azores is also presented.

  7. Elemental composition of air masses under different altitudes in Azores, central north Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, B.J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Between 8th July 2002 and 18th June 2004, aerosol samples were collected in Azores. Their inorganic composition was obtained by neutron activation analysis in order to study the differences of aerosols in two atmospheric altitudes of the central north Atlantic: (1) PICO-NARE observatory (Lower Free Troposphere-LFT) at Pico mountain summit (38,470 deg N, 28,404 deg W, 2,225 m a.s.l.) in Pico Island, Azores, where air masses from the surrounding continents (Africa, Europe, Central and North America) pass through, carrying aerosols with anthropogenic (Sb, Br, Mo, U, Se and Tb) and/or natural emissions (Fe, Co, La, Na, Sm, Cr, Zn, Hf, K and Th); (2) TERCEIRA-NARE station (Marine Boundary Layer) at Serreta (38,69 deg N, 27,36 deg W, 50 m a.s.l.), in Terceira Island, Azores, where natural aerosols (I, Cl, Na, Br and other soil related elements) are predominant. However, a combined interpretation of the data points out to a co-existence of the anthropogenic elements Sb and Mo, eventually with similar origins as the ones passing Pico Mountain summit. Very high concentrations and enrichment factors for Sb, Mo and Br in LFT, higher than the ones found in other areas, confirm atmospheric long-range transport mainly from the west boundary of north Atlantic; this may indicate eventual accumulation and persistence of those elements in the area due to the presence of Azores high pressures or the Hadley cells effect. A significant correlation between Fe and Yb and the enrichment of rare earth elements (La, Sm, Tb and Yb) and Th in LFT aerosols, both reflect a mineral dust intrusions from north Africa (Sahara and Sahel region). (author)

  8. Review of the Diversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Elasmobranchs in the Azores Region, Mid-North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Diya Das; Diya Das; Pedro Afonso; Pedro Afonso

    2017-01-01

    A vulnerable species group, such as, the elasmobranchs, in a data-deficient context presents a complicated management problem. Evidence suggests that the Azores islands, a remote archipelago on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, serve essential functions in the life-history of species across taxa. The diversity of marine resources within its EEZ are exploited by local to international fleets, and the full extent of fishing pressure can often be underestimated. Although sharks and rays appear to be of mi...

  9. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal-Silva, Rosa María; Viera-Mendes, Maria Helena; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment ...

  10. Paleoseismological evidence for historical surface faulting in São Miguel island (Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Carmo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago is located at the triple junction between the Eurasian, Nubian and North American lithospheric plates, whose boundaries are the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Azores-Gibraltar Fault Zone. São Miguel is the largest island of the archipelago and is located on the eastern part of the western segment of the Azores-Gibraltar Fault Zone. The Achada das Furnas plateau, located in the central part of the island, between Fogo and Furnas central volcanoes, is dominated by several WNW-ESE and E-W trending alignments of basaltic cinder cones. Two E-W trending scarps were identified by aerial photo interpretation. Transect trenches exposed two active normal faults-the Altiprado Faults – confirming the tectonic nature of the scarps. Several paleoearthquakes were deduced, most of which in historical times, producing 1.38 m and 0.48 m of cumulative displacement. Maximum expected magnitudes (MW determined from slip per event range from 5.7 to 6.7. One of the events probably corresponds to the historical earthquake of October 22nd, 1522, the deadliest in the archipelago. Radiocarbon ages are in agreement with this interpretation.

  11. Viticultural zoning of Graciosa island of the Azores archipelago - Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Reis, Francisco; Felipe, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The management and sustainability of the traditional vineyards of the Azores settled on lava field terrains is strongly affected by practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of the vineyards. In a recent macrozoning approach study Madruga et al (2015) showed that besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the Azores islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics indicate a potential for the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed viticultural zoning at the level of the small mapscale (smaller than 1:25,000), for the island of Graciosa where, besides the traditional lava field terroir, there are also some localized experiences of grapevine production over normal soils, offering thus some comparative information on this type of production conditions. The zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate and topography which was then combined with the soil mapping units fulfilling the suitable criteria concerning the soil properties taken as the most relevant for viticulture, being the result a map of homogeneous environmental units. The climatic zoning examined the direct quantitative variables (precipitation, temperature, evaporation) in relation to climate index, bioclimatic and viticultural specific values. Topography (elevation, slope, aspect, orientation) was analyzed based on the tridimensional models of the islands in GIS to include the best slopes for the mechanization of the vineyard cultural operations (0-15%). Soils were analyzed based on data and soil map units as defined in the soil surveys of the Azores archipelago. The soil properties taken for the analysis and definition of the potential vineyard areas were drainage, water holding capacity

  12. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment Form. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative variables and multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with elder mistreatment. Results: abuse suspicion was identified in 24.5% of elderly participants. Psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse and sons were the main abusers. Conclusion: being a woman and belonging to a dysfunctional family is associated with an increased risk of becoming a victim of abuse; the high level of domestic violence against the elderly in the Azores Islands is in line with the rest of Portugal.

  13. Reconstruction of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones in Azores for the last 800 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ingles, Maria Jesus; Sánchez, Guiomar; Trigo, Ricardo; Francus, Pierre; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro; Freitas, Conceiçao; Borges, Paolo; Hernández, Armand; Bao, Roberto; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Andrade, Cesar; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The variability of North Atlantic tropical storms has been the focus of several studies. Duration and seasonality has been attributed to a number of climate patterns and processes such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode, African easterly waves, and atmospheric Rossby waves, but their tracks have been widely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Several authors have pointed out an increase and track shifting of North Atlantic tropical cyclones since 1995 with increased probability of these turning north far away from the North American continent. However, this cannot be regarded as an infrequent phenomenon as most proxy records from the Atlantic North have shown the existence of similar patterns in the past. Sao Miguel Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal) is settled in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. This location makes this island an excellent natural laboratory to record shifts on North Atlantic tropical storms tracks that can reach the archipelago as low intensity hurricanes (e.g. Nadine in 2012) or downgraded to tropical storm (e.g. Grace in 2009). In the present work, lake sediment records have been used as a proxy sensor of tropical storms. Lagoa Azul is located inside Sete Cidades volcanic caldera and its catchment is characterized by stepped and forested caldera walls. Tropical storms and heavy rainfalls produce a flashy and substantial enhancement in the erosion of the catchment, increasing the sediments reaching the lake by rockfalls deposits (in littoral zones) and flood events deposits (in offshore zones). These flood events can be recognized in the sedimentary record as lobe deposits dominated by terrestrial components. It can be found in the sedimentary record and the bathymetry. Instrumental meteorological data and historical records have been compiled to reconstruct the most recent history of the North Atlantic tropical storms that have landed or affected the Sao Miguel Island (Andrade et al., 2008). In addition, a 1

  14. Fine-scale crustal structure of the Azores Islands from teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, K.; Rondenay, S.; Ramalho, R. S.; Thomas, C.; Helffrich, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Azores plateau is located near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and consists of nine islands, most of which lie east of the MAR. Various methods including seismic reflection, gravity, and passive seismic imaging have been used to investigate the crustal thickness beneath the islands. They have yielded thickness estimates that range between roughly 10 km and 30 km, but until now models of the fine-scale crustal structure have been lacking. A comparison of the crustal structure beneath the islands that lie west and east of the MAR might give further constraints on the evolution of the islands. For example, geochemical studies carried out across the region predict the existence of volcanic interfaces that should be detected seismically within the shallow crust of some of the islands. In this study, we use data from ten seismic stations located on the Azores Islands to investigate the crustal structure with teleseismic P-wave receiver functions. We query our resulting receiver functions for signals associated with the volcanic edifice, the crust-mantle boundary, and potential underplated layers beneath the various islands. The islands west of the MAR have a crustal structure comprising two discontinuities - an upper one at 1-2 km depth marking the base of the volcanic edifice, and a lower one at 10 km depth that we interpret as crust-mantle boundary. The islands east of the MAR can be subdivided into two groups. The central islands that are closer to the MAR exhibit a crustal structure similar to that of the western islands, with a volcanic edifice reaching a depth of 2 km and an average crust-mantle boundary at around 12 km depth. The easternmost islands, located on the oldest lithosphere, exhibit a more complex crustal structure with evidence for a mid-crustal interface and an underplated layer, yielding an effective crust-mantle boundary at >15 km depth. The difference in structure between proximal and distal islands might be related to the age of the plate at the

  15. Looking for North Atlantic Baleen Whales: When are they coming to the Azores?

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    Laura González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The archipelago of the Azores is like an oasis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Surrounded by deep waters, those islands are a “must stop” place for every traveler, including, of course, cetaceans. Around the archipelago more than 24 different species of whales and dolphins can be seen. Some of them are resident such as the common dolphin or the emblematic sperm whale. But others are seasonal or sporadic, such as the spotted dolphin or the big baleen whales. The aim of this study is to assess the temporal distribution of the baleen whales sighted off Azores. We analyzed data gathered off the south coast of São Miguel (Azores from 2006 to 2013 from whale watching vessels. The whale watching company is located in Ponta Delgada and it works all throughout the year, always when the weather, the sea state and the number of tourists allow doing it. In Azores, whale watching companies use to locate cetaceans from land, with specialized lookouts spotting the animals from strategic points on the shore (as whalers did. These lookouts use powerful binoculars to locate the animals, and then give instructions to the boats to get to them. Once there, the boat registers date, hour, sea state, visibility, position (GPS, species, number of individuals, number of adults, juveniles and calves, behavior, association with other species and if there are other boats in the area. Photos are taken whenever it is possible and they are analyzed when the quality is good enough to distinguish natural marks and shapes. Most of the photos used in this study were taken in the last 5 years. Photo-Id catalogues were created for blue whales, fin whales and humpback whales. Data collected are more complete and frequent since 2009. In this case we have analyzed a total of 7691 sightings, belonging to 20 different species of cetaceans, 14 Odontoceti and 6 Mysticeti. In the latter group we recorded 491 sightings. The three most sighted Mysticeti species were the three great

  16. Reproduction and spawning habitat of white trevally, Pseudocaranx dentex, in the Azores, central north Atlantic

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    Pedro Afonso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive biology and habitat preferences of the white trevally, Pseudocaranx dentex (Carangidae, were studied in the Azores islands, central north Atlantic, to determine the spatial and seasonal dynamics of habitat use of immature and mature fish. The sex ratio was close to 1:1 and fish matured at about 30 cm fork length. There were no differences in the maturation or length-weight relationships between sexes. The spawning season lasts from June to September. Underwater visual censuses showed that schools of mature individuals preferentially aggregate around the summits of offshore reefs during the spawning season. In contrast, schools of smaller, immature fish use inshore habitats all year round. Our data support the hypothesis that offshore reefs are a preferential spawning habitat of larger white trevally, and most possibly for a number of visitor pelagic predators as well. Inverse relationships between exploitation levels, abundance and size composition at the two different islands suggest that the summer fishery targeting trevally schools around offshore reefs has negatively impacted the population. These findings bring additional ecological and management relevance to offshore reefs.

  17. Review of the Diversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Elasmobranchs in the Azores Region, Mid-North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diya Das

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A vulnerable species group, such as, the elasmobranchs, in a data-deficient context presents a complicated management problem. Evidence suggests that the Azores islands, a remote archipelago on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, serve essential functions in the life-history of species across taxa. The diversity of marine resources within its EEZ are exploited by local to international fleets, and the full extent of fishing pressure can often be underestimated. Although sharks and rays appear to be of minor importance in the fishery, the possibilities of illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing raises concerns about these threatened species. However, this group has failed to attract management attention, visible in the lack of regional studies focused on biodiversity, ecology, or threats of elasmobranchs. Our work attempts to review and update the information on elasmobranchs of the Azores and identify potential threats, mainly by the local fisheries. We aim to highlight knowledge gaps that require further research and conservation actions. We (1 update the annotated checklist of elasmobranch species, (2 compare species distribution across a biogeographically similar section of the North Atlantic, and (3 analyze the interaction of elasmobranch species with local fisheries. We confirm 61 chondrichthyan species for the Azores (39 sharks, 17 rays, and 5 chimaeras, adding 19 species to the previous annotated checklist of 1997. The Azores elasmobranch species assemblage most resembles Madeira, the neighboring Macaronesian archipelago. Biogeographic affinities between the chosen regions of the North Atlantic are reflected in the taxonomic structure of families. Although underestimated in the local fisheries, elasmobranchs constitute a regular but highly variable portion of total landings. Misreporting and misidentification is perhaps the greatest concern in the local fisheries records, further aggravated by few existing catch regulations for elasmobranchs

  18. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  19. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  20. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polido, Alexandra; João, Elsa; Ramos, Tomás B.

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches

  1. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands 1

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal-Silva, Rosa María; Viera-Mendes, Maria Helena; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment ...

  2. Designing Food Cultures:Propagating the consumption of seaweed in the Azores Islands through recipes

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution will present and discuss a pilot study that has set out to investigate ways of studying and revitalizing the foraging and consumption of seaweed in the Azores islands. Taking participatory action research (PAR) and its motto of developing forms of ‘knowledge in practice’ and within a community of interest of lay people, this contribution will present this initial study and the researcher’s attempt to establish conversations with local stakeholders regarding issues of sustain...

  3. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, P. A. V.

    2011-01-01

    and abundance change with increasing distance from the native forest in adjacent habitat types in Santa Maria Island, the Azores. Arthropods were sampled in four 150 m long transects in each habitat type. Arthropods were identified to species level and classified as Azorean endemic, single-island endemic (SIE...

  4. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  5. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva, E-mail: dlinhares@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Garcia, Patrícia Ventura, E-mail: patriciag@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CE3C, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Almada, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra_almada@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Ferreira, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.jl.ferreira@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Queiroz, Gabriela, E-mail: maria.gp.queiroz@azores.gov.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Cruz, José Virgílio, E-mail: jvc@uac.pt [Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos, E-mail: rodrigues@uac.pt [Department of Biology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal); CVARG, Center for Volcanology and Geological Risks Assessment, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Azores (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1 ppm vs. 14.5 ppm, respectively; p = 0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. - Highlights: • Iodine intake in schoolchildren differs between islands of the Azorean archipelago. • Island geomorphology and climate modulate iodine environmental availability. • In

  6. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  7. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-08

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues.

  8. Ten Years of Black Carbon Measurements in the North Atlantic at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Azores (2225m asl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Olsen, S. C.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Dziobak, M.; Kramer, L. J.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Pico Mountain Observatory is located in the summit caldera of the Pico mountain, an inactive volcano on the Pico Island in the Azores, Portugal (38.47°N, 28.40°W, Altitude 2225m asl). The Azores are often impacted by polluted outflows from the North American continent and local sources have been shown to have a negligible influence at the observatory. The value of the station stems from the fact that this is the only permanent mountaintop monitoring station in the North Atlantic that is typically located above the marine boundary layer (average MBL heights are below 1200 m and rarely exceed 1300 m) and often receives air characteristic of the lower free troposphere. Measurements of black carbon (BC) mass have been carried out at the station since 2001, mostly in the summer seasons. Here we discuss the BC decadal dataset (2001-2011) collected at the site by using a seven-wavelength AE31 Magee Aethalometer. Measured BC mass and computed Angstrom exponent (AE) values were analysed to study seasonal and diurnal variations. There was a large day-to-day variability in the BC values due to varied meteorological conditions that resulted in different diurnal patterns for different months. The daily mean BC at this location ranged between 0 and ~430 ngm-3, with the most frequently occurring value in the range 0-100 ngm-3. The overall mean for the 10 year period is ~24 ngm-3, with a coefficient of variation of 150%. The BC values exhibited a consistent annual trend being low in winter months and high in summer months, barring year to year variations. To differentiate between BC and other absorbing particles, we analyzed the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption coefficient and determined a best-fit exponent i.e., the Ångström exponent, for the whole dataset. Visible Ångström exponent (AE: 470-520-590-660 nm) values ranged between 0 and 3.5, with most frequently occurring values in the range 0.85 to 1.25. By making use of the aethalometer light attenuation

  9. Reassessment of the historical seismic activity with major impact on S. Miguel Island (Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On account of its tectonic setting, both seismic and volcanic events are frequent in the Azores archipelago. During the historical period earthquakes and seismic swarms of tectonic and/or volcanic origin have struck S. Miguel Island causing a significant number of casualties and severe damages. The information present in historical records made possible a new macroseismic analysis of these major events using the European Macroseismic Scale-1998 (EMS-98. Among the strongest earthquakes of tectonic origin that affected S. Miguel Island, six events were selected for this study. The isoseismal maps drawn for these events enabled the identification of areas characterized by anomalous values of seismic intensity, either positive or negative, to constrain epicentre locations and to identify some new seismogenic areas. Regarding seismic activity associated with volcanic phenomena six cases were also selected. For each of the studied cases cumulative intensity values were assessed for each locality. The distribution of local intensity values shows that the effects are not homogeneous within a certain distance from the eruptive centre, the area of major impacts relates with the eruptive style and damages equivalent to high intensities may occur in Furnas and Sete Cidades calderas. Combining all the historical macroseismic data, a maximum intensity map was produced for S. Miguel Island.

  10. Organic matter composition and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Ravara, Ascensão; Parretti, Paola; Santos, Ricardo S.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Amaro, Teresa; Cunha, Marina R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years increasing knowledge has been accumulated on seamounts ecology; however their sedimentary environments and associated biological communities remain largely understudied. In this study we investigated quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores). In order to test the effect of the seamount on organic matter distribution, sediment samples were collected in 6 areas: the summit, the northern and southern flanks and bases, and in an external far field site. Macrofauna abundance and diversity were investigated on the summit, the southern flank and in the far field site. The organic matter distribution reflected the complex hydrodynamic conditions occurring on the Condor. Concentrations of organic matter compounds were generally lower on the whole seamount than in the far field site and on the seamount summit compared to flanks and bases. A clear difference was also evident between the northern and southern slopes of the Condor, suggesting a role of the seamount in conditioning sedimentation processes and distribution of food resources for benthic consumers. Macrofauna assemblages changed significantly among the three sampling sites. High abundance and dominance, accompanied by low biodiversity, characterized the macrofauna community on the Condor summit, while low dominance and high biodiversity were observed at the flank. Our results, although limited to five samples on the seamount and two off the seamount, do not necessarily support the paradigm that seamounts are more biodiverse than the surrounding seafloor. However, the abundance (and biomass), functional diversity and taxonomical distinctiveness of the macrofaunal assemblages from the Condor Seamount suggest that seamounts habitats may play a relevant role in adding to the regional biodiversity.

  11. Quantification of the CO2 emitted from volcanic lakes in Pico Island (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, César; Cruz, José; Viveiros, Fátima; Branco, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    This study shows the results of the diffuse CO2 degassing surveys performed in lakes from Pico volcanic Island (Azores archipelago, Portugal). Detailed flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method were made at six lakes (Capitão, Caiado, Paul, Rosada, Peixinho and Negra) during two field campaigns, respectively, in winter (February 2016) and late summer (September 2016). Pico is the second largest island of the Azores archipelago with an area of 444.8 km2; the oldest volcanic unit is dated from about 300,000 years ago. The edification of Pico was mainly due to Hawaiian and Strombolian type volcanic activity, resulting in pahoehoe and aa lava flows of basaltic nature, as well as scoria and spatter cones. Three main volcanic complexes are identified in the island, namely (1) the so-called Montanha Volcanic Complex, corresponding to a central volcano located in the western side of the island that reaches a maximum altitude of 2351 m, (2) the São Roque-Piedade Volcanic Complex, and (3) the Topo-Lajes Volcanic Complex, this last one corresponding to the remnants of a shield volcano located in the south coast. The studied lakes are spread along the São Roque-Piedade Volcanic Complex at altitudes between 785 m and 898 m. Three are associated with depressions of undifferentiated origin (Caiado, Peixinho, Negra), two with depressions of tectonic origin (Capitão, Paul), while Rosada lake is located inside a scoria cone crater. The lakes surface areas vary between 1.25x10-2 and 5.38x10-2 km2, and the water column maximum depth is 7.9 m (3.5-7.9 m). The water storage ranges between 3.6x104 to 9.1x104 m3, and the estimated residence time does not exceed 1.8x10-1 years. A total of 1579 CO2 flux measurements were made during both surveys (868 in summer and 711 in the winter campaign), namely 518 in Caiado lake (293; 225), 358 in Paul (195; 163), 279 in Capitão (150, 129), 200 in Rosada (106, 94), 171 in Peixinho (71, 100) and 53 measurements in Negra lake. Negra

  12. Engineering IT-enabled sustainable electricity services the tale of two low-cost green Azores Islands

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Le; Liu, Qixing

    2013-01-01

    Engineering IT-Enabled Electricity Services: The Tale of Two Low-Cost Green Azores Islands covers sustainable energy services to customers - a balanced choice and coordination of energy generated by traditional and alternative sources. The “Green Islands” project represents a decade of work by over a dozen researchers who have developed a model designed to utilize the potential of distributed clean resources. The key is the proper use of Information Technology (IT).  Sited on two islands in the Azores, the project developed the model of careful forecasting of demand and supply, down to the minute, coordinating the output of conventional power plants, wind energy, fly wheels, hydroelectricity, demand reduction, and even plug-in electric vehicles to take full advantage of the clean resources available. This contributed volume presents methods for predicting variable resources, such as wind power generation, and analyzes the achievable accuracy of these predictions. Throughout this book, contributors sho...

  13. Evaluation of landslide susceptibility of Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gomes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete Cidades is an active central volcano with a summit caldera located in the westernmost part of S. Miguel Island (Azores. Since the settlement of the Island, in the 15th century, many landslide events occurred in this volcano, causing extensive damages in buildings and infrastructures. The study of historical records and the observation of new occurrences showed that landslides in the region have been triggered by heavy rainfall periods, earthquakes and erosion. In order to assess landslide susceptibility at Sete Cidades Volcano, landslide scars and associated deposits were mapped through aerial photographs and field surveys. The obtained data were inserted in a GIS to produce a landslide distribution map. It was concluded that the high density landslide areas are related with (1 major scarp faults, (2 the margin of fluvial channels, (3 the sea cliffs and (4 volcanic landforms, namely the caldera wall. About 73% of the mapped events took place in areas where pyroclastic deposits are the dominant lithology and more than 77% occurred where slopes are equal or higher than 20°. These two parameters were integrated and used to generate a preliminary susceptibility map. The incorporation of vulnerability data into the GIS allowed concluding that 30% of dwellings and most of the roads on Sete Cidades Volcano are located in areas where landslide susceptibility is high to very high. Such conclusion should be taken into account for emergency and land use planning.

  14. A three-dimensional gravity inversion applied to São Miguel Island (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A. G.; Montesinos, F. G.; Vieira, R.

    1997-04-01

    Gravimetric studies are becoming more and more widely acknowledged as a useful tool for studying and modeling the distributions of subsurface masses that are associated with volcanic activity. In this paper, new gravimetric data for the volcanic island of São Miguel (Azores) were analyzed and interpreted by a stabilized linear inversion methodology. An inversion model of higher resolution was calculated for the Caldera of Furnas, which has a larger density of data. In order to filter out the noncorrelatable anomalies, least squares prediction was used, resulting in a correlated gravimetric signal model with an accuracy of the order of 0.9 mGal. The gravimetric inversion technique is based on the adjustment of a three-dimensional (3-D) model of cubes of unknown density that represents the island's subsurface. The problem of non-uniqueness is solved by minimization with appropriate covariance matrices of the data (resulting from the least squares prediction) and of the unknowns. We also propose a criterion for choosing a balance between the data fit (which in this case corresponds to residues with rms of the order of 0.6 mGal) and the smoothness of the solution. The global model of the island includes a low-density zone in a WNW-ESE direction and a depth of the order of 20 km, associated with the Terceira rift spreading center. The minimums located at a depth of 4 km may be associated with shallow magmatic chambers beneath the main volcanoes of the island. The main high-density area is related to the Nordeste basaltic shield. With regard to the Caldera Furnas, in addition to the minimum that can be associated with a magmatic chamber, there are other shallow minimums that correspond to eruptive processes.

  15. Coccolithophore paleoproductivity and ecology response to deglacial and Holocene changes in the Azores Current System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, C.; Kinkel, Hanno; Weinelt, M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the sensitivity of marine primary productivity in the midlatitude open ocean North Atlantic to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), we investigated two spliced sediment cores from a site south of the Azores Islands at the northern rim of the North At...

  16. Tracking macroalgae introductions in North Atlantic oceanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micael, Joana; Parente, Manuela I.; Costa, Ana C.

    2014-06-01

    The Azores archipelago was selected as a case study since there are few studies on macroalgae introduction in oceanic islands. While at a global scale, around 3 % of macroalgae are considered non-indigenous; in the remote oceanic islands of the Azores, over 6 % of the marine algal flora is non-indigenous. The taxa distribution pattern of non-indigenous species in the Azores is significantly different from the distribution pattern in the globe. The most representative group was Rhodophyta species, being 84 % of the total non-indigenous macroalgae, mainly introduced via maritime traffic. This study highlights the vulnerability of remote islands to the introduction of macroalgae and the need to develop further studies on other archipelagos to understand whether the observed vulnerability is generally characteristic of oceanic islands. The development of local monitoring and mitigation programs and the necessity of regulatory and preventive measures for the maritime traffic vector are strongly suggested.

  17. Revisiting Caveiro Lake sediment record: the Holocene NAO and AMO impact on Pico Island (Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A.; Giralt, S.; Raposeiro, P. M.; Gonçalves, V. M.; Pueyo, J. J.; Trigo, R. M.; Bao, R.; Sáez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Northern Hemisphere climate is partly conditioned by a number of atmospheric and oceanic patterns which occur in the North Atlantic sector. The favourable location of the Azores Archipelago (37°-40° N, 25°-31° W) results in a privileged place to generate high-resolution Holocene climatic proxy data that can contribute to deep our understanding on the evolution of these atmospheric and oceanic patterns. In the frame of three research projects, namely PALEONAO (CGL2010-15767), RAPIDNAO (CGL2013-40608-R) and PALEOMODES (CGL2016-75281-C2), high-resolution proxy-based reconstructions from Azores Archipelago have recently shown a combined impact of atmospheric and oceanic patterns at multiannual and decadal time-scales (Rubio-Inglés et al. 2016; Hernández et al. 2017). However, the long-term evolution coupling/uncoupling of these patterns is not well-determined yet. Here, we present a new high-resolution climate reconstruction based on the Caveiro Lake sedimentary sequence in order to fill this gap. Previously, Björck et al. (2006) studied a section of this sequence (the uppermost 4.6 m covering last 6 Ka cal BP) concluding that changes in the thermohaline circulation and the SST were the main drivers in the long-term precipitation variability, whereas the NAO impact was the main atmospheric driver of short-term precipitation changes. However, they only distinguished the NAO impact for the last 600 years owing to the low resolution of the study for the lower portion of the core. The new studied sequence (8.40 m long, 8.2 Ka cal BP) has been analysed at decadal-to centennial time-scale resolution for X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning and elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter. The statistical multivariate analysis of the data highlights the main drivers triggering the sedimentary infill of the lake would be the NAO and AMO by controlling the lacustrine productivity via nutrients input. This new high

  18. Construction of teacher autonomy a case study in Azores Islands (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Francisco GONZÁLEZ ROA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Building up a professional identity assuming a main role to teachers autonomy as well as assuming cooperation as a fundamental issue in teacher training methodology, are commonly being considered main goals for teachers professional learning, along with the new demands in the contemporaneous society and the answers to new challenges as well as the conviction of students «educability». In this paper we describe how these goals have been systematically and almost obsessively undertaken by a group of teachers in Terceira Island, Azores archipelago, Portugal, during the last ten years. A collaborative pedagogy, i.e. changing practices for student achievement as well as making their practice open to peer critique, the student-centered teachers instruction along with a democratic practice within the classroom, which they always try to improve, are the main issues which characterize the work of these professionals. The strategies adopted by this group include the formation of organized working groups where there is a truly cooperation, reflection and sharing of their practices. The learning groups are in the core of the methodology where teachers assist each other in a day-by-day routine and use an open dialogue to express their feelings, expectations and distresses about their own practices.

  19. Morpho-structural evolution of a volcanic island developed inside an active oceanic rift: S. Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Weiss, B.; Boulesteix, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of volcanic islands is generally marked by fast construction phases alternating with destruction by a variety of mass-wasting processes. More specifically, volcanic islands located in areas of intense regional deformation can be particularly prone to gravitational destabilisation. The island of S. Miguel (Azores) has developed during the last 1 Myr inside the active Terceira Rift, a major tectonic structure materializing the present boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. In this work, we depict the evolution of the island, based on high-resolution DEM data, stratigraphic and structural analyses, high-precision K-Ar dating on separated mineral phases, and offshore data (bathymetry and seismic profiles). The new results indicate that: (1) the oldest volcanic complex (Nordeste), composing the easternmost part of the island, was dominantly active between ca. 850 and 750 ka, and was subsequently affected by a major south-directed flank collapse. (2) Between at least 500 ka and 250 ka, the landslide depression was massively filled by a thick lava succession erupted from volcanic cones and domes distributed along the main E-W collapse scar. (3) Since 250 kyr, the western part of this succession (Furnas area) was affected by multiple vertical collapses; associated plinian eruptions produced large pyroclastic deposits, here dated at ca. 60 ka and less than 25 ka. (4) During the same period, the eastern part of the landslide scar was enlarged by retrogressive erosion, producing the large Povoação valley, which was gradually filled by sediments and young volcanic products. (5) The Fogo volcano, in the middle of S. Miguel, is here dated between ca. 270 and 17 ka, and was affected by, at least, one southwards flank collapse. (6) The Sete Cidades volcano, in the western end of the island, is here dated between ca. 91 and 13 ka, and experienced mutliple caldera collapses; a landslide to the North is also suspected from the presence of a

  20. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion : multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, Lennart; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.

    2016-01-01

    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known

  1. Health related physical fitness of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pina de Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purposes of this research were: (1 to investigate health related physical fitness (HPF of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores islands, Portugal, and to (2 analyse sex differences in each age. The sample comprised 3742 children of both sexes, residents in Azores islands, Portugal. Twenty-five percent of the children in each gender and age in each island were evaluated with FITNESSGRAM: 1-mile run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk lift and body mass index (BMI (kg/m-2. Data were analysed as follow: χ2 to test the differences in ratio of success/failure in each age group; factorial ANOVA gender*age to test the differences between age groups and gender; discriminant function to test the presence of multivariate profiles of HPF in age natural groups. The ratios of success in both boys and girls were low. In girls there was a substantial decrease of ratio of success between 6 and 10 years of age. Among 10-year-old girls the global ratio of success was only 18%. In boys, the ratios of success had also a tendency to decrease along age. Among 10-years-old boys the global ratio of success was 39%. Boys had better performance in all tests than girls of all ages. Discriminant function analyses indicated that there were a low percentage of children classified in their natural age groups. Although there were children with HPF level advanced for their natural age groups, there were a considerable number of children with HPF level lower than the expected for their own age. RESUMO Pretendeu-se (1 conhecer os níveis da aptidão física associada à saúde (ApFS da população escolar de 6 a 10 anos de idade do arquipélago dos Açores, Portugal e (2 analisar as diferenças entre os sexos ao longo da idade. A amostra foi constituída por 3742 crianças, de ambos os sexos, residentes no arquipélago dos Açores. A avaliação da ApFS foi efectuada de acordo com a bateria de testes FITNESSGRAM: corrida/marcha da milha, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk

  2. Competing Notions of Diversity in Archipelago Tourism: Transport Logistics, Official Rhetoric and Inter-Island Rivalry in the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Costa Duarte Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contending and competing geographies are often implicitly involved in archipelagic spaces. Various small island states and territories with multi-island geographies have flourishing tourism industries that presuppose an archipelagic experience: visitors are encouraged to explore and sample different island constituents of the territory. This strategy taps into different tourism niche markets, improves local value added, and shares tourism revenue beyond key nodes and urban centers. The organization of such an important economic activity however often reflects a ‘one-size-fits-all’, tightly coordinated, frequently contrived process that does not necessarily speak to the cultural and biogeographical forms of diversity that reside in the archipelago. This paper offers the notion of archipelago as a new way of rethinking problems and challenges encountered in island tourism, and then assesses the implications of this conceptualization on the representation of ‘the archipelago’ in the Azores, Portugal, and reviews what this approach means and implies for sustainable tourism policy.

  3. Variations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Azores plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbruyères, D.; Biscoito, M.; Caprais, J.-C.; Colaço, A.; Comtet, T.; Crassous, P.; Fouquet, Y.; Khripounoff, A.; Le Bris, N.; Olu, K.; Riso, R.; Sarradin, P.-M.; Segonzac, M.; Vangriesheim, A.

    2001-05-01

    Near the Azores Triple Junction as the Azores Plateau is approached, the ridge axis becomes shallower; its depth decreases from ca. 2400 m in the R AINBOW vent field (36°13'N) to ca. 850 m in the M ENEZ G WEN vent field (37°35'N). In this area, extensive mussel beds of the mytilid Bathymodiolus azoricus dominate the hydrothermal vent fauna, along with populations of three shrimps ( Rimicaris exoculata, Mirocaris fortunata and Chorocaris chacei). The main physical and chemical characteristics of the vent habitat were studied by discrete sampling, in situ analysis and sediment trap moorings. The vent fauna is distributed along a variable band where the vent fluids and seawater mix, with R. exoculata living in the most concentrated areas and Bathymodiolus azoricus in the most diluted zones. Various non-endemic species live at the border of the vent field. The variations observed in structure and composition of the communities along the depth gradient are most likely due to changes in vent fluid toxicity (metallic and sulphide content) and suspended mineral particles, which render the fluids harsher for species living there. The main faunal differences observed between L UCKY S TRIKE and M ENEZ G WEN hydrothermal fields are due to an impoverishment in the hydrothermal endemic species and to the penetration of bathyal species. The comparison of the three studied vent fields suggests the existence of a succession of several biogeographic islands rather than a single province.

  4. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  5. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-06-05

    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiocarbon evidence for the presence of mice on Madeira Island (North Atlantic) one millennium ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Pieper, Harald; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-04-07

    Owing to the catastrophic extinction events that occurred following the Holocene arrival of alien species, extant oceanic island biotas are a mixture of recently incorporated alien fauna and remnants of the original fauna. Knowledge of the Late Quaternary pristine island faunas and a reliable chronology of the earliest presence of alien species on each archipelago are critical in understanding the magnitude and tempo of Quaternary island extinctions. Until now, two successive waves of human arrivals have been identified in the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands): 'aboriginal', which is limited to the Canary Islands around two millennia ago, and 'colonial', from the fourteenth century onwards. New surveys in Ponta de São Lourenço (Madeira Island) have allowed us to obtain and date ancient bones of mice. The date obtained (1033 ± 28 BP) documents the earliest evidence for the presence of mice on the island. This date extends the time frame in which the most significant ecological changes occurred on the island. It also suggests that humans could have reached Madeira before 1036 cal AD, around four centuries before Portugal officially took possession of the island.

  7. Clenbuterol storage stability in the bovine urine and liver samples used for European official control in the azores islands (portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Isabel; Jesuino, Bruno; Barbosa, Jorge; Ferreira, Humberto; Ramos, Fernando; Matos, José; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

    2009-02-11

    Clenbuterol is a well-known growth promoter, illegally used in farm animals, especially in cattle. Samples collected for the screening of beta(2)-agonist residues in Portuguese Azores Islands must travel through all the nine islands until they reach Azores Central Laboratory. If any suspicious sample is detected, it must be further transported to the National Reference Laboratory in Lisbon for confirmation. As a consequence of these circumstances, samples are submitted to different transport and storage times, as well as different temperature conditions and in some cases successive freezing and thawing cycles. As clenbuterol is the most detected beta(2)-agonist growth promoter in the Portuguese Residue Monitoring Plan, studies were conducted on the stability of this compound in incurred samples (bovine liver and urine) at +4, -20 and -60 degrees C over time. Samples kept at -20 degrees C were also analyzed over time after successive freezing and thawing cycles. The analyses of clenbuterol over time were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Clenbuterol in incurred urine and liver samples was significantly stable up to 20 weeks at -20 and -60 degrees C and after, at least, six consecutive freezings and thawings. At +4 degrees C, clenbuterol remained stable, at least until 12 weeks in urine and up to 20 weeks in liver.

  8. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

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    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  9. Neotectonics of Graciosa island (Azores: a contribution to seismic hazard assessment of a volcanic area in a complex geodynamic setting

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    Ana Hipólito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Graciosa is a mid-Pleistocene to Holocene volcanic island that lies in a complex plate boundary between the North American, Eurasian, and Nubian plates. Large fault scarps displace the oldest (Middle Pleistocene volcanic units, but in the younger areas recent volcanism (Holocene to Upper Pleistocene conceals the surface expression of faulting, limiting neotectonic observations. The large displacement accumulated by the older volcanic units when compared with the younger formations suggests a variability of deformation rates and the possibility of alternating periods of higher and lower tectonic deformation rates; this would increase the recurrence interval of surface rupturing earthquakes. Nevertheless, in historical times a few destructive earthquakes affected the island attesting for its seismic hazard. Regarding the structural data, two main fault systems, incompatible with a single stress field, were identified at Graciosa Island. Thus, it is proposed that the region is affected by two alternating stress fields. The stress field #1 corresponds to the regional stress regime proposed by several authors for the interplate shear zone that constitutes the Azorean segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. It is suggested that the stress field #2 will act when the area under the influence of the regional stress field #1 narrows as a result of variations in the differential spreading rates north and south of Azores. The islands closer to the edge of the sheared region will temporarily come under the influence of a different (external stress field (stress field #2. Such data support the concept that, in the Azores, the Eurasia-Nubia boundary corresponds to a complex and wide deformation zone, variable in time.

  10. Topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic: the Azores, Canary and Cape Verde plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Nippress, Stuart E. J.; Lessing, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    We are mapping the topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding regions by using precursor arrivals to PP and SS seismic waves that reflect off the seismic discontinuities. Many source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a large dataset of reflection points beneath our investigating area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from MW>5.8 events using array seismic methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The measured time lag between PP (SS) arrivals and their corresponding precursors on robust stacks are used to measure the depth of the transition zone boundaries. The reflectors' depths show a correlation between the location of hotspots and a significantly depressed 410 km discontinuity indicating a temperature increase of 200-300 K compared to the surrounding mantle. For the 660 km discontinuity three distinct behaviours are visible: i) normal depths beneath Greenland and at a distance of a few hundred kilometres away from the hotspots and ii) shallower 660 km discontinuity compared with the global average value near hotspots closer to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and iii) very few observations of a 660 km discontinuity at the hotspot locations. We interpret our observations as a large upwelling beneath the southern parts of our study region, possibly due to the South Atlantic convection cell. The thermal anomaly may be blocked by endothermic phase transformation and likely does not extend through the top of the transition zone as whole except for those branches which appear as the Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde hotspots at the surface.

  11. New contribution to the reproductive features of bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus from northeast Atlantic (Azores Archipelago

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    Ana Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes and identifies the macroscopic and corresponding microscopic changes of the gonads of an important commercial fish species, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus, from Azores Archipelago. The new contribution relates the macroscopic scale with the histological stages. The annual changes in the gonad, together with the analysis of the monthly gonadosomatic indices, and complementary observations with scanning electron microscopy, allow us to conclude that the females are internally inseminated between July and November and spawn between January and March. There is a separation between female and male reproductive cycles. The overall sex-ratio observed was 1:1, but seasonal and length related differences were observed. This suggests differences and changes in availability, probably related to the annual reproductive cycle and changes in feeding behaviour

  12. Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Pierce, G.J.; Valavanis, V.D.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, a phytoplankton spring bloom starts just north of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and then expands northwards across the entire North Atlantic. Here, we investigate whether the timing of the spring migration of baleen whales is related to the timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom,

  13. Phytobenthic communities of intertidal rock pools in the eastern islands of Azores and their relation to position on shore and pool morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenstein, Francisco; Peres, Sara D.; Xavier, Emanuel D.; Neto, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize algal composition inside rock-pools from two islands of the Azores archipelago (São Miguel and Santa Maria) and relate it to shore height and pool morphology. Pools were categorized as upper, medium and lower intertidal according to the surrounding communities. Maximum depth and surface area were used to reflect morphology and qualitative sampling to evaluate algal species richness. PRIMER software assessed the similarity across islands, sites, shore height...

  14. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

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    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  15. Distribution and feeding ecology of dolphins along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksæter, L.; Olsen, E.; Nøttestad, L.; Fernö, A.

    2008-01-01

    During Leg 1 of the MAR-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars in June 2004 four main species of dolphins were observed along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores: pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) ( n=326), short-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) ( n=273), white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) ( n=103), and striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba) ( n=86). Pilot whales and white-sided dolphins were found in cold (5-16 °C) and less-saline (34.6-35.8‰) water masses in the northern part of the study area, whereas common and striped dolphins inhabited warmer (12-22 °C) and more-saline (34.8-36.7‰) waters in the south. Dolphins tended to aggregate in areas of steep slopes, but actual bottom depth appeared to be less important. Based on spatial correlations between dolphin occurrence and candidate prey organisms recorded acoustically and by midwater trawling, mesopelagic fishes and squids were assumed to be important prey items, with Benthosema glaciale probably being the most important prey for pilot whales and white-sided dolphins, while Lampanyctus macdonaldi, Stomias boa ferox and Chauliodus sloani were probably of particular importance for common dolphins. Cephalopods, especially Gonatus sp. and Teuthowenia megalops were the most likely prey species of pilot whales and striped dolphins, respectively. The difference in physical habitat north and south of the Sub-polar Frontal Zone seemed to have important effects on prey distribution, in turn influencing dolphin distribution.

  16. Pollination services mapping and economic valuation from insect communities: a case study in the Azores (Terceira Island

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    Ana Picanço

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinators provide vital ecosystem services through its maintenance of plant biological diversity and its role in food production. Indeed, adequate pollination services can increase the production and quality of fruit and vegetable crops. This service is currently challenged by land use intensification and expanding human population growth. Hence, this study aims: (1 to assess the pollination services in different land uses with different levels of disturbance through GIS mapping technique using insect pollinators abundance and richness as indicators, and (2 estimate the economic value of pollination by insects in agricultural crops. Our study takes place in a small oceanic island, Terceira (Azores, Portugal. Our results showed, remarkably, that not only the pristine vegetation areas, but also the orchards and agricultural areas have relatively high values of pollination services, even though both land uses have opposite disturbance levels. For the economic valuation, we analyzed 24 crops in the island and found that 18 depend on pollinators with one-third of these crops having 65% or 95% dependence on pollinators. The economic contribution of pollinators totals 36.2% of the total mean annual agricultural income of the dependent crops, highlighting the importance of insect pollinators in agricultural production and consequent economic gain productions.

  17. 3-D interpretation of short-period magnetotelluric data at Furnas Volcano, Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, C.; Kiyan, D.; Rath, V.; Byrdina, S.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Revil, A.; Viveiros, F.; Carmo, R.; Silva, C.; Ferreira, T.

    2018-04-01

    Accurate geophysical imaging of shallow subsurface features provides crucial constraints on understanding the dynamics of volcanic systems. At Furnas Volcano (Azores), intense circulation of volcanic fluids at depth leading to high CO2 outgassing and flank destabilization poses considerable threat to the local population. Presented is a novel 3-D electrical resistivity model developed from 39 magnetotelluric soundings that images the hydrothermal system of the Furnas Volcano to a depth of 1 km. The resistivity model images two conductive zones, one at 100 m and another at 500 m depth, separated by a resistive layer. The shallow conductor has conductivity less than 1 S m-1, which can be explained by clay mineral surface conduction with a mass fraction of at least 20 per cent smectite. The deeper conductor extends across the majority of the survey area. This deeper conductor is located at depths where smectite is generally replaced by chlorite and we interpret it as aqueous fluids near the boiling point and infer temperatures of at least 240 °C. The less conductive layer found between these conductors is probably steam-dominated, and coincides within the mixed-clay zone found in many volcanic hydrothermal systems.

  18. New data on polymorphism of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) from the island of São Miguel (Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo A V; Rodrigues, Ana S B; Silva, Sara E; Seabra, Sofia G; Paulo, OctÁvio S; Quartau, JosÉ A

    2018-01-02

    The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae) is a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region, exhibiting a dorsal colour balanced polymorphism. In the Azores the species is known from high elevations in Terceira and São Miguel islands. A sample of 235 individuals from Pico da Vara and Graminhais protected areas (São Miguel, Azores) (between 645 and 935 m a.s.l.), collected in 2000 and 2017, showed a remarkable high frequency of the melanic morphs flavicollis (FLA) and quadrimaculatus (QUA). In addition, a high frequency of melanics was observed in males. We explore the hypotheses for the origin of Azorean colonization and for the high proportion of melanism in the Azorean populations.

  19. Shallow landslide stability computation using a distributed transient response model for susceptibility assessment and validation. A case study from Ribeira Quente valley (S. Miguel island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, P.; Marques, R.; Zêzere, J. L.; Marques, F.; Queiroz, G.

    2009-04-01

    based system that will publish the FS values to a WebGIS platform, based on near real time ground-based rainfall monitoring. This application will allow the evaluation of scenarios considering the variation of the pressure head response, related to transient rainfall regime. The resultant computational platform combined with regional empirical rainfall triggered landslides threshold (Marques et al. 2008) can be incorporated in a common server with the Regional Civil Protection for emergency planning purposes. This work is part of the project VOLCSOILRISK (Volcanic Soils Geotechnical Characterization for Landslide Risk Mitigation), supported by Direcção Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia do Governo Regional dos Açores. References: IVERSON, R.M. (2000) - Landslide triggering by rain infiltration. Water Resources Research 36, 1897-1910. MARQUES, R., ZÊZERE, J.L., TRIGO, R., GASPAR, J.L., TRIGO, I. (2008) - Rainfall patterns and critical values associated with landslides in Povoação County (São Miguel Island, Azores): relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Hydrol. Process. 22, 478-494. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6879.

  20. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population.

  1. The distribution and biochemical composition of biogenic particles across the subtropical Front in June 1993 (Azores-Madeira region, Northeast Atlantic

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    Luigi Vezzulli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected in the north-east Atlantic Ocean between the Azores and Madeira (33°N-36°N and 24°W-26°W during the Oceanographic Cruise SEMAPHORE in June 1993. Temperature, salinity, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and particulate organic matter (organic carbon, organic nitrogen, carbohydrates, proteins and phytopigment were investigated in the water column to a depth of 2000 m. The presence of the subtropical front (STF separating warmer more saline Western Atlantic Water (WAW from colder and fresher Eastern Atlantic Water (EAW in the upper 100 m, and a tongue of salt water arising from the influence of Mediterranean Water (MW at a depth of 1000 m, were well identified by the physical and chemical parameters. POC and PON concentrations, in the surface layer (0-100 m, ranged between 23.3-64.5 and 2.9-9.1 µg l-1 respectively, while concentration between 12.4-30.5 and 1.1-4.0 µg l-1 prevailed below the thermocline (100-2000 m. The very low POC and PON concentrations together with the low nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations confirmed the oligotrophic nature of the Azores-Madeira region. Statistical analysis was carried out to investigate the difference in the quantity and quality of POM between water masses. Regression analysis showed a high correlation between POC and PON but the slopes and intercepts of the regression lines did not differ significantly between WAW and EAW. In contrast, an examination of vertical profiles as well as mean integrated values of biochemical variables in the upper 100 m suggest a difference in the quantity and quality of biogenic particles between the water masses. WAW showed the lowest integrated concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate protein and particulate carbohydrate. In contrast, frontal stations showed the highest values while EAW stations showed intermediate values. All these results, coupled with the occurrence of the highest POC

  2. Geodynamic control on melt production in the central Azores : new insights from major and trace elements, Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf isotopic data and K/Ar ages on the islands of Terceira, Sao Jorge and Faial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, A.; Weis, D. A.; Madureira, P.; Marques, F. O.

    2012-12-01

    A combined geochronological and geochemical study has been carried out on the volcanic islands of Terceira, São Jorge, and Faial (central Azores) to examine the relationships between mantle dynamics, melt production and regional deformation close to the triple junction between the American, the Eurasian and the Nubian lithospheric plates. The lavas analyzed span the last 1.3 Myr, and have been erupted during two main periods prior to 800 ka and after 750 ka, respectively. They range in composition from alkaline basalts/basanites to trachytes, and overall exhibit a strong enrichment in highly incompatible elements. The whole range of isotopic compositions here reported (87Sr/86Sr: 0.703508-0.703913; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.512882-0.513010; 206Pb/204Pb: 19.0840- 20.0932; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.5388-15.6409; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.7416-39.3921; 176Hf/177Hf: 0.282956-0.283111) suggests the involvement of three components: (1) a weakly radiogenic component reflecting the source of regional MORBs, (2) a main HIMU-type component represented in the three islands, and (3) an additional component in Faial recent lavas, which appears similar to the EM type end-member previously recognized on other Azores eruptive complexes. The geographical distribution of the enriched components and the synchronous construction of various islands at the regional scale rules out a single narrow active plume. They suggest in turn the presence of dispersed residual enriched mantle blobs, interpreted as remnants from a large heterogeneous plume probably responsible for edification of the Azores plateau several Myr ago. The lavas erupted in São Jorge and Faial prior to 800 ka have similar and homogeneous isotopic ratios, which partly overlap the compositional field of MORBs from the adjacent portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Their genesis can be explained by the regional development of N150 transtensive tectonic structures, which promoted significant decompression melting of the upper mantle, with correlative

  3. Seismicity And Accretion Processes Along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Azores using data from the MARCHE Autonomous Hydrophone Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Julie; Cevatoglu, Melis; Cannat, Mathilde; Escartin, Javier; Maia, Marcia; Tisseau, Chantal; Dziak, Robert; Goslin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    The seismicity of the South Atlantic Ocean has been recorded by the MARCHE network of 4 autonomous underwater hydrophones (AUH) moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The instruments were deployed south of the Azores Plateau between 32° and 39°N from July 2005 to August 2008. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation result in a detection threshold reduction from a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ~4.3 for MAR events recorded by the land-based seismic networks to Mc=2.1 using this hydrophone array. A spatio-temporal analysis has been performed among the 5600 events recorded inside the MARCHE array. Most events are distributed along the ridge between lat. 39°N on the Azores Platform and the Rainbow (36°N) segment. In the hydrophone catalogue, acoustic magnitude (Source Level, SL) is used as a measure of earthquake size. The source level above which the data set is complete is SLc=205 dB. We look for seismic swarms using the cluster software of the SEISAN package. The criterion used are a minimum SL of 210 to detect a possible mainshock, and a radius of 30 km and a time window of 40 days after this mainshock (Cevatoglu, 2010, Goslin et al., 2012). 7 swarms with more than 15 events are identified using this approach between 32°et 39°N of latitude. The maximum number of earthquake in a swarm is 57 events. This result differs from the study of Simao et al. (2010) as we processed a further year of data and selected sequences with fewer events. Looking at the distribution of the SL as a function of time after the mainshock, we discuss the possible mechanism of these earthquakes : tectonic events with a "mainshock-aftershock" distribution fitting a modified Omori law or volcanic events showing more constant SL values. We also present the geophysical setting of these 7 swarms, using gravity, bathymetry, and available local geological data. This study illustrates the potential of

  4. Human leptospirosis: seroreactivity and genetic susceptibility in the population of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Esteves

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic and recognized neglected infectious disease. It has been observed that only a proportion of individuals exposed to pathogenic species of Leptospira become infected and develop clinically evident disease. Moreover, little information is available in subsequent reinfections. In the present study, we determine if a first infection with leptospirosis protects against subsequent reinfection, and investigate which of the host genetic factors are involved in the susceptibility and resistance to leptospirosis.We conducted, in 2011, a retrospective hospital-based case-control study in the São Miguel Island population (Azores archipelago. In order to determine the seropositivity against pathogenic Leptospira after the first episode of leptospirosis, we performed a serological evaluation in 97 unrelated participants diagnosed with leptospirosis between 1992 and 2011. The results revealed that 46.4% of the 97 participants have circulating anti-Leptospira antibodies, and from these participants 35.6% maintained the seroprevalence for the same serogroup. Moreover, three of them were reinfected with unrelated Leptospira serovars. The genetic study was carried out by adding a control group composed of 470 unrelated healthy blood donors, also from São Miguel Island. Twenty five SNPs among twelve innate immune genes - IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL10, IL12RB1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, CD14, CISH, LTA and TNF - were genotyped, as well as HLA class I (-A and -B genes. Association analysis indicates that genotypes -511GG (OR=1.6, 95%CI 1.01-2.56, p=0.04 in IL1β, +1196CG (OR=2.0, 95%CI 1.26-3.27, p=0.003 in IL12RB1, -292TA (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.06-2.1, p=0.03 and +3415CG (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.08-3.08, p=0.02, both in CISH confer susceptibility to pathogenic Leptospira.The present study suggests some degree of long-term protection against leptospires with an attenuation of symptoms in case of reinfection. Moreover, our data supports the genetic

  5. Developing Atmospheric Science Tools for Teachers Based on Research at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Pico Island, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, L.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric science and climate change are becoming increasingly important, especially in education, as the Next Generation Science Standards now include climate change. A collaborating team of research scientists and students are studying the free troposphere, specifically the aerosol composition and properties, on the island of Pico in the Azores Archipelago. The research station sits in the caldera of Mount Pico, 2225 meters above sea level. At this elevation, the station is above the marine boundary layer, thus placing it in the free troposphere. In this work, collaboration between a high school Earth Science teacher and university researchers was formed with the goal of developing classroom and outreach materials regarding atmospheric science. Among the materials, a video was created containing: site and project background, explanation of some of the instruments used and candid conversations regarding science and research. The video serves several purposes, such as informing students and the general public about what is happening in the atmosphere and informing students about the importance of science and research. The video could also be used to educate the local island community and tourists. Other materials designed include data directly obtained from the project, such as measurements of aerosol particles in electron microscopy photos (which were imaged for particle morphology and size), and composition of the aerosol particles. Students can use this evidence, as well as other data, to gain a better understanding of aerosols and the overall effect they have on the climate. Students will discover this evidence as they work through a series of experiments and activities. Using the strategy of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a way to answer scientific questions, students will use the evidence they gathered to explain their ideas. One such question could be, 'How do aerosols affect the climate?' and the student's 'claim' is their answer to that question. In the

  6. High resolution bathymetric and sonar images of a ridge southeast of Terceira Island (Azores plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, N.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J.; Silva, I.; Goslin, J.; Ligi, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Terceira rift is a oblique ultra-slow spreading system where a transtensive regime results from differential movement between Eurasian and African plates. So far no classical ridge segmentation pattern has here been observed. The predominant morphological features are fault controlled rhombic shaped basins and volcanism related morphologies like circular seamounts and volcanic ridges. We present SIMRAD EM300 (bathymetry + backscatter) images acquired over one of these ridges located SE of Terceira Island, during the SIRENA cruise (PI J. Goslin), which complements previous TOBI mosaics performed over the same area during the AZZORRE99 cruise (PI M. Ligi). The ridge presents a NW-SE orientation, it is seismically active (a seismic crisis was documented in 1997) and corresponds to the southern branch of a V shape bathymetric feature enclosing the Terceira Island and which tip is located west of the Island near the 1998 Serreta ridge eruption site. NE of the ridge, the core of the V, corresponds to the North Hirondelle basin. All this area corresponds mainly to Brunhes magnetic epoch. The new bathymetry maps reveal a partition between tectonic processes, centred in the ridge, and volcanism present at the bottom of the North Hirondelle basin. The ridge high backscatter surface is cut by a set of sub-parallel anastomosed normal faults striking between N130º and N150º. Some faults present horse-tail terminations. Fault splays sometimes link to neighbour faults defining extensional duplexes and fault wedge basins and highs of rhombic shape. The faulting geometry suggests that a left-lateral strike slip component should be present. The top of the ridge consists on an arched demi-.horst, and it is probably a volcanic structure remnant (caldera system?), existing prior to onset of the tectonic stage in the ridge. Both ridge flanks display gullies and mass wasting fans at the base of the slope. The ridge vicinities are almost exclusively composed of a grayish homogeneous

  7. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  8. Soil CO2 Degassing Path along Volcano-Tectonic Structures in the Pico-Faial-São Jorge Islands (Azores Archipelago, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Viveiros

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago is composed of nine volcanic islands located at the triple junction between the North American, Eurasian, and Nubian plates. Nowadays the volcanic activity in the archipelago is characterized by the presence of secondary manifestations of volcanism, such as hydrothermal fumaroles, thermal and cold CO2-rich springs as well as soil diffuse degassing areas, and low magnitude seismicity. Soil CO2 degassing (concentration and flux surveys have been performed at Pico, Faial, and São Jorge islands to identify possible diffuse degassing structures. Since the settlement of the Azores in the fifteenth Century these three islands were affected by seven onshore volcanic eruptions and at least six destructive earthquakes. These islands are crossed by numerous active tectonic structures with dominant WNW-ESE direction, and less abundant conjugate NNW-SSE trending faults. A total of 2,855 soil CO2 concentration measurements have been carried out with values varying from 0 to 20.7 vol.%. Soil CO2 flux measurements, using the accumulation chamber method, have also been performed at Pico and Faial islands in the summer of 2011 and values varied from absence of CO2 to 339 g m−2 d−1. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded at Faial Island and were associated with the Pedro Miguel graben faults, which seem to control the CO2 diffuse degassing and were interpreted as the pathways for the CO2 ascending from deep reservoirs to the surface. At São Jorge Island, four main degassing zones have been identified at the intersection of faults or associated to WNW-ESE tectonic structures. Four diffuse degassing structures were identified at Pico Island essentially where different faults intersect. Pico geomorphology is dominated by a 2,351 m high central volcano that presents several steam emissions at its summit. These emissions are located along a NW-SE fault and the highest measured soil CO2 concentration reached 7.6 vol.% with a maximum

  9. A reconstruction of Palaeo-Macaronesia, with particular reference to the long-term biogeography of the Atlantic island laurel forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Palacios, José María; de Nascimento, Lea; Otto, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Macaronesia is a biogeographical region comprising five Atlantic Oceanic archipelagos: the Azores, Madeira, Selvagen (Savage Islands), Canaries and Cape Verde. It has strong affinities with the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the north-western fringes of Africa. This paper re...... the role of these archipelagos as stepping stones and as both repositories of palaeo-endemic forms and crucibles of neo-endemic radiations of plant and animal groups. Our principal focus is on the laurel forest communities, long considered impoverished relicts of the Palaeotropical Tethyan flora....... This account is therefore contextualized by reference to the long-term climatic and biogeographical history of Southern Europe and North Africa and by consideration of the implications of changes in land–sea configuration, climate and ocean circulation for Macaronesian biogeography. We go on to provide...

  10. Radon progeny monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility and a potential earthquake precursory signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgilio B.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.

    2016-04-01

    Radon has been considered a promising earthquake precursor, the main rationale being an expected increase in radon exhalation in soil and rocks due to stress associated with the preparatory stages of an earthquake. However, the precursory nature of radon is far from being convincingly demonstrated so far. A major hindrance is the many meteorological and geophysical factors diving radon temporal variability, including the geophysical parameters influencing its emanation (grain size, moisture content, temperature), as well as the meteorological factors (atmospheric pressure, moisture, temperature, winds) influencing its mobility. Despite the challenges, radon remains one of the strongest candidates as a potential earthquake precursor, and it is of crucial importance to investigate the many factors driving its variability and its potential association with seismic events. Continuous monitoring of radon progeny is performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The Azores archipelago is associated with a complex geodynamic setting on the Azores triple junction where the American, Eurasian and African litospheric plates meet, resulting in significant seismic and volcanic activity. A considerable advantage of the monitoring site is the availability of a comprehensive dataset of concurrent meteorological observations performed at the ENA facility and freely available from the ARM data archive, enabling a detailed analysis of the environmental factors influencing the temporal variability of radon's progeny. Gamma radiation is being measured continuously every 15 minutes since May 2015. The time series of gamma radiation counts is dominated by sharp peaks lasting a few hours and

  11. (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from the Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Osmundea is a strongly supported monophyletic group within the Laurencia complex and shows a disjunct distribution occurring in the North-East and South-West Pacific, the Indian and Atlantic oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Its phenotypic plasticity on the Canary Islands may be the result of the high ...

  12. Long-Term Seismicity of Northern (15° N-60° N) Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) Recorded by two Regional Hydrophone Arrays: a Widespread Along-Ridge Influence of the Azores and Iceland Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, J.; Bazin, S.; Dziak, R. P.; Fox, C.; Fowler, M.; Haxel, J.; Lourenco, N.; Luis, J.; Martin, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Perrot, J.; Royer, J.

    2004-12-01

    The seismicity of the North Atlantic was recorded by two networks of hydrophones moored in the SOFAR channel, north and south of the Azores Plateau. The interpretation of the hydro-acoustic signals recorded during the first six-month common period of operation of the two networks (June 2002 to Nov. 2002) provides a unique data set on the spatial and time distributions of the numerous low-magnitude earthquakes which occurred along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Close to 2000 events were localized during this six-month period between latitudes 15° N and 63° N, 501 of which are localized within the SIRENA network (40° N-51° N) and 692 within the wider South Azores network (17° N-33° N). Using hydrophones to locate seafloor earthquakes by interpreting T-wave signals lowers the detection threshold of Mid-Atlantic Ridge events to 3.0 mb from the 4.7 mb of global seismic networks. This represents an average thirty-fold increase in the number of events: 62 events were detected by global seismological networks within the same area during the same period. An along-ridge spatial distribution of the seismicity is obtained by computing the cumulated numbers of events in 1° -wide latitudinal bins. When plotted vs. latitude, this first-order distribution shows remarkable long-wavelength patterns: the seismicity rate is low when approaching the Azores and Iceland (reaching values as low as 10 events/d° ), while it peaks to 70 events/d° in the vicinity of the Gibbs FZ. Moreover, the latitudinal distribution of the seismicity hints at an asymmetric influence of the Azores hotpot on the MAR. Finally, the spatial distribution of the seismicity anti-correlates well at long wavelengths with the zero-age depths along the MAR and correlates with the zero-age Mantle Bouguer (MBA) anomaly values and the Vs velocity anomalies at 100 km in the upper mantle. It is thus proposed that the seismicity level would be partly tied to the rheology and thickness of the brittle layer and be thus

  13. A new approach for assessing integrated potential conditions of soil and climate for the cultivation of vines in the Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, João; Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Sampaio, João; Pinheiro, Jorge; Madeira, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Being fairly common belief that the particular soil conditions are of great importance in defining the characteristics and qualities of the wine as the final product, it is also recognized the difficulty of establishing and interpreting this relationship clearly. The geological diversity seems to correlate with the characteristics defined in accordance with the classification system employed in France Appellation d' Origine Contrôlée (AOC), suggesting that, in addition to the variety and climate, geology and soil play an important role the properties and characteristics of the grapes produced in a given geographical location. Moreover, although it is known that the vine is tailored to a wide diversity of soil types, it appears also that many of the world's most famous vineyards are installed in poor and rocky terrain where no other crop would be grown in favorable conditions. Such is the case almost extreme implanted in the land of "cracker " and " Lagido " which are the traditional names in the archipelago of the Azores to the cracked surfaces of basaltic lava fields of heterogeneous size ranging from gravel to blocks of Azorean vineyards, whose vines manage to substrate cracks survival and production, albeit in modest yields. Apart from this traditional model of Azorean "terroir" of recognized cultural and landscape value where some interesting wines have been produced and quality recognized, there are significant areas in the islands whose soil and climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of careful assessment, with a view to a possible study of integrated experimental basis. We refer specifically to landscape units of the lower area of some islands, in many cases presently devoted to pasture during the summer where productivity tends to be marginal, because strongly affected by water stress. Such areas preferably South exposed and of gentle slopes providing moderate exposure to the

  14. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro,Ricardo; Ávila,Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  15. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  16. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., S. ermelindoi sp. n., S. netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  17. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  18. Genesis and morphological evolution of coastal talus-platforms (fajãs) with lagoons: The case study of the newly-formed Fajã dos Milagres (Corvo Island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Carlos S.; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Gil, Artur; Borges, Paulo A.; Cardigos, Frederico; Ávila, Sérgio P.; Madeira, José; Gaspar, João L.

    2018-06-01

    Supratidal talus-platforms are low-relief subaerial accumulations of debris produced by mass wasting along high coastal cliffs, being particularly abundant at reefless volcanic islands subjected to high wave energy. Known as "fajãs" across the Portuguese-speaking Atlantic archipelagos, these coastal features, on rare occasions, may exhibit lagoons, constituting sites of high geological, biological, landscape, and social value. Whilst the origin of fajãs is firmly established as being the product of coastal landslides, little is known about the processes that shape fajãs with lagoons. In particular, doubts still remain concerning whether fajãs featuring lagoons are a fortuitous product of mass wasting, or result from marine reworking (by waves and currents) after emplacement. On October 30, 2012, a coastal landslide ( 0.001 km3) occurred on Corvo Island, Azores Archipelago, forming a nearshore gravel islet that later migrated to the island's coast, resulting in a fajã with an ephemeral lagoon (Fajã dos Milagres). This event provided a unique opportunity to study the generation and development of fajãs with lagoons, and therefore a 3-year survey was carried out to record its evolution. This GIS-based study used aerial oblique photography and satellite optical imagery, complemented with a land survey for a more precise topographic reconstruction. Analysis of data concerning bathymetry, precipitation, and wave regime was also employed to investigate the driving forces behind the morphodynamic evolution of the deposit. "Fajã dos Milagres" evolved very rapidly, through an evolutionary pattern with five main stages: 1) "islet stage"; 2) "gravel spit stage"; 3) "early lagoon stage"; 4) "mature lagoon stage"; and 5) "fajã (without lagoon) stage". Our reconstructions show that, for fajãs with lagoons to be formed, several factors should converge: a) presence of high coastal cliffs, made up of composite volcanic sequences, capable of producing large landslides that

  19. Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

    2014-05-15

    Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  20. Genetic diversity and structure of Megabalanus azoricus in the Azores: Implications for aquaculture management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, Mirko; Torboli, Valentina; Pallavicini, Alberto; Isidro, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Megabalanus azoricus giant barnacles are the most traditional seafood of the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). This valuable commercial species has been highly exploited in the past and it is considered one of the key species for the development of aquaculture in the region. Despite the importance for conservation and aquaculture there is still a lack of basic information about M. azoricus genetic diversity and population structure. Here we used seven microsatellites markers to analyse 300 samples collected at six out of nine islands of the Azores archipelago, including also different locations from a single island, to provide information on the scale of genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Parameters like heterozygosity, allelic richness and effective number of alleles indicated a high genetic diversity and variability among islands. Pairwise comparisons and PCoA analysis on FST and Jost's DEST showed significant and evident differentiation among sampling locations. Additionally, AMOVA allocates a small (6.02%) but statistically significant portion of the variance to the among Island level revealing also a weak resolution (1.87%) at finer scale. Additionally Monte Carlo resampling methods indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Genetic risks associated with the giant barnacle potential production scheme should be taken into account in a future management plan delimiting, as precautionary measure, this culture at a single island or at groups of islands here identified. Moreover a monitoring strategy should be implemented with the aim to evaluate possible changes in genetic parameters of native populations.

  1. Plastic pollution in islands of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Raqueline C P; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F

    2018-07-01

    Marine plastic pollution is present in all oceans, including remote oceanic islands. Despite the increasing number of articles on plastic pollution in the last years, there is still a lack of studies in islands, that are biodiversity hotspots when compared to the surrounding ocean, and even other recognized highly biodiverse marine environments. Articles published in the peer reviewed literature (N = 20) were analysed according to the presence of macro (>5 mm) and microplastics (plastics associated with variables such as position of the beach in relation to wind and currents. Very few studies have analysed plastics colonization by organisms or the identification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Islands of the North/South Atlantic and Caribbean Sea were influenced by different sources of macroplastics, being marine-based sources (i.e., fishing activities) predominant in the Atlantic Ocean basin. On the other hand, in the Caribbean Sea, land-based sources were more common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Seismicity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Using the SIRENA and the South Azores Autonomous Hydrophone Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, N.; Goslin, J.; Perrot, J.; Haxel, J.; Dziak, R.

    2006-12-01

    Acoustic data recorded by two Autonomous Hydrophone Arrays (AHA) were jointly processed in Brest (IUEM) and Newport (PMEL-VENTS) to monitor the seismicity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) over a ten month period, at a wide range of spatial scales. Over the deployment period, nearly 6000 T-phase generating earthquakes were localized using a semi-automatic algorithm. Our analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of these events combined with their acoustic energy source levels provides important insights for the generation mechanisms and characteristic behavior of MAR seismicity. It shows for the AHA catalog a variation of the cumulative number of events with time almost linear. Taking in account the area inside the arrays, the section of the ridge north of the Azores is more seismically active than the southern part of it and the seismic activity occurs in large localized clusters. Our (AHA) catalog of acoustic events was used to compare locations, focal mechanisms and magnitude observations with correlated data from land-based stations of the NEIC global seismic network to establish completeness levels from both within and outside of the hydrophone array. The (AHA) catalog has a Source Level of Completeness (SLc) of 204dB, and a b-value of 0.0605. The NEIC catalog for this region during this period has a Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) of 4.6 and a b-value of 1.01. Regressing the AHA values onto the NEIC derived Mc/b-value relationship suggests a Mc of 3.2 for the AHA catalog. By restricting the events to the region inside the AHA, the NEIC catalog has an Mc of 4.7 with a b-value of 1.09, while the AHA catalog has a SLc of 205dB with a b-value of 0.0753. Comparing the b-values of the NEIC catalog with the AHA catalog, we obtain an improved Mc of 3.0 for the AHA inside the array. A time- and space-dependent Single-Link-Cluster algorithm was applied to the events localized inside the AHA. This allowed us to gather cluster sequences of earthquakes for higher

  3. Systematic account of new Porifera (Demospongiae) records from the oceanic Island of Madeira (NE Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Rosa; Ribeiro, ClÁudia; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Biscoito, Manuel

    2018-03-28

    Few surveys on benthic fauna have been performed on the island of Madeira (Alves et al. 2003 and references therein), and the first sponge specimens were collected opportunistically (Johnson 1863, 1899; Topsent 1904, 1928). Porifera can be considered one of the least studied phyla in the Madeira archipelago, within the Lusitanian province. This is not the case for other regions as the Mediterranean (Boury-Esnault 1971 and references therein), Alboran Sea (Carballo 1994), Canary Islands (Cruz 2002), and the Azores (Topsent 1904; Boury-Esnault Lopes 1985; Xavier 2009), where sponges have been more thoroughly studied.

  4. Cruise report for FS METEOR Cruise 60 Leg 3 from Las Palmas, Canary Islands to Ponta Delgada, Azores, during February 28 - March 14, 1982 (NODC Accession 0078562)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of this cruise leg was physical oceanography of the area between the Canaries and the Azores within the program of the SFB 133 'Warm water sphere of the...

  5. New Cheilostomata (Bryozoa from NE Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope: evidence for deep-sea endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Berning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species belonging to three new genera (Atlantisina gen. nov., Bathycyclopora gen. nov., Calvetopora gen. nov. of umbonulomorph bryozoans from northeastern Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope are introduced. We furthermore erect the new family Atlantisinidae fam. nov. for these genera. Eight new species belong to the new genus Atlantisina: Atlantisina atlantis gen. et sp. nov. (type species, A. acantha gen. et sp. nov., A. gorringensis gen. et sp. nov., A. inarmata gen. et sp. nov., A. lionensis gen. et sp. nov., A. meteor gen. et sp. nov., A. seinensis gen. et sp. nov., and A. tricornis gen. et sp. nov. The genus Bathycyclopora gen. nov. is introduced for ?Phylactella vibraculata Calvet from the Azores, and also includes Bathycyclopora suroiti gen. et sp. nov. The type species of Calvetopora gen. nov. is Lepralia inflata Calvet from the Gulf of Cadiz; this genus also includes Calvetopora otapostasis gen. et sp. nov. and another species left in open nomenclature. Of the 13 species described herein, 11 occur on seamounts and islands, and nine species are endemic to a single seamount, island or station. The present results show that bryozoans provide striking examples of the function of seamounts as areas of endemism, most likely intrinsically linked to the low dispersal abilities of bryozoan larvae.

  6. Spatiotemporal distribution of the seismicity along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores from hydroacoustic data: Insights into seismogenic processes in a ridge-hot spot context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, J.; Perrot, J.; Royer, J.-Y.; Martin, C.; LourençO, N.; Luis, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Haxel, J.; Fowler, M. J.; Fox, C. G.; Lau, A. T.-K.; Bazin, S.

    2012-02-01

    The seismicity of the North Atlantic was monitored from May 2002 to September 2003 by the `SIRENA array' of autonomous hydrophones. The hydroacoustic signals provide a unique data set documenting numerous low-magnitude earthquakes along the section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) located in a ridge-hot spot interaction context. During the experiment, 1696 events were detected along the MAR axis between 40°N and 51°N, with a magnitude of completeness level ofmb≈ 2.4. Inside the array, location errors are in the order of 2 km, and errors in the origin time are less than 1 s. From this catalog, 15 clusters were detected. The distribution of source level (SL) versus time within each cluster is used to discriminate clusters occurring in a tectonic context from those attributed to non-tectonic (i.e. volcanic or hydrothermal) processes. The location of tectonic and non-tectonic sequences correlates well with regions with positive and negative Mantle Bouguer Anomalies (MBAs), indicating the presence of thinner/colder and thicker/warmer crust respectively. At the scale of the entire array, both the complete and declustered catalogs derived from the hydroacoustic signals show an increase of the seismicity rate from the Azores up to 43°30'N suggesting a diminishing influence of the Azores hot spot on the ridge-axis temperature, and well correlated with a similar increase in the along-axis MBAs. The comparison of the MAR seismicity with the Residual MBA (RMBA) at different scales leads us to think that the low-magnitude seismicity rates are directly related to along-axis variations in lithosphere rheology and temperatures.

  7. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion: multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, L. V.; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.

    2016-03-01

    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known as Mistérios Negros) were also thought by some to have formed simultaneously on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we combined geological mapping, paleomagnetic, petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical and structural analyses to study this eruption. The paleomagnetic dating method compared geomagnetic vectors (directions and intensities) recorded by both the AD 1761 lava flow and Mistérios Negros domes and revealed that the two events were indeed coeval. Based on new data and interpretation of historical records, we have accordingly reconstructed the AD 1761 eruptive dynamics and distinguished three phases: (1) a precursory phase characterized by decreased degassing in the fumarolic field of Pico Alto Volcano and a gradual increase of seismic activity, which marked the intrusion of trachybasalt magma; (2) a first eruptive phase that started with phreatic explosions on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano, followed by the inconspicuous effusion of comenditic trachyte (66 wt% SiO2), forming a WNW-ESE-oriented chain of lava domes; and (3) a second eruptive phase on the central part of the fissure zone, where a Hawaiian to Strombolian-style eruption formed small scoria cones (E-W to ENE-WSW-oriented) and a trachybasalt lava flow (50 wt% SiO2) which buried 27 houses in Biscoitos village. Petrological analyses show that the two batches of magma were emitted independently without evidence of interaction. We envisage that the dome-forming event was triggered by local stress changes induced by intrusion of the trachybasalt dyke along the fissure zone, which created tensile stress conditions that promoted ascent

  8. Insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins: the Atlantis Basin of southern Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T.; Bouriak, S.; Volkonskaya, A.; Monteiro, J.; Ivanov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Single-channel seismic reflection and sidescan (OKEAN) data acquired in an unstudied region of the North Atlantic give important insights on the evolution of mid-ocean basins. Located on the eastern flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, south of the Azores Islands, the study area contains more than 1,000 ms two-way travel-time of sediments with a similar seismic stratigraphy to that of ODP sites 950-952 in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. Processed thickness values correspond to a maximum thickness of about 1450 m and an average thickness of more than 500 m based on velocity data from ODP sites 950-952. The structure of the surveyed area and its location in relation to the Madeira Abyssal Plain and Mid-Atlantic Ridge indicate the existence, south of Azores, of two distinct sedimentary basins separated by major structural lineaments (Azores-Gibraltar and Atlantis Fracture Zones) and by seamount chains (Cruiser-Great Meteor Chain, Plato-Atlantis Chain). The basement of the sedimentary basins is irregular, showing multiple dome-shaped volcanic structures identical to those in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and Madeira Abyssal Plain. However, half-graben/graben basement blocks predominate east of 30ºW underneath a moderately deformed overburden. The complex structure observed most likely reflects changes in the direction and velocity of ocean spreading plus variations in the regional thermal gradients induced by local hot spots. In parallel, some of the sub-surface structures identified next to basin-bounding Fracture Zones may have resulted from transtensional and transpressional tectonism.

  9. Massive decline of Cystoseira abies-marina forests in Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valdazo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown macroalgae within the genus Cystoseira are some of the most relevant “ecosystem-engineers” found throughout the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic coasts. Cystoseira-dominated assemblages are sensitive to anthropogenic pressures, and historical declines have been reported from some regions. In particular, Cystoseira abies-marina, thriving on shallow rocky shores, is a key species for the ecosystems of the Canary Islands. In this work, we analyse changes in the distribution and extension of C. abies-marina in the last decades on the island of Gran Canaria. This alga dominated the shallow rocky shores of the entire island in the 1980s; a continuous belt extended along 120.5 km of the coastline and occupied 928 ha. In the first decade of the 21st century, fragmented populations were found along 52.2 km of the coastline and occupied 12.6 ha. Today, this species is found along 37.8 km of the coastline and occupies only 7.4 ha, mainly as scattered patches. This regression has been drastic around the whole island, even in areas with low anthropogenic pressure; the magnitude of the decline over time and the intensity of local human impacts have not shown a significant correlation. This study highlights a real need to implement conservation and restoration policies for C. abies-marina in this region.

  10. Infecção viral da vinha nos Biscoitos (ilha Terceira - Açores Grapevine virus infection at Biscoitos (Terceira island - Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arícia Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A região dos Biscoitos na ilha Terceira, nos Açores, é mundialmente conhecida pela vinha em curraletas destinada à produção de Vinhos Licorosos de Qualidade Produzidos em Região Demarcada (VLQPRD. As castas predominantes são Verdelho branco e Verdelho roxo mas também estão presentes Terrantez, Arinto e Boal branco. Um dos objectivos do projecto Interfruta-II é avaliar o actual estado sanitário destas videiras em relação aos principais vírus. Assim, em Fevereiro de 2006, foi realizada uma prospecção em sete vinhas tendo sido analisados por ELISA os vírus GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-7, GFLV, ArMV, GVA, GVB e GFkV. Os resultados são analisados por casta e vinha. No global mostram que a infecção por GLRaV-3 atinge os 100% e que a infecção por um ou dois Nepovirus é superior a 50%. Os restantes vírus foram detectados em menor percentagem. Existe elevada percentagem de infecções mistas. Atendendo ao prejudicial efeito qualitativo e/ou quantitativo das infecções detectadas, é apresentada uma estratégia de intervenção fitossanitária pretendendo contribuir para a recuperação da vinha nos Biscoitos.At Terceira island in Azores, the region Biscoitos is well known by its vineyards in typical “curraletas”. The grapevines are for the production of VLQPRD (i.e. Quality Liquorus Wines Produced in Demarcated Region. The predominant varieties are Verdelho branco and Verdelho roxo but also Terrantez, Arinto and Boal branco are present. One of the objectives of the project Interfruta-II is the evaluation of the actual sanitary status of those grapevines in relation to the main viruses. Therefore, in February 2006, a survey was done in seven vineyards evaluating by ELISA the virus GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-7, GFLV, ArMV, GVA, GVB and GFkV. The results are analyzed by vineyard and by variety. In general they show that infection by GLRaV-3 is 100% and that infection by one or two Nepovirus is above 50%. The other

  11. Characterisation of Sanguinhal Mire, Terceira Island (Azores: a protected quaking bog habitat Caracterização da Turfeira do Sanguinhal, ilha Terceira (Açores um habitat protegido de turfeira ondulante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic is an important area for biodiversity because it is rich in rare species and habitats, and almost undisturbed. Sanguinhal mire was originally a lake that evolved through paludification into a peat habitat. It is located inside Nature 2000 (European Union for Protection of Nature and Biodiversity, Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, Habitat Directive Annex I(b habitat 7140 area of Santa Bárbara and Pico Alto Mountains on the island of Terceira, and it is a good example of a basin peatland type that was first discovered in 1998. This paper provides baseline information on its flora, vegetation communities, structure, surface hydrology and chemistry. Forty-one plant species including six Sphagnum species and ten endemic vascular plants have been recorded, and eight plant communities are distinguished. The maximum peat depth is 2.5 m. The mire receives flowing water from its margins, in addition to intercepted precipitation and fog. After precipitation, water drains through several placic rupture points. Both pH and water conductivity were measured, with some ecological tendencies observed. The conservation status of the mire is good, but it is subject to increasing pressure from cattle pasture and a walking trail that constrains natural surface water movement.O Arquipélago dos Açores no Atlântico Norte é uma área importante em biodiversidade, rica em espécies e habitats raros em estado selvagem. A turfeira do Sanguinhal foi originalmente uma lagoa que evoluiu por paludificação para um habitat de turfa. Esta localiza-se na Rede Natura 2000 (União Europeia para a Proteção da Natureza e Biodiversidade, Directive do Conselho 92/43/EEC de 21 de Maio 1992 sobre a concervação de habitats naturais e da fauna e flora, Diretiva de Habitat Anexo I(b habitat 7140 da Serra de Santa Bárbara e Pico Alto e é um bom exemplo de um

  12. Bees of the Azores: an annotated checklist (Apidae, Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Julie A; Picanço, Ana; Borges, Paulo A V; Schaefer, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    We report 18 species of wild bees plus the domesticated honeybee from the Azores, which adds nine species to earlier lists. One species, Hylaeus azorae , seems to be a single island endemic, and three species are possibly native ( Colletes eous , Halictus villosulus , and Hylaeus pictipes ). All the remaining bee species are most likely accidental introductions that arrived after human colonization of the archipelago in the 15 th century. Bee diversity in the Azores is similar to bee diversity of Madeira and Cape Verde but nearly ten times lower than it is in the Canary Islands.

  13. Bees of the Azores: an annotated checklist (Apidae, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Weissmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report 18 species of wild bees plus the domesticated honeybee from the Azores, which adds nine species to earlier lists. One species, Hylaeus azorae, seems to be a single island endemic, and three species are possibly native (Colletes eous, Halictus villosulus, and Hylaeus pictipes. All the remaining bee species are most likely accidental introductions that arrived after human colonization of the archipelago in the 15th century. Bee diversity in the Azores is similar to bee diversity of Madeira and Cape Verde but nearly ten times lower than it is in the Canary Islands.

  14. Food-web and ecosystem structure of the open-ocean and deep-sea environments of the Azores, NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Morato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive intends to adopt ecosystem-based management for resources, biodiversity and habitats that puts emphasis on maintaining the health of the ecosystem alongside appropriate human use of the marine environment, for the benefit of current and future generations. Within the overall framework of ecosystem-based management, ecosystem models are tools to evaluate and gain insights in ecosystem properties. The low data availability and complexity of modelling deep-water ecosystems has limited the application of ecosystem models to few deep-water ecosystems. Here, we aim to develop an ecosystem model for the deep-sea and open ocean in the Azores exclusive economic zone with the overarching objective of characterising the food-web and ecosystem structure of the ecosystem. An ecosystem model with 45 functional groups, including a detritus group, two primary producer groups, eight invertebrate groups, 29 fish groups, three marine mammal groups, a turtle and a seabird group was built. Overall data quality measured by the pedigree index was estimated to be higher than the mean value of all published models. Therefore, the model was built with source data of an overall reasonable quality, especially considering the normally low data availability for deep-sea ecosystems. The total biomass (excluding detritus of the modelled ecosystem for the whole area was calculated as 24.7 t km-². The mean trophic level for the total marine catch of the Azores was estimated to be 3.95, similar to the trophic level of the bathypelagic and medium-size pelagic fish. Trophic levels for the different functional groups were estimated to be similar to those obtained with stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses, with some exceptions on both ends of the trophic spectra. Omnivory indices were in general low, indicating prey speciation for the majority of the groups. Cephalopods, pelagic sharks and toothed whales were identified as groups with

  15. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) common in many marine environments. In this study, the diversity of zoanthids in the Cape Verde Islands is specifically examined for the first time. Field images and sampling are combined with...

  16. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia:

  17. Volcano-tectonic evolution of a linear volcanic ridge (Pico-Faial Ridge, Azores Triple Junction) assessed by paleomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro F.; Henry, Bernard; Marques, Fernando O.; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Lopes, Ana; Madureira, Pedro; Madeira, José; Nunes, João C.; Roxerová, Zuzana

    2018-02-01

    The morphology of volcanic oceanic islands results from the interplay between constructive and destructive processes, and tectonics. In this study, the analysis of the paleomagnetic directions obtained on well-dated volcanic rocks is used as a tool to assess tilting related to tectonics and large-scale volcano instability along the Pico-Faial linear volcanic ridge (Azores Triple Junction, Central-North Atlantic). For this purpose, 530 specimens from 46 lava flows and one dyke from Pico and Faial islands were submitted to thermal and alternating magnetic fields demagnetizations. Detailed rock magnetic analyses, including thermomagnetic analyses and classical high magnetic field experiments revealed titanomagnetites with different Ti-content as the primary magnetic carrier, capable of recording stable remanent magnetizations. In both islands, the paleomagnetic analysis yields a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization, which presents island mean direction with normal and reversed polarities in agreement with the islands location and the age of the studied lava flows, indicating a primary thermo-remanent magnetization. Field observations and paleomagnetic data show that lava flows were emplaced on pre-existing slopes and were later affected by significant tilting. In Faial Island, magmatic inflation and normal faults making up an island-scale graben, can be responsible for the tilting. In Pico Island, inflation related to magma intrusion during flow emplacement can be at the origin of the inferred tilting, whereas gradual downward movement of the SE flank by slumping processes appears mostly translational.

  18. The genetic link between the Azores Archipelago and the Southern Azores Seamount Chain (SASC): The elemental, isotopic and chronological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa Pinto; Martins, Sofia; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Madureira, Pedro; Mata, João

    2017-12-01

    New geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb) and K-Ar data, are presented here on samples from the Southern Azores Seamount Chain (SASC) located south of the Azores Plateau. The SASC also includes the Great Meteor, Small Meteor and Closs seamounts, morphologically connected by a saddle at - 4100 m deep. We conclude that the SASC are characterized by a narrow isotopic variability that falls within the Azores isotopic field. Although each seamount has its own isotopic signature, their mantle source must comprise four local mantle end-members, three of which are common to the Azores, e.g. Plato isotopic signature results from the mixing between HIMU and N-MORB while Great Meteor signature results from this mix with the Azores Common Component (AzCC). A fourth end-member with high 208Pb/204Pb and decoupled Th/U ratios (Δ8/4 up to 59.2) is identified on Great Meteor northern flank. New K-Ar ages on Plato (33.4 ± 0.5 Ma) and Small Hyeres (31.6 ± 0.4 Ma) show nearly coeval volcanism, which is contemporaneous with the E-MORBs erupted at the MAR, drilled on oceanic crust with 30-34 Ma (DSDP82). This study endorses the genetic link between the Azores Archipelago and the SASC to the long-term activity of the Azores plume and the large-scale ridge-hotspot interaction, contributing to better constrain the temporal-spatial evolution of this region of the North Atlantic.

  19. ATSH CIS IP DIET (stomach contents of Atlantic sharpnose shark in Crooked Island Sound and Gulf of Mexico side of St. Vincent Island, FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae diet is described from Crooked Island Sound, an embayment of the northeast Gulf of Mexico. Diet was assessed by...

  20. Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the

  1. The Atlantic Coast of Maryland, Sediment Budget Update: Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    111 – Rivers and Harbors Act), the navigational structures at the Ocean City Inlet, and a number of Federally authorized channels (Figure 1). Reed...Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet by Ernest R. Smith, Joseph C. Reed, and Ian L. Delwiche PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics...of the Atlantic Ocean shoreline within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District’s Area of Responsibility, which for coastal

  2. South Atlantic Islands. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-05-01

    NOT RELEPASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS PAav 23-13 NIS 64 AIR FORCE -MAY 1960 to 0000 Ist I00 W 0000 151O IS 200 LSI so no so 8 40 40 #0 40 40 40 40...IAV JV’Nit .1 11(1 SI (-ri NO o IKv A N N ViHS IWOi Asceiilon Island ...... Niux 85 87 88 88 87 85 84 83 82 83 83 84 88 20) MmN11 73 74 75 75 74 73 72

  3. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  4. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Roux; P. G. Ryan; S. J. Milton; C. L. Moloney

    1992-01-01

    The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan...

  5. Genealogical and molecular analysis of a family-based cohort of congenital heart disease patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Rita; Pires, Renato; Anjos, Rui; Branco, Claudia C; Maciel, Paula; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2016-11-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one common birth malformation, accounting for ∼30% of total congenital abnormalities. Considering the unknown role of consanguinity in causing CHD, this study hypothesised that consanguineous unions and/or familial aggregation may be frequent in the Azorean Island of São Miguel (Portugal). To that end, a retrospective observational study was performed based on genealogical and molecular analyses. The study enrolled 112 CHD patients from São Miguel Island, which allowed the assessment of type of family (simplex or multiplex), parental consanguinity and grandparental endogamy. Based on 15 STR markers, inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) in the CHD cohort and healthy control group (n = 114) were estimated. Multiplex families were 37.6% (n = 41/109), a rate considerably higher than previously described in the literature (genealogical and genetic features related with CHD, revealing the presence of parental consanguinity and extensive familial aggregation in the CHD patients from São Miguel Island.

  6. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Hallstadius, L.; Rioseco, J.; Holm, E.

    1987-06-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr a 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1985. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the English Channel, the Fram Strait and along the Norwegian and Greenland coast are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been analysed for tritium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed and sea water samples collected in the North Atlantic region are presented. 14 refs. (author)

  7. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.; Mattsson, S.; Meide, A.

    1984-12-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1983. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium,plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  8. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1984. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium, polonium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland. 1990 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Strandberg, M.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Holm, E.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90, cesium-137 and cesium-134 were determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes), and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1990 and 1991. 99 Tc data on marine samples, in particular sea water from the Greenland Sea, are reported. (au) (77 tabs., 46 ills., 8 refs.)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Holm, E.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90, cesium-137 and cesium-134 were determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes), and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1988 and 1989. 99 Tc data on marine samples, in particular sea water from the Greenland Sea, are reported. (au) (91 taps., 51 ills., 7 refs.)

  11. Azores 2017 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, Birgit [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Chevallier, Karine [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Weinhold, Kay [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany)

    2018-03-20

    Aerosol particles play an important role for the regional and global climate. Therefore, a network of measurement sites has been established worldwide, but only a small fraction of them is capturing the marine boundary layer (MBL) while approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. The main focus of this project is to improve the knowledge of sources and exchange processes of aerosol particles in general (German Research Foundation [DFG] project WE 2757/2-1) and of cloud condensation nuclei in particular (DFG project HE 6770/2-1) in the MBL in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean where the influence of local anthropogenic sources is negligible. The main hypothesis of the project is that long-range transport of aerosols from North America as well as new particle formation in the free troposphere (FT) and at cloud edges followed by vertical transport contribute significantly to the aerosol budget in the MBL. The knowledge of sources and sinks of aerosol particles in combination with vertical exchange between FT and MBL is a prerequisite to predict aerosol particle number concentrations in the lowest regions of the MBL and its influence on the formation of clouds. These processes are not sufficiently quantified over the ocean up to now. To verify the hypothesis stated above, vertical exchange processes and particle sources over the Azores will be quantified using data of 17 measurement flights with high spatial resolution using a helicopter-borne platform developed at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS). Here, aerosol particle number concentration and vertical wind speed have been measured with a temporal resolution allowing the direct estimate of the vertical turbulent flux of aerosol particles in different heights for the first time. In addition, aerosol particle number size distributions, number concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and particle absorption at three different

  12. Landslide Tsunami Hazard in Madeira Island, NE Atlantic - Numerical Simulation of the 4 March 1930 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Quartau, R.; Ramalho, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    Madeira, the main Island of the Madeira Archipelago with an area of 728 km2, is a North East Atlantic volcanic Island highly susceptible to cliff instability. Historical records contain accounts of a number of mass-wasting events along the Island, namely in 1969, 1804, 1929 and 1930. Collapses of cliffs are major hazards in oceanic Islands as they involve relatively large volumes of material, generating fast running debris avalanches, and even cause destructive tsunamis when entering the sea. On March 4th, 1930, a sector of the Cape Girão cliff, located in the southern shore of Madeira Island, collapsed into the sea and generated an 8 m tsunami wave height. The landslide-induced tsunami propagated along Madeirás south coast and flooded the Vigário beach, 200-300 m of inundation extent, causing 20 casualties. In this study, we investigate the 1930 subaerial landslide-induced tsunami and its impact on the nearest coasts using numerical modelling. We first reconstruct the pre-event morphology of the area, and then simulate the initial movement of the sliding mass, the propagation of the tsunami wave and the inundation of the coast. We use a multi-layer numerical model, in which the lower layer represents the deformable slide, assumed to be a visco-plastic fluid, and bounded above by air, in the subaerial motion phase, and by seawater governed by shallow water equations. The results of the simulation are compared with the historical descriptions of the event to calibrate the numerical model and evaluate the coastal impact of a similar event in present-day coastline configuration of the Island. This work is supported by FCT- project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz and by TROYO project.

  13. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  14. Carriers of the Complex Allele HFE c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] Have Increased Risk of Iron Overload in São Miguel Island Population (Azores, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Claudia C; Gomes, Cidália T; De Fez, Laura; Bulhões, Sara; Brilhante, Maria José; Pereirinha, Tânia; Cabral, Rita; Rego, Ana Catarina; Fraga, Cristina; Miguel, António G; Brasil, Gracinda; Macedo, Paula; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Iron overload is associated with acquired and genetic conditions, the most common being hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type-I, caused by HFE mutations. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 41 patients from the São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), six belonging to a family with HH type-I pseudodominant inheritance, and 35 unrelated individuals fulfilling the biochemical criteria of iron overload compatible with HH type-I. For this purpose, we analyzed the most common HFE mutations- c.845G>A [p.Cys282Tyr], c.187C>G [p.His63Asp], and c.193A>T [p.Ser65Cys]. Results revealed that the family's HH pseudodominant pattern is due to consanguineous marriage of HFE-c.845G>A carriers, and to marriage with a genetically unrelated spouse that is a -c.187G carrier. Regarding unrelated patients, six were homozygous for c.845A, and three were c.845A/c.187G compound heterozygous. We then performed sequencing of HFE exons 2, 4, 5 and their intron-flanking regions. No other mutations were observed, but we identified the -c.340+4C [IVS2+4C] splice variant in 26 (74.3%) patients. Functionally, the c.340+4C may generate alternative splicing by HFE exon 2 skipping and consequently, a protein missing the α1-domain essential for HFE/ transferrin receptor-1 interactions. Finally, we investigated HFE mutations configuration with iron overload by determining haplotypes and genotypic profiles. Results evidenced that carriers of HFE-c.187G allele also carry -c.340+4C, suggesting in-cis configuration. This data is corroborated by the association analysis where carriers of the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] have an increased iron overload risk (RR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.40-2.94, poverload because they will produce two altered proteins--the p.63Asp [c.187G], and the protein lacking 88 amino acids encoded by exon 2. In summary, we provide evidence that the complex allele HFE-c.[187C>G;340+4T>C] has a role, as genetic predisposition factor, on iron overload in the S

  15. On The Source Of The 25 November 1941 - Atlantic Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Lisboa, F. B.; Miranda, J. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analyze the tsunami recorded in the North Atlantic following the 25 November 1941 earthquake. The earthquake with a magnitude of 8.3, located on the Gloria Fault, was one of the largest strike slip events recorded. The Gloria fault is a 500 km long scarp in the North Atlantic Ocean between 19W and 24W known to be a segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary between Iberia and the Azores. Ten tide stations recorded the tsunami. Six in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira Islands), two in Morocco, one in the United Kingdom and one in Spain (Tenerife-Canary Islands). The tsunami waves reached Azores and Madeira Islands less than one hour after the main shock. The tide station of Casablanca (in Morocco) recorded the maximum amplitude of 0.54 m. All amplitudes recorded are lower than 0.5 m but the tsunami reached Portugal mainland in high tide conditions where the sea flooded some streets We analyze the 25 November 1941 tsunami data using the tide-records in the coasts of Portugal, Spain, Morocco and UK to infer its source. The use of wavelet analysis to characterize the frequency content of the tide-records shows predominant periods of 9-13min e 18-22min. A preliminary location of the tsunami source location was obtained Backward Ray Tracing (BRT). The results of the BRT technique are compatible with the epicenter location of the earthquake. We compute empirical Green functions for the earthquake generation area, and use a linear shallow water inversion technique to compute the initial water displacement. The comparison between forward modeling with observations shows a fair agreement with available data. This work received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe)"

  16. Use of tritium and helium-3 for oceanographic processes study. An example: the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrie, C.; Merlivat, L.

    1987-01-01

    These results are relative to the TOPOGULF cruise during summer 1983. The sampled area is located near the Azores Islands on the both sides of the mid atlantic ridge. The tritium content of the surface waters reveals a strong front along the Azores current. At depth, the spatial distribution of tritium is studied along isopycnals. In the thermocline, it is essentially the anticyclonic gyre which is responsible for the northeast - southwest gradient in tritium concentration. Some informations about the age of the water masses are given by the use of both tritium and Helium-3. By this way are identified some areas where ventilation processes are active. At middepth, a strong contrast exists between the young waters originating from the Labrador Sea and the more stagnant waters in the South East of the sampled area

  17. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  18. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 500...

  19. Contourite drift off Madeira Island (Northeast Atlantic) and implications to Cenozoic bottom-current circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Cristina; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Madureira, Pedro; Quartau, Rui; Magalhães, Vitor; Carrara, Gabriela; Santos de Campos, Aldino; Brandão, Filipe; Tomás Vázquez, Juan; Somoza, Luis

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades several works have been carried out on the morphosedimentary processes driven by bottom-currents in several continental margins and abyssal plains worldwide. However these processes still remain poorly understood on deep-water settings and particularly around oceanic islands. This study is focused on the offshore of Madeira Island (Portugal), which is located in the Northeast Atlantic at about 700 km west of NW Africa. The interpretation of a newly acquired dataset, composed of multibeam bathymetry, Parasound echosounder profiles and multichannel seismic reflection profiles, allowed to identify a giant (about 385 km long and over than 175 km wide) plastered contourite drift, called the "Madeira Drift", developing along the lower slope of the Madeira plateau. It formed on top of a major erosional unconformity that truncates the underlying pelagic deposits, which drape over faulted blocks of Cretaceous oceanic crust. The Madeira Drift is composed of three main regional seismic units showing a predominant aggradational stacking pattern, without evidence of major lateral migration thought time. Its internal configuration indicates that it was build-up by a northwards flowing deep bottom current. These characteristics suggests that an almost persistent and stable water mass has been responsible for its edification trough time. While the precise age of this contourite drift is undetermined, some chronostratigraphic constraints can be determined based upon published works regarding seafloor magnetic anomalies (e.g. Bird et al., 2007), DSDP Site 136drilling data (Hayes et al., 1978). Attending to this, we propose that the possible onset of Madeira Drift must have occurred after Late Cretaceous, within the tertiary period, and quite probably in the Late Eocene / Eocene-Oligocene transition. Based on them is commonly accepted that an enhanced proto-Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) started to circulate at that time we considered this water mass as the

  20. Reconstructing medieval climate in the tropical North Atlantic with corals from Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Resolving the patterns of climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is key for exploring forced versus unforced variability during the last 1000 years. Tropical Atlantic climate is currently not well resolved during the MCA despite it being an important source of heat and moisture to the climate system today. To fill this data gap, we collected cores from Diploria strigosa corals brought onto the low-lying island of Anegada, British Virgin Islands (18.7˚N, 64.3˚S) during an overwash event and use paired analysis of Sr/Ca and δ18O in the skeletal aragonite to explore climate in the tropical Atlantic at the end of the MCA. The three sub-fossil corals used in this analysis overlap temporally and together span the years 1256-1372 C.E. An assessment of three modern corals from the study site indicates that the most robust features of climate reconstructions using Sr/Ca and δ18O in this species are the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability. The modern seasonal temperature range is 2.8 degrees Celsius and the similarity between the modern and sub-fossil coral Sr/Ca indicates a similar range during the MCA. Today seasonal salinity changes locally are driven in large part by the migration of a regional salinity front. The modern corals capture the related large seasonal seawater δ18O change, but the sub-fossil corals indicate stable seawater δ18O throughout the year, supporting the idea that this site remained on one side of the salinity front continuously throughout the year. Inter-annual variability in the region is influenced by the cross-equatorial SST gradient, the North Atlantic Oscillation and ENSO. Gridded instrumental SST from the area surrounding Anegada and coral geochemical records from nearby Puerto Rico demonstrate concentrations of variance in specific frequency bands associated with these phenomena. The sub-fossil coral shows no concentration of variance in the modern ENSO frequency band, consistent with reduced ENSO

  1. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved. Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate (Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression), were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit. The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors (altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use). It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area. The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores), a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits (ash and pumice lapilli) produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano. This materials associated to the steepness of the slopes (38,9% of the area has slope angles higher than 35°, reaching a maximum of 87,5°), make the area very prone to landslide activity. A total of 1.495 shallow landslides were mapped (at 1:5.000 scale) and included in a GIS database. The total affected area is 401.744 m2 (4,5% of the study area). Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than 700 m3. For modelling

  2. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  3. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  4. Distribution by origin and sea age of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the sea around the Faroe Islands based on analysis of historical tag recoveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jan Arge; Hansen, Lars P.; Bakkestuen, Vegar

    2012-01-01

    Distribution by origin and sea age of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the sea around the Faroe Islands based on analysis of historical tag recoveries. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1598–1608.A database of 2651 tags applied to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in 13 countries...

  5. Magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Torta

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A local ground magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (S. Miguel Island, Azores has provided new insight into the magnetic structure of this volcano. Analysis of the data comprised removal of the IGRF, reduction to the pole, pseudogravity integration and upward continuation. Also, a spectral method was applied to estimate the depth to the magnetic sources, as well as a 2.5D forward modelling technique. Magnetic properties obtained at the laboratory for some representative sample rocks were considered in the modelling process. The most relevant features are the existence of an important negative anomaly inside the caldera and of an intense positive anomaly to the south of the coast. The former points out a decrease in the magnetization of the caldera filling materials with respect to the surrounding rocks, which could be explained as the result of post-eruption processes such as hydrothermal alteration. This is expected as Furnas has an active hydrothermal system probably related with a magmatic reservoir at high temperature. The positive anomaly suggests the existence of a strongly-magnetized body beneath the south coast.

  6. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Contrasting recruitment seasonality of sea urchin species in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. GARCIA-SANZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite sea-urchins can play an important role affecting the community structure of subtidal bottoms, factors controlling the dynamics of sea-urchin populations are still poorly understood. We assessed the seasonal variation in recruitment of three sea-urchin species (Diadema africanum, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula at Gran Canaria Island (eastern Atlantic via monthly deployment of artificial collectors throughout an entire annual cycle on each of four adjacent habitat patches (seagrasses, sandy patches, ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens and macroalgal-dominated beds within a shallow coastal landscape. Paracentrotus lividus and A. lixula had exclusively one main recruitment peak in late winter-spring. Diadema africanum recruitment was also seasonal, but recruits appeared in late summer-autumn, particularly on ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens with large abundances of adult conspecifics. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated non-overlapping seasonal recruitment patterns of the less abundant species (P. lividus and A. lixula with the most conspicuous species (D. africanum in the study area.

  8. Growth of Transgressive Sills in Mechanically Layered Media: Faroe Islands, NE Atlantic Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Igneous sills represent an important contribution to upper crustal magma transport, acting as magma conduits and stores (i.e. as sill networks, or as nascent magma chambers). Complex sill-network intrusion in basin settings can have significant impact on subsurface fluid flow (e.g., water aquifer and hydrocarbon systems), geothermal systems, the maturation of hydrocarbons, and methane release. Models for these effects are critically dependent on the models for sill emplacement. This study focuses on staircase-geometry sills in the Faroe Islands, on the European Atlantic Margin, which are hosted in mechanically layered lavas (1-20 m thick) and basaltic volcaniclastic units (1-30 m thick). The sills range from 20-50 m thick, with each covering ~17 km2, and transgressing a vertical range of ~480 m. Steps in the sills are elliptical in cross section, and discontinuous laterally, forming smooth transgressive ramps, hence are interpreted as representing initial stages of sill propagation as magma fingers, which inflate through time to create a through-going sheet. Although steps correspond to the position of some host rock layer interfaces and volcaniclastic horizons, most interfaces are bypassed. The overall geometry of the sills is consistent with ENE-WSW compression, and NNW-SSE extension, and stress anisotropy-induced transgression. Local morphology indicates that mechanical layering suppressed tensile stress ahead of the crack tip, leading to a switch in minimum and intermediate stress axes, facilitating lateral sill propagation as fingers, and resulting in a stepped transgressive geometry.

  9. The influences of the AMO and NAO on the sedimentary infill in an Azores Archipelago lake since ca. 1350 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armand; Sáez, Alberto; Bao, Roberto; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Doolittle, Sara; Masqué, Pere; Rull, Valentí; Gonçalves, Vítor; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Rubio-Inglés, María J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Giralt, Santiago

    2017-07-01

    The location of the Azores Archipelago in the North Atlantic makes this group of islands an excellent setting to study the long-term behavior of large oceanic and atmospheric climate dynamic patterns, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we present the impacts of these patterns on Lake Empadadas (Azores Archipelago) from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) - Little Ice Age (LIA) transition to the present based on sedimentological, geochemical and biological characterizations of the sedimentary record. Multivariate analyses of a number of proxies including X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), total organic and inorganic carbon (TOC and TIC) and diatom life forms abundance reveal that the sedimentary infill evolution has been controlled by (i) fluctuations in the lake level and (ii) variations in organic matter accumulation. Both processes are governed by climate variability and modulated by anthropogenic activities associated with changes on the lake catchment. Changes in these two sedimentary processes have been used to infer five stages: (i) the MCA-LIA transition (ca. 1350-1450 CE) was characterized by a predominantly positive AMO phase, which led to intermediate lake levels and high organic matter concentration; (ii) the first half of the LIA (ca. 1450-1600 CE) was characterized by predominant lowstand conditions and intermediate organic matter deposition mainly related to negative AMO phases; (iii) the second half of the LIA (ca. 1600-1850 CE) was characterized by negative AMO and NAO phases, implying intermediate lake levels and high organic matter deposition; (iv) the Industrial era (ca. 1850-1980 CE) was characterized by the lowest lake level and organic matter accumulation associated with negative AMO phases; and (v) the period spanning between 1980 CE and the present reveals the highest lake levels and low organic matter deposition, being associated with very positive AMO

  10. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands. A potential commercial species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escanez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera. These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem.

  11. Water mass spreading in the warm water sphere of the eastern subtropical North Atlantic. Wassermassenausbreitung in der Warmwassersphaere des subtropischen Nordostatlantiks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stramma, L

    1984-01-01

    Geostrophic transports in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic computed from historic hydrographic data and recent CTD measurements show a mean transport in the subtropical gyre of 11(+-1.6) x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/s/sup -1/ in the upper 1000 m between 35/sup 0/W and the African coast. The dynamic method was used in conjunction with a conservation of mass scheme to determine the level of no motion. This level lies at the 1200 m depth near the Azores and drops to 1500 m in the tropics. The main inflow enters south of the Azores as a relatively narrow current, turns southward at the latitude of Madeira and then widens. Three current bands transport the water southward. North of the Cape Verde Islands, the current turns westwards. This part of the North Equatorial Current extends more to the south in the upper 200 m than in the 200-800 m layer. The Portugal current, between the Azores and the Portuguese coast, which is thought by some authors to be strong, is seen here as a relatively weak flow. Maps of potential vorticity derived from smoothed density profiles are consistent with the general pattern of geostrophic transport. At 24/sup 0/N one third of the total geostrophic southward transport of the recirculation and one third of the temperature flux is transported in the eastern Atlantic east of 35/sup 0/W.

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Eastern and Central groups of the Azores - Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontiela, João; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Borges, José; Rodrigues, Francisco; Caldeira, Bento

    2017-04-01

    Azores islands of the Eastern and Central groups are located at the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and Nubian plates inducing a large number of low magnitude earthquakes. Since its settlement in the 15th century, 33 earthquakes with intensity ≥ VII have caused severe damage and high death toll. The most severe ones occurred in 1522 at São Miguel Island with a maximum MM intensity of X; in 1614 at Terceira Island (X) in 1757 at São Jorge Island (XI); 1852 at São Miguel Island (VIII); 1926 at Faial Island (Mb 5.3-5.9); in 1980 at Terceira Island (Mw7.1) and in 1998 at Faial Island (Mw6.2). The analysis of the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) were carried out using the classical Cornell-McGuire approach using seismogenic zones recently defined by Fontiela et al. (2014). We create a new earthquake catalogue merging local and global datasets with a large time span (1522 - 2016) to calculate recurrence times and maximum magnitudes. In order to reduce the epistemic uncertainties, we test several ground motion prediction equations in agreement with the geological heterogeneities typical of young volcanic islands. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps are proposed for 475 and 975 years returns periods as well as hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra for the main cities. REFERENCES: Fontiela, J. et al., 2014. Azores seismogenic zones. Comunicações Geológicas, 101(1), pp.351-354. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 of Regional Science Fund of the Regional Government Azores and this study is co-funded by the European Union through the European fund of Regional Development, framed in COMPETE 2020 (Operational Competitiveness Programme and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID/GEO/04683/2013) with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690.

  13. Parasitism of dolfinfhishes, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carbonell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.

  14. Seismo-volcanic monitoring at Furnas Volcano (Azores): radon (222Rn) concentration in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Virgílio Cruz, José; Ferreira, Teresa; Viveiros, Fátima; Freire, Pedro; Allard, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Azores archipelago, located in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, is composed of nine volcanic islands that formed at the triple junction of the North American, Eurasian and African (Nubian) tectonic plates. These volcanic islands were the sites of several eruptions and destructive earthquakes since human settlement in the 15th century. S. Miguel Island, the largest and most densely populated island of the Azores, hosts three active strato-volcanoes with calderas. Furnas Volcano is one of these. Its eruptive activity has been essentially explosive, involving magmas with trachytic (s.l.) composition. In the last 5000 years at least 10 explosive eruptions occurred inside the caldera of Furnas. The last one occurred in 1630 and was subplinian in character. Since then an intense hydrothermal activity has persisted, involving four main fumarolic fields, thermal springs, CO2-rich springs, several soil diffuse degassing areas (CO2 and 222Rn), as well as occasional hydrothermal explosions. In the past decade we have developed a radon survey of Furnas hydrothermal manifestations. Here we report on the radon survey of twelve water springs, located inside the caldera, and representative of the different water types encountered at the volcano (orthothermal, thermal and CO2-rich springs). Bimonthly sampling and determination of radon activity and water temperature was performed in the selected springs between years 2007 and 2011. At each sampling point two water samples were collected for radon dosing in laboratory with the RAD7 equipment. A decay correction was applied to each sample. The average radon activities were found to vary between 1.15 Bq/L and 29.77 Bq/L, while water temperatures ranged between 16.5 °C and 76.2 °C. As a whole radon activities inversely correlate with water temperature, with orthothermal springs showing higher radon activity than thermal springs. Temporal variations in both parameters appear to be mainly determined by seasonal variations of

  15. Bimodal volcanism in northeast Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Genetic links with Cretaceous subduction of the mid-Atlantic ridge Caribbean spur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Wayne T.; Lidiak, Edward G.; Dickin, Alan P.

    2008-07-01

    Bimodal extrusive volcanic rocks in the northeast Greater Antilles Arc consist of two interlayered suites, including (1) a predominantly basaltic suite, dominated by island arc basalts with small proportions of andesite, and (2) a silicic suite, similar in composition to small volume intrusive veins of oceanic plagiogranite commonly recognized in oceanic crustal sequences. The basaltic suite is geochemically characterized by variable enrichment in the more incompatible elements and negative chondrite-normalized HFSE anomalies. Trace element melting and mixing models indicate the magnitude of the subducted sediment component in Antilles arc basalts is highly variable and decreases dramatically from east to west along the arc. In the Virgin Islands, the sediment component ranges between 4% during the Cenomanian-Campanian interval. The silicic suite, consisting predominantly of rhyolites, is characterized by depleted Al 2O 3 (average Virgin Islands on the east, rhyolites comprise up to 80% of Lower Albian strata (112 to 105 Ma), and about 20% in post-Albian strata (105 to 100 Ma). Farther west, in Puerto Rico, more limited proportions (Atlantic Ridge, which was located approximately midway between North and South America until Campanian times. Within this hypothetical setting the centrally positioned Virgin Islands terrain remained approximately fixed above the subducting ridge as the Antilles arc platform swept northeastward into the slot between the Americas. Accordingly, heat flow in the Virgin Islands was elevated throughout the Cretaceous, giving rise to widespread crustal melting, whereas the subducted sediment flux was limited. Conversely, toward the west in central Puerto Rico, which was consistently more remote from the subducting ridge, heat flow was relatively low and produced limited crustal melting, while the sediment flux was comparatively elevated.

  16. Characterizing synoptic and cloud variability in the northern atlantic using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Carly

    Low-level clouds have a significant influence on the Earth's radiation budget and it is thus imperative to understand their behavior within the marine boundary layer (MBL). The cloud properties in the Northeast Atlantic region are highly variable in space and time and are a research focus for many atmospheric scientists. Characterizing the synoptic patterns in the region through the implementation of self-organizing maps (SOMs) enables a climatological grasp of cloud and atmospheric fields. ERA -- Interim and MODIS provide the platform to explore the variability in the Northeast Atlantic for over 30 years of data. Station data comes from CAP -- MBL on Graciosa Island in the Azores, which lies in a strong gradient of cloud and other atmospheric fields, offer an opportunity to incorporate an observational aspect for the years of 2009 and 2010.

  17. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n. from the island of Rhodes (Greece, revealed by morphological and phylogenetic analysis (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae

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    Domenico Davolos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new Cryptorchestia species, Cryptorchestia ruffoi Latella & Vonk, sp. n. from the island of Rhodes in south-eastern Greece, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. Morphological analysis and DNA sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes indicated that this species is related to C. cavimana (Cyprus and C. garbinii (Mediterranean regions, with a recent northward expansion. Results supported a genetic separation between the Cryptorchestia species of the east Mediterranean regions and those of the northeast Atlantic volcanic islands examined in this study (C. canariensis, C. gomeri, C. guancha, and C. stocki from the Canary islands, C. monticola from Madeira, and C. chevreuxi from the Azores. The Mediterranean and Atlantic Cryptorchestia species appear to be also morphologically distinct. Cryptorchestia ruffoi sp. n., C. cavimana, C. garbinii, and C. kosswigi (Turkish coast clearly have a small lobe on the male gnathopod 1 merus. This character was the main diagnostic difference between Cryptorchestia (sensu Lowry, 2013 and Orchestia. However, among the six northeast Atlantic island Cryptorchestia species only C. stocki has a small lobe on the merus of gnathopod 1. Reduction or loss of the lobe in the Atlantic Island species cannot be ruled out; however, molecular phylogenetic analysis leads us to presume that this lobe independently evolved between the east Mediterranean Cryptorchestia species and C. stocki from Gran Canaria.

  18. The emergence of volcanic oceanic islands on a slow-moving plate: The example of Madeira Island, NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Brum da Silveira, António; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Madeira, José; Cosca, Michael; Cachão, Mário; Fonseca, Maria M.; Prada, Susana N.

    2015-02-01

    The transition from seamount to oceanic island typically involves surtseyan volcanism. However, the geological record at many islands in the NE Atlantic—all located within the slow-moving Nubian plate—does not exhibit evidence for an emergent surtseyan phase but rather an erosive unconformity between the submarine basement and the overlying subaerial shield sequences. This suggests that the transition between seamount and island may frequently occur by a relative fall of sea level through uplift, eustatic changes, or a combination of both, and may not involve summit volcanism. In this study, we explore the consequences for island evolutionary models using Madeira Island (Portugal) as a case study. We have examined the geologic record at Madeira using a combination of detailed fieldwork, biostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology in order to document the mode, timing, and duration of edifice emergence above sea level. Our study confirms that Madeira's subaerial shield volcano was built upon the eroded remains of an uplifted seamount, with shallow marine sediments found between the two eruptive sequences and presently located at 320-430 m above sea level. This study reveals that Madeira emerged around 7.0-5.6 Ma essentially through an uplift process and before volcanic activity resumed to form the subaerial shield volcano. Basal intrusions are a likely uplift mechanism, and their emplacement is possibly enhanced by the slow motion of the Nubian plate relative to the source of partial melting. Alternating uplift and subsidence episodes suggest that island edifice growth may be governed by competing dominantly volcanic and dominantly intrusive processes.

  19. Possible Late Pleistocene volcanic activity on Nightingale Island, South Atlantic Ocean, based on geoelectrical resistivity measurements, sediment corings and 14C dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker; Björck, Svante; Cronholm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    . The irregular shapes of the basins and the lack of clear erosional features indicate that they are not eruption craters and were not formed by erosion. Instead, we regard them as morphological depressions formed between ridges of trachytic lava flows and domes at a late stage of the formation of the volcanic...... edifice. The onset of sedimentation within these basins appears to have occurred between 24 and 37 ka with the highest situated wetland yielding the highest ages. These ages are very young compared to the timing of the main phase of the formation of the island, implying volcanic activity on the island......Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island group situated in the central South Atlantic. The oldest of these islands, Nightingale Island, has an age of about 18Ma. In the interior of the island, there are several wetlands situated in topographic depressions. The ages of these basins have been unknown...

  20. Morphological and molecular study of the cyanobiont-bearing dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata from the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The presence of the benthic dinophysoid dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata has been reported in the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic) in live field observations and on fixed macroalgal samples from intertidal ponds (26 sampling sites from El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote islands). In vivo Sinophysis cells were typically pale pink colored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed a small characteristic narrow hypothecal cut that matched the original description of S. canaliculata. SSU rRNA gene (rDNA) nuclear phylogeny showed that S. canaliculata is closely related to S. microcephalus. Sinophysis specimens displayed cyanobacterial endosymbionts with orange autofluorescence from phycoerythrins. SSU rDNA analyses of the cyanobionts nearly matched a former sequence obtained from S. canaliculata in the Pacific Ocean (Japan). S. canaliculata survived up to 5 months in the original seawater samples. During that period cyanobionts were always present and maintained their orange autofluorescence, although the pink color gradually vanished (<1 month) in most individuals. Molecular similarity of Sinophysis cyanobionts from the Canary Islands and Japanese waters suggest a deterministic relationship, likely a temporary maintenance inside their host via some specific grazing system. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Microbial populations and activities of mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils from Cardoso Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, B; Nahas, E

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves provide a distinctive ecological environment that differentiates them from other ecosystems. This study deal to evaluate the frequency of microbial groups and the metabolic activities of bacteria and fungi isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils. Soil samples were collected during the summer and winter at depths of 0-2, 2-5 and 5-10 cm. Except for fungi, the counts of the total, sporulating, Gram-negative, actinomycetes, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria decreased significantly in the following order: Atlantic forest >mangrove > restinga. The counts of micro-organisms decreased by 11 and 21% from the surface to the 2-5 and 5-10 cm layers, but denitrifying bacteria increased by 44 and 166%, respectively. A larger growth of micro-organisms was verified in the summer compared with the winter, except for actinomycetes and fungi. The average frequency of bacteria isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils was 95, 77 and 78%, and 93, 90 and 95% for fungi, respectively. Bacteria were amylolytic (33%), producers of acid phosphatase (79%) and solubilizers (18%) of inorganic phosphate. The proportions of fungi were 19, 90 and 27%. The mangrove soil studied had higher chemical characteristics than the Atlantic forest, but the high salinity may have restricted the growth of microbial populations. Estimates of the microbial counts and activities were important to elucidate the differences of mangrove ecosystem from restinga and Atlantic forest. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Trends and tactics of mouse predation on Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena chicks at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean

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    Delia Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena breeds almost exclusively on Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic, where breeding success is much lower than other great albatrosses (Diomedea spp. worldwide. Most breeding failures occur during the chick-rearing stage, when other great albatrosses suffer few failures. This unusual pattern of breeding failure is assumed to be largely due to predation by introduced house mice Mus musculus, but there have been few direct observations of mouse attacks. We closely monitored the fates of 20 chicks in the Gonydale study colony (123 chicks in 2014 using motion-activated cameras to determine the causes of chick mortality. Only 5 of 20 chicks survived to fledge, and of the 15 failures, 14 (93% were due to mouse predation. One mouse-wounded chick was killed by a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus; the rest died outright from their wounds within 3.9 ± 1.2 days of the first attack. Despite this high impact, most chicks were attacked by only 1-2 mice at once (maximum 9. The remaining 103 chicks in the study colony were checked less frequently, but the timing of failures was broadly similar to the 20 closely monitored nests, and the presence of mouse wounds on other chicks strongly suggests that mice were responsible for most chick deaths. Breeding success in the Gonydale study colony averages 28% from 2001 to 2014; far lower than the normal range of breeding success of Diomedea species occurring on islands free from introduced predators. Island-wide breeding success fell below 10% for the first time in 2014, making it even more urgent to eradicate mice from Gough Island.

  3. Why do different oceanic archipelagos harbour contrasting levels of species diversity? The macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) provides insight into explaining the 'Azores diversity Enigma'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pérez-Espona, S; Reyes-Betancort, J A; Pattinson, D; Caujapé-Castells, J; Hiscock, S J; Carine, M A

    2016-10-08

    Oceanic archipelagos typically harbour extensive radiations of flowering plants and a high proportion of endemics, many of which are restricted to a single island (Single Island Endemics; SIEs). The Azores represents an anomaly as overall levels of endemism are low; there are few SIEs and few documented cases of intra-archipelago radiations. The distinctiveness of the flora was first recognized by Darwin and has been referred to as the 'Azores Diversity Enigma' (ADE). Diversity patterns in the Macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) exemplify the ADE. In this study we used morphometric, Amplified Length Polymorphisms, and bioclimatic data for herbaceous Pericallis lineages endemic to the Azores and the Canaries, to test two key hypotheses proposed to explain the ADE: i) that it is a taxonomic artefact or Linnean shortfall, ie. the under description of taxa in the Azores or the over-splitting of taxa in the Canaries and (ii) that it reflects the greater ecological homogeneity of the Azores, which results in limited opportunity for ecological diversification compared to the Canaries. In both the Azores and the Canaries, morphological patterns were generally consistent with current taxonomic classifications. However, the AFLP data showed no genetic differentiation between the two currently recognized Azorean subspecies that are ecologically differentiated. Instead, genetic diversity in the Azores was structured geographically across the archipelago. In contrast, in the Canaries genetic differentiation was mostly consistent with morphology and current taxonomic treatments. Both Azorean and Canarian lineages exhibited ecological differentiation between currently recognized taxa. Neither a Linnean shortfall nor the perceived ecological homogeneity of the Azores fully explained the ADE-like pattern observed in Pericallis. Whilst variation in genetic data and morphological data in the Canaries were largely congruent, this was not the case in the Azores, where

  4. Revisiting recent history: records of occurrence and expansion of the European green crab across Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Canada

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    Luke A. Poirier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late in the 1990s, the non-indigenous European green crab (Carcinus maenas colonized the shorelines of eastern Prince Edward Island, in Atlantic Canada. Due to concerns of further spread into productive shellfish habitats, an annual survey was conducted between 2000 and 2013 to detect a potential range expansion of this species. We compiled and analyzed that data and document green crab expansion using records of annual occurrence and relative density. Methods Surveys were conducted during the fall season of each year by deploying baited traps at 29 sites along the island’s two main shorelines (north and south shores. These sites were selected based on areas deemed more likely to be invaded by the green crab. Raw data per site and date was transformed to catch per unit effort (CPUE to estimate relative abundances. Results Populations of this species showed an uneven westward expansion along the north and south shores. Expansion rates changed among years but, overall, crab abundance was higher and changes in abundance were faster along the south shore than the north shore of the island. The westward expansion continues until this day. Conclusions Based on the information compiled we hypothesize that the dissimilarity in range expansion rate was related to the availability of suitable habitat to sustain large green crab populations along the south shore. We also discuss implications of this expansion for commercial shellfish and native coastal communities.

  5. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape

  6. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M.

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha

  7. Islands Climatology at Local Scale. Downscaling with CIELO model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Eduardo; Reis, Francisco; Tomé, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Conceição

    2016-04-01

    Islands with horizontal scales of the order of tens of km, as is the case of the Atlantic Islands of Macaronesia, are subscale orographic features for Global Climate Models (GCMs) since the horizontal scales of these models are too coarse to give a detailed representation of the islands' topography. Even the Regional Climate Models (RCMs) reveals limitations when they are forced to reproduce the climate of small islands mainly by the way they flat and lowers the elevation of the islands, reducing the capacity of the model to reproduce important local mechanisms that lead to a very deep local climate differentiation. Important local thermodynamics mechanisms like Foehn effect, or the influence of topography on radiation balance, have a prominent role in the climatic spatial differentiation. Advective transport of air - and the consequent induced adiabatic cooling due to orography - lead to transformations of the state parameters of the air that leads to the spatial configuration of the fields of pressure, temperature and humidity. The same mechanism is in the origin of the orographic clouds cover that, besides the direct role as water source by the reinforcement of precipitation, act like a filter to direct solar radiation and as a source of long-wave radiation that affect the local balance of energy. Also, the saturation (or near saturation) conditions that they provide constitute a barrier to water vapour diffusion in the mechanisms of evapotranspiration. Topographic factors like slope, aspect and orographic mask have also significant importance in the local energy balance. Therefore, the simulation of the local scale climate (past, present and future) in these archipelagos requires the use of downscaling techniques to adjust locally outputs obtained at upper scales. This presentation will discuss and analyse the evolution of the CIELO model (acronym for Clima Insular à Escala LOcal) a statistical/dynamical technique developed at the University of the Azores

  8. Geographical PCB and DDT patterns in shearwaters (Calonectris sp.) breeding across the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean archipelagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; González-Solís, Jacob; Jiménez, Begoña

    2010-04-01

    Although seabirds have been proposed as useful biomonitors for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in marine environments, their suitability is still unclear. To understand the geographic variability and the influence of seabird trophic ecology in OC levels, we analyzed PCBs, DDTs, delta(13)C, and delta(15)N in the blood of adult Calonectris shearwaters throughout a vast geographic range within the northeast Atlantic Ocean (from Cape Verde to Azores) and the Mediterranean Sea (from the Alboran Sea to Crete). OC concentrations were greater in birds from the Mediterranean than in those from the Atlantic colonies, showing higher and lower chlorinated PCB profiles, respectively. This large-scale pattern may reflect the influence of historical European runoffs in the Mediterranean basin and diffused sources for OCs in remote Atlantic islands. Spatial patterns also emerged within the Atlantic basin, probably associated with pollutant long-range transport and recent inputs of DDT in the food webs of shearwaters from Cape Verde and the Canary islands. Moreover, a positive association of OC concentrations with delta(15)N within each locality points out diet specialization as a major factor explaining differences in OCs at the intraspecific level. Overall, this study highlights wide range breeding seabirds, such as Calonectris shearwaters, as suitable organisms for biomonitoring large geographic trends of organochlorine contamination in the marine environment.

  9. Temporal Variations of Shallow Subtidal Meiofauna in Los Cristianos Bay (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Ne Atlantic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Jorge; Brito, Maria del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A subtidal meiofaunal assemblage in Los Cristianos Bay, Tenerife, Canary Islands was sampled from May 2000 to April 2001, at 3 m depth. Nematodes dominated overwhelmingly during the study period, ranging from 84.52% in May 2000 to 95.93% in October 2000. Copepods and polychaetes were the second and the third most abundant groups, respectively. Meiofaunal densities showed significant differences throughout the study period, with minimum abundances during the spring-summer months (May-July) and...

  10. Geological hazards in the Azores archipelago: Volcanic terrain instability and human vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, A.

    2006-08-01

    The islands of the Azores archipelago are geologically young and located in a tectonically and volcanically active region. Not surprisingly, the islands are subject to many geological hazards, including earthquakes, landslides, and coastal erosion; some selected examples are discussed in this paper. As demonstrated by two recent earthquakes (1980, Terceira; 1998, Faial), the principal damage was related to one or more of these factors: (1) unsafe location of structures near faults; (2) unstable foundation soils; (3) poor quality of building materials and construction methods; (4) disregard of building codes; and (5) lack of building maintenance. Major landsliding events in the Azores (e.g., Ponta da Fajã, Ribeira Quente, and Fajã dos Cubres) typically are triggered by intense, long-duration precipitation and (or) earthquake-induced ground shaking. The loose, unconsolidated nature of the rocks and soils of these volcanic islands is another significant contributing factor, sometimes aggravated by ground instability caused by human activity. Coastal erosion is prevalent on the north coast of São Miguel and the south coast of Faial, mostly resulting from natural circumstances (e.g., steepness of cliffs, differential erosion, intense wave action during storms) and also from human activity (e.g., poorly engineered drainage works on cliff faces). Where severe, coastal erosion can pose a risk to populations and societal infrastructures situated near the tops of the seacliffs. To mitigate the risk of these and other geological hazards in the Azores, it is necessary to (1) prepare hazards and risks maps of the affected areas; (2) adopt prudent land-use planning that considers the hazards; (3) upgrade the building codes in the hazardous areas; (4) initiate slope-stabilization programs; (5) preserve the natural environmental integrity of the regions; and (6) educate the affected populace and governmental officials about the possibilities and consequences of hazardous

  11. Reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta in two macroalgal communities from Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polifrone, Milena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea, was analysed seasonally for a period of one year in two localities on the West coast of Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain. Considerations are provided on sex ratio, maximum length and branch order of uprights and on the length of the thalli for each sexual and asexual phase of the Canary Islands populations. The three species were characterized by a high percentage of tetrasporophytes, while female and male gametophytes have been observed only in little proportion. Only G. canariense showed gametophytes in all seasons while the occurrence of gametophytes in G. arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea demonstrated a clear seasonality.

    La fenología reproductiva de tres especies de Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea, ha sido analizada estacionalmente por un periodo de un año en dos localidades de la costa este de Tenerife (Oceano Atlántico, Islas Canarias, España. Se realizan consideraciones sobre sex ratio, longitud máxima y orden de ramificación de los ramets y se aporta información sobre la longitud del talo por cada fase sexual y asexual de las poblaciones canarias. Las tres especies se caracterizan por presentar un elevado porcentaje de tetrasporofitos, mientras que los gametofitos masculinos y femeninos han sido observados en proporciones reducidas. Sólo G. canariense presenta gametofitos en todas las estaciones, mientras que en G. arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea demostraban una clara estacionalidad.

  12. Relationship between spatial distribution of chaetognaths and hydrographic conditions around seamounts and islands of the tropical southwestern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Christiane S de; Luz, Joana A G; Mafalda, Paulo O

    2014-09-01

    Relationship between spatial distribution of chaetognaths and hydrographic conditions around seamounts and islands off Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from 133 oceanographic stations during the months of January - April of 1997 and April - July of 1998. Oblique zooplankton tows, using 50 cm diameter Bongo nets with 500µm mesh with a flowmeter to determine the filtered volume, were carried out to a maximum of 200m depth. The Superficial Equatorial Water, which had a salinity > 36 PSU and temperature > 20°C, occupied the top 80 to 200m depth. Below this water mass was the South Atlantic Central Water with salinity ranging from 34.5 to 36 PSU and temperature from 6 to 20°C. The community of chaetognaths showed six species: Pterosagitta draco, Flaccisagitta enflata, Flaccisagitta hexaptera, Pseudosagitta lyra, Serratosagitta serratodentata, and Sagitta helenae. Of these species, F. enflata was the most abundant (32.05% in 1997 and 42.18% in 1998) and the most frequent (87.88% in 1997 and 95% in 1998) during both periods. A mesopelagic specie was identified (P. lyra). This specie was more abundant in 1997 (3.42%), when the upwelling was more intense. P. lyra occurred in 22% of the samples during 1997. The abundance of F. enflata, an epiplanktonic species, increased, associated with greater water-column stability.

  13. Relationship between spatial distribution of chaetognaths and hydrographic conditions around seamounts and islands of the tropical southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIANE S. DE SOUZA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between spatial distribution of chaetognaths and hydrographic conditions around seamounts and islands off Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from 133 oceanographic stations during the months of January – April of 1997 and April – July of 1998. Oblique zooplankton tows, using 50 cm diameter Bongo nets with 500µm mesh with a flowmeter to determine the filtered volume, were carried out to a maximum of 200m depth. The Superficial Equatorial Water, which had a salinity > 36 PSU and temperature > 20°C, occupied the top 80 to 200m depth. Below this water mass was the South Atlantic Central Water with salinity ranging from 34.5 to 36 PSU and temperature from 6 to 20°C. The community of chaetognaths showed six species: Pterosagitta draco, Flaccisagitta enflata, Flaccisagitta hexaptera, Pseudosagitta lyra, Serratosagitta serratodentata, and Sagitta helenae. Of these species, F. enflata was the most abundant (32.05% in 1997 and 42.18% in 1998 and the most frequent (87.88% in 1997 and 95% in 1998 during both periods. A mesopelagic specie was identified (P. lyra. This specie was more abundant in 1997 (3.42%, when the upwelling was more intense. P. lyra occurred in 22% of the samples during 1997. The abundance of F. enflata, an epiplanktonic species, increased, associated with greater water-column stability.

  14. Collaborative Research: Cloudiness transitions within shallow marine clouds near the Azores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechem, David B. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Atmospheric Science Program. Dept. of Geography and Atmospheric Science; de Szoeke, Simon P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences; Yuter, Sandra E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences

    2017-01-15

    Marine stratocumulus clouds are low, persistent, liquid phase clouds that cover large areas and play a significant role in moderating the climate by reflecting large quantities of incoming solar radiation. The deficiencies in simulating these clouds in global climate models are widely recognized. Much of the uncertainty arises from sub-grid scale variability in the cloud albedo that is not accurately parameterized in climate models. The Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP–MBL) observational campaign and the ongoing ARM site measurements on Graciosa Island in the Azores aim to sample the Northeast Atlantic low cloud regime. These data represent, the longest continuous research quality cloud radar/lidar/radiometer/aerosol data set of open-ocean shallow marine clouds in existence. Data coverage from CAP–MBL and the series of cruises to the southeast Pacific culminating in VOCALS will both be of sufficient length to contrast the two low cloud regimes and explore the joint variability of clouds in response to several environmental factors implicated in cloudiness transitions. Our research seeks to better understand cloud system processes in an underexplored but climatologically important maritime region. Our primary goal is an improved physical understanding of low marine clouds on temporal scales of hours to days. It is well understood that aerosols, synoptic-scale forcing, surface fluxes, mesoscale dynamics, and cloud microphysics all play a role in cloudiness transitions. However, the relative importance of each mechanism as a function of different environmental conditions is unknown. To better understand cloud forcing and response, we are documenting the joint variability of observed environmental factors and associated cloud characteristics. In order to narrow the realm of likely parameter ranges, we assess the relative importance of parameter conditions based primarily on two criteria: how often the condition occurs (frequency

  15. CAS (CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SOCIETY) PARAMETER CODES and Other Data from EVERGREEN From NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19860501 to 19860519 (NODC Accession 9100094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set in this accession contains 100 stations of hydrographic data collected in the northeast Atlantic, south of the Azores, aboard R/V ENDEAVOR, cruise #143....

  16. Reproductive pattern of Pterocladiella capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta at Canary Islands (Spain, Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha Stroobant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the reproductive pattern of a natural population of Pterocladiella capillacea from G áldar (Canary Islands, Spain from February to August in relation to temperature, irradiance and photoperiod environmental conditions. Methods: Field observation of reproductive thalli was used at different seasons in the year. Results: Tetrasporophytes and vegetative thalli were observed during all the period of study, while female gametophytes bearing cystocarps have been found from May to August in correspondence with the highest water temperature and irradiance values. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the temperature may be the determining factor which regulates the presence of tetrasporophytes in the field. The constant presence of tetrasporophytes could depend on the low excursion range of water temperature (4-5 °C throughout the period of study, with the highest abundance in February at 20 °C.

  17. Temporal Variations of Shallow Subtidal Meiofauna in Los Cristianos Bay (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Ne Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Riera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A subtidal meiofaunal assemblage in Los Cristianos Bay, Tenerife, Canary Islands was sampled from May 2000 to April 2001, at 3 m depth. Nematodes dominated overwhelmingly during the study period, ranging from 84.52% in May 2000 to 95.93% in October 2000. Copepods and polychaetes were the second and the third most abundant groups, respectively. Meiofaunal densities showed significant differences throughout the study period, with minimum abundances during the spring-summer months (May-July and highest densities in winter (January and February. This seasonality is mainly due to the temporal variations of the most abundant species (nematodes Daptonema hirsutum and Pomponema sedecima, with differences in meiofauna species composition and abundance during May and June 2000 as compared to the remaining months of the study period. Environmental variables partly explained meiofaunal community structure, being the sedimentary type of very fine sands the most important, jointly with other variables, such as nitrogen and organic matter content.

  18. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Hanno

    2012-12-01

    middle Miocene and spread from there across Eurasia, into Tropical Africa, and at least seven times to the Americas. The middle-Atlantic islands were colonized four times but apparently did not serve as stepping-stones for Atlantic crossings. Long-distance dispersal events are relatively common in Fabeae (seven per ten million years. Current generic and infrageneric circumscriptions in Fabeae do not reflect monophyletic groups and should be revised. Suggestions for generic level delimitation are offered.

  19. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hanno; Hechenleitner, Paulina; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel; Pennington, R Toby; Kenicer, Gregory; Carine, Mark A

    2012-12-25

    Tropical Africa, and at least seven times to the Americas. The middle-Atlantic islands were colonized four times but apparently did not serve as stepping-stones for Atlantic crossings. Long-distance dispersal events are relatively common in Fabeae (seven per ten million years). Current generic and infrageneric circumscriptions in Fabeae do not reflect monophyletic groups and should be revised. Suggestions for generic level delimitation are offered.

  20. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.

    2015-05-01

    Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by zooplankton and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant zooplankton. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of zooplankton and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in zooplankton and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within zooplankton were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of zooplankton (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.

  1. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 9. The amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea) in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoniphargus was known from inland stygohabitats in the Iberian peninsula, the Azores, Madeira, N.W. Africa, and Bermuda, but not from the Canary Islands. Systematic sampling in six of the seven larger islands of the latter archipelago has revealed the presence of the genus in Tenerife (4

  2. New insights about the population structure of the blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus in the NE Atlantic using otolith stable isotope ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus is a pelagic fish widely distributed in the NE Atlantic and also found in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It is an economically important resource in the Macaronesian islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, but despite its fishery value and ecological importance, fluctuations in the landings are difficult to explain since studies regarding the population dynamics, stocks structure, fish movements and habitat connectivity are inexistent. The populations of marine pelagic fishes, in particular the migratory ones, such as T. picturatus,, may be erroneously considered an homogenous population unit because they show broad geographic distributions, large population sizes and high migratory movements. Stable isotope ratios, namely δ18O and δ13C, measured by standard mass spectrometric techniques in whole otolith samples of T. picturatus adults sampled in the fishery grounds of the Islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, and at the Portuguese mainland (Matosinhos, Peniche and Portimão during the spring-summer of 2013 were analysed. The 18O signatures followed the general tendency taking into account the seawater temperatures of the sampling regions. 13C signatures showed however differences between the oceanic or continental origin of the fish. Both variables provided location-specific signatures. Further studies including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA studies are also been conducted to acquire new knowledge for fisheries conservation purposes.

  3. Serreta Submarine Eruption 1998-2001, Azores: a new compositional end-member?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipa Marques, Ana; Hamelin, Cédric; Madureira, Pedro; Rosa, Carlos; Silva, Pedro; Relvas, Jorge; Lourenço, Nuno; Conceição, Patrícia; Barriga, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Azores platform, where the Eurasian, Nubian and American plates meet, comprises nine volcanic islands extending to both sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). East of the MAR, the plate boundary between Eurasian and Nubian plates is defined by the Terceira Rift, interpreted as an intra-oceanic spreading system where the Islands of S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa emerge as well and the submarine D.João de Castro Bank, separated by deep avolcanic zones [1, 2]. Submarine and subaerial lavas from the Terceira Rift are characterized by small-scale elemental and isotopic variations, and several distinct compositional end-members have been identified [2,3] supporting the concept of significant mantle source heterogeneity. A recent submarine eruption (1998-2001) occurred ~4-5 NM WNW of Terceira Island, at the Serreta Ridge where lava balloons were observed floating at the surface [4]. In 2008, an oceanographic cruise was conducted to the Serreta ridge to investigate the site of the 1998-2001 eruption, map the seafloor, identify vent location, and characterize possible products of eruption [5]. An ROV from the EMEPC (Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf) was used in this survey providing high-definition video footage and fresh lava samples. Three survey ROV dives (D15, D16, D17) were made on the Serreta ridge. D15 and D17 dives were located on the southern wall of the crater, whereas D16 explored the central and northern areas of the crater floor. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of representative samples from the Serreta submarine ridge are presented for the first time. On the 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram Serreta samples plot on a linear array with the remaining Terceira rift samples. However, these results show that Serreta submarine volcanics lay on the most depleted end of the Terceira Rift array. Radiogenic isotopes also show that samples from the central and northern wall of the crater are distinct from the younger southern wall sector

  4. Water column characterisation on the Azores platform and at the sea mounts south of the archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Carla; Lillebø, Ana I.; Borges, Carlos; Souto, Miguel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Abreu, Manuel Pinto de

    2012-01-01

    This study provides data concerning the hydrography and water chemistry of the Atlantic region between 29–38° N and 27–31° W, and establishes background values for dissolved Cu, Cd, Pb and As. Three water masses were identified: the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW), the Mediterranean Water (MW) and the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The ENACW exhibits a clear meridional gradient of temperature and salinity, with comparatively high values at the southern sites and lower values on the Azores platform. The ENACW, which includes the euphotic zone, also had comparatively high concentrations of oxygen and lower concentrations of nutrients and metals. The Cu, Cd and Pb results suggest that new background concentrations for OSPAR Region V (the Wider Atlantic) should be established as follows: 0.15–13 nM for Cu, 0.05–1.4 nM for Cd and 0.03–5 nM for Pb. The background concentrations of As for OSPAR Region V should be 7–28 nM.

  5. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  6. Geological and Structural evolution of the Eurasia Africa plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz Central Eastern Atlantic Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    D’Oriano, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Iberia Africa plate boundary, cross, roughly W-E, connecting the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Azores triple junction to the Continental margin of Morocco. Relative movement between the two plate change along the boundary, from transtensive near the Azores archipelago, through trascurrent movement in the middle at the Gloria Fracture Zone, to transpressive in the Gulf of Cadiz area. This study presents the results of geophysical and geological analysis on the plate boundary area offshore Gibral...

  7. First quantification of subtidal community structure at Tristan da Cunha Islands in the remote South Atlantic: from kelp forests to the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott L.; Davis, Kathryn; Thompson, Christopher D. H.; Turchik, Alan; Jenkinson, Ryan; Simpson, Doug; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder. Despite a lobster fishery that provides the bulk of the income to the Tristan islands, lobster abundance and biomass are comparable to or greater than many Marine Protected Areas in other parts of the world. Pelagic camera surveys documented a rich biodiversity offshore, including large numbers of juvenile blue sharks, Prionace glauca. Species richness and abundance in the deep sea is positively related to hard rocky substrate and biogenic habitats such as sea pens, crinoids, whip corals, and gorgonians were present at 40% of the deep camera deployments. We observed distinct differences in the deep fish community above and below ~750 m depth. Concurrent oceanographic sampling showed a discontinuity in temperature and salinity at this depth. While currently healthy, Tristan’s marine ecosystem is not without potential threats: shipping traffic leading to wrecks and species introductions, pressure to increase fishing effort beyond sustainable levels and the impacts of climate change all could potentially increase in the coming years. The United Kingdom has committed to protection of marine environments across the UKOTs, including Tristan da Cunha and these results can be used to inform future management decisions as well as provide a baseline against which future

  8. First quantification of subtidal community structure at Tristan da Cunha Islands in the remote South Atlantic: from kelp forests to the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E; Hamilton, Scott L; Davis, Kathryn; Thompson, Christopher D H; Turchik, Alan; Jenkinson, Ryan; Simpson, Doug; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder. Despite a lobster fishery that provides the bulk of the income to the Tristan islands, lobster abundance and biomass are comparable to or greater than many Marine Protected Areas in other parts of the world. Pelagic camera surveys documented a rich biodiversity offshore, including large numbers of juvenile blue sharks, Prionace glauca. Species richness and abundance in the deep sea is positively related to hard rocky substrate and biogenic habitats such as sea pens, crinoids, whip corals, and gorgonians were present at 40% of the deep camera deployments. We observed distinct differences in the deep fish community above and below ~750 m depth. Concurrent oceanographic sampling showed a discontinuity in temperature and salinity at this depth. While currently healthy, Tristan's marine ecosystem is not without potential threats: shipping traffic leading to wrecks and species introductions, pressure to increase fishing effort beyond sustainable levels and the impacts of climate change all could potentially increase in the coming years. The United Kingdom has committed to protection of marine environments across the UKOTs, including Tristan da Cunha and these results can be used to inform future management decisions as well as provide a baseline against which future monitoring

  9. Assessment of the ocean circulation in the Azores region as predicted by a numerical model assimilating altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mailly

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Two years of altimetric data from Topex/Poseidon (October 1992–September 1994 and ERS-1 (October 1992–December 1993 were assimilated into a numerical model of the North Atlantic. The results of these simulations are analysed in the Azores region to assess the performance of our model in this particular region. Maps of instantaneous dynamic topography and transports show that the model performs well in reproducing the velocities and transports of the Azores Front. Drifter data from the Semaphore experiment are also used to study the correlation between the drifter velocities and the corresponding model velocities. Some interesting oceanographic results are also obtained by examining the seasonal and interannual variability of the circulation and the influence of bathymetry on the variability of the Azores Front. Thus, on the basis of our two year experiment, it is possible to confirm the circulation patterns proposed by previous studies regarding the seasonal variations in the origin of the Azores Current. Moreover, it is shown that the Azores Current is quite narrow in the first year of assimilation (1992–1993, but becomes much wider in the second year (1993–1994. The role of the bathymetry appears important in this area since the mesoscale activity is shown to be strongly related to the presence of topographic slopes. Finally, spectral analyses of sea-level changes over time and space are used to identify two types of wave already noticed in other studies: a wave with (300 km–1 wave number and (120 days–1 frequency, which is characteristic of mesoscale undulation, and a wave with (600 km–1 wave number and (250 days–1 frequency which probably corresponds to a Rossby wave generated in the east of the basin.

  10. Assessment of the ocean circulation in the Azores region as predicted by a numerical model assimilating altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mailly

    Full Text Available Two years of altimetric data from Topex/Poseidon (October 1992–September 1994 and ERS-1 (October 1992–December 1993 were assimilated into a numerical model of the North Atlantic. The results of these simulations are analysed in the Azores region to assess the performance of our model in this particular region. Maps of instantaneous dynamic topography and transports show that the model performs well in reproducing the velocities and transports of the Azores Front. Drifter data from the Semaphore experiment are also used to study the correlation between the drifter velocities and the corresponding model velocities. Some interesting oceanographic results are also obtained by examining the seasonal and interannual variability of the circulation and the influence of bathymetry on the variability of the Azores Front. Thus, on the basis of our two year experiment, it is possible to confirm the circulation patterns proposed by previous studies regarding the seasonal variations in the origin of the Azores Current. Moreover, it is shown that the Azores Current is quite narrow in the first year of assimilation (1992–1993, but becomes much wider in the second year (1993–1994. The role of the bathymetry appears important in this area since the mesoscale activity is shown to be strongly related to the presence of topographic slopes. Finally, spectral analyses of sea-level changes over time and space are used to identify two types of wave already noticed in other studies: a wave with (300 km–1 wave number and (120 days–1 frequency, which is characteristic of mesoscale undulation, and a wave with (600 km–1 wave number and (250 days–1 frequency which probably corresponds to a Rossby wave generated in the east of the basin.

  11. Assessment of the ocean circulation in the Azores region as predicted by a numerical model assimilating altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon and ERS-1 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailly, T.; Blayo, E.; Verron, J.

    1997-10-01

    Two years of altimetric data from Topex/Poseidon (October 1992-September 1994) and ERS-1 (October 1992-December 1993) were assimilated into a numerical model of the North Atlantic. The results of these simulations are analysed in the Azores region to assess the performance of our model in this particular region. Maps of instantaneous dynamic topography and transports show that the model performs well in reproducing the velocities and transports of the Azores Front. Drifter data from the Semaphore experiment are also used to study the correlation between the drifter velocities and the corresponding model velocities. Some interesting oceanographic results are also obtained by examining the seasonal and interannual variability of the circulation and the influence of bathymetry on the variability of the Azores Front. Thus, on the basis of our two year experiment, it is possible to confirm the circulation patterns proposed by previous studies regarding the seasonal variations in the origin of the Azores Current. Moreover, it is shown that the Azores Current is quite narrow in the first year of assimilation (1992-1993), but becomes much wider in the second year (1993-1994). The role of the bathymetry appears important in this area since the mesoscale activity is shown to be strongly related to the presence of topographic slopes. Finally, spectral analyses of sea-level changes over time and space are used to identify two types of wave already noticed in other studies: a wave with (300 km)-1 wave number and (120 days)-1 frequency, which is characteristic of mesoscale undulation, and a wave with (600 km)-1 wave number and (250 days)-1 frequency which probably corresponds to a Rossby wave generated in the east of the basin.

  12. A switch in the Atlantic Oscillation correlates with inter-annual changes in foraging location and food habits of Macaronesian shearwaters (Puffinus baroli) nesting on two islands of the sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jaime A.; Isabel Fagundes, Ana; Xavier, José C.; Fidalgo, Vera; Ceia, Filipe R.; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2015-10-01

    Changes in oceanographic conditions, shaped by changes in large-scale atmospheric phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), alters the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Such signals are readily captured by marine top predators, given that their use of foraging habitats and diets change when the NAO changes. In this study we assessed sexual, seasonal and annual (2010/11-2012/13) differences in diet, trophic and isotopic niche (using δ15N and δ13C values of whole blood, 1st primary, 8th secondary and breast feathers), foraging locations and oceanographic variation within foraging areas for Macaronesian shearwaters' (Puffinus baroli) during two years of contrasting NAO values, and between two sub-tropical islands 330 km apart in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. These two locations provide contrasting oceanographic foraging regimes for the birds, because the second colony is much closer to the African coast (375 vs 650 km), and, therefore, to the upwelling area of the Canary Current. There was a marked environmental perturbation in 2010/2011, related with a negative NAO Index and lower marine productivity (lower concentration of Chlorophyll a). This event corresponded to the Macaronesian shearwaters feeding farther north and west, which was readily seen in change of both δ15N and δ13C values, and in a higher intake of cephalopods. Diet and stable isotopes did not differ between sexes. Regurgitation analysis indicate a dominance of cephalopods in both islands, but prey fish were important for Selvagem Grande in 2012 and cephalopods for Cima Islet in 2011. Both δ15N and δ13C values were significantly higher for Cima Islet than for Selvagem Grande, irrespective of year, season and tissue sampled. SIBER analysis showed smaller isotopic niches for the breeding period. Our study suggests that during years of poor environmental conditions Macaronesian shearwaters shift their foraging location to more pelagic waters

  13. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    Six volcanic zones comprise São Miguel, the largest island in the Azores. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. From west to east the zones are (1) the trachyte stratovolcano of Sete Cidades, (2) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte, (3) the trachyte stratovolcano of Agua de Pau, (4) a field of alkali-basalt cinder cones and lava flows with minor trachyte and tristanite, (5) the trachyte stratovolcano of Furnas, and (6) the Nordeste shield, which includes the Povoação caldera and consists of alkali basalt, tristanite, and trachyte. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately 3000 years in the areas active during that time are about 400 years for Sete Cidades, 145 for zone 2, 1150 for Agua de Pau, and 370 for Furnas. However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from 400 to about 680 years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from 370 to about 195 years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every 1000 years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about 3000 years. The Povoação caldera truncates part of the Nordeste shield and probably formed during the middle to late Pleistocene. Calderas formed during latest Pleistocene time at the three younger stratovolcanoes in the sequence: outer Agua de Pau (between 46 and 26.5 ka), Sete Cidades (about 22 ka), inner Agua de Pau (15.2 ka), and Furnas (about 12 ka). Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. Most faults trend northwest or west-northwest and are related to the Terceira rift, whose most active segment on São Miguel passes through Sete Cidades and zone 2. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste

  14. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancort, J.F.; Lomoschitz, A.; Meco, J.

    2016-07-01

    Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  15. Early Pliocene fishes (Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes from Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Betancort

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fish teeth are contained in marine deposits dated at ca 4.8 Ma found on the islands of Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain. These islands, situated in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, can be considered a mid-way stopover point between the Caribbean Sea, with the Central American Seaway about to close in this epoch, and the Mediterranean, in the first stage of its post-Messinian Gibraltar Seaway period. Accordingly, there existed extensive pantropical communication, particularly for nektonic animals capable of travelling large distances. In this paper, we present a number of fossil fishes, most of which are identified for the first time on the basis of their teeth: the Chondrichthyes species Carcharocles megalodon, Parotodus benedeni, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharias cf. acutissima, Carcharhinus cf. leucas, Carcharhinus cf. priscus, Galeocerdo cf. aduncus, and the Osteichthyes species Archosargus cinctus, Labrodon pavimentatum, and Diodon scillae. Coincidences are observed between these ichthyofauna and specimens found in the Azores Islands, the Pacific coast of America and the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  17. Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baztan, Juan; Carrasco, Ana; Chouinard, Omer; Cleaud, Muriel; Gabaldon, Jesús E; Huck, Thierry; Jaffrès, Lionel; Jorgensen, Bethany; Miguelez, Aquilino; Paillard, Christine; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2014-03-15

    Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions: (i) Where does this pollution come from?; (ii) How much plastic pollution is in the world's oceans and coastal zones?; (iii) What are the consequences for the biosphere?; and (iv) What are possible solutions? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  19. Nitrates in Groundwater Discharges from the Azores Archipelago: Occurrence and Fluxes to Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Virgílio Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater discharge is an important vector of chemical fluxes to the ocean environment, and as the concentration of nutrients is often higher in discharging groundwater, the deterioration of water quality in the receiving environment can be the result. The main objective of the present paper is to estimate the total NO3 flux to coastal water bodies due to groundwater discharge in the volcanic Azores archipelago (Portugal. Therefore, 78 springs discharging from perched-water bodies have been monitored since 2003, corresponding to cold (mean = 14.9 °C and low mineralized (47.2–583 µS/cm groundwater from the sodium-bicarbonate to sodium-chloride water types. A set of 36 wells was also monitored, presenting groundwater with a higher mineralization. The nitrate content in springs range between 0.02 and 37.4 mg/L, and the most enriched samples are associated to the impact of agricultural activities. The total groundwater NO3 flux to the ocean is estimated in the range of 5.23 × 103 to 190.6 × 103 mol/km2/a (∑ = ~523 × 103 mol/km2/a, exceeding the total flux associated to surface runoff (∑ = ~281 × 103 mol/km2/a. In the majority of the islands, the estimated fluxes are higher than runoff fluxes, with the exception of Pico (47.2%, Corvo (46% and Faial (7.2%. The total N-NO3 flux estimated in the Azores (~118.9 × 103 mol/km2/a is in the lower range of estimates made in other volcanic islands.

  20. Underwater Ambient Noise in a Baleen Whale Migratory Habitat Off the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Romagosa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of underwater noise is of particular interest given the increase in noise-generating human activities and the potential negative effects on marine mammals which depend on sound for many vital processes. The Azores archipelago is an important migratory and feeding habitat for blue (Balaenoptera musculus, fin (Balaenoptera physalus and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis en route to summering grounds in northern Atlantic waters. High levels of low frequency noise in this area could displace whales or interfere with foraging behavior, impacting energy intake during a critical stage of their annual cycle. In this study, bottom-mounted Ecological Acoustic Recorders were deployed at three Azorean seamounts (Condor, Açores, and Gigante to measure temporal variations in background noise levels and ship noise in the 18–1,000 Hz frequency band, used by baleen whales to emit and receive sounds. Monthly average noise levels ranged from 90.3 dB re 1 μPa (Açores seamount to 103.1 dB re 1 μPa (Condor seamount and local ship noise was present up to 13% of the recording time in Condor. At this location, average contribution of local boat noise to background noise levels is almost 10 dB higher than wind contribution, which might temporally affect detection ranges for baleen whale calls and difficult communication at long ranges. Given the low time percentatge with noise levels above 120 dB re 1 μPa found here (3.3% at Condor, we woud expect limited behavioral responses to ships from baleen whales. Sound pressure levels measured in the Azores are lower than those reported for the Mediterranean basin and the Strait of Gibraltar. However, the currently unknown effects of baleen whale vocalization masking and the increasing presence of boats at the monitored sites underline the need for continuous monitoring to understand any long-term impacts on whales.

  1. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer System from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2013-11-14

    The seaward-dipping sedimentary wedge that underlies the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain forms a complex groundwater system. This major source of water provides for public and domestic supply and serves as a vital source of freshwater for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the region. Population increases and land-use and climate changes, however, have led to competing demands for water. The regional response of the aquifer system to these stresses poses regional challenges for water-resources management at the State level because hydrologic effects often extend beyond State boundaries. In response to these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the groundwater availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in 2010.

  2. Diffuse He degassing from Furnas Volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, I.; Melian, G.; Nolasco, D.; Dionis, S.; Hernández, P.; Perez, N.; Noehn, D.; Nobrega, D.; Gonzalez, P.; Forjaz, V. H.; França, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Furnas is the easternmost of the three active central volcanoes on the island of Sâo Miguel in Azores archipielago. Unlike the other two main volcanoes, Sete Cidades and Fogo, Furnas does not have a well-developed edifice, but consists of a steep-sided caldera complex 8 x 5 km across. It is built on the outer flanks of the Povoaçao - Nordeste lava complex that forms the eastern end of Sao Miguel. The caldera margins of Furnas reflect the regional-local tectonic pattern which has also controlled the distribution of vents within the caldera and areas of thermal springs. Helium is considered as an ideal geochemical tracer due to its properties: chemically inert, physically stable and practically insoluble in water under normal conditions. These properties together with its high mobility on the crust, make the presence of helium anomalies on the surface environment of a volcanic system to be related to deep fluid migration controlled by volcano-tectonic features of the area and provide valuable information about the location and characteristics of the gas source and the fracturing of the crust. On the summer of 2011, a diffuse helium emission survey was carried out on the surface environment of Furnas volcano, covering an area of 15.4 km2 with a total of 276 sampling site observations. To collect soil gases at each sampling point, a stainless steel probe was inserted 40 cm depth in the soil. Helium concentration was measured within 24 hours by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer Pfeiffer Omnistar 422. DeltaHe (DeltaHe= Hesoil atmosphere - Heair) distribution map was constructed following Sequential Gaussian Simulation. DeltaHe distribution map shows that most of the study area presents values similar to those of air (Heair = 5,240 ppb). Soil gas helium enrichment was mainly observed at the areas affected by the discharge of hydrothermal fluids: the fumarole area on the north part of Furnas Lake (DeltaHe> 10,000 ppb) and the fumarole area on Furnas Village (Delta

  3. Roseovarius azorensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater at Espalamaca, Azores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, rod shaped aerobic bacterium, designated strain SSW084T, was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected at Espalamaca (38°33`N; 28°39`W), Azores. Growth was found to occur from 15 to 40...

  4. Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants of the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, J M; Macedo, M; Contancia, J P; Nguyen, C; Cunningham, G; Miles, D H

    2000-09-01

    A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 50 plants of Azores. Extracts of the six plants Hedychium gardneranum, Tropaeolum majus, Gunnera tinctoria, Hedera helix, Festuca jubata and Laurus azorica demonstrated activity of 78% or higher in this bioassay system.

  5. 77 FR 43158 - Special Local Regulation; Battle on the Bay Powerboat Race Atlantic Ocean, Fire Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... event taking place in different locations in the past and has received no public comments or concerns..., in the aggregate, or by the private sector of $100,000,000 (adjusted for inflation) or more in any... Captain of the Port (COTP) Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective August 25 and 26, 2012...

  6. Trophic Structure Over the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: The Bathypelagic Zone Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present preliminary results and ongoing efforts to characterize the trophic structure and energy flow of the pelagic ecosystems of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), from Iceland to the Azores. This study is one component of the international CoML field project MAR-ECO (ww...

  7. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, L C; Koldewey, H J; Santos, S V; Shaw, P W

    2009-10-01

    A seahorse specimen from Banco Açores (Azores Archipelago) was identified using morphological and molecular genetic data as Hippocampus erectus. This specimen represents the first record of H. erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, well outside its reported range, and may provide evidence of long-distance translocation in what are assumed to be relatively sedentary fish.

  8. Propagation of uncertainties for an evaluation of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone tsunamigenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Imbert, David; Richet, Yann; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess evaluation the tsunamigenic potential of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ). This work is part of the French project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling; www-tandem.cea.fr), special attention is paid to French Atlantic coasts. Structurally, the AGFZ region is complex and not well understood. However, a lot of its faults produce earthquakes with significant vertical slip, of a type that can result in tsunami. We use the major tsunami event of the AGFZ on purpose to have a regional estimation of the tsunamigenic potential of this zone. The major reported event for this zone is the 1755 Lisbon event. There are large uncertainties concerning source location and focal mechanism of this earthquake. Hence, simple deterministic approach is not sufficient to cover on the one side the whole AGFZ with its geological complexity and on the other side the lack of information concerning the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. A parametric modeling environment Promethée (promethee.irsn.org/doku.php) was coupled to tsunami simulation software based on shallow water equations with the aim of propagation of uncertainties. Such a statistic point of view allows us to work with multiple hypotheses simultaneously. In our work we introduce the seismic source parameters in a form of distributions, thus giving a data base of thousands of tsunami scenarios and tsunami wave height distributions. Exploring our tsunami scenarios data base we present preliminary results for France. Tsunami wave heights (within one standard deviation of the mean) can be about 0.5 m - 1 m for the Atlantic coast and approaching 0.3 m for the English Channel.

  9. "Canary Islands (NE Atlantic) as a biodiversity 'hotspot' of Gambierdiscus: Implications for future trends of ciguatera in the area".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Fraga, Santiago; Ramilo, Isabel; Rial, Pilar; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Riobó, Pilar; Bravo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    In the present study the geographical distribution, abundance and composition of Gambierdiscus was described over a 600km longitudinal scale in the Canary Islands. Samples for cell counts, isolation and identification of Gambierdiscus were obtained from five islands (El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Average densities of Gambierdiscus spp. between 0 and 2200cellsg -1 blot dry weight of macrophyte were recorded. Morphological (light microscopy and SEM techniques) and molecular analyses (LSU and SSU rDNA sequencing of cultures and single cells from the field) of Gambierdiscus was performed. Five Gambierdiscus species (G. australes, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. excentricus and G. silvae), together with a new putative species (Gambierdiscus ribotype 3) were identified. These results suggest that some cases of CFP in the region could be associated with the accumulation of ciguatoxins in the marine food web acquired from local populations of Gambierdiscus. This unexpected high diversity of Gambierdiscus species in an area which a priori is not under risk of ciguatera, hints at an ancient settlement of Gambierdiscus populations, likely favored by warmer climate conditions in the Miocene Epoch (when oldest current Canary Islands were created), in contrast with cooler present ones. Currently, warming trends associated with climate change could contribute to extend favorable environmental conditions in the area for Gambierdiscus growth especially during winter months. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, A.S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  11. Madeirasquilla tuerkayi, a new genus and species of mantis shrimps from Madeira Island, eastern Atlantic (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Nannosquillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ĎuriŠ, ZdenĚk

    2018-03-22

    Madeirasquilla tuerkayi is described as a new genus and species of the nannosquillid mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda) based on a single specimen collected from Madeira, eastern Atlantic. That specimen is remarkable by a combination of the following morphological characters: rostral plate with three sharp anterior projections; antennal protopod with two mesial and one ventral papillae; cornea subglobular; raptorial claw dactylus with 11 or 12 teeth, and with acute proximal tooth on outer margin; pleonite 6 with strong posterolateral spine and two posteriorly directed sternal spines; telson bearing smooth shield-like dorsal prominence with acute median spine posteriorly; four pairs of fixed primary teeth posteriorly on the telson; outer primary spine of uropodal protopod longer than inner primary spine. The separate position of the new genus is supported also by molecular comparison. A key to the genera of the family Nannosquillidae is proposed.

  12. Shear-wave polarization analysis of the seismic swarm following the July 9th 1998 Faial (Azores) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, N. A.; Matias, L.; Tellez, J.; Senos, L.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores Islands, located at a tectonic triple Junction, geodynamically are a highly active place. The seismicity in this region occurs mainly in the form of two types of seismic swarms with tectonic and/or volcanic origins, lasting from hours to years. In some cases the swarm follows a main stronger shock, while in others the more energetic event occurs sometime after the beginning of the swarm. In order to understand the complex phenomena of this region, a multidisciplinary approach is needed, involving geophysical, geological and geochemical studies such as the one being carried under the MASHA project (POCTI/CTA/39158/2001), On July 9th 1998 an Mw=6.2 earthquake stroked the island of Faial, in the central group of the Azores archipelago, followed by a seismic swarm still active today. We will present some preliminary results of the shear-wave polarization analysis of a selected dataset of events of this swarm. These correspond to the 112 best- constrained events, record during the first 2 weeks by the seismic network deployed on the 3 islands surrounding the area of the main shock. The objective was to analyse the behaviour of the S wave polarization and the eventual relationship with the presence of seismic anisotropy under the seismic stations, and to correlate this with the regional structure and origin of the Azores plateau. Two main tectonic features are observable on the islands, one primarily orientated SE-NW and the other crossing it roughly with the WNW-ESE direction. The polarization direction observed in the majority of the seismic stations is not stable, varying from SE-NW to WSW-ENE, and showing also the presence in same cases of shear-wave splitting, indicating the presence of anisotropy. Part of the polarization seems to be coherent with the direction of the local tectonic features, but its instability suggest a more complex seismic anisotropy than that proposed by the model EDA of Crampin. Furthermore, the dataset revealed some limitations to

  13. IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Nuno; Monteiro, Mário

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the IVth Azores International Advanced School in Space Sciences entitled "Asteroseismology and Exoplanets: Listening to the Stars and Searching for New Worlds". The school addressed the topics at the forefront of scientific research being conducted in the fields of asteroseismology and exoplanetary science, two fields of modern astrophysics that share many synergies and resources. These proceedings comprise the contributions from 18 invited lecturers, including both monographic presentations and a number of hands-on tutorials.

  14. Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre: Association with Biochemical and Physical Factors during Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Burgos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 was measured continuously in a transect of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre between Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (18.1° N, 68.5° W and Vigo, Spain (41.9° N, 11.8° W during spring 2011. Additional biogeochemical and physical variables measured to identify factors controlling the surface pCO2 were analyzed in discrete samples collected at 16 sites along the transect at the surface and to a depth of 200 m. Sea surface pCO2 varied between 309 and 662 μatm, and showed differences between the western and eastern subtropical gyre. The subtropical gyre acted as a net CO2 sink, with a mean flux of −5.5 ± 2.2 mmol m−2 day−1. The eastern part of the transect, close to the North Atlantic Iberian upwelling off the Galician coast, was a CO2 source with an average flux of 33.5 ± 9.0 mmol m−2 day−1. Our results highlight the importance of making more surface pCO2 observations in the area located east of the Azores Islands since air-sea CO2 fluxes there are poorly studied.

  15. Analysis and definition of potential new areas for viticulture in the Azores (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, J.; Azevedo, E. B.; Sampaio, J. F.; Fernandes, F.; Reis, F.; Pinheiro, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards in the Azores have been traditionally settled on lava field terroirs but the practical limitations of mechanization and high demand on man labor imposed by the typical micro parcel structure of these vineyards contradict the sustainability of these areas for wine production, except under government policies of heavy financial support. Besides the traditional vineyards there are significant areas in some of the islands whose soils, climate and physiographic characteristics suggest a potential for wine production that deserves to be the object of an assessment, with a view to the development of new vineyard areas offering conditions for better management and sustainability. The landscape zoning approach for the present study was based in a geographic information system (GIS) analysis incorporating factors related to climate, topography and soils. Three thermal intervals referred to climate maturity groups were defined and combined with a single slope interval of 0-15 % to exclude the landscape units above this limit. Over this resulting composite grid, the soils were then selectively cartographed through the exclusion of the soil units not fulfilling the suitability criteria. The results show that the thermal interval of warmer conditions, well represented in the traditional terroir of Pico island, has practically no expression in the other islands. However, for the intermediate and the cooler classes, we could map areas of 5611 and 18 115 ha respectively, fulfilling the defined soils and slope criteria, indicating thus the existence of some landscapes in the studied islands revealing adequate potential for future development of viticulture, although certainly demanding a good judgment on the better grape varieties to be adapted to those climatic conditions.

  16. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  17. Parasitoid (Hymenoptera, Parasitica) diversity in fruit orchards of Terceira Island (Azores), with new records for the Azores and Portugal.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana M. C.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Lopes, David João Horta

    2008-01-01

    XI Congresso Ibérico de Entomologia. Funchal (Madeira), 13 a 17 de Setembro de 2004. Copyright © 2008 Museu Municipal do Funchal (História Natural). Apresenta-se uma lista de géneros e espécies de Himenópteros parasitóides encontrados em culturas frutícolas da ilha Terceira. Foram identificados 34 géneros, 10 espécies e 37 morfoespécies, destacando-se a presença de duas espécies novas para Portugal (Meteorus ictericus e Meteorus rufus) e uma espécie do género Encarsia ainda não descrita...

  18. Pollination, biogeography and phylogeny of oceanic island bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Alarcón, M.; Ehlers, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    relatives C. eminii and C. abyssinica. We asked to what extent related species converge in their floral biology and pollination in related habitats, i.e. oceanic islands. Study islands were the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Réunion. Information about phylogenetic relationships....... These examples of vertebrate pollination evolved independently on each island or archipelago. We discuss if these pollination systems have an island or mainland origin and when they may have evolved, and finally, we attempt to reconstruct the pollinator-interaction history of each species....

  19. Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; O'Connell, A.F.; Harrison, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

  20. A study of stomach contents of Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) (Aves: Procellariidae), from the Macaronesian Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Clarke, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Data are presented on the diet of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) resulting from stomach investigations based on 18 birds from Hierro (Canary Islands), 5 from Selvagem Grande (Selvagens or Salvage Islands), 2 from São Miguel and 1 from São Jorge (Azores), collected

  1. Variability of the Azores Current during October December 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverdin, Gilles; Hernandez, Fabrice

    2001-05-01

    The surface circulation is investigated during the autumn of 1993 in the vicinity of the Azores Current 18-28°W 31-36°N during the SEMAPHORE experiment. A total of 125 drifters were tracked by satellite, some of which were drogued, some not, some with long tethers and some were mixed layer drifters drogued at 15 m depth. The different types of drifters respond differently to the wind, the wave action and the mixed layer currents, resulting in differences in drifts sometimes exceeding 10 cm s -1. These effects can be partially taken into account statistically. After doing that, the different drift data were combined to map the near-surface quasi-geostrophic flow. The major currents in the area have a width of 100 km or larger, and changes in the shear happen over a shorter scale. The data density is sufficient to resolve scales of 50-100 km for 11 days averaged circulation and sea surface temperature (SST). The maps produced every 5 days portray the surface evolution of the Azores Current and of the eddy field for 2 months. The changes are large in the area where the Azores current interacts with a large anticylonic eddy A 1 associated with a Meddy. There are some closed eddy circulation present throughout the period, whereas other structures are relatively short-lived (a month or less). The general features of this analysis are reproduced in analyses of the circulation from altimetric data. The resolution of this analysis is much larger than what was earlier obtained from the hydrological surveys, enabling us to estimate the quasi-geostrophic mesoscale divergence field from the horizontal vorticity budget. The quasi-geostrophic horizontal vorticity advection provides the largest contribution to divergence and contributes to a series of convergence and divergence patches in the order of 1×10 -7 s -1 associated with the various ridges and troughs of the Azores Current. Although uncertainty is high in these estimates, this suggests that vertical temperature

  2. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  3. Predictive modeling of deep-sea fish distribution in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Hugo E.; Pham, Christopher K.; Menezes, Gui M.; Rosa, Alexandra; Tempera, Fernando; Morato, Telmo

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the link between fish and their habitat is essential for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. However, determining such relationship is challenging, especially for deep-sea species. In this study, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate presence-absence and relative abundance data of eight economically-important fish species to environmental variables (depth, slope, aspect, substrate type, bottom temperature, salinity and oxygen saturation). We combined 13 years of catch data collected from systematic longline surveys performed across the region. Overall, presence-absence GAMs performed better than abundance models and predictions made for the observed data successfully predicted the occurrence of the eight deep-sea fish species. Depth was the most influential predictor of all fish species occurrence and abundance distributions, whereas other factors were found to be significant for some species but did not show such a clear influence. Our results predicted that despite the extensive Azores EEZ, the habitats available for the studied deep-sea fish species are highly limited and patchy, restricted to seamounts slopes and summits, offshore banks and island slopes. Despite some identified limitations, our GAMs provide an improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of these commercially important fish species in the region.

  4. 78 FR 65974 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Management Councils, the 18 states in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, both the U.S. Virgin Islands and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC935 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  5. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and each of the constituent interstate commissions: the Atlantic States... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  6. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.The three-dimensional, groundwater flow model developed for this investigation used the numerical code MODFLOW–NWT to represent changes in groundwater pumping and aquifer recharge from predevelopment (before 1900) to future conditions, from 1900 to 2058. The model was constructed using existing hydrogeologic and geospatial information to represent the aquifer system geometry, boundaries, and hydraulic properties of the 19 separate regional aquifers and confining units within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system and was calibrated using an inverse modeling parameter-estimation (PEST) technique.The parameter estimation process was achieved through history matching, using observations of heads and flows for both steady-state and transient conditions. A total of 8,868 annual water-level observations from 644 wells from 1986 to 2008 were combined into 29 water-level observation groups that were chosen to focus the history matching on specific hydrogeologic units in geographic areas in which distinct geologic and hydrologic conditions were observed. In addition to absolute water-level elevations, the water-level differences between individual measurements were also included in the parameter estimation process to remove the systematic bias caused by missing hydrologic stresses prior to 1986. The total average residual of –1.7 feet was normally distributed for all head groups, indicating minimal bias. The average absolute residual value

  7. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  8. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and paleomagnetism of São Miguel lavas, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L.; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Constable, Catherine G.; Gee, Jeff; Staudigel, Hubert; Tauxe, Lisa; Forjaz, Victor-H.; Salgueiro, Mário

    1998-08-01

    We present new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for São Miguel island, Azores. Paleomagnetic samples were obtained for 34 flows and one dike; successful mean paleomagnetic directions were obtained for 28 of these 35 sites. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations on 12 flows from the Nordeste complex were attempted successfully: ages obtained are between 0.78 Ma and 0.88 Ma, in contrast to published K-Ar ages of 1 Ma to 4 Ma. Our radiometric ages are consistent with the reverse polarity paleomagnetic field directions, and indicate that the entire exposed part of the Nordeste complex is of a late Matuyama age. The duration of volcanism across São Miguel is significantly less than previously believed, which has important implications for regional melt generation processes, and temporal sampling of the geomagnetic field. Observed stable isotope and trace element trends across the island can be explained, at least in part, by communication between different magma source regions at depth. The 40Ar/ 39Ar ages indicate that our normal polarity paleomagnetic data sample at least 0.1 Myr (0-0.1 Ma) and up to 0.78 Myr (0-0.78 Ma) of paleosecular variation and our reverse polarity data sample approximately 0.1 Myr (0.78-0.88 Ma) of paleosecular variation. Our results demonstrate that precise radiometric dating of numerous flows sampled is essential to accurate inferences of long-term geomagnetic field behavior. Negative inclination anomalies are observed for both the normal and reverse polarity time-averaged field. Within the data uncertainties, normal and reverse polarity field directions are antipodal, but the reverse polarity field shows a significant deviation from a geocentric axial dipole direction.

  9. The tectonic evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift/São Miguel region (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, B. J.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern Azores Archipelago with São Miguel being the dominant subaerial structure is located at the intersection of an oceanic rift (Terceira Rift) with a major transform fault (Gloria Fault) representing the westernmost part of the Nubian-Eurasian plate boundary. The evolution of islands, bathymetric highs and basin margins involves strong volcanism, but the controlling geodynamic and tectonic processes are currently under debate. In order to study this evolution, multibeam bathymetry and marine seismic reflection data were collected to image faults and stratigraphy. The basins of the southeastern Terceira Rift are rift valleys whose southwestern and northeastern margins are defined by few major normal faults and several minor normal faults, respectively. Since São Miguel in between the rift valleys shows an unusual W-E orientation, it is supposed to be located on a leaky transform. South of the island and separated by a N120° trending graben system, the Monacco Bank represents a N160° oriented flat topped volcanic ridge dominated by tilted fault blocks. Up to six seismic units are interpreted for each basin. Although volcanic ridges hamper a direct linking of depositional strata between the rift and adjacent basins, the individual seismic stratigraphic units have distinct characteristics. Using these units to provide a consistent relative chrono-stratigraphic scheme for the entire study area, we suggest that the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift occurred in two stages. Considering age constrains from previous studies, we conclude that N140° structures developed orthogonal to the SW-NE direction of plate-tectonic extension before ~ 10 Ma. The N160° trending volcanic ridges and faults developed later as the plate tectonic spreading direction changed to WSW-ENE. Hence, the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift domain is predominantly controlled by plate kinematics and lithospheric stress forming a kind of a re-organized rift system.

  10. The peculiar geochemical signatures of São Miguel (Azores) lavas: Metasomatised or recycled mantle sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Haase, Karsten M.

    2007-07-01

    The island of São Miguel, Azores consists of four large volcanic systems that exhibit a large systematic intra-island Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope and trace element variability. The westernmost Sete Cidades volcano has moderately enriched Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios. In contrast, lavas from the easternmost Nordeste volcano have unusually high Sr and Pb and low Nd and Hf isotope ratios suggesting a long-term evolution with high Rb/Sr, U/Pb, Th/Pb, Th/U and low Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf parent-daughter ratios. They have trace element concentrations similar to those of the HIMU islands, with the exception of notably higher alkali element (Cs, Rb, K, Ba) and Th concentrations. The time-integrated parent-daughter element evolution of both the Sete Cidades and Nordeste source matches the incompatibility sequence commonly observed during mantle melting and consequently suggests that the mantle source enrichment is caused by a basaltic melt, either as a metasomatic agent or as recycled oceanic crust. Our calculations show that a metasomatic model involving a small degree basaltic melt is able to explain the isotopic enrichment but, invariably, produces far too enriched trace element signatures. We therefore favour a simple recycling model. The trace element and isotopic signatures of the Sete Cidades lavas are consistent with the presence of ancient recycled oceanic crust that has experienced some Pb loss during sub-arc alteration. The coherent correlation of the parent-daughter ratios (e.g. Rb/Sr, Th/U, U/Pb) and incompatible element ratios (e.g. Nb/Zr, Ba/Rb, La/Nb) with the isotope ratios in lavas from the entire island suggest that the Sete Cidades and Nordeste source share a similar genetic origin. The more enriched trace element and isotopic variations of Nordeste can be reproduced by recycled oceanic crust in the Nordeste source that contains small amounts of evolved lavas (˜ 1-2%), possibly from a subducted seamount. The rare occurrence of enriched source signatures comparable to

  11. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José A.; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P.

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  12. Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Alpert, Peter A.; Zhang, Bo; Schum, Simeon; Dzepina, Katja; Wright, Kendra; Owen, R. Chris; Fialho, Paulo; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-03-01

    Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. This study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate how long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.

  13. Human vulnerability in volcanic environments: the case of Furnas, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Christopher; Chester, David K.

    1999-09-01

    The need to examine the vulnerability of people to natural hazards, in addition to the long-established requirement to study extreme events of nature, is being increasingly recognised within disaster research. Following a discussion of the nature of human vulnerability, we propose a framework for its analysis within the context of volcanic activity and we exemplify our approach by a detailed study of Furnas, a village located at the centre of a volcano with the same name on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. The methods used included in-depth interviews with permanent residents ( n=50), analysis of census records and an examination of the socio-economic history of the town. The vulnerability of an individual to volcanic hazards involves a complex interaction of elements which, in addition to the usual factors taken into account in programmes of hazard reduction (e.g., the nature of the physical threat, location and economic situation), also comprises his or her social context and a number of physiological and psychological considerations. It is argued, further, that both generally and in the case of Furnas, the root causes of vulnerability lie in the history and development of society. Individual decision making is fundamental but takes place within and cannot be separated from this social context. Vulnerability analysis allows the identification of points where intervention may be successful in reducing the likelihood of suffering in a society. It avoids the problem of people's unexpected reactions to invention leading to a changing or even increasing level of vulnerability, by studying society rather than just one aspect of volcanic hazard in isolation.

  14. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Hermida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the following parasites were selected as biological tags for the identification of blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo stocks in the northeast Atlantic: Diphterostomum vividum (Digenea: Zoogonidae, Anisakis simplex s.l., A. physeteris, Anisakis sp. PB-2010 (Nematoda: Anisakidae, and Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae. These parasite species point to the existence of three blackspot seabream stocks in the northeast Atlantic: one in the Azores region (ICES Area X, one in continental Portuguese shelf/slope waters (ICES Area IXa, and one in the waters around Madeira (sub-area 1.2 of FAO 34, central-eastern Atlantic.

  15. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  16. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) outbreak in Azores: Disclosure of common genetic markers and phylogenetic segregation within the European strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida; Carvalho, Carina; Bernardo, Susana; Barros, Sílvia Vanessa; Benevides, Sandra; Flor, Lídia; Monteiro, Madalena; Marques, Isabel; Henriques, Margarida; Barros, Sílvia C; Fagulha, Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is widespread in several countries of Western Europe, but it has not been introduced to other continents. However, between late 2014 and early 2015, the presence of RHDV2 was confirmed outside of the European continent, in the Azores, initially in the islands of Graciosa, Flores, S. Jorge and Terceira. In this study we report the subsequent detection of RHDV2 in wild rabbits from the islands of Faial, St. Maria and S. Miguel, and display the necropsy and microscopic examination data obtained, which showed lesions similar to those induced by classical strains of RHDV, with severe affection of lungs and liver. We also disclose the result of a genetic investigation carried out with RHDV2 positive samples from wild rabbits found dead in the seven islands. Partial vp60 sequences were amplified from 27 tissue samples. Nucleotide analysis showed that the Azorean strains are closely related to each other, sharing a high genetic identity (>99.15%). None of the obtained sequences were identical to any RHDV2 sequence publically known, hampering a clue for the source of the outbreaks. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses disclosed that Azorean strains are more closely related to a few strains from Southern Portugal than with any others presently known. In the analysed region comprising the terminal 942 nucleotides of the vp60 gene, four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified. Based on the present data, these four SNPs, which are unique in the strains from Azores, may constitute putative molecular geographic markers for Azorean RHDV2 strains, if they persist in the future. One of these variations is a non-synonymous substitution that involves the replacement of one amino acid in a hypervariable region of the capsid protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.

  18. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Troll

    2012-03-01

    beneath the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores. The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.

  19. Islands in the Stream 2001 on NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico between 20010510 and 20011004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Islands in the Stream expedition explored protected and unprotected deep water coral reefs and hard-bottom communities throughout the Gulf of Mexico and South...

  20. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 3: Data set for Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. [air pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, A.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Data tables and maps are presented which include background information and experimental data on the Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. The experiment was to investigate air pollution effects.

  1. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  2. Diffuse CO2 fluxes from Santiago and Congro volcanic lakes (São Miguel, Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, César; Cruz, José; Viveiros, Fátima; Branco, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse CO2 degassing occurring in Santiago and Congro lakes, both located in depressions associated to maars from São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), was studied through detailed flux measurements. Four sampling campaigns were developed between 2013 and 2016 in each water body, split by the cold and wet seasons. São Miguel has an area of 744.6 km2, being the largest island of the archipelago. The geology of the island is dominated by three quiescent central volcanoes (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas), linked by volcanic fissural zones (Picos and Congro Fissural Volcanic systems). The oldest volcanic systems of the island are located in its eastern part (Povoação-Nordeste). Santiago lake, with a surface area of 0.26 km2 and a depth of 30.5 m, is located inside a maar crater in the Sete Cidades volcano at an altitude of 355 m. The watershed of the lake has an area of 0.97 km2 and a surface flow estimated as 1.54x10 m3/a. A total of 1612 CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method were made at Santiago lake, 253 in the first campaign (November 2013), and 462, 475 and 422 in the three other campaigns, respectively, in April 2014, September 2016 and December 2016. The total CO2 flux estimated for this lake varies between 0.4 t d-1 and 0.59 t d-1, for the surveys performed, respectively, in November 2013 and September 2016; higher CO2 outputs of 1.57 and 5.87 t d-1 were calculated for the surveys carried out in April 2014 and December 2016. These higher CO2 emissions were associated with a period without water column stratification. Similarly to Santiago lake, Congro lake is located inside a maar, in the Congro Fissural Volcanic system, and has a surface area of 0.04 km2 with 18.5 m depth and a storage of about 2.4x105 m3/a. The lake, located at an altitude of 420 m, is fed by a watershed with an area of 0.33 km2 and a runoff estimated as about 8x104 m3/a. In Congro lake a total of 713 CO2 flux measurements were performed during four surveys from

  3. Nioella nitratireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from Azorean Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Yoon, J; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A novel Gram-negative, non-spore forming, rod-shaped aerobic bacterium, designated SSW136T, was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected at Espalamaca (in Faial Island), Azores. Growth was found to occur from 10 to 37 °C, pH 6...

  4. 77 FR 50470 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., West Atlantic sailfish, or North Atlantic swordfish in states (and the United States Virgin Islands and... Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational Landings Reports AGENCY: National... provides important data used to monitor catches of Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) and supplements...

  5. The early colonial atlantic world: New insights on the African Diaspora from isotopic and ancient DNA analyses of a multiethnic 15th-17th century burial population from the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jonathan; Fregel, Rosa; Lightfoot, Emma; Morales, Jacob; Alamón, Martha; Guillén, José; Moreno, Marco; Rodríguez, Amelia

    2016-02-01

    The Canary Islands are considered one of the first places where Atlantic slave plantations with labourers of African origin were established, during the 15th century AD. In Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), a unique cemetery dated to the 15th and 17th centuries was discovered adjacent to an ancient sugar plantation with funerary practices that could be related to enslaved people. In this article, we investigate the origin and possible birthplace of each individual buried in this cemetery, as well as the identity and social status of these people. The sample consists of 14 individuals radiocarbon dated to the 15th and 17th centuries AD. We have employed several methods, including the analysis of ancient human DNA, stable isotopes, and skeletal markers of physical activity. 1) the funerary practices indicate a set of rituals not previously recorded in the Canary Islands; 2) genetic data show that some people buried in the cemetery could have North-African and sub-Saharan African lineages; 3) isotopic results suggest that some individuals were born outside Gran Canaria; and 4) markers of physical activity show a pattern of labour involving high levels of effort. This set of evidence, along with information from historical sources, suggests that Finca Clavijo was a cemetery for a multiethnic marginalized population that had being likely enslaved. Results also indicate that this population kept practicing non-Christian rituals well into the 17th century. We propose that this was possible because the location of the Canaries, far from mainland Spain and the control of the Spanish Crown, allowed the emergence of a new society with multicultural origins that was more tolerant to foreign rituals and syncretism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Food-web complexity across hydrothermal vents on the Azores triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Marie; Brandily, Christophe; Cathalot, Cécile; Colaço, Ana; Gélinas, Yves; Husson, Bérengère; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2018-01-01

    The assessment and comparison of food webs across various hydrothermal vent sites can enhance our understanding of ecological processes involved in the structure and function of biodiversity. The Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow vent fields are located on the Azores triple junction of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These fields have distinct depths (from 850 to 2320 m) and geological contexts (basaltic and ultramafic), but share similar faunal assemblages defined by the presence of foundation species that include Bathymodiolus azoricus, alvinocarid shrimp and gastropods. We compared the food webs of 13 faunal assemblages at these three sites using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (SIA). Results showed that photosynthesis-derived organic matter is a negligible basal source for vent food webs, at all depths. The contribution of methanotrophy versus autotrophy based on Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) or reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles varied between and within vent fields according to the concentrations of reduced compounds (e.g. CH4, H2S). Species that were common to vent fields showed high trophic flexibility, suggesting weak trophic links to the metabolism of chemosynthetic primary producers. At the community level, a comparison of SIA-derived metrics between mussel assemblages from two vent fields (Menez Gwen & Lucky Strike) showed that the functional structure of food webs was highly similar in terms of basal niche diversification, functional specialization and redundancy. Coupling SIA to functional trait approaches included more variability within the analyses, but the functional structures were still highly comparable. These results suggest that despite variable environmental conditions (physico-chemical factors and basal sources) and faunal community structure, functional complexity remained relatively constant among mussel assemblages. This functional similarity may be favoured by the propensity of species to adapt to fluid variations and

  7. Simulation of electricity supply of an Atlantic island by offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters associated with a medium scale local energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babarit, A.; Clement, A.H.; Duclos, G.; Ben Ahmed, H.; Debusschere, V.; Multon, B.; Robin, G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of sizing an electricity storage for a 5000 inhabitants island supplied by both marine renewables (offshore wind and waves) and the mainland grid is addressed by a case study based on a full year resource and consumption data. Generators, transmission lines and battery storage are accounted for through basic simplified models while the focus is put on electricity import/export budget. Self-sufficiency does not seem a reasonable goal to pursue, but partial autonomy provided by renewable sources and a medium size storage would probably be profitable to the island community. (author)

  8. Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faria

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid geochemistry monitoring in the Azores involves the regular sampling and analysis of gas discharges from fumaroles and measurements of CO2 diffuse soil gas emissions. Main degassing areas under monitoring are associated with hydrothermal systems of active central volcanoes in S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa islands. Fumarole discharge analysis since 1991 show that apart from steam these gas emissions are CO2 dominated with H2S, H2, CH4 and N2 in minor amounts. Mapping of CO2 diffuse soil emissions in S. Miguel Island lead to the conclusion that some inhabited areas are located within hazard-zones. At Furnas village, inside Furnas volcano caldera, about 62% of the 896 houses are within the CO2 anomaly, 5% being in areas of moderate to high risk. At Ribeira Seca, on the north flank of Fogo volcano, few family houses were evacuated when CO2 concentrations in the air reached 8 mol%. To assess and analyse the CO2 soil flux emissions, continuous monitoring stations were installed in S. Miguel (2, Terceira and Graciosa islands. The statistical analysis of the data showed that some meteorological parameters influence the CO2 flux. The average of CO2 flux in S. Miguel stations ranges from 250 g/m2/d at Furnas volcano to 530 g/m2/d at Fogo volcano. At Terceira Island it is about 330 g/m2/d and at Graciosa 4400 g/m2/d.

  9. Pollination, biogeography and phylogeny of oceanic island bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Alarcón, M.; Ehlers, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    . These examples of vertebrate pollination evolved independently on each island or archipelago. We discuss if these pollination systems have an island or mainland origin and when they may have evolved, and finally, we attempt to reconstruct the pollinator-interaction history of each species.......We studied the pollination biology of nine island Campanulaceae species: Azorina vidalii, Musschia aurea, M. wollastonii, Canarina canariensis, Campanula jacobaea, Nesocodon mauritianus, and three species of Heterochaenia. In addition, we compared C. canariensis to its two African mainland...... relatives C. eminii and C. abyssinica. We asked to what extent related species converge in their floral biology and pollination in related habitats, i.e. oceanic islands. Study islands were the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Réunion. Information about phylogenetic relationships...

  10. Chemistry and dynamics of the lower troposphere over North America and the North Atlantic Ocean in fall 1997 observed using an airborne UV DIAL system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Kooi, Susan A.; Browell, Edward V.; Fuelberg, Henry

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system participated in the Subsonic Assessment, Ozone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX) mission from October 13 to November 12, 1997. The purpose of the mission was to study the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere in and near the North Atlantic flight corridor to better understand this region of the atmosphere and how civilian air travel in the corridor might be affecting the atmospheric chemistry. Bases of operations included NASA Ames, California (37.4 deg N, 122.1 deg W); Bangor, Maine (44.8 deg N, 68.8 deg W); Shannon, Ireland (52.7 deg N, 8.9 deg W); and Lajes, Terceira Island, Azores (38.8 deg N, 27.1 deg W). Since the UV DIAL system observes in the nadir as well as the zenith, aerosol and ozone data were obtained from near the Earth's surface to the lower stratosphere. A number of interesting features were noted relating to both chemistry and dynamics of the troposphere, which are reported here.

  11. Responses to, and the short and long-term impacts of, the 1957/1958 Capelinhos volcanic eruption and associated earthquake activity on Faial, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Rui; Chester, David K.; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Duncan, Angus M.

    2010-10-01

    The 1957/58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial Island in the Azores is well known for being an excellent example of Surtseyan hydromagmatic volcanic activity. Less well known are the responses of the Portuguese authorities to the eruption and subsequent earthquake in May 1958, and the ways in which well-thought-out and generally effective recovery programmes were put in place. At the time Portugal was ruled by a dictatorship, the Estado Novo (New State). Only superficially similar to other fascist governments in Southern Europe, the Estado Novo collected huge amounts of data on the responses of the authorities to the disaster and their programmes of recovery, but never encouraged academic evaluation of policy, although it ensured that the scientific aspects of the eruption and earthquake were meticulously recorded and published. In this paper we remedy this situation by discussing the details of the immediate response to the emergency and the ways in which the island recovered in its aftermath. The study is based not only on archival sources and demographic and economic data, but also on detailed interviews with survivors some of whom were also decision makers. We argue that response, recovery and rehabilitation were generally highly successful and assess the lessons of the 1957/58 emergency which are relevant to future geophysical disasters in Faial and the wider Azores. Since the 1974 revolution Portugal has been a democratic state. We conclude that both the legislation and the civil defence infrastructure, necessary to achieve a similarly strong and successful response, are in place today.

  12. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Kumar, Sumit [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wright, Kendra [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Kramer, Louisa [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Mazzoleni, Lynn [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Owen, Robert [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Helmig, Detlev [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-12-09

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron

  13. Rapid ecological shift following piscivorous fish introduction to increasingly eutrophic and warmer Lake Furnas (Azores Archipelago, Portugal): A paleoecological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchaca, Teresa; Skov, Tue; Amsinck, Susanne Lildal

    2011-01-01

    Lake ecosystems are nowadays often subjected to multi-stressors, such as eutrophication, climate change, and fish manipulations, the effects of which can be difficult to disentangle, not least from the usual short-term limnological time-series that are available. However, multi-proxy paleoecologi......Lake ecosystems are nowadays often subjected to multi-stressors, such as eutrophication, climate change, and fish manipulations, the effects of which can be difficult to disentangle, not least from the usual short-term limnological time-series that are available. However, multi......, meteorological forcing, and fish species introduction for recent lake ecosystem development in Lake Furnas on the island of Sa˜o Miguel, the Azores. The lake was stocked with cyprinids in the late nineteenth century and recently also with piscivorous fish, and has been affected by increasing agricultural......, and cryptophytes. The composition of microbial and algal assemblages changed rapidly after Daphnia appearance, and the covariance between fish stocking, nutrient loading, and enhanced temperatures captured most of the variability in algae accumulation, and thus likely in lake primary production as well. Thus, lake...

  14. Full genome sequences are key to disclose RHDV2 emergence in the Macaronesian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana M; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Leitão, Manuel; Foronda, Pilar; Mendes, Marco; Gonçalves, David; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J

    2018-02-01

    A recent publication by Carvalho et al. in "Virus Genes" (June 2017) reported the presence of the new variant of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) in the two larger islands of the archipelago of Madeira. Based on the capsid protein sequence, the authors suggested that the high sequence identity, along with the short time spanning between outbreaks, points to dissemination from Porto Santo to Madeira. By including information of the full RHDV2 genome of strains from Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, we confirm the results obtained by Carvalho et al., but further show that several subtypes of RHDV2 circulate in these islands: non-recombinant RHDV2 in the Canary Islands, G1/RHDV2 in Azores, Porto Santo and Madeira, and NP/RHDV2 also in Madeira. Here we conclude that RHDV2 has been independently introduced in these archipelagos, and that in Madeira at least two independent introductions must have occurred. We provide additional information on the dynamics of RHDV2 in the Macaronesian archipelagos of Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands and highlight the importance of analyzing RHDV2 complete genome.

  15. Vitellibacter nionensis sp. nov., isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Yoon, J; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped yellow pigmented bacterium, designated VBW088T was isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain VBW088...

  16. El diario íntimo, Azorín y la nueva novela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relationship between the diary, as a literary genre, and the beginning of the new roman in José Martínez Ruiz, «Azorín», in a similar way than other Spanish writers of the '98 generation, as Baroja or Unamuno. Some characteristics of his style (the intimacy, the use of the first persone, the present tense, the simplificity, the fragmentary sintax, etc. comes from this genre. This article also studies Azorín's works between 1897 to 1904 in order to show the presence of the autobiographic subject in all of his youthful production.Este artículo contempla la relación entre el diario, como género literario, y el comienzo de la nueva novela en José Martínez Ruiz, «Azorín» de una manera semejante al de otros escritores españoles de la generación del '98, como Baroja o Unamuno. Algunas características de su estilo (la intimidad, el uso de la primera persona, el presente perfecto, la sencillez, la sintaxis fragmentaria, etc. proceden de este estilo. Este artículo, por tanto, estudia las obras de Azorín entre 1897 y 1904, con la intención de ver la presencia del tema autobiográfico en toda su producción de juventud.

  17. Hydrological and dynamical characterization of Meddies in the Azores region: A paradigm for baroclinic vortex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychensky, A.; Carton, X.

    1998-10-01

    The Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) oceanographic experiment surveyed a 500 × 500 km2 domain south of the Azores from June to November 1993 and collected hydrological data, float trajectories, and current meter recordings. This data exhibited three intrathermocline eddies of Mediterranean water (Meddies), two of them being repeatedly sampled. Their hydrological and dynamical properties are quantified here by an isopycnic analysis. For the three Meddies, intense temperature and salinity anomalies (up to 4°C and 1.1 practical salinity units (psu)) are observed extending vertically over up to 1000 m and centered around 1000 m. Horizontally, these anomalies spread out to radii of 50-60 km, while the maximum azimuthal velocities (30 cm s-1, as computed by geostrophy) lie only at 35-40 km from the central axis. These Meddies followed curved trajectories, with drift velocities up to 7.5 cm s-1, under the influence of the neighboring mesoscale features (cyclonic vortices or Azores Current meanders). The three-dimensional structure of potential vorticity in and around these features evidences their complex interactions. Northwest of the domain, a Meddy was coupled to a subsurface anticyclone, forming an "aligned" vortex. It later interacted with the Azores Current, creating a large-amplitude northward meander by vertical alignment of vorticity. In the southeastern part of the domain, another Meddy was vertically aligned with an anticyclonic meander of the Azores Current and horizontally coupled with a cyclone of large vertical extent. These two features, as well as a small warm and salty fragment in their vicinity, seem to result from the southward crossing of the Meddy under the Azores Current. These observations illustrate previous theoretical studies of baroclinic vortex dynamics.

  18. Bacterial diversity and their adaptations in the shallow water hydrothermal vent at D. Joao de Castro Seamount (DJCS), Azores, Portugal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Ravindran, C.; Colaco, A.; Santos, R.S.; Meena, R.M.

    Bacterial diversity investigations were made from the shallow vent of D joao de castro, Azores, Portugal and their adaptations to a nutrient rich environment was investigated from 2004 and 2005 cruise samples. Assesment of the qualitative...

  19. A rentabilidade da beterraba sacarina vs a agro-pecuária nos Açores The profitability of the saccharine beetroot vs dairy farming in the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos Açores a produção de beterraba sacarina com fim industrial é exclusiva da ilha de S. Miguel onde, ao longo do último século, tem ocupado áreas com altitude até 300 metros e declives inferiores a 7%. A área variou entre 3000 hectares na década de sessenta e 200 hectares actualmente. A produtividade é variável situando-se entre as 20 e as 90 toneladas por hectare. Nos Açores a SINAGA é responsável pela transformação e distribuição dos produtos da beterraba. Com base num modelo de programação linear que estima o comportamento dos agricultores dos Açores foi possível concluir que o preço da beterraba influencia a quantidade de beterraba produzida, enquanto o preço do leite tem uma influência reduzida; que o maior efeito no aumento de produção é conseguido com o aumento de área mobilizável para a cultura o que só é possível com a redefinição do apoio técnico ao maneio da cultura.In the Azores the production of sugar beet for industrial uses is exclusive of the island of S. Miguel where along the last century it has occupied areas up to 300 meters and slopes inferior to 7 %. The used area varied between 3000 hectares in the sixties and 200 hectares at present. The productivity is variable being situated between 20 and 90 tons per hectare. In the Azores the SINAGA is responsible for the transformation and distribution of the products of the sugar beet. Using a linear programming model to explain the behaviour of farmers in the Azores it was possible to conclude that the price of sugar beet influences the quantity produced of beetroot while the price of the milk has a reduced influence; and that the biggest effect in the increase of production is got by the increase of cultivable area and with technical support.

  20. 36 CFR 7.20 - Fire Island National Seashore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Superintendent or by the posting of signs where appropriate: (i) Along the Atlantic Ocean on the... be operated on the waters of the Great South Bay and the Atlantic Ocean within the boundaries of Fire... the Great South Bay and the Atlantic Ocean within the boundaries of Fire Island National Seashore are...

  1. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  2. Relative sea-level changes and glacio-isostatic adjustment on the Magdalen Islands archipelago (Atlantic Canada) from MIS 5 to the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémillard, Audrey M.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bernatchez, Pascal; Hétu, Bernard; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.; Lajeunesse, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    The Magdalen Islands (Québec, Canada) in the centre of the Gulf of St. Lawrence are located in a strategic position for providing an overview of the relative sea-level (RSL) history of the Maritime Provinces of eastern Canada. Although data are available for the coastal terrestrial areas of the Maritimes, data from the Gulf are very scarce and both the RSL and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models extrapolate for this central region. This study provides new stratigraphic and chronological data from four outcrops and two coring sites on the Magdalen Islands. In addition to the five samples used mainly for age control purposes, nine new luminescence ages are presented. With these new data added to the available literature, a new RSL curve is reconstructed for the LGM to the late Holocene period and a partial curve is proposed for the interval between the late MIS 4 to the MIS 3. Data also indicate a few insights for the MIS 5 period. Results reveal that for the LGM to the late Holocene, the curve corresponds to the J-shaped curve scenario recognized in the literature. The RSL changes during this period are the result of glacio-isostatic rebound, migration and collapse of the peripheral forebulge, and eustatic sea-level changes. For the LGM to the early Holocene, glacio-isostatic depression curves displaying a few local differences are also proposed. For the late Holocene, the data constrain the curve between two types of indicators, i.e. marine and terrestrial, and indicate that the RSL has risen at least 3 m during the last two millennia. Sediments dated to the MIS 5 and the interval between the late MIS 4 and the MIS 3 illustrate that the GIA following the LGM also occurred for the MIS 5 interglacial and the MIS 3 interstadial. Finally, recent GIA models are discussed in light of the results of this paper.

  3. The influence of boreal biomass burning emissions on the distribution of tropospheric ozone over North America and the North Atlantic during 2010

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parrington; P. I. Palmer; D. K. Henze; D. W. Tarasick; E. J. Hyer; R. C. Owen; D. Helmig; C. Clerbaux; K. W. Bowman; M. N. Deeter; E. M. Barratt; P.-F. Coheur; D. Hurtmans; M. George; J. R. Worden

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the tropospheric ozone distribution over North America and the North Atlantic to boreal biomass burning emissions during the summer of 2010 using the GEOS-Chem 3-D global tropospheric chemical transport model, and observations from in situ and satellite instruments. In comparison to observations from the PICO-NARE observatory in the Azores, ozonesondes across Canada, and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI) satellite instr...

  4. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-04-10

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  5. An Anatomy of the 1960s Atlantic Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan

    2014-05-01

    North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North Atlantic SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North Atlantic display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North Atlantic warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and Atlantic Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s Atlantic cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s Atlantic cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling period in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the Atlantic Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical Atlantic. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North Atlantic. This period also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North Atlantic during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes

  6. El naturalismo sevillano en las Azores: una pintura de Vasco Pereira Lusitano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrão, Vitor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the study of an important panel painted in Seville in 1604 by Vasco Pereira Lusitano for the Jesuit College of Ponta Delgada (Azores. The style of this work falls within early Sevillian Naturalism, and the author considers its possible influence on local azorean artists.

    Estudio de un importante panel ejecutado en Sevilla, en 1604, por Vasco Pereira Lusitano, con destino al Colegio de los jesuitas de Ponta Delgada (Azores y caracterización estilística de la obra en el contexto del naturalismo naciente, con consideraciones sobre la posible influencia ejercida por la llegada del retablo en los medios artísticos locales.

  7. Ecological basis for the control of Gunnera tinctoria in São Miguel Island

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís; Tavares, João; Pena, Armando

    1996-01-01

    Proceedings Second International Weed Control Congress Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996. Gunnera tinctoria, an herbaceous plant from South America, is naturalised in São Miguel island (Azores). In this research an ecologically based strategy for G. tinctoria control is suggested. Infestation structure, altitudinal range, associated plants, phenology and natural enemies were studied. G. tinctoria was found from 100 to 900 m of altitude, in plane or highly sloped terrain, on rich soil or...

  8. Topossequência de solos na ilha da trindade, atlântico sul Topossequence of soils on the trindade island in the brazilian south atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Paula Clemente

    2009-10-01

    Ilha da Trindade que os tornam difíceis de enquadramento no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, carecendo de adaptações em diversos níveis categóricos.The Brazilian Oceanic islands are unique environments which have received increasing attention from the scientific community due to their environmental importance. This study aimed to provide a first characterization of soils of the Trindade Island, considering mainly the chemical and physical properties in the different geoenvironments. Another objective was to contribute to a deeper undestanding of the pedogeomorphological relationships, allowing a preliminary identification of soils along a typical toposequence. A total of 10 soil profiles representing all geoenvironments were sampled. These soils were the result of lithological, topographical and vegetation influences, frequently in close association. Soil chemical, morphological and physical analyses were performed and the results indicate the ocurrence of unique features that suggest an endemic character. The pedodiversity on Trindade is primarily related to the parent material and topographical variations. Soils generally have high fertility, particularly in terms of Ca and P contents associated with bird excreta inputs. On the southern side of the island, with a cooler and wetter climate, narrow valleys and steep slopes shelter a more exuberant vegetation of giant ferns, with accumulation of fíbrous organic material even on steep slopes, forming atypical Histosols. Soils at an altitude of over 400 m are more acid and nutrient-poor, but P contents are still very high, which was attributed to bird activity. On the northern side of the island, semi-arid to tropical dry climates prevail, and soils are shallower, nutrient-rich and highly eroded, with dominance of Litholic or Regolitic Neosols. Some pedological features of Trindade soils prevent an appropriate fitting by the Brazilian Soil Classification System, calling for adaptations at various

  9. Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa tenuispora (Myxozoa), a parasite of the marine fish Aphanopus carbo (Trichiuridae), from the Atlantic coast of Madeira Island (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Costa, Graça; Azevedo, Carlos

    2007-09-01

    The first ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa tenuispora Kabata, 1960 (Myxozoa, Bivalvulida) from Madeira Island (Portugal), a parasite found in the gall bladder of the commercially important black-scabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo Lowe is presented. This parasite possesses spherical to ellipsoidal disporous trophozoites. Spores have a central crescent-shaped body averaging 11.0 microm in length, 28.5 microm in thickness and 12.1 microm in width. The valves have two long opposite lateral processes (ribbon-like structures or tails), each averaging 173 microm in length. The total thickness of the spore averages 375 microm. The spore has two sub-spherical polar capsules (approximately 5.2 x 4.1 microm), each with a polar filament with 7 to 8 coils. Some ultrastructural aspects of the sporogonic stages are described. The trophozoites develop without contact with epithelial cells. The cytoplasmic membrane has numerous evenly distributed external slender projections about 0.3 to 0.7 microm long. The sporogenesis produces two spores without pansporoblast formation. In the matrix of the capsular primordium, microtubules with an unusual organisation were observed. A binucleate sporoplasm that contains several sporoplasmosomes and dense bodies fills the spore cavity and extends to the tails without penetrating them.

  10. Reproduction and growth of the painted comber Serranus scriba (Serranidae) of the Marine Reserve of Lanzarote Island (Central-Eastern Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, V. M.; García-Díaz, M. M.; González, J. A.; Lorente, M. J.; Lozano, I. J.

    2005-08-01

    The population biology of painted comber Serranus scriba (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Canary Islands coast was studied to estimate gonad morphology, sexuality, age and growth. Analysis of gonad organization and development revealed that it is a functional simultaneous hermaphrodite. Its anatomy and growth pattern of the reproductive cells is similar to that described in other species of the genus Serranus, although the sequence of vesicles appearing varies during vitellogenesis. Spawning season occurred from January to September with a peak in June. Individuals reached 50% maturity at 17.3 cm TL and 95% at 22.7 cm TL. Length-weight relationship was described by the following parameters: a = 0.01 and b = 3.10, being allometric positive. Age was determined from annuli in whole forming an opaque zone and a translucent zone in each annulus per year. The high percentage of otoliths with translucent zone during the annual cycle indicated that this species presents continuous growth throughout the year. Age range was 2-11 years for fish measuring 15.0-29.4 cm TL. This species is slow-growing and long lived. The growth parameters obtained were L∞ = 34.18 cm TL, k = 0.13 years -1, and to = -2.50 years. Otolith length was the best predictor of fish length, while the otolith weight was the best predictor of age.

  11. Seismic and volcanic risk in the Azores: reasons to stay in endangered places

    OpenAIRE

    Arroz, Ana Margarida Moura; Palos, Ana Cristina Pires; Rego, Isabel Estrela

    2008-01-01

    SRA 2008 Annual Meeting "Risk Analysis: The Science and the Art", Boston, Massachusetts, Sunday, 7 December 2008 to Wednesday, 10 December 2008. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been regular phenomena throughout the Azores' six centuries of history. In spite of the knowledge already gathered by local historians and Earth sciences researchers, there are no scientific data on the socio-cultural dimensions of volcanic and seismic risks. A study – TOPOI METUS. Social cosmographies of d...

  12. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  13. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  14. Reproductive aspects of the caridean shrimp Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 (Decapoda: Atyidae in São Sebastião Island, southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Herrera-Correal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The caridean freshwater shrimp Atya scabra is a common resident of stream systems of tropical rainforests in America, including Brazilian drainages. This shrimp has an amphidromous life cycle, which increases its vulnerability when facing habitat fragmentation. Since information on the reproduction of this species is still limited, we present here data on egg production, egg loss, and energy investment, to achieve a better understanding of reproductive features of A. scabra. Specimens were collected between 2006 and 2007 in São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazil, in 13 locations. The fecundity of 21 ovigerous females analyzed ranged between 414 and 19,250 eggs, which were higher than previously reported. However, the larger size of females analyzed may explain the observed intraspecific difference in egg production. During embryogenesis, egg volume and water content increased by 103 and 22.6%, respectively. The initial egg volume of A. scabra in the present study (0.027 mm³ was slightly lower, but comparable to the values reported previously from the same study area. During incubation, females of A. scabra lost 15% of their initially produced eggs. The reproductive output (average RO of 3.6% is the first report for any atyid species. Its value is fairly low compared to other freshwater shrimps, and it is hypothesized that this might be related to a high energy investment in morphological adaptations, which allows the shrimp to cling on to the substrate in the fast flowing environment they inhabit. Additionally, the long life span, a well-known phenomenon in atyid shrimp, may allow the species to invest a relatively low amount of energy per brood in egg production, but over a longer time span.

  15. 77 FR 59842 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels permitted in the Atlantic tunas General category in Puerto Rico and 10 in the U.S. Virgin Islands... [Docket No. 080603729-2454-02] RIN 0648-AW83 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly... management plan (FMP) amendment addresses Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) fishery management measures...

  16. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... requirements, South Atlantic, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 12, 2013. Samuel D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant... Mexico, and South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Mexico, and South Atlantic: Caribbean coral, Caribbean reef fish, Caribbean spiny lobster, Caribbean...

  17. Fingerprinting North Atlantic water masses near Iceland using Nd-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Norbert [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, INF229, Heidelberg (Germany); Waldner, Astrid [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Montagna, Paolo [CNR - ISMAR, Bologna (Italy); Colin, Christophe [IDES, Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Wu, Qiong [State Key Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-01

    The radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio of seawater is a valuable tracer of north Atlantic circulation pathways, driven by continental runoff (freshwater and Aeolian dust), boundary exchange and advection and thus mixing patterns. A region of particular interest in the North Atlantic is the overflow across the Iceland-Scotland Ridge injecting water from the Arctic Ocean into the Iceland basin (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water). However, Iceland itself constitutes a local source for Nd due to possible leaching of young volcanic basalts adding radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd to seawater. We have conducted an intense survey of physical properties and Nd-isotope composition between Iceland and the Azores that allows to fingerprint different water masses of the North Atlantic through the {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio and that demonstrates the very local influence of volcanic material to the seawater Nd cycle. A first local transect is achieved from the open ocean to the outflow of the Vatnajoekull glacier. Runoff influences seawater Nd in close vicinity (< 40 km near the outflow). A along shelf transect provide a similar observation. From Iceland to the Azores, however, water masses of the sub-tropical and sub-polar gyre are clearly distinguishable.

  18. A new species of Nidalia Gray, 1835 from Mid-Atlantic seamounts (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nidaliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Pablo J.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2008-12-01

    A new soft coral species of the genus Nidalia, from seamounts to the south of the Azores Archipelago is described. The main features of Nidalia aurantia n. sp. are as following: colony torch-like, a capitulum light orange in colour, not laterally flattened, dome-shaped and not distinctly projecting beyond the stalk, an introvert with sparse sclerites transversally placed, and an anthocodial crown with 13 17 sclerite rows. The new species is compared with its closest congeners. This is the first time that a species of Nidalia has been located in the Mid-Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Borehole seismic studies of a volcanic succession from the Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands, northern North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowper, David

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded basalt flows overlying sedimentary sequences present a challenge to hydrocarbon exploration using reflection seismic techniques. The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well on the Faroese island of Suðuroy allowed us to study the seismic characteristics of a thick sequence of basalt flows from well logs and borehole seismic recordings. Data acquired during the deepening operation in 1996 are presented here.The re-entry well found that the seismic event at 2340 m, prognosed from the pre-drill Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP as a decrease in impedance, was not base basalt and the deepened well remainedwithin the lower series basalts. Nonetheless, compressional and shear sonic logs and a density log were recorded over the full open hole interval. These allowed a firm tie to be made with the reflectedwavefield from a new VSP. The sonic logs show a compressional to shear wavespeed ratio of 1.84 which is almost constant with depth. Sonic compressional wavespeeds are 3% higher than seismicvelocities, suggesting dispersion in the basalt flows. Azimuthal anisotropy was weakly indicated by the shear sonic log but its orientation is consistent with the directions of mapped master joints in the vicinity of the well.The VSP downgoing compressional wavelet shows good persistence, retaining a dominant period of 28 ms at 3510 m depth. Average vertical velocity is 5248 m/s, higher than previously reported.Attenuation can largely be modelled by geometrical spreading and scattering loss, consistent with other studies. Within the piled flows, the effective Q from scattering is about 35. Elastic layeredmedium modelling shows some hope that a mode-converted shear wave may be observed at moderate offsets. Like its predecessor, the 1996 VSP indicates a decrease in impedance below the final depth ofthe well. However, it is unlikely to be basement or sediment and is probably an event within the volcanic sequence.

  20. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  1. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  2. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  3. Inventário estruturado de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em floresta ombrófila de encosta na ilha da Marambaia, RJ Structured inventory of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in atlantic slope rain-forest of Marambaia Island, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel de S. Schütte

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As formigas são componentes funcionais importantes em florestas tropicais devido aos papéis ecológicos que exercem, à grande biomassa e à riqueza de espécies. Embora a Mata Atlântica seja um dos ecossistemas mais bem estudados no Brasil, ainda faltam informações sobre a diversidade de formigas nos fragmentos florestais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A riqueza e composição da assembléia de formigas em floresta ombrófila de encosta na ilha da Marambaia (RJ foi estudada através de um inventário estruturado em uma área de 0,6 ha. Armadilhas do tipo "pitfall" e coletas manuais foram empregadas na serapilheira e sobre a vegetação entre os meses de janeiro e julho de 2004. Um total de 29 gêneros e 82 espécies foi encontrado na amostragem. A abundância e a riqueza de espécies foram maiores nas amostras de março do que de julho. Já a eqüitatividade e diversidade de formigas nas amostras não foram influenciadas pela época da coleta. As amostras de formigas em galhos mortos adicionaram seis espécies à lista, acrescentando informações sobre a biologia das espécies. As amostras sobre plantas totalizaram 32 espécies de formigas, das quais 12 foram exclusivas, como as espécies de Pseudomyrmex e algumas de Crematogaster e Pachycondyla. Este estudo pretende contribuir para o desenvolvimento de prioridades conservacionistas em um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do mundo.Ants are an important functional component in tropical forest due to their ecological roles, biomass and species diversity. Although the Atlantic Forest is one of the best studied ecosystems in Brazil, there is a lack of information about ant diversity in forest fragments of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The composition and richness of the ant fauna from atlantic slope rain-forest in Marambaia island-RJ were assessed by the structured inventory in an area of 0.6 ha. Pitfalls traps and hand collecting were used for sampling ants in the litter and on vegetation from

  4. Evidence for intense hydrothermal alteration associated with flood basalt volcanism during the birth of the Azores Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, W.; Busch, A.; Genske, F. S.; Beier, C.; Krumm, S.

    2017-12-01

    A stratigraphic section comprising >1000 m of upper crust in the Princess Alice Bank (PAB) of the western Azores Plateau was sampled during RV Meteor cruise M128 in July of 2016, using the ROV MARUM Quest 4000m. Twenty-two samples were recovered between 2484 and 1439 m water depth from the southfacing footwall of the Master fault bounding a prominent NW-SE striking rift zone within the PAB. Our geochemical and petrographic results show that virtually all samples are pervasively altered. The deeper part of the section (up to 1750 m water depth) was altered under greenschist-facies conditions to assemblages that include epidote, chlorite, albite, titanite, and actinolite. These rocks show 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7036 and 0.7050. The topmost section was altered under lower metamorphic grades to chlorite/smectite-quartz-anatase. These rocks show severe losses of Ca and Sr, and gains in Mg, Li, and B, with 87Sr/86Sr ratios as high as 0.708. These geochemical signatures indicate an intensity of hydrothermal exchange between seawater and crust that is unmatched by any in situ section of upper ocean crust sampled by ocean drilling to date. Oxygen isotope data for epidote-calcite veins indicate temperatures of 250-300°C. Later quartz gives about 200°C. The implications of the intense hydrothermal alteration for crust-seawater exchange budgets can be evaluated in the light of the geological evolution of the PAB. Based on immobile element ratios of whole rocks and REE characteristics of relict clinopyroxene in the only incompletely altered sample, an E-type MORB primary composition of the basalts can be reconstructed. Our data suggest that the degrees of mantle melting were much higher than during extrusion of the <4 Ma old alkali-basalts recovered from the top of PAB (Beier et al., 2015, doi:10.1130/2015.2511(02)), and even higher than modern MORB at the adjacent mid-Atlantic Ridge. These results lead us to suggest that the deeper sections of the PAB formed during the

  5. Determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ribeiro de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the three viticultural regions of the Azores. Iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and manganese by graphite furnace atomic absorption. The concentrations of the four elements differed in soils of the three regions; there was no difference in the concentration in grapes, whereas significant differences were observed for the wines as regards the amounts of iron, manganese and zinc. The concentrations of these four elements in wine correspond with the mean values observed for other European regions.

  6. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required

  7. Changing response of the North Atlantic/European winter climate to the 11 year solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hedi; Chen, Haishan; Gray, Lesley; Zhou, Liming; Li, Xing; Wang, Ruili; Zhu, Siguang

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have presented conflicting results regarding the 11 year solar cycle (SC) influences on winter climate over the North Atlantic/European region. Analyses of only the most recent decades suggest a synchronized North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like response pattern to the SC. Analyses of long-term climate data sets dating back to the late 19th century, however, suggest a mean sea level pressure (mslp) response that lags the SC by 2-4 years in the southern node of the NAO (i.e. Azores region). To understand the conflicting nature and cause of these time dependencies in the SC surface response, the present study employs a lead/lag multi-linear regression technique with a sliding window of 44 years over the period 1751-2016. Results confirm previous analyses, in which the average response for the whole time period features a statistically significant 2-4 year lagged mslp response centered over the Azores region. Overall, the lagged nature of Azores mslp response is generally consistent in time. Stronger and statistically significant SC signals tend to appear in the periods when the SC forcing amplitudes are relatively larger. Individual month analysis indicates the consistent lagged response in December-January-February average arises primarily from early winter months (i.e. December and January), which has been associated with ocean feedback processes that involve reinforcement by anomalies from the previous winter. Additional analysis suggests that the synchronous NAO-like response in recent decades arises primarily from late winter (February), possibly reflecting a result of strong internal noise.

  8. Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Wood, Robert [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With their extensive coverage, low clouds greatly impact global climate. Presently, low clouds are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs), and the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols remains the major source of uncertainty in climate simulations. The poor representations of low clouds in GCMs are in part due to inadequate observations of their microphysical and macrophysical structures, radiative effects, and the associated aerosol distribution and budget in regions where the aerosol impact is the greatest. The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) is a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary-layer (MBL) clouds, whose albedo and precipitation are highly susceptible to perturbations in aerosol properties. Boundary-layer aerosol in the ENA region is influenced by a variety of sources, leading to strong variations in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and aerosol optical properties. Recently a permanent ENA site was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility on Graciosa Island in the Azores, providing invaluable information on MBL aerosol and low clouds. At the same time, the vertical structures and horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol, the radiative properties, precipitation efficiency, and lifecycle of MBL clouds, and the cloud response to aerosol perturbations. Much of this data can be obtained only through aircraft-based measurements. In addition, the interconnected aerosol and cloud processes are best investigated by a study involving simultaneous in situ aerosol, cloud, and thermodynamics measurements. Furthermore, in situ measurements are also necessary for validating and improving ground-based retrieval algorithms at the ENA site. This project is motivated by the need

  9. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties From CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2014-12-01

    Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) cloud properties derived for the NASA CERES Project using Terra and Aqua MODIS data are compared with observations taken at DOE ARM Mobile Facility at the Azores site from Jun. 2009 to Dec. 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1-hour interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30×30 km2 grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud-top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud-top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary-layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R2=0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud-top comparisons agree better than cloud-base comparisons because the CM Tbase and Hbase are secondary product determined from Ttop and Htop. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of microphysical properties reveal that, when averaged over a 30x30 km2 area, the CM-retrieved cloud-droplet effective radius (re) is 1.3 µm larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 µm). While the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm-2 less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm-2) due to its small optical depth (τ, 9.6 vs. 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50% when the CM averages are computed only using the MODIS pixel nearest the AMF site. Using effective radius retrieved at 2.1-µm channel to calculate LWP can reduce the difference between the CM and ARM from -13.7 to 2.1 gm-2. The 10% differences between the ARM and CM LWP and re

  10. Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov., a novel manganese oxidizing bacterium isolated from a shallow water hydrothermal vent in Espalamaca (Azores)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic and rod or narrow lemon-shaped bacterial strain, VSW210T, was isolated from surface seawater in a shallow water hydrothermal vent region in Espalamaca (Azores). Strain VSW210...

  11. Insular environmental change; climate-forced and system-driven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, H.; Rijsdijk, K.F.; de Boer, E.; de Nascimento, L.; Florens, F.B.V.; Baider, C.; Fernández-Palacios, J.M.; de Nascimento, L.; Hernández, J.C.; Clemente, S.; González, A.; Díaz-González, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation dynamics since the last glacial maximum in small oceanic islands and in continental settings are compared. We selected the islands of Minorca (Western Mediterranean), Tenerife (Eastern Atlantic), the Azores (Central Atlantic) and Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and compared pollen-based dynamics

  12. Comparison of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Properties from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF Measurements at the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility at the Azores (AMF-Azores) site from June 2009 through December 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1 h interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30 km×30 km grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar-observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R(sup 2) = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud top comparisons agree better than the cloud base comparisons, because the CM cloud base temperatures and heights are secondary products determined from cloud top temperatures and heights. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of MBL cloud microphysical properties reveal that when averaged over a 30 km× 30 km area, the CM-retrieved cloud droplet effective radius (re) at 3.7 micrometers is 1.3 micrometers larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 micrometers), while the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm( exp -2) less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm( exp-2) due to its small optical depth (9.6 versus 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50

  13. The electric vehicles as a mean to reduce CO2 emissions and energy costs in isolated regions. The São Miguel (Azores) case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, Cristina; Farias, Tiago

    2012-01-01

    Most of small islands around the world today, are dependent on imported fossil fuels for the majority of their energy needs especially for transport activities and electricity production. The use of locally renewable energy resources and the implementation of energy efficiency measures could make a significant contribution to their economic development by reducing fossil fuel imports. An electrification of vehicles has been suggested as a way to both reduce pollutant emissions and increase security of supply of the transportation sector by reducing the dependence on oil products imports and facilitate the accommodation of renewable electricity generation, such as wind and, in the case of volcanic islands like São Miguel (Azores) of the geothermal energy whose penetration has been limited by the valley electricity consumption level. In this research, three scenarios of EV penetration were studied and it was verified that, for a 15% LD fleet replacement by EVs with 90% of all energy needs occurring during the night, the accommodation of 10 MW of new geothermal capacity becomes viable. Under this scenario, reductions of 8% in electricity costs, 14% in energy, 23% in fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions for the transportation and electricity production sectors could be expected. - Highlights: ► EVs impacts on the electric system in energy and power profiles, costs and emissions. ► At least an EV penetration of 15% is needed to allow new geothermal power production. ► Reductions in energy, fossil fuels use and CO 2 emissions of 9%, 16% and 17% respectively. ► Electricity production with more % of renewable technologies reduces unit costs.

  14. Properties and pathways of Mediterranean water eddies in the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashmachnikov, I.; Neves, F.; Calheiros, T.; Carton, X.

    2015-09-01

    within 1-2 years, although may take over 3 years. Collisions with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and seamounts sensibly decrease meddy lifetimes. Meddy decay also speeds up when meddies meet the Azores Current or the North Atlantic Current. A rapid drop in the number of meddies south of the Azores Current proves that it represents a dynamic barrier for weak meddies.

  15. Three-dimensional resistivity structure of Furnas volcano (Azores archipelago, Portugal) revealed by magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyan, Duygu; Hogg, Colin; Rath, Volker; Byrdina, Svetlana; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Revil, Andre; Silva, Catarina; Viveiros, Fatima; Ferreira, Teresa; Carmo, Rita

    2017-04-01

    The Furnas volcano is the eastern-most of the three active central volcanoes of Sao Miguel Island. The main caldera formed about 30 ka BP, followed by a younger eruption at 10-12 ka BP, which is responsible for the steep topography of more than 200 m in the target area. It contains several very young eruptive centers, and a shallow caldera lake. Tectonic features of varying directions have been identified in the caldera and its vicinity (Carmo et al., 2015). In the northern part of the caldera, containing the fumarole field of Caldeiras das Furnas, a detailed map of surface CO2 emissions was recently made available (Viveiros et al., 2010). Following a pilot survey of 13 AudioMagnetoTelluric soundings (AMT) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data collected along two profiles in the eastern part of Furnas caldera in 2015, a second campaign was completed in June 2016, yielding a total of 39 separate soundings including 15 broad-band magnetotelluric (MT) soundings to image the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The data quality achieved by both techniques is very good, and initial results indicate a general correlation between regions of elevated conductivity at depth and the mapped surface CO2 emissions, suggesting that they may both be caused by the presence hydrothermal fluids. Dimensionality and directionality analysis using the WALDIM (Marti et al., 2009) approach in conjunction with Phase Tensor (Caldwell et al., 2004) indicate that the geo-electrical structure needs to be inverted in 3-D. Indicators of directionality derived from the analysis follow the general geological, fault dominated structural trend of NE-SW of Sao Miguel Island. A quantitative analysis of the potential influence of the Atlantic Ocean indicates that MT data up to 1 second period can be used in inversions with confidence without including the ocean. The 3-D inversions thus have been performed including only high-resolution topography and the Furnas lake bathymetry data

  16. South Atlantic Humanities Center Seminars -- Spring 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The South Atlantic Humanities Center (SAHC) at Virginia Tech is sponsoring several seminars this spring.•À_•À_ SAHC is a partnership of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Virginia Tech, and the University of Virginia.•À_•À_ SAHC focuses on the U.S. South Atlantic from a regional and transatlantic perspective. It explores and preserves the rich heritage of a region stretching from Virginia to the Virgin Islands.•À_•À_ It engages artists and performers, writers and filmmakers, teachers...

  17. Drift pumice in the Indian and South Atlantic oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, C.; Kent, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-three samples of drift pumice, collected at the coasts of South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Cocos Islands, Australia, Indonesia, Brazil, Marion Island and Bouvet Island, were investigated petrographically and geochemically with a view to establishing the possible source areas. Geochemically five distinct groups could be distinguished and some could be liked to specific eruptions in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Group A pumice originated from a submarine eruption off Zavodovski Island in the South Sandwich Island Group in 1962. The pumice in Group B occurs mainly on the beaches bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and was found on the west coast of South Africa, on the sea floor south-west of South Africa, and in Brazil. The source of this group is unknown, but all the evidence indicates that it must have been from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean. The Group C pumice was found in the southern Indian Ocean, probably from the Mid-Indian Ridge. The fourth group originated from a submarine eruption along the Tonga Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Group E, which is by far the most homogeneous, includes samples from Australia, the Indian Ocean islands, East and South Africa and samples of the undisputed Krakatoan origin. Specimens from the Krakatoan eruption are still the most abundant type of drift pumice that can be found

  18. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  19. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  20. Volcanic Aggregates from Azores and Madeira Archipelagos (Portugal): An Overview Regarding the Alkali Silica Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Sara; Ramos, Violeta; Fernandes, Isabel; Nunes, João Carlos; Fournier, Benoit; Santos Silva, António; Soares, Dora

    2017-12-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a type of deterioration that has been causing serious expansion, cracking and durability/operational issues in concrete structures worldwide. The presence of sufficient moisture, high alkali content in the cement paste and reactive forms of silica in the aggregates are the required conditions for this reaction to occur. Reactive aggregates of volcanic nature have been reported in different countries such as Japan, Iceland and Turkey, among others. The presence of silica minerals and SiO2-rich volcanic glass is regarded as the main cause for the reactivity of volcanic rocks. In Portugal, volcanic aggregates are mainly present in Azores and Madeira Archipelagos and, for several years, there was no information regarding the potential alkali-reactivity of these rocks. Since the beginning of this decade some data was obtained by the work of Medeiros (2011) and Ramos (2013) and by the national research projects ReAVA, (Characterization of potential reactivity of the volcanic aggregates from the Azores Archipelago: implications on the durability of concrete structures) and IMPROVE (Improvement of performance of aggregates in the inhibition of alkali-aggregate reactions in concrete), respectively. In order to investigate the potential alkali-reactivity of aggregates from both archipelagos, a total of sixteen aggregates were examined under the optical microscope and, some of them, also under the Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. A set of geochemical analyses and laboratory expansion tests were also performed on those volcanic aggregates. The main results showed that the presence of volcanic glass is rare in both archipelagos and that the samples of Madeira Archipelago contain clay minerals (mainly from scoria/tuff formations inter-layered with the lava flows), which can play a role in concrete expansion. The results of the laboratory tests showed that one of the samples performed as potentially reactive

  1. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  2. Tourist destination image and consumer behaviour: The case of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria Pascoal Melo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Destinations are currently seeking to become more distinctive in an increasingly competitive market in which image is a decisive element in tourists’ destination selection. This study sought to understand the Azores’ overall image as a tourist destination in major source markets and to ascertain these markets’ level of satisfaction and behavioural intentions concerning the archipelago. The literature review in this paper addresses the definition of tourist destination image and the issue of satisfaction, since these influence intention to return and/or intention to recommend tourist destinations. The results indicate that (1 overall image influences satisfaction and intention to recommend and/or return to tourist destinations and (2 satisfaction influences intention to recommend and/or return to tourist destinations. This study also verified that most tourists are very satisfied with the Azores, as well as having a quite positive overall image of this destination.

  3. Large structures and temporal change in the Azores Front during the SEMAPHORE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychensky, A.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Hernandez, F.; Jourdan, D.

    1998-10-01

    The Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Experimentale (SEMAPHORE) mesoscale experiment took place from July to November 1993 in the northern Canary Basin, where the circulation is dominated by the eastward flowing Azores Current (AC). A large data set was acquired from three hydrographic arrays (phases 1, 2, 3), current meter moorings, surface drifters drogued at 150 m, and 2000 m deep RAFOS floats. The analysis confirmed the large-scale observations previously made in this region but also provided new insights into fine-scale dynamics of the AC. The front was observed over the 6-month period. It was narrow (100 km) and mostly surface intensified (velocities reaching 40-50 cm s-1). Whereas at the beginning of the experiment (phase 1) the AC was mainly zonal with weak oscillations, large meridional meanders were observed from phase 2 until the end of the experiment. They seem to be related to the arrival of two Mediterranean eddies (Meddies), which interacted with the AC [Käse and Zenk, 1996; Tychensky and Carton, this issue]. The front had a deep dynamical signature (down to 2000 m), with a 16-18 sverdrup (Sv) volume transport (0-2000 m depth integrated). The southward recirculation branch of the AC near 22°-23°W [Klein and Siedler, 1989] corresponds to meridional transport of 5-6 Sv. Then, 4.5 Sv of these waters are recirculating westward (along 31°-32°N). Some interesting new oceanographic results were obtained by examining the RAFOS float trajectories over the abyssal plain. The circulation is similar to that observed at the surface, with mean velocities of about 1-3 cm s-1 and eddy kinetic energy <4 cm2 s-2. In agreement with the analysis of current meter data this reveals a significant barotropic component in the Azores-Madeira flow field of roughly 3-3.5 cm s-1.

  4. Analysis of volcano rock from Canary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Sedlackova, K.; Dekan, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the basalt rock from Lanzarote, which is the easternmost island of the Canary Islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean and has a volcanic origin. It was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. Different iron oxides created on the volcanic rocks during their weathering on the Earth surface has been also analyzed. (authors)

  5. Oceanographic Data collected during the Islands in the Stream Expedition on NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico between 2001-05-10 to 2001-10-04 (NCEI Accession 0104416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Islands in the Stream expedition explored protected and unprotected deep water coral reefs and hard-bottom communities throughout the Gulf of Mexico and South...

  6. The generic distinction of the Gough Island flightless Gallinule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1961-01-01

    The presence of five specimens of Gough Island Gallinules, Porphyriornis nesiotis comeri ALLEN, in the Zoological Gardens of Amsterdam originating from the remote Gough Island situated within the subantarctic confines of the South Atlantic Ocean, offered a favourable occasion for a study of these

  7. 75 FR 61094 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Beaufort, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    .... Highway 21, Sea Island Parkway Bridge at mile marker 536 over the Beaufort River (Atlantic Intracoastal... Bridge, which is across the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at mile 539.0 in Port Royal, South Carolina... Bridge, across the Beaufort River, Mile 536.0 at Beaufort. The draw shall operate as follows: (1) On...

  8. 77 FR 19164 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... RIN 0648-XB121 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery..., United States Virgin Islands (USVI) St. Thomas, USVI, San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), Ponce, PR, and Mayaguez... INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Fairclough or Randy Blankinship at 727-824-5399. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Atlantic...

  9. A coccolithophore based view on paleoenvironmental changes in the open ocean mid-latitude North Atlantic between 130 and 48ka BP with special emphasis on MIS 5e

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, C.; Kinkel, Hanno; Weinelt, M.

    2013-01-01

    in coccolithophore assemblages and changes in the abundance of siliceous plankton (diatoms) indicate a southward shift of the Azores Front (AzF), and hence a southward retreat of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, as well as an increased productivity, during glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4, Termination II...... and during cold substages of MIS 5. Furthermore we hypothesize that the ecological changes led to distinct evolutionary patterns of coccolithophores, resulting e.g. in a dominance of Gephyrocapsa ornata between 76 and 105ka BP. Additionally, high-resolution analysis of MIS 5e indicate a short reversal...... towards cool conditions during MIS 5e, corresponding to a basin-wide cooling event. Full interglacial conditions are reached only late in the Azores region. During MIS 5e an increased advection of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), and/or the possibility to occupy new habitats after glacial conditions...

  10. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  11. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  12. Two new species of Aporhynchus (Trypanorhyncha: Aporhynchidae) from deep water lanternsharks (Squaliformes: Etmopteridae) in the Azores, Portugal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noever, C.; Caira, J. N.; Kuchta, Roman; Desjardins, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2010), s. 1176-1184 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960902; GA ČR GAP506/10/1994; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : lanternshark * Azores * Aporhynchus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  13. The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the North Atlantic: large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida L.R. Liberato

    2014-10-01

    Results show that Gong underwent an explosive development with ‘bomb’ characteristics between the Azores and the Iberian Peninsula, with a deepening rate unusually high for these latitudes. The rapid deepening of Gong was supported by the southerly displacement of the polar jet stream; by a pronounced cyclonic potential vorticity streamer which approached Iberia from northwest; and by the presence of an atmospheric river over the western and central subtropical North Atlantic converging into Gong׳s genesis region and then crossing the Atlantic basin, moving along with the storm towards Iberia. Understanding the dynamics of these high impact extreme events may be of relevance in view of improving extreme forecasts as well as of public awareness, policy making and risk assessment and management of severe weather in Portugal.

  14. Role of the circulation on the anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the North-East Atlantic: A climatological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, L. I.; Pérez, F. F.; Gilcoto, M.; Velo, A.; Padín, A.; Rosón, G.

    2018-02-01

    Climatology-based storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant, referred to year 2000) in the North-East Atlantic (53 ± 9 kmol s-1, 0.020 ± 0.003 Pg-C yr-1) is described on annual mean terms. Cant advection (32 ± 14 kmol s-1) occurs mostly in the upper 1800 m and contributes to 60% of the Cant storage rate. The Azores and Portugal Currents act as 'Cant streams' importing 389 ± 90 kmol s-1, most of which recirculates southwards with the Canary Current (-214 ± 34 kmol s-1). The Azores Counter Current (-79 ± 36 kmol s-1) and the northward-flowing Mediterranean Water advective branch (-31 ± 12 kmol s-1) comprise secondary Cant export routes. By means of Cant transport decomposition, we find horizontal circulation to represent 11% of the Cant storage rate, while overturning circulation is the main driver (48% of the Cant storage rate). Within the domain of this study, overturning circulation is a key mechanism by which Cant in the upper layer (0-500 dbar) is drawdown (74 ± 14 kmol s-1) to intermediate levels (500-2000 dbar), and entrained (37 ± 7 kmol s-1) into the Mediterranean Outflow Water to form Mediterranean Water. This newly formed water mass partly exports Cant to the North Atlantic at a rate of -39 ± 9 kmol s-1 and partly contributes to the Cant storage in the North-East Atlantic (with up to 0.015 ± 0.006 Pg-C yr-1). Closing the Cant budget, 40% of the Cant storage in the North-East Atlantic is attributable to anthropogenic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere (21 ± 10 kmol s-1).

  15. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Simulated variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, M.; Drange, H.; Furevik, T.; Zhou, T.

    yields a NAO-like pattern with intensified Icelandic low and Azores high, and a warming of 0.25-0.5 °C of the central North Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST). The reanalysis forced simulations indicate a coupling between the Labrador Sea Water production rate and an equatorial Atlantic SST index in accordance with observations. This coupling is not identified in the coupled simulation.

  17. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  18. Marine litter on the seafloor of the Faial-Pico Passage, Azores Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Yasmina; Pham, Christopher K

    2017-03-15

    Plastic pollution in the marine environment attracts much attention from both researchers and the general public. Plastic items and other debris are commonly observed everywhere in the ocean, from the surface down to the deep ocean floor. In this study, we analysed 45.2km of video footage, collected during 56 transects surveying the seafloor of the Faial-Pico Passage in order to quantify the abundance of marine litter and its interactions with benthic fauna. The footage was collected by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a manned submersible at depths ranging between 40 and 525m. The mean litter density in the passage was 0.26±0.03 items·100m -1 (±SE) and was significantly higher between 151 and 250m compared to other depth strata. Overall, derelict fishing gear, mostly made of plastic, were the most common objects found on the seafloor, representing 64% of all items. Although we observed few evidence of direct deleterious effects by the litter, interactions with fauna were observed in more than half of the items. This study makes an important contribution in quantifying the abundance of marine litter on the seafloor of the Azores. The location of the Faial-Pico Passage, close to shore, makes it an appropriate site for long-term monitoring of litter on the seafloor and evaluate the efficiency of upcoming public policies aimed at reducing litter input into the oceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  20. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  1. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  2. Tsunami Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) is to provide advance tsunami warning and guidance to coastal communities within its Area-of-Responsibility (AOR). Predictive tsunami models, based on the shallow water wave equations, are an important part of the Center's guidance support. An Atlantic-based counterpart to the long-standing forecasting ability in the Pacific known as the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is now developed. The Atlantic forecasting method is based on ATFM version 2 which contains advanced capabilities over the original model; including better handling of the dynamic interactions between grids, inundation over dry land, new forecast model products, an optional non-hydrostatic approach, and the ability to pre-compute larger and more finely gridded regions using parallel computational techniques. The wide and nearly continuous Atlantic shelf region presents a challenge for forecast models. Our solution to this problem has been to develop a single unbroken high resolution sub-mesh (currently 30 arc-seconds), trimmed to the shelf break. This allows for edge wave propagation and for kilometer scale bathymetric feature resolution. Terminating the fine mesh at the 2000m isobath keeps the number of grid points manageable while allowing for a coarse (4 minute) mesh to adequately resolve deep water tsunami dynamics. Higher resolution sub-meshes are then included around coastal forecast points of interest. The WCATWC Atlantic AOR includes eastern U.S. and Canada, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in very close proximity to well-known tsunami sources. Because travel times are under an hour and response must be immediate, our focus is on pre-computing many tsunami source "scenarios" and compiling those results into a database accessible and calibrated with observations during an event. Seismic source evaluation determines the order of model pre

  3. A novel MERTK deletion is a common founder mutation in the Faroe Islands and is responsible for a high proportion of retinitis pigmentosa cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Duno, Morten; Batbayli, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the genetic background of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a Faroe Islands population, a genetic isolate in the North Atlantic Ocean.......The aim of the study was to elucidate the genetic background of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a Faroe Islands population, a genetic isolate in the North Atlantic Ocean....

  4. Definition of a methodology for the management of geological heritage. An application to the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eva; Nunes, João; Brilha, José; Calado, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the geological heritage requires the support of appropriate policies, which should be the result of the integration of nature conservation, environmental and land-use planning, and environmental education perspectives. There are several papers about inventory methodologies for geological heritage and its scientific, educational and tourism uses (e.g. Cendrero, 2000, Lago et al., 2000; Brilha, 2005; Carcavilla et al., 2007). However, management methodologies for geological heritage are still poorly developed. They should be included in environmental and land-use planning and nature conservation policies, in order to support a holistic approach to natural heritage. This gap is explained by the fact that geoconservation is a new geoscience still needed of more basic scientific research, like any other geoscience (Henriques et al., 2011). It is necessary to establish protocols and mechanisms for the conservation and management of geological heritage. This is a complex type of management because it needs to address not only the fragile natural features to preserve but also legal, economic, cultural, educational and recreational aspects. In addition, a management methodology should ensure the geosites conservation, the local development and the dissemination of the geological heritage (Carcavilla et al., 2007). This work is part of a PhD project aiming to contribute to fill this gap that exists in the geoconservation domain, specifically in terms of establishing an appropriate methodology for the management of geological heritage, taking into account the natural diversity of geosites and the variety of natural and anthropic threats. The proposed methodology will be applied to the geological heritage of the Azores archipelago, which management acquires particular importance and urgency after the decision of the Regional Government to create the Azores Geopark and its application to the European and Global Geoparks Networks. Acknowledgment This work is

  5. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  6. Validation of satellite-retrieved MBL cloud properties using DOE ARM AMF measurements at the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Dong, X.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2013-05-01

    Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) cloud properties derived for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) AMF AZORES site from June 2009 through December 2010. Retrievals from ARM surface-based data were averaged over a 1-hour interval centered at the time of each satellite overpass, and the CERES-MODIS Ed4 cloud properties were averaged within a 30-km x 30-km box centered on the ARM AZORES site. Two datasets were analyzed: all of the single-layered unbroken decks (SL) and those cases without temperature inversions. The CERES-MODIS cloud top/base heights were determined from cloud top/base temperature by using a lapse rate method normalized to the 24-h mean surface air temperature. The preliminary results show: for all SL MBL at daytime, they are, on average, 0.148 km (cloud top) and 0.087 km (cloud base) higher than the ARM radar-lidar observed cloud top and base, respectively. At nighttime, they are 0.446 km (cloud top) and 0.334 km (cloud base). For those cases without temperature inversions, the comparisons are close to their SL counterparts. For cloud temperatures, the MODIS-derived cloud-top and -base temperatures are 1.6 K lower and 0.4 K higher than the surface values with correlations of 0.92 during daytime. At nighttime, the differences are slightly larger and correlations are lower than daytime comparisons. Variations in the height difference are mainly caused by uncertainties in the surface air temperatures and lapse rates. Based on a total of 61 daytime and 87 nighttime samples (ALL SL cases), the temperature inversion layers occur about 72% during daytime and 83% during nighttime. The difference of surface-observed lapse rate and the satellite derived lapse rate can be 1.6 K/km for daytime and 3.3K/km for nighttime. From these lapse rates, we can further analyze the surface

  7. 77 FR 23632 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Generic Annual Catch Limits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    .... 100217097-2404-03] RIN 0648-AY22 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Generic... recordkeeping requirements, Virgin Islands. Dated: April 16, 2012. Samuel D. Rauch III, Acting Assistant... making the following correcting amendment: PART 622--FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  8. 78 FR 33897 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Management Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts-- Final Sale Notice and Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and...; MMAA104000] Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 2 (ATLW2) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

  9. The Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Tropospheric Distributions of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, K. E.; Doherty, R. M.; Hodges, K.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the tropospheric distributions of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) has been quantified. The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis, a combined meteorology and composition dataset for the period 2003-2012 (Innes et al., 2013), is used to investigate the composition of the troposphere and lower stratosphere in relation to the location of the storm track as well as other meteorological parameters over the North Atlantic associated with the different NAO phases. Cyclone tracks in the MACC Reanalysis compare well to the cyclone tracks in the widely-used ERA-Interim Reanalysis for the same 10-year period (cyclone tracking performed using the tracking algorithm of Hodges (1995, 1999)), as both are based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). A seasonal analysis is performed whereby the MACC reanalysis meteorological fields, O3 and CO mixing ratios are weighted by the monthly NAO index values. The location of the main storm track, which tilts towards high latitudes (toward the Arctic) during positive NAO phases to a more zonal location in the mid-latitudes (toward Europe) during negative NAO phases, impacts the location of both horizontal and vertical transport across the North Atlantic and into the Arctic. During positive NAO seasons, the persistence of cyclones over the North Atlantic coupled with a stronger Azores High promotes strong horizontal transport across the North Atlantic throughout the troposphere. In all seasons, significantly more intense cyclones occur at higher latitudes (north of ~50°C) during the positive phase of the NAO and in the southern mid-latitudes during the negative NAO phase. This impacts the location of stratospheric intrusions within the descending dry airstream behind the associated cold front of the extratropical cyclone and the venting of low-level pollution up into the free troposphere within

  10. Mechanical behavior and localized failure modes in a porous basalt from the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Schubnel, A.; Guéguen, Y.; Moreira, M.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2012-04-01

    Basaltic rocks are the main component of the oceanic upper crust. This is of potential interest for water and geothermal resources, or for storage of CO2. The aim of our work is to investigate experimentally the mechanical behavior and the failure modes of porous basalt as well as the permeability evolution during deformation. Cylindrical basalt samples, from the Azores, of 30 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length were deformed the triaxial cell of the Laboratoire de Geologie at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris) at room temperature and at a constant axial strain rate of 10-5 s-1. The initial porosity of the sample was 18%. The Geodesign triaxial cell can reach 300MPa confining pressure; axial load is performed through a piston and can reach 900 MPa (for a 30mm diameter sample); maximum pore pressure is 100MPa (applied using two precision volumetric pumps). In our study, a set of experiments were performed at confining pressure in the range of 25-290 MPa. The samples were deformed under saturated conditions at a constant pore pressure of 5MPa. Two volumetric pumps kept the pore pressure constant, and the pore volume variations were recorded. The evolution of the porosity was calculated from the total volume variation inside the volumetric pumps. Permeability measurements were performed using the steady-state technique. Our result shows that two modes of deformation can be highlighted in this basalt. At low confining pressure (Pc < 50 MPa), the differential stress attains a peak before the sample undergoes strain softening; the failure of sample occurs by shear localization. Yet, the brittle regime is commonly observed in this low Pc range, the experiments performed at confining pressure higher than 50 MPa, show a totally different mode of deformation. In this second mode of deformation, an appreciable inelastic porosity reduction is observed. Comparing to the hydrostatic loading, the rock sample started to compact beyond a critical stress state; and from then

  11. 76 FR 3596 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    .... 0907151138-1011-02] RIN 0648-AY03 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Queen Conch Management Measures AGENCY: National... includes Lang Bank east of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), when harvest and possession of queen...

  12. 78 FR 45894 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    .... 120510052-3615-02] RIN 0648-BC20 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Parrotfish Management Measures in St. Croix AGENCY.... Virgin Islands (FMP), as prepared by the Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council). This rule...

  13. 78 FR 56171 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    .... 130402313-3748-02] RIN 0648-BD15 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Regulatory Amendment 2 AGENCY: National Marine... Management Plan (FMP) for the Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI...

  14. 75 FR 67247 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Regulatory Amendment to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Atlantic; Regulatory Amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the U.S. Virgin Islands (FMP) prepared by the Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council). This...

  15. 78 FR 37208 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implementing the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  16. 75 FR 44209 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Regulatory Amendment to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Atlantic; Regulatory Amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (FMP) prepared by the Caribbean Fishery...

  17. 78 FR 15338 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    .... 120510052-3174-01] RIN 0648-BC20 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Parrotfish Management Measures in St. Croix AGENCY... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (FMP), as prepared by the Caribbean Fishery Management Council...

  18. 76 FR 66675 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    .... 100120037-1626-01] RIN 0648-AY55 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and Reef Fish Fishery Management Plans of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands... the Fishery Management Plan for Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands and...

  19. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Currently, data on U.S. Caribbean spiny lobster life history are limited...

  20. HYDROGEN ENERGY: TERCEIRA ISLAND DEMONSTRATION FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO ALVES

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a general perspective of the efforts going on at Terceira Island in Azores, Portugal, concerning the implementation of an Hydrogen Economy demonstration campus. The major motivation for such a geographical location choice was the abundance of renewable resources like wind, sea waves and geothermal enthalpy, which are of fundamental importance for the demonstration of renewable hydrogen economy sustainability. Three main campus will be implemented: one at Cume Hill, where the majority of renewable hydrogen production will take place using the wind as the primary energy source, a second one at Angra do Heroismo Industrial park, where a cogen electrical – heat power station will be installed, mainly to feed a Municipal Solid Waste processing plant and a third one, the Praia da Vitoria Hydrogenopolis, where several final consumer demonstrators will be installed both for public awareness and intensive study of economic sustainability and optimization. Some of these units are already under construction, particularly the renewable hydrogen generation facilities.

  1. The seasonal evolution of shelf water masses around Bouvetøya, a sub-Antarctic island in the mid-Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, determined from an instrumented southern elephant seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Lowther

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes use of a fortuitous oceanographic data set collected around the remote sub-Antarctic island of Bouvetøya by a conductivity–temperature–depth recorder (CTD integrated with a satellite-relayed data logger deployed on an adult female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina to describe the seasonal evolution of the western shelf waters. The instrumented seal remained in waters over the shelf for 259 days, collecting an average of 2.6 (±0.06 CTD profiles per day, providing hydrographic data encompassing the late austral summer and the entire winter. These data document the thermal stratification of the upper water layer due to summer surface heating of the previous year's Antarctic Surface Water, giving way to a cold subsurface layer at about 100 m as the austral winter progressed, with a concomitant increase in salinity of the upper layer. Upper Circumpolar Deep Water was detected at a depth of approximately 200 m along the western shelf of Bouvetøya throughout the year. These oceanographic data represent the only seasonal time series for this region and the second such animal–instrument oceanographic time series in the sub-Antarctic domain of the Southern Ocean.

  2. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  3. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  4. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  5. The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Stratford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(ers are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

  6. Geochemistry of Slow-Growing Corals: Reconstructing Sea Surface Temperature, Salinity and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Number 8, October 1989) The island of Bermuda (64°W, 32°N) (Fig. 1.3) located in the western sub- tropical Atlantic is an excellent location for examining...lobata at Clipperton Atoll, Coral Reefv, 18, 13-27, 1999. Lough, J. M., A strategy to improve the contribution of coral data to high-resolution...to evaluate winter Sr/Ca. The island of Bermuda (64°W, 32°N) is located in the Sargasso Sea in the sub-tropical North Atlantic. This site is

  7. Vertical Land Movements and Sea Level Changes around South Georgia Island

    OpenAIRE

    Teferle, Felix Norman; Hunegnaw, Addisu; Abraha, Kibrom Ebuy; Woodworth, Phil; Williams, Simon; Hibbert, Angela; Smalley, Robert; Dalziel, Ian; Lawver, Larry

    2018-01-01

    South Georgia Island in the Southern Atlantic Ocean is a key location for the seismic, geomagnetic and oceanic global monitoring networks. In its sub-Antarctic location, the island is largely covered by mountain glaciers which have been reported to be retreating due to climatic change. Furthermore, during past glaciation periods the island and its shelf area have been ice covered as was revealed by scarring of the sub-oceanic topography. Together with ongoing tectonics along the North Scotia ...

  8. Long-term seismicity of the Reykjanes Ridge (North Atlantic) recorded by a regional hydrophone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jean; Lourenço, Nuno; Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Haxel, Joe; Luis, Joaquim

    2005-08-01

    The seismicity of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge was recorded by two hydrophone networks moored in the sound fixing and ranging (SOFAR) channel, on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, north and south of the Azores. During its period of operation (05/2002-09/2003), the northern `SIRENA' network, deployed between latitudes 40° 20'N and 50° 30'N, recorded acoustic signals generated by 809 earthquakes on the hotspot-influenced Reykjanes Ridge. This activity was distributed between five spatio-temporal event clusters, each initiated by a moderate-to-large magnitude (4.0-5.6 M) earthquake. The rate of earthquake occurrence within the initial portion of the largest sequence (which began on 2002 October 6) is described adequately by a modified Omori law aftershock model. Although this is consistent with triggering by tectonic processes, none of the Reykjanes Ridge sequences are dominated by a single large-magnitude earthquake, and they appear to be of relatively short duration (0.35-4.5 d) when compared to previously described mid-ocean ridge aftershock sequences. The occurrence of several near-equal magnitude events distributed throughout each sequence is inconsistent with the simple relaxation of mainshock-induced stresses and may reflect the involvement of magmatic or fluid processes along this deep (>2000 m) section of the Reykjanes Ridge.

  9. Barrier island forest ecosystem: role of meteorologic nutrient inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art, H W; Bormann, F H; Voigt, G K; Woodwell, G M

    1974-04-05

    The Sunken Forest, located on Fire Island, a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, New York, is an ecosystem in which most of the basic cation input is in the form of salt spray. This meteorologic input is sufficient to compensate for the lack of certain nutrients in the highly weathered sandy soils. In other ecosystems these nutrients are generally supplied by weathering of soil particles. The compensatory effect of meteorologic input allows for primary production rates in the Sunken Forest similar to those of inland temperate forests.

  10. Lead isotopic compositions of South Sandwich Island volcanic rocks and their bearing on magmagenesis in intra-oceanic island arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, B.

    1983-01-01

    Pb isotope ratios have been measured in 12 volcanic rocks from the South Sandwich Islands. The results are reported. In 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb correlation diagrams, the South Sandwich data plot distinctly above the fields for ocean ridge basalts, and yield trends showing apparent mixing with a sedimentary end member similar to South Atlantic pelagic sediments as reported by Chow and Patterson (1962) and this study. Armstrong and Cooper (1971) have likewise shown that volcanics from the Lesser Antilles show mixing trends with North Atlantic sediments in Pb isotope correlation diagrams. The North Atlantic sediments have distinctly higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios compared to the South Atlantic sediments. The parallel relationships between sediments and volcanic island arc rocks of the North and South Atlantic provide strong evidence for a component of Pb from subducted sediments in the lavas of the west Atlantic basin. In contrast to these data, lavas from the Mariana Arc in the western Pacific show little or no component of Pb from pelagic sediments. The reason for the different behaviors in the two settings is speculative. (author)

  11. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  12. Large-eddy simulations of mechanical and thermal processes within boundary layer of the Graciosa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, G.; Collis, S. M.; Ghate, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional numerical experiments are performed to explore the mechanical and thermal impacts of Graciosa Island on the sampling of oceanic airflow and cloud evolution. Ideal and real configurations of flow and terrain are planned using high-resolution, large-eddy resolving (e.g., Δ cold-pool formation upstream of an ideal two-kilometer island, with von Kármán like vortices propagation downstream. Although the peak height of Graciosa is less than half kilometer, the Azores island chain has a mountain over 2 km, which may be leading to more complex flow patterns when simulations are extended to a larger domain. Preliminary idealized low-resolution moist simulations indicate that the cloud field is impacted due to the presence of the island. Longer simulations that are performed to capture diurnal evolution of island boundary layer show distinct land/sea breeze formations under quiescent flow conditions. Further numerical experiments are planned to extend moist simulations to include realistic atmospheric profiles and observations of surface fluxes coupled with radiative effects. This work is intended to produce a useful simulation framework coupled with instruments to guide airborne and ground sampling strategies during the ACE-ENA field campaign which is aimed to better characterize marine boundary layer clouds.

  13. Distribution, population biology, and trophic ecology of the deepwater demersal fish Halosauropsis macrochir (Pisces: Halosauridae on the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Aksel Bergstad

    Full Text Available Halosauropsis macrochir ranked amongst the most abundant and widespread demersal fishes on the mid-Atlantic Ridge of the North Atlantic (Iceland-Azores with greatest abundance at 1700-3500 m. All sizes, ranging from 10-76 cm total length, occurred in the area without any apparent spatial pattern or depth trend. Using otolith sections displaying growth increments assumed to represent annuli, the age range recorded was 2-36 years, but most individuals were <20 years. Length and weight at age data were used to fit growth models. No differences between sexes in length and weight at age were observed. The majority of samples had a surplus of males. Diet analysis showed that H. macrochir feeds on Crustacea, Teleostei, Polychaeta, and Cephalopoda, but few prey could be identified to lower taxonomical levels. The mid-Atlantic Ridge constitutes a major portion of the North Atlantic living space of the abyssal halosaur where it completes its full life cycle, primarily as an actively foraging euryophagous micronekton/epibenthos and infauna feeder, becoming a partial piscivore with increasing size.

  14. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  15. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  16. Assemblage of benthic diatoms and culturable heterotrophs in shallow-water hydrothermal vent of the D. Joao de Castro Seamount, Azores in the Atlantic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Cardigos, F.; DeCosta, P.M.; Santos, R.S.; Colaco, A.

    from the yellow zone at the DJCS site. Melanin is involved in absorbing free radicals and reactive oxygen species to protect the organisms from damage under ex- treme environmental conditions 30 . Melanin is highly sta- ble and does not degrade easily... (two samples each) from the yellow or white zones fixed in buffered formalin was appropriately diluted, sonicated in an ultrasonicator in order to free sediment-bound bacteria (3 × 10 s, 10 Hz; Sonic & Material Inc, CT, USA), filtered over black...

  17. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerli Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades I and II, which are assumed to have been originated during the last Pleistocene glacial maxima. We assess genetic structure patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna at the nuclear level, and compare them with mitochondrial evidence. Results We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin. Conclusion Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which

  18. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Beerli, Peter; Zardoya, Rafael

    2008-09-17

    Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour) and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels) factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades I and II), which are assumed to have been originated during the last Pleistocene glacial maxima. We assess genetic structure patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna at the nuclear level, and compare them with mitochondrial evidence. We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel) tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin. Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which is also found in other species, most likely reflects

  19. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on European tropospheric composition: an observational and modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.

    2017-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has a strong influence on winter-time North Atlantic and European circulation patterns. Under the positive phase of the NAO (NAO+), intensification of the climatological Icelandic low and Azores high pressure systems results in strong westerly flow across the Atlantic into Europe. Under the NAO negative phase (NAO-), there is a weakening of this meridional pressure gradient resulting in a southerly shift in the westerlies flow towards the sub-tropical Atlantic. Therefore, NAO+ and NAO- introduce unstable stormy and drier stable conditions into Europe, respectively. Under NAO+ conditions, the strong westerlies tend to enhance transport of European pollution (e.g. nitrogen oxides) away from anthropogenic source regions. While during NAO-, the more stable conditions lead to a build up of pollutants. However, secondary pollutants (i.e. tropospheric ozone) show the opposite signal where NAO+, while transporting primary pollutants away, introduces Atlantic ozone enriched air into Europe. Here ozone can form downwind of pollution from continental North America and be transported into Europe via the westerly flow. Under NAO-, this westerly ozone transport is reduced yielding lower European ozone concentrations also depleted further by ozone loss through the reaction with NOx, which has accumulated over the continent. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), observed in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) by satellite, peaks over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO-, between 200-100 hPa, consistent with trapping by an anticyclone at this altitude. During NAO+, PAN is enhanced over the sub-tropical Atlantic and Arctic. Model simulations show that enhanced PAN over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO- is associated with vertical transport from the troposphere into the UTLS, while peak Arctic PAN in NAO+ is its accumulation given the strong northerly meridional transport in the UTLS. UTLS ozone spatial anomalies, relative to the winter

  20. Zoantharians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia Associated with Cold-Water Corals in the Azores Region: New Species and Associations in the Deep Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carreiro-Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoantharians are a group of cnidarians that are often found in association with marine invertebrates, including corals, in shallow and deep-sea environments. However, little is known about deep-sea zoantharian taxonomy, specificity and nature of their associations with their coral hosts. In this study, analyses of molecular data (mtDNA COI, 16S, and 12S rDNA coupled with ecological and morphological characteristics were used to examine zoantharian specimens associated with cold-water corals (CWC at depths between 110 and 800 m from seamounts and island slopes in the Azores region. The zoantharians examined were found living in association with stylasterids, antipatharians and octocorals. From the collected specimens, four new species were identified: (1 Epizoanthus martinsae sp. n. associated with the antipatharian Leiopathes sp.; (2 Parazoanthus aliceae sp. n. associated with the stylasterid Errina dabneyi (Pourtalès, 1871; (3 Zibrowius alberti sp. n. associated with octocorals of the family Primnoidae [Paracalyptrophora josephinae (Lindström, 1877] and the family Plexauridae (Dentomuricea aff. meteor Grasshoff, 1977; (4 Hurlizoanthus hirondelleae sp. n. associated with the primnoid octocoral Candidella imbricata (Johnson, 1862. In addition, based on newly collected material, morphological and molecular data and phylogenic reconstruction, the zoantharian Isozoanthus primnoidus Carreiro-Silva, Braga-Henriques, Sampaio, de Matos, Porteiro & Ocaña, 2011, associated with the primnoid octocoral Callogorgia verticillata (Pallas, 1766, was reclassified as Zibrowius primnoidus comb. nov. The zoantharians, Z. primnoidus comb. nov., Z. alberti sp. n., and H. hirondelleae sp. n. associated with octocorals showed evidence of a parasitic relationship, where the zoantharian progressively eliminates gorgonian tissue and uses the gorgonian axis for structure and support, and coral sclerites for protection. In contrast, the zoantharian P. aliceae sp. n

  1. Adjoint assimilation of altimetric, surface drifter, and hydrographic data in a quasi-geostrophic model of the Azores Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Rosemary; de Mey, Pierre

    1995-12-01

    The flow characteristics in the region of the Azores Current are investigated by assimilating TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimeter data into the multilevel Harvard quasigeostrophic (QG) model with open boundaries (Miller et al., 1983) using an adjoint variational scheme (Moore, 1991). The study site lies in the path of the Azores Current, where a branch retroflects to the south in the vicinity of the Madeira Rise. The region was the site of an intensive field program in 1993, SEMAPHORE. We had two main aims in this adjoint assimilation project. The first was to see whether the adjoint method could be applied locally to optimize an initial guess field, derived from the continous assimilation of altimetry data using optimal interpolation (OI). The second aim was to assimilate a variety of different data sets and evaluate their importance in constraining our QG model. The adjoint assimilation of surface data was effective in optimizing the initial conditions from OI. After 20 iterations the cost function was generally reduced by 50-80%, depending on the chosen data constraints. The primary adjustment process was via the barotropic mode. Altimetry proved to be a good constraint on the variable flow field, in particular, for constraining the barotropic field. The excellent data quality of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimeter data provided smooth and reliable forcing; but for our mesoscale study in a region of long decorrelation times O(30 days), the spatial coverage from the combined T/P and ERS 1 data sets was more important for constraining the solution and providing stable flow at all levels. Surface drifters provided an excellent constraint on both the barotropic and baroclinic model fields. More importantly, the drifters provided a reliable measure of the mean field. Hydrographic data were also applied as a constraint; in general, hydrography provided a weak but effective constraint on the vertical Rossby modes in the model. Finally, forecasts run over a 2-month period

  2. Greenland ice core evidence for spatial and temporal variability of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chylek, P.; Folland, C.K.; Frankcombe, L.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Lesins, G.; Dubey, M.

    2012-01-01

    [1] The Greenland δ18O ice core record is used as a proxy for Greenland surface air temperatures and to interpret Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) variability. An analysis of annual δ18O data from six Arctic ice cores (five from Greenland and one from Canada's Ellesmere Island) suggests a

  3. Sediment distribution in the oceans : the Atlantic between 10° and 19°N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collette, B.J.; Ewing, J.I.; Lagaay, R.A.; Truchan, M.

    Between 10° and 19°N the North Atlantic Ocean has been covered by four east-west crossings and one north-south section at 60°W, using a continuous seismic reflection recorder (air gun). The northernmost section extends to the Canary Islands. The region comprises a great variety of phenomena:

  4. Otolaryngology in Atlantic Canada: practitioners' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelausa, E O

    1999-02-01

    A survey was conducted to assess practice conditions in Atlantic Canada for 1996. Otolaryngologists in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland/Labrador with at least 1 year of practice experience in the area were canvassed regarding general work concerns, office and OR waiting lists, income, support services, job satisfaction, future plans and personal recommendations for improvement. Nineteen of 40 surveyed responded (47.5%). The results revealed that Atlantic Canadians had to wait considerably longer than average Canadians for ENT services. This was particularly true for Nova Scotians who had to wait often more than double the national average. Forty-seven and a half percent of practitioners were dissatisfied with the practice climate, with many merely trying to maintain status quo. Increasing government constraints and budget cuts have led to practice protectionism and the loss of collegiality. There is little optimism for the future, with 42% predicting continued deterioration in the next 5 years. As a result, up to 58% are considering relocating elsewhere. Despite diminishing returns, these specialists continue to provide the best possible care for their patient patients--hoping for a better tomorrow.

  5. Serreta 1998-2001 submarine volcanic eruption, offshore Terceira (Azores): Characterization of the vent and inferences about the eruptive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, David; Pimentel, Adriano; Pacheco, José; Martorelli, Eleonora; Sposato, Andrea; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belen; Chiocci, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution bathymetric data and seafloor sampling were used to characterize the most recent volcanic eruption in the Azores region, the 1998-2001 Serreta submarine eruption. The vent of the eruption is proposed to be an asymmetric topographic high, composed of two coalescing volcanic cones, underlying the location where lava balloons had been observed at the sea surface during the eruption. The volcanic products related to the 1998-2001 eruption are constrained to an area of 0.5 km2 around the proposed vent position. A submarine Strombolian-style eruption producing basaltic lava balloons, ash and coarse scoriaceous materials with limited lateral dispersion led to the buildup of the cones. The 1998-2001 Serreta eruption shares many similarities with other intermediate-depth lava balloon-forming eruptions (e.g., the 1891 eruption offshore Pantelleria and the 2011-2012 eruption south of El Hierro), revealing the particular conditions needed for the production of this unusual and scarcely documented volcanic product.

  6. Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores: lessons after 2 yr of monitoring in the Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo A V; Guerreiro, Orlando; Ferreira, Maria T; Borges, Annabella; Ferreira, Filomena; Bicudo, Nuno; Nunes, Lina; Marcos, Rita S; Arroz, Ana M; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Myles, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal flights of West Indian drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) were surveyed in the major cities of Azores. The sampling device used to estimate termite density consisted of a yellow adhesive trap (size 45 by 24 cm), placed with an artificial or natural light source in a dark attic environment. In addition, data from two other projects were used to improve the knowledge about the geographical distribution of the species. The level of infestation in the two main Azorean towns differed, with high levels in the houses of Angra do Heroísmo, whereas in Ponta Delgada, there are fewer houses with high levels of infestation. The infestation in Ponta Delgada shows a pattern of spreading from the center outward to the city's periphery, whereas in Angra do Heroísmo, there was a pattern of spreading outward from several foci. The heavy infestation observed in Angra do Heroísmo and the clear increase of infestation levels observed from 2010 to 2011 is a reason for concern and calls for an urgent application of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. MIO-PLIOCENE CRUSTACEANS FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN FRANCISCO BETANCORT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few previous references to fossil crustaceans for the Neogene marine layers of the Canary Islands (Spain. The Mio-Pliocene marine sedimentary layers in the eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were previously characterised by the presence of numerous fossil fauna, mainly anthozoans and molluscs, which correspond to an equatorial-typepalaeoclimate, warmer than the present climate. This Mio-Pliocene transition dated between 9.3 and 4.1 Ma. In this paper, 12 fossil crustacean taxa are identified and classified, including decapods and barnacles: Balanus concavus Bronn, 1831, Balanus spongicola Brown, 1827, Balanus perforatus Bruguière, 1789, Chenolobia testudinaria Linnè, 1767, Tetraclita cf. rubescens Darwin, 1854, Callianassa matsoni Rathbun, 1935, Callianassa sp., Upogebia sp, Eriphia aff. verrucosa (Forskal, 1775 , Maja sp., Scylla michelini Milne-Edwards, 1861 and Ocypode sp. Some of these taxa mean new references for the Atlantic islands and the North African Atlantic and definitely enlarge the palaeographic distribution of Neogene crustaceans beyond the Mediterranean region, extending it to the North Atlantic. Particularly significant are the presence of Tetraclita cf. rubescens ,this being the first reported fossil occurrence of this barnacle outside the North America Pacific coasts, and Chenolobia testudinaria , indicating for the first time the existence of marine turtles in these islands during the Neogene. These results are coherent with previous research hypothesising the existence of a flow of surface water between the Pacific and Atlantic in the Mio-Pliocene transition (Central American Seaway, CAS which explains the arrival of organisms, in larval stage, from Central America to the Canary Islands.

  8. Genetic diversity of a clonal angiosperm near its range limit: The case of Cymodocea nodosa at the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, Filipe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrao, Ester Álvares

    2006-01-01

    The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa forms a unique community in the Canary Islands, where it is classified as an endangered species. Biogeographic theory predicts that clonal species on islands near their distributional limits might show lower proportions of sexual (versus clonal) reproduction, lower genetic diversity, and higher differentiation. We addressed these hypotheses by comparing the genetic structure of C. nodosa from 10 meadows in the 4 main Canary Islands with 2 Iberian sites (Atlantic ...

  9. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  10. Metagenomic Signatures of Microbial Communities in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sediments of Azores Vent Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Teresa; Barroso, Cristina; Froufe, Hugo; Egas, Conceição; Bettencourt, Raul

    2018-01-21

    The organisms inhabiting the deep-seafloor are known to play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes, which produce biomass from single carbon molecules, constitute the primary source of nutrition for the higher organisms, being critical for the sustainability of food webs and overall life in the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. The present study investigates the metabolic profiles of chemolithoautotrophs inhabiting the sediments of Menez Gwen and Rainbow deep-sea vent fields, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Differences in the microbial community structure might be reflecting the distinct depth, geology, and distance from vent of the studied sediments. A metagenomic sequencing approach was conducted to characterize the microbiome of the deep-sea hydrothermal sediments and the relevant metabolic pathways used by microbes. Both Menez Gwen and Rainbow metagenomes contained a significant number of genes involved in carbon fixation, revealing the largely autotrophic communities thriving in both sites. Carbon fixation at Menez Gwen site was predicted to occur mainly via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, likely reflecting the dominance of sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria at this site, while different autotrophic pathways were identified at Rainbow site, in particular the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Chemolithotrophy appeared to be primarily driven by the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, whether through the SOX-dependent pathway at Menez Gwen site or through reverse sulfate reduction at Rainbow site. Other energy-yielding processes, such as methane, nitrite, or ammonia oxidation, were also detected but presumably contributing less to chemolithoautotrophy. This work furthers our knowledge of the microbial ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal sediments and represents an important repository of novel genes with potential biotechnological interest.

  11. Phylogeny and phylogeography of atlantic islands' Columba species

    OpenAIRE

    Dourado, Ana Catarina Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Humana e Ambiente). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Os arquipélagos têm sido essenciais para a aquisição de conhecimento acerca de processos evolutivos (Bollmer et al. 2006; Dietzen et al. 2008), pois o fluxo genético é reduzido devido à existência de barreiras geográficas, a sua fauna e flora é bem conhecida devido ao reduzido tamanho das ilhas e também porque podem possuir habitats diversos. Estes factores contribuem para que os ar...

  12. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  13. Implications for anomalous mantle pressure and dynamic topography from lithospheric stress patterns in the North Atlantic Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bom

    2016-08-01

    With convergent plate boundaries at some distance, the sources of the lithospheric stress field of the North Atlantic Realm are mainly mantle tractions at the base of the lithosphere, lithospheric density structure and topography. Given this, we estimate horizontal deviatoric stresses using a well-established thin sheet model in a global finite element representation. We adjust the lithospheric thickness and the sub-lithospheric pressure iteratively, comparing modelled in plane stress with the observations of the World Stress Map. We find that an anomalous mantle pressure associated with the Iceland and Azores melt anomalies, as well as topography are able to explain the general pattern of the principle horizontal stress directions. The Iceland melt anomaly overprints the classic ridge push perpendicular to the Mid Atlantic ridge and affects the conjugate passive margins in East Greenland more than in western Scandinavia. The dynamic support of topography shows a distinct maximum of c. 1000 m in Iceland and amounts <150 m along the coast of south-western Norway and 250-350 m along the coast of East Greenland. Considering that large areas of the North Atlantic Realm have been estimated to be sub-aerial during the time of break-up, two components of dynamic topography seem to have affected the area: a short-lived, which affected a wider area along the rift system and quickly dissipated after break-up, and a more durable in the close vicinity of Iceland. This is consistent with the appearance of a buoyancy anomaly at the base of the North Atlantic lithosphere at or slightly before continental breakup, relatively fast dissipation of the fringes of this, and continued melt generation below Iceland.

  14. It is the time for oceanic seabirds: Tracking year-round distribution of gadfly petrels across the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raul; Carlile, Nicholas; Madeiros, Jeremy; Ramirez, Ivan; Paiva, Vitor H.; Dinis, Herculano A.; Zino, Francis; Biscoito, Manuel; Leal, Gustavo R.; Bugoni, Leandro; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Ryan, Peter G.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    AimAnthropogenic activities alter and constrain the structure of marine ecosystems with implications for wide-ranging marine vertebrates. In spite of the environmental importance of vast oceanic ecosystems, most conservation efforts mainly focus on neritic areas. To identify relevant oceanic areas for conservation, we assessed the year-round spatial distribution and spatio-temporal overlap of eight truly oceanic seabird species of gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp.) inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean.LocationAtlantic Ocean.MethodsUsing tracking data (mostly from geolocators), we examined year-round distributions, the timing of life-cycle events, and marine habitat overlap of eight gadfly petrel species that breed in the Atlantic Ocean.ResultsWe compiled 125 year-round tracks. Movement strategies ranged from non-migratory to long-distance migrant species and from species sharing a common non-breeding area to species dispersing among multiple non-breeding sites. Gadfly petrels occurred throughout the Atlantic Ocean but tended to concentrate in subtropical regions. During the boreal summer, up to three species overlapped spatio-temporally over a large area around the Azores archipelago. During the austral summer, up to four species coincided in a core area in subtropical waters around Cape Verde, and three species shared habitat over two distinct areas off Brazil. The petrels used many national Exclusive Economic Zones, although they also exploited offshore international waters.Main conclusionsTracking movements of highly mobile vertebrates such as gadfly petrels can provide a powerful tool to evaluate and assess the potential need for and location of protected oceanic areas. As more multispecies, year-round data sets are collected from wide-ranging vertebrates, researchers and managers will have greater insight into the location of biodiversity hotspots. These can subsequently inform and guide marine spatial planning efforts that account for both conservation and

  15. Production and degradation of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in surface waters of the eastern north Atlantic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønborg, Christian; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé

    2015-02-01

    The distribution and fate of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the epipelagic Eastern North Atlantic was investigated during a cruise in the summer 2009 by combining field observations and culture experiments. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), the absorption spectra of CDOM and the fluorescence intensity of proteins (Ex/Em 280/320 nm; F(280/320)) and marine humic-like substances (F(320/410)) were measured in the upper 200 m. DOC and DON showed higher concentrations in the top 20 m than below, and DOC increased southwards, while DON decreased. F(280/320) and F(320/410) showed maxima near the deep chlorophyll maximum (at about 50 m), suggesting that these fluorophores were linked to phytoplankton production and the metabolism of the associated microbial community. The coloured and fluorescent fractions of DOM showed low levels south of the Azores Front, at about 35 °N, likely due to the accumulated photobleaching of the waters transported eastwards by the Azores current into the study area (at 20°W). Twelve culture experiments were also conducted with surface water (5 m) to assess the impact of microbial degradation processes on the bulk, coloured and fluorescent fractions of DOM. After 72 h of incubation in the darkness, 14±9% (average±SD) of the initial DON was consumed at an average rate of 0.24±0.14 μmol l-1 d-1 and the protein-like fluorescence decayed by 29±9% at a net rate of 0.06±0.03 QSU d-1. These rates were significantly lower south of the Azores front, suggesting that DOM in this region was of a more recalcitrant nature. Conversely, the marine humic-like fluorescence increased at a net rate of 0.013±0.003 QSU d-1. The close linear relationship of DON uptake with F(280/320) consumption (R2= 0.91, p <0.0001, n=12) and F(320/410) production (R2= 0.52, p <0.008, n=12) that we found during these incubation experiments suggest that the protein-like fluorescence can be used as a proxy for the dynamics of the labile DON pool

  16. Late Quaternary Palaeoceanographic Changes in Sea Surface Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, Andrea; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Nürnberg, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Palaeoceanographic changes and the variability in surface water mass hydrography are reconstructed in order to track tropical ocean and climate variability and inter-hemispheric heat exchange through the last 42,000 year BP. Our studies are based on the relative abundance of planktonic foraminifera combined with sea surface temperature approximation based Mg/Ca measurements, XRF scanning and stable oxygen isotope analyses in a 5 m long gravity core Ga307-Win-12GC (17°50.80N, 64°48.7290W), retrieved in the Virgin Island Basin in approx. 3,960 m water depth. The Virgin Island Basin is the deepest part of the Anegada-Jungfern Passage in the northeast Caribbean, one of the most important pathways for water mass exchange between the Central Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. Due to its bathymetry surface waters as well as deep water mass strata from the northern and southern hemisphere enter the basin, comprising Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage suggests rather stable sea-surface conditions during the Holocene in the NE Caribbean. However, major changes in the hydrographic setting could be identified within the glacial period. During the glacial period, clear millennial-scale variability in sea-surface temperature and productivity are present. Fluctuations in the relative abundance of Globigerinoides ruber in the sediment core may be correlated to Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the northern North Atlantic. Furthermore an increase in relative abundance of Globorotalia rubescens occurs synchronous with ice rafted debris layers described from the North Atlantic. The faunal changes in the tropical Atlantic may thus be correlated to major climate changes in the North Atlantic, mainly D-O cyclicity as well as Heinrich events. Thus, the synchronous change in water mass distribution and hydrographic cyclicity suggests a possible linkage

  17. Seismicity And Accretion Process Along The North Mid-Atlantic Ridge From The SIRENA Autonomous Hydrophone Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, J.; Goslin, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Haxel, J. H.; Maia, M. A.; Tisseau, C.; Royer, J.

    2009-12-01

    The seismicity of the North Atlantic Ocean was recorded by the SIRENA array of 6 autonomous underwater hydrophones (AUH) moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The instruments were deployed north of the Azores Plateau between 40° and 50°N from June 2002 to September 2003. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation result in a detection threshold reduction to a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ~2.8, to be compared to a Mc~4.7 for MAR events recorded by land-based seismic networks. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed over the 1696 events localized inside the SIRENA array. For hydrophone-derived catalogs, the acoustic magnitude, or Source Level (SL), is used as a measure of earthquake size. The ''source level completeness'', above which the data set is complete, is SLc=208 dB. The SIRENA catalog was searched for swarms using the cluster software of the SEISAN distribution. A minimum SL of 210 dB was chosen to detect a possible mainshock, and all subsequent events within 40 days following the possible mainshock, located within a radius of 15 km from the mainshock were considered as events of the swarm. 15 km correspond to the maximum fault length in a slow-ridge context. 11 swarms with more than 15 events were detected along the MAR between 40°et 50°N during the SIRENA deployment. The maximum number of earthquakes in a swarm is 40 events. The SL vs. time distribution within each swarm allowed a first discrimination between the swarms occurring in a tectonic context and those which can be attributed to volcanic processes, the latter showing a more constant SL vs. time distribution. Moreover, the swarms occurring in a tectonic context show a "mainshock-afterschock" distribution of the cumulative number of events vs. time, fitting a Modified Omori Law. The location of tectonic and volcanic swarms correlates well with regions where a positive and negative Mantle Bouguer

  18. Plastic ingestion in oceanic-stage loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Christopher K; Rodríguez, Yasmina; Dauphin, Axelle; Carriço, Rita; Frias, João P G L; Vandeperre, Frederic; Otero, Vanessa; Santos, Marco R; Martins, Helen R; Bolten, Alan B; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2017-08-15

    Juvenile oceanic-stage sea turtles are particularly vulnerable to the increasing quantity of plastic coming into the oceans. In this study, we analysed the gastrointestinal tracts of 24 juvenile oceanic-stage loggerheads (Caretta caretta) collected off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, in the Azores region, a key feeding ground for juvenile loggerheads. Twenty individuals were found to have ingested marine debris (83%), composed exclusively of plastic items (primarily polyethylene and polypropylene) identified by μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Large microplastics (1-5mm) represented 25% of the total number of debris and were found in 58% of the individuals sampled. Average number of items was 15.83±6.09 (±SE) per individual, corresponding to a mean dry mass of 1.07±0.41g. The results of this study demonstrate that plastic pollution acts as another stressor for this critical life stage of loggerhead turtles in the North Atlantic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  20. A crítica literária como representação: estudo de uma modalidade ensaística de Azorín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Inês Cárcamo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Examinamos um tipo particular de ensaio de crítica literária produzido nas primeiras décadas de nosso século em que o autor, José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín, recria obras clássicas da literatura espanhola. Estudamos a interação do discurso citado com o discurso narrativo que evidencia o problema da transmissão do discurso do outro. Relacionamos, ainda, a referida questão com a contradição apresentada na época entre o subjetivismo e os requerimentos coletivos. Situamos a crítica literária de Azorín em duas perspectivas: em primeiro lugar, o contexto cultural e sócio-político de princípios do século; em segundo lugar, as releituras que a posteridade realizou da sua ora, em cois momentos importantes de reformulação da tradição na Espanha.Examinamos un tipo particular de ensayo de crítica literaria practicado en las primeras décadas de nuestro siglo, en el que el autor, José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín, recra obras clásicas de la literatura española. Estudiamos la interación del discurso citado y del discurso narrativo que pone en evidencia el problema de la transmisión del discurso del Otro. Relacionamos dicha cuestión a la contracción existente en la época entre el subjetivismo y los requerimientos colectivos. Enfocamos la crítica literaria de Azorín teniendo en cuenta dos perspectivas: en primer lugar, la que atiende al contexto cultural y sociopolítico de principios de siglo, y considerando, en segundo lugar, las relecturas que la posteridad realizó de su obra, en dos momentos importantes de reformulación de la tradición en España.

  1. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  2. Reservoir quality of intrabasalt volcaniclastic units onshore Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province, northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene and Eocene strata in the western part of the FaroeShetland Basin contain abundant volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Recently, hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in reservoirs of siliciclastic origin in intra- and post-volcanic strata in the central Faroe-Shetland Basin that show....... Onshore samples are used as Faroese offshore volcaniclastic intervals are represented by a few confidential samples where the stratigraphic level is uncertain. The onshore samples have been taken from 29 geotechnical (made related to tunnel building, etc.) and 2 scientific (made related to research of the geology...

  3. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  4. Energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, J S; Brainard, J P

    1977-08-01

    This report presents a review of the energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic Region. It describes the patterns of energy production, supply and demand by state and compares these to national and regional averages. It presents a picture of existing energy and environmental interactions and a view of potential energy and environmental conflicts. A review of the major issues by energy sector is included as is a description of the existing energy actors and major energy programs for Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Washington, DC.

  5. Diagnostic features of English-lexified creoles: first attestations from Virgin Islands English creole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Avram

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the earliest attestations in Virgin Islands English Creole of the diagnostic features of English-lexified contact languages proposed by Baker and Huber (2001. It compares the distribution of these features in Virgin Islands English Creole and in the seven Atlantic English-lexified pidgins and creoles considered by Baker and Huber (2001. Also included is a discussion of a number of selected features.

  6. Diagnostic features of English-lexified creoles: First attestations from Virgin Islands English Creole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Avram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the earliest attestations in Virgin Islands English Creole of the diagnostic features of English-lexified contact languages proposed by Baker and Huber (2001. It compares the distribution of these features in Virgin Islands English Creole and in the seven Atlantic English-lexified pidgins and creoles considered by Baker and Huber (2001. Also included is a discussion of a number of selected features.

  7. Diagnostic features of English-lexified creoles: First attestations from Virgin Islands English Creole

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. Avram

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the earliest attestations in Virgin Islands English Creole of the diagnostic features of English-lexified contact languages proposed by Baker and Huber (2001). It compares the distribution of these features in Virgin Islands English Creole and in the seven Atlantic English-lexified pidgins and creoles considered by Baker and Huber (2001). Also included is a discussion of a number of selected features.

  8. Evaluation of the benefits of the introduction of electricity powered vehicles in an island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patrícia C.; Silva, Carla M.; Peças Lopes, J.A.; Soares, Filipe J.; Almeida, Pedro R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantify impacts of new technologies in LCA energy and CO 2 emissions and on electricity grid. • Methodology applied to small island with high potential of renewable energy integration. • Flores’ electricity distribution infrastructure can handle EV, revealing gains in fleet’s LCA. - Abstract: This paper evaluates the benefits of introducing electricity powered vehicles (EV) in one island of the Azores archipelago in Portugal, the island of Flores. A Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for the road transportation sector including EV was performed and the EV impacts in the electricity grid were evaluated. Two scenarios considering the introduction of EV were considered (Scenarios 2 and 3 with a shift in the car stock in 2050 of 30% and 70% to EV) and compared to the baseline scenario (Scenario 1 with no EV penetration). The results show that, if no alternative solutions are adopted, the road transportation sector LCA energy consumption will increase 58% in 2050, compared to 2009. In the most attractive scenario studied regarding EV integration in Flores, the LCA energy consumption in 2050 decreases by 34% and CO 2 emissions by 39%, when comparing with Scenario 1. Moreover, the island’s electricity network is ready for EV arrival, at least until 2020. Thereafter, a smart charging scheme should be implemented to manage the vehicles’ energy demand according to the network technical limitations and the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) should be reinforced, to decrease the island’s dependency on fossil fuels and, consequently, CO 2 emissions

  9. Geography, Islands and Migration in an Era of Global Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing role of islands in the age of globalization and in an era of enhanced and diversified mobility. There are many types of islands, many metaphors of insularity, and many types of migration, so the interactions are far from simple. The ‘mobilities turn’ in migration studies recognizes the diversification in motivations and time-space regimes of human migration. After brief reviews of island studies and of migration studies, and the power of geography to capture and distil the interdisciplinarity and relationality of these two study domains, the paper explores various facets of the generally intense engagement that islands have with migration. Two particular scenarios are identified for islands and migration in the global era: the heuristic role of islands as ‘spatial laboratories’ for the study of diverse migration processes in microcosm; and the way in which, especially in the Mediterranean and near-Atlantic regions, islands have become critical locations in the geopolitics of irregular migration routes. The case of Malta is taken to illustrate some of these new insular migration dynamics.

  10. Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. López-González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of recent benthic material collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic and the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean has allowed the taxonomic reassessment of some previously identified specimens belonging to the monogeneric gorgonian family Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889. Dendrobrachia fallax Brook, 1889 is the type species of the single genus in this family, and was originally described from Ascension Island (South Atlantic. Subsequently, other authors reported the presence of this species in Cape Verde Islands (north-eastern Atlantic and some Mediterranean localities (Alboran Sea and the Strait of Sicily. The study of the specimen from the Prince of Monaco collections in Cape Verde Islands, and recently collected material from the Gulf of Cadiz (north-eastern Atlantic and in the south of Malta (Mediterranean, materials previously considered as D. fallax, allow us to recognize two undescribed species in this genus. All previous records of D. fallax from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean should be considered incorrect. Opresko and Bayer (1991 added two additional species of Dendrobrachia. Two new species are described here and compared with their congeners.

  11. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  13. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  14. 78 FR 34310 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    .... 130402313-3499-01] RIN 0648-BD15 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Regulatory Amendment 2 AGENCY: National Marine... the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  15. 76 FR 30554 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907151138-1235-03] RIN 0648-AY03 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Queen Conch Management Measures Correction In rule...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  17. Rethinking Atlantic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Walvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Shaping the Stuart World 1603-1714: The Atlantic Connection. Allan I. Macinnes & Arthur H. Williamson (eds.. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006. xiv + 389 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America. Kenneth Morgan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. x + 221 pp. (Paper US$ 32.00 Although an important debate continues about the concept itself, the use of “the Atlantic” has embedded itself in scholarly vernacular. The scholarly output directly spawned by an engagement with the concept continues apace. That ocean, and the peoples who lived and traded along its edges, and who finally moved across it, have provided an important geographical focus for some major reconsiderations of modern history. Prompted by the Macinnes/Williamson volume, I returned to my own undergraduate and graduate notes and essays from courses on Stuart Britain: the Atlantic was totally absent – not even present as a distant speck on our intellectual map. We studied, and debated, the formal histories of migrations to the Americas (i.e. European migrations but there was no mention of Africa or Africans. And no sense was conveyed that the European engagement with the Americas (in their totality – as opposed to North America was a two-way, mutual force: that the European world was influenced, indeed shaped in many critical regards, by the Americas: by the land, the products, the peoples, and by the markets of that hemisphere. At its most obvious in the ebb and flow of peoples, even that eluded the historians I encountered as a student. It was as if we were talking about a different cosmos; few moved beyond the conventions of European migrations westwards and little attention was paid to that most dominant of migrations – the enforced African migrations to the Americas.

  18. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  19. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  20. New records of fish parasitic isopods of the gill-attaching genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 from the Virgin Islands, Caribbean, with description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Hadfield,Kerry; Sikkel,Paul; Smit,Nico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 are reported from the Virgin Islands. Mothocya xenobranchia Bruce, 1986 was collected from St. John Island from the gills of the Atlantic needlefish, Strongylura marina, which is a new locality record and also confirms a previously uncertain host identity. Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. is described from St. Thomas, St John and Guana Islands, from the gills of the redlip blenny, Ophioblennius macclurei, the first record of a blenny as host for a...

  1. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Green

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  2. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephanie J; Akins, John L; Maljković, Aleksandra; Côté, Isabelle M

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  3. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  4. Holocene climate and fjord glaciations in Northeast Greenland: implications for IRD deposition in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2004-01-01

    been released by intensive sub-glacial melting during the long stay of the ice-islands in coastal waters. The Holocene glacial geological record from Northeast Greenland is compared to the record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from North Atlantic deep-sea sediment cores. The comparison shows that transport...... by icebergs in the form of basal debris is unlikely to be the dominant transport mechanism of IRD to deposition sites in the North Atlantic during the Holocene. The ice rafted debris is more likely to be carried at the surface of sea- (or glacier) ice. This supports the result of previous studies by other...... workers that changes of atmospheric and ocean-surface circulation and temperature are the likely causes of Holocene cycles in IRD concentration in North Atlantic deep-sea sediments....

  5. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  6. Geodetic Volcano Monitoring Research in Canary Islands: Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Arjona, A.; Camacho, A. G.; Prieto, J. F.; Seco, A.; Tizzani, P.; Manzo, M. R.; Lanari, R.; Blanco, P.; Mallorqui, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Canarian Archipelago is an oceanic island volcanic chain with a long-standing history of volcanic activity (> 40 Ma). It is located off the NW coast of the African continent, lying over a transitional crust of the Atlantic African passive margin. At least 12 eruptions have been occurred on the islands of Lanzarote, Tenerife and La Palma in the last 500 years. Volcanism manifest predominantly as basaltic strombolian monogenetic activity (whole archipelago) and central felsic volcanism (active only in Tenerife Island). We concentrate our studies in the two most active islands, Tenerife and La Palma. In these islands, we tested different methodologies of geodetic monitoring systems. We use a combination of ground- and space-based techniques. At Tenerife Island, a differential interferometric study was performed to detect areas of deformation. DInSAR detected two clear areas of deformation, using this results a survey-based GPS network was designed and optimized to control those deformations and the rest of the island. Finally, using SBAS DInSAR results weak spatial long- wavelength subsidence signals has been detected. At La Palma, the first DInSAR analysis have not shown any clear deformation, so a first time series analysis was performed detecting a clear subsidence signal at Teneguia volcano, as for Tenerife a GPS network was designed and optimized taking into account stable and deforming areas. After several years of activities, geodetic results served to study ground deformations caused by a wide variety of sources, such as changes in groundwater levels, volcanic activity, volcano-tectonics, gravitational loading, etc. These results proof that a combination of ground-based and space-based techniques is suitable tool for geodetic volcano monitoring in Canary Islands. Finally, we would like to strength that those results could have serious implications on the continuous geodetic monitoring system design and implementation for the Canary Islands which is under

  7. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. North Atlantic teleconnection patterns signature on sea level from satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Lázaro, Clara; Joana Fernandes, M.; Bastos, Luísa

    2015-04-01

    Porto (Fernandes et al., 2010; Fernandes et al., 2013). Regular 0.25°x0.25° latitude-longitude grids were generated at a 10-day interval for the NA Ocean (60°W-5°W, 5°N-60°N) using optimal interpolation with a realistic space-time correlation function (Lázaro et al., 2013). These grids are used to inspect the response of sea level anomalies to several teleconnection patterns as well as the NA variability on annual and longer timescales. The teleconnection patterns selected are the ones that have influence on the NA basin: North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic pattern, East Atlantic/Western Russia pattern, Scandinavia pattern, Western Mediterranean Oscillation index, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Tropical North Atlantic Index, and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Acknowledgments: RAIA tec (0688-RAIATEC-1-P) project. The RAIA Coastal Observatory has been funded by the Programa Operativo de Cooperación Transfronteriza España-Portugal (POCTEP 2007-2013). References: Fernandes M.J., C. Lázaro, A.L. Nunes, N. Pires, L. Bastos, V.B. Mendes (2010). GNSS-derived Path Delay: an approach to compute the wet tropospheric correction for coastal altimetry. IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens Lett., Vol. 7, NO. 3, 596 - 600, doi: 10.1109/LGRS.2010.2042425. Lázaro, C., M. J. Juliano, M. J. Fernandes (2013): Semi-automatic determination of the Azores Current axis using satellite altimetry: application to the study of the current variability during 1995-2006. Advances in Space Research, Vol. 51(11), pp. 2155-2170, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.12.021. Fernandes, M. J., A.L. Nunes, C. Lázaro (2013). Analysis and Inter-Calibration of Wet Path Delay Datasets to Compute the Wet Tropospheric Correction for CryoSat-2 over Ocean. Remote Sensing, 5, 4977-5005.

  9. ProAtlantic - The Atlantic Checkpoint - Data Availability and Adequacy in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, F.

    2017-12-01

    DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint is a basin scale wide monitoring system assessment activity based upon targeted end-user applications. It is designed to be a benchmark for the assessment of hydrographic, geological, habitat, climate and fisheries data existence and availability in the Atlantic basin. DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint service will be delivered by the ProAtlantic project. The objective of this project is to investigate, through appropriate methodologies in the framework of 11 key marine challenges, how current international and national data providers - e.g. EMODNet, Copernicus - meet the requirements of the stakeholders and deliver fit for purpose data. By so doing, the main thematic and geographic gaps will be readily identified in the Atlantic basin for future consideration by DG MARE. For each challenge, specific web products in the form of maps, metadata, spreadsheets and reports will be delivered. These products are not an end by themselves but rather a means of showing whether data were available, let alone accessible. For example, the Fisheries Impact Challenge outputs include data grids (VMS/Seabed) and data adequacy reports. Production of gridded data layers in order to show the extent of fisheries impact on the seafloor involved the identification, acquisition and collation of data sources for the required data types (VMS/Seabed/Habitats Data) in the Atlantic basin. The resulting spatial coverage of these grids indicates the relatively low level of data availability and adequacy across the Atlantic basin. Aside from the data delivered by programmes such as EMODNet and Copernicus, there are a lot of initiatives by regional bodies such as OSPAR and ICES that consist of assembling and disseminating data to address specific issues. Several international projects have delivered research, data collection, and networking around several of the Atlantic Checkpoint challenge topics, namely MPAs, renewable energy assessment, seabed mapping, oil spill

  10. Contrasts in the marine ecosystem of two Macaronesian islands: A comparison between the remote Selvagens Reserve and Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Clemente, Sabrina; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Estep, Andrew; Rose, Paul; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m. Only reserve rangers and a small unit of the maritime police inhabit these islands. The benthic community around Selvagens was dominated by erect and turf algae, while the community at Madeira was comprised of crustose coralline and turf algae, sessile invertebrates, and sea urchin barrens. The sea urchin Diadema africanum was 65% more abundant at Madeira than at Selvagens. Total fish biomass was 3.2 times larger at Selvagens than at Madeira, and biomass of top predators was more than 10 times larger at Selvagens. Several commercially important species (e.g., groupers, jacks), which have been overfished throughout the region, were more common and of larger size at Selvagens than at Madeira. Important sea urchin predators (e.g., hogfishes, triggerfishes) were also in higher abundance at Selvagens compared to Madeira. The effects of fishing and other anthropogenic influences are evident around Madeira. This is in stark contrast to Selvagens, which harbors healthy benthic communities with diverse algal assemblages and high fish biomass, including an abundance of large commercially important species. The clear differences between these two island groups highlights the importance of expanding and strengthening the protection around Selvagens, which harbors one of the last intact marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic, and the need to increase management and protection around Madeira.

  11. Contrasts in the marine ecosystem of two Macaronesian islands: A comparison between the remote Selvagens Reserve and Madeira Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira, and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m. Only reserve rangers and a small unit of the maritime police inhabit these islands. The benthic community around Selvagens was dominated by erect and turf algae, while the community at Madeira was comprised of crustose coralline and turf algae, sessile invertebrates, and sea urchin barrens. The sea urchin Diadema africanum was 65% more abundant at Madeira than at Selvagens. Total fish biomass was 3.2 times larger at Selvagens than at Madeira, and biomass of top predators was more than 10 times larger at Selvagens. Several commercially important species (e.g., groupers, jacks, which have been overfished throughout the region, were more common and of larger size at Selvagens than at Madeira. Important sea urchin predators (e.g., hogfishes, triggerfishes were also in higher abundance at Selvagens compared to Madeira. The effects of fishing and other anthropogenic influences are evident around Madeira. This is in stark contrast to Selvagens, which harbors healthy benthic communities with diverse algal assemblages and high fish biomass, including an abundance of large commercially important species. The clear differences between these two island groups highlights the importance of expanding and strengthening the protection around Selvagens, which harbors one of the last intact marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic, and the need to increase management and protection around Madeira.

  12. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... and 635 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule... and 635 [Docket No. 080519678-0217-02] RIN 0648-AW65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark... available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and shortfin mako sharks, consistent...

  13. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    .... 120706221-2481-01] RIN 0648-XC106 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2013 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. We propose to keep the porbeagle shark...

  14. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... closing the commercial management groups for aggregated LCS and hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region...

  15. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine... plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark fisheries. The comment... potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS is extending the comment...

  16. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... 110831548-3536-02] RIN 0648-XC836 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries...) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark (SCS) quota from the Atlantic region to the Gulf... Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer is effective from September 2, 2013 until...

  17. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    .... 110913585-1625-01] RIN 0648-BB36 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2012 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS proposes season openings based on...

  18. Fish biodiversity of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain, southwestern Atlantic: an updated database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson T Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Despite a strong increase in research on seamounts and oceanic islands ecology and biogeography, many basic aspects of their biodiversity are still unknown. In the southwestern Atlantic, the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain (VTC extends ca. 1,200 km offshore the Brazilian continental shelf, from the Vitória seamount to the oceanic islands of Trindade and Martin Vaz. For a long time, most of the biological information available regarded its islands. Our study presents and analyzes an extensive database on the VTC fish biodiversity, built on data compiled from literature and recent scientific expeditions that assessed both shallow to mesophotic environments. A total of 273 species were recorded, 211 of which occur on seamounts and 173 at the islands. New records for seamounts or islands include 191 reef fish species and 64 depth range extensions. The structure of fish assemblages was similar between islands and seamounts, not differing in species geographic distribution, trophic composition, or spawning strategies. Main differences were related to endemism, higher at the islands, and to the number of endangered species, higher at the seamounts. Since unregulated fishing activities are common in the region, and mining activities are expected to drastically increase in the near future (carbonates on seamount summits and metals on slopes, this unique biodiversity needs urgent attention and management.

  19. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  20. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  1. Una escritura de la desaparición y aparición siempre futuras: Superrealismo / El libro de Levante, prenovela (1929 de Azorín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aranjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1929, peu après la naissance du surréalisme français (1924, le francophile, nationaliste et membre de la Génération espagnole du 98, Azorín, résidant dans la ville frontalière de San Sébastian (Guipúzcoa, fait appel à une certaine écriture semi-automatique, fulgurant et recherchée, afin de provoquer l’émergence du personnage, divers et virtuel, du roman, toujours futur, dont le projet final converge à la fin vers son village natal de Monóvar (Levant, au bout d’un éblouissant voyage à travers la Péninsule et la Manche de Don Quichotte, un autre grand surréaliste.En 1929, poco después del nacimiento del Surrealismo francés (1924, el francófilo, nacionalista y noventayochista Azorín, desde la casi fronteriza San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa, usa cierta forma de escritura semi-automática, fulgurante y señoreada, para provocar la emergencia del personaje, diverso y virtual, de la novela, siempre futura, cuyo proyecto final acabará coincidiendo con el centro natal (siempre ausente y por venir de Monóvar (Levante al cabo de un deslumbrante viaje imaginario en tren a través de la Península y de la Mancha de Don Quijote, este gran Surrealista.

  2. Sánchez Mazas en la estela de Azorín: A propósito de Pequeñas memorias de Tarín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezpeleta Aguilar, Fermín

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rafael’s first novel Sánchez Mazas, Pequeñas memorias de Tarín (1915 that registers in the series of boarding schools religious, claims the pattern azoriniano of Las confesiones de un pequeño filósofor explicitly (1904. Daily schoolboy’s autobiographical gender is good Sánchez Mazas to appeal to a certain «small philosophy» to the way of Azorín. In the two cases, the diary of the school course is a retrospect of more reach, with invocation to other formative instances. They are muffled, or they are eliminated in the case of Sánchez Mazas, the «intelectualización» ingredients and anticlericalism, always associated the school adolescents of the authors «novecentistas».La primera novela de Rafael Sánchez Mazas, Pequeñas memorias de Tarín (1915, que se inscribe en la serie de internados religiosos, reivindica explícitamente el modelo azoriniano de Las confesiones de un pequeño filósofo (1904. El género autobiográfico de diario colegial sirve a Sánchez Mazas para apelar a una cierta «pequeña filosofía» al modo de Azorín. En los dos casos, el diario del curso escolar queda subsumido en una retrospección de mayor alcance, con invocación a otras instancias formativas. Se amortiguan, o se eliminan en el caso de Sánchez Mazas, los ingredientes de intelectualización y anticlericalismo, asociados siempre a los adolescentes escolares de los autores novecentistas.

  3. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  4. A genetic approach to the origin of Millepora sp. in the eastern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C.; Clemente, S.; Almeida, C.; Brito, A.; Hernández, M.

    2015-06-01

    Many species have experienced recent range expansions due to human-mediated processes, such as the unintentional transport on ships or plastic waste and ocean warming, which facilitates many tropical species to tolerate living beyond their normal limit of distribution, with a potential impact on autochthonous assemblages. In September 2008, three colonies of the fire coral Millepora sp. (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) were found on the southeastern coast of Tenerife (Canary Islands), though this species had been previously described to have a circumtropical distribution with Cape Verde Islands as its northern limit of distribution in the eastern Atlantic. The aim of this study was to determine the origin of these new colonies in the Canary Islands (11°N of its previously known northernmost limit of distribution) using variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a molecular marker. In order to do that, Millepora samples from Tenerife and Cape Verde Islands were collected for molecular analyses, and COI sequences from Caribbean samples listed in GenBank were also included in the analysis. Our results showed that all the specimens from Tenerife were genetically identical, suggesting that the colonization of the Canary Islands was the result of a very recent and strong founder effect. The nucleotide sequences of the samples from the Cape Verde and the Canary Islands were closer to the Caribbean than between themselves, pointing to the Caribbean population as the source population for both archipelagos, through independent founder events. The fact that Millepora sp. arrived to Cape Verde long before arriving to the Canaries (pleistocene fossils have been found in that archipelago) suggests that the habitat requirements for this species did not exist before in the Canarian archipelago. Therefore, the rising seawater temperatures recently registered in the Canary Islands could have facilitated the settlement of reef-forming corals drifting across the two basins of

  5. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  6. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  7. The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettel, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Xoplaki, E. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); EEWRC, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Gallego, D. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Sevilla (Spain); Luterbacher, J. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Garcia-Herrera, R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de CC Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Allan, R. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Barriendos, M. [University of Barcelona, Department of Modern History, Barcelona (Spain); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Wheeler, D. [University of Sunderland, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sunderland (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly in the pre-1850 period. Here we present a new statistically-derived 5 x 5 resolved gridded seasonal SLP dataset covering the eastern North Atlantic, Europe and the Mediterranean area (40 W-50 E; 20 N-70 N) back to 1750 using terrestrial instrumental pressure series and marine wind information from ship logbooks. For the period 1750-1850, the new SLP reconstruction provides a more accurate representation of the strength of the winter westerlies as well as the location and variability of the Azores High than currently available multiproxy pressure field reconstructions. These findings strongly support the potential of ship logbooks as an important source to determine past circulation variations especially for the pre-1850 period. This new dataset can be further used for dynamical studies relating large-scale atmospheric circulation to temperature and precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and Eurasia, for the comparison with outputs from GCMs as well as for detection and attribution studies. (orig.)

  8. Prioritizing islands for the eradication of invasive vertebrates in the United Kingdom overseas territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey; Oppel, Steffen; Cuthbert, Richard J; Holmes, Nick; Bird, Jeremy P; Butchart, Stuart H M; Spatz, Dena R; Tershy, Bernie

    2015-02-01

    Invasive alien species are one of the primary threats to native biodiversity on islands worldwide. Consequently, eradicating invasive species from islands has become a mainstream conservation practice. Deciding which islands have the highest priority for eradication is of strategic importance to allocate limited resources to achieve maximum conservation benefit. Previous island prioritizations focused either on a narrow set of native species or on a small geographic area. We devised a prioritization approach that incorporates all threatened native terrestrial vertebrates and all invasive terrestrial vertebrates occurring on 11 U.K. overseas territories, which comprise over 2000 islands ranging from the sub-Antarctic to the tropics. Our approach includes eradication feasibility and distinguishes between the potential and realistic conservation value of an eradication, which reflects the benefit that would accrue following eradication of either all invasive species or only those species for which eradication techniques currently exist. We identified the top 25 priority islands for invasive species eradication that together would benefit extant populations of 155 native species including 45 globally threatened species. The 5 most valuable islands included the 2 World Heritage islands Gough (South Atlantic) and Henderson (South Pacific) that feature unique seabird colonies, and Anegada, Little Cayman, and Guana Island in the Caribbean that feature a unique reptile fauna. This prioritization can be rapidly repeated if new information or techniques become available, and the approach could be replicated elsewhere in the world. © 2014 Crown copyright. Conservation Biology © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  10. Hafnium Isotopic Variations in Central Atlantic Intraplate Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldmacher, J.; Hanan, B. B.; Hoernle, K.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2008-12-01

    Although one of the geochemically best investigated volcanic regions on Earth, almost no Hf isotopic data have been published from the broad belt of intraplate seamounts and islands in the East Atlantic between 25° and 36° N. This study presents 176Hf/177Hf ratios from 61 representative samples from the Canary, Selvagen and Madeira Islands and nearby large seamounts, encompassing the full range of different evolutionary stages and geochemical endmembers. The majority of samples have mafic, mainly basaltic compositions with Mg-numbers within or near the range of magmas in equilibrium with mantle olivine (68-75). No correlation was found between Mg-number and 176Hf/177Hf ratios in the data set. In comparison to observed Nd isotope variations published for this volcanic province (6 ɛNd units), 176Hf/177Hf ratios span a larger range (14 ɛHf units). Samples from the Madeira archipelago have the most radiogenic compositions (176Hf/177Hfm= 0.283132-0.283335), widely overlapping the field for central Atlantic N-MORB. They form a relatively narrow, elongated trend (stretching over >6 ɛHf units) between a radiogenic MORB-like endmember and a composition located on the Nd-Hf mantle array. In contrast, all Canary Islands samples plot below the mantle array (176Hf/177Hfm = 0.282943-0.283067) and, despite being from an archipelago that stretches over a much larger geographic area, form a much denser cluster with less compositional variation (~4 ɛHf units). All samples from the seamounts NE of the Canaries, proposed to belong to the same Canary hotspot track (e.g. Geldmacher et al., 2001, JVGR 111; Geldmacher et al., 2005, EPSL 237), fall within the Hf isotopic range of this cluster. The cluster largely overlaps the composition of the proposed common mantle endmember 'C' (Hanan and Graham, 1996, Science 272) but spans a space between a more radiogenic (depleted) composition and a HIMU-type endmember. Although samples of Seine and Unicorn seamounts, attributed to the Madeira

  11. Impacts of fishing and environmental factors driving changes on littoral fish assemblages in a subtropical oceanic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Martín-García, Laura; Hernández, José Carlos; Concepción, Laura; Fernández, Raúl; Clemente, Sabrina

    2013-08-01

    The structure of demersal fish assemblages of commercial interest was studied at 51 sites on La Palma Island (Canary Islands, northeastern Atlantic). On this island, demersal fish populations are limited and independent from other islands. As deep water separates the islands and the shallow sublittoral platforms are not continuous, adult inter-island migrations are not possible except between the islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Otherwise, each island functions as a closed system, and the status of an island fish assemblage depends on local environmental conditions and activities performed in situ by the islanders. These circumstances provide a unique opportunity to test the intrainsular variability of fish assemblages. With this background, environmental parameters, fishing pressure and distance to the MPA were considered to identify the main factors explaining the spatial variation of fish assemblages off La Palma Island. Twenty-six fish species were recorded, but 60% of the total fish biomass was represented by only five species (Sparisoma cretense, Pomadasys incisus, Canthidermis sufflamen, Diplodus cervinus cervinus and Bodianus scrofa). However, the structure of assemblages was heterogeneous in response to different variables and showed substantial spatial variation. The assemblages were strongly modified by the presence of upright seaweed cover, fishing activities, and certain environmental variables. Differences were more pronounced in species that occupied the higher trophic levels. The most disturbed assemblages were those located in areas with lower upright seaweed cover and with higher fishing pressure, whereas the best-preserved assemblages corresponded to sites with controlled fishing activities, located within the MPA.

  12. Heat Flow and Hydrothermal Circulation of the Lucky Strike Segment, Mid Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Escartin, J.; Lucazeau, F.; Cannat, M.; Gouze, P.; von Herzen, R. P.; Adam, C.; Le Bars, M.; Monoury, E.; Vidal, V.

    2003-12-01

    In June 2003, expedition Luckyflux aboard the R/V Poseidon conducted a heat flow survey of a zone centred on the Lucky Strike segment of the Mid Atlantic ridge south of the Azores between ˜35° N and 39° N. Using a 5 m-long lance with 7 outrigger thermal probes, about 150 successful thermal gradient measurements were obtained, 140 of these with in-situ thermal conductivity. Measurements were made at ˜1 mile intervals along several profiles, where adequately sedimented sites were identified using 6-channel and 3.5 kHz seismic data from the previous Sudazores'98 cruise. We conducted heat flow measurements in two areas: a near axis region within the V-shaped ridge of overthickened crust that emanated from the Azores hotspot between ˜14 and 4 Ma, and an off-axis region East of the V-shaped ridge. The off-axis region is characterized by an homogeneous sediment cover, 300-400 m thick, and crustal ages varying between ˜6 and >10 Ma. Long wavelength (tens of km) low heat flow anomalies can be identified but the mean of 160 mWm-2 is comparable to the conductive heat flow expected for a crust of that age. Along two 80-km profiles perpendicular to the ridge, we observed coherent but different patterns. On the first profile, low heat flow values of 20-50 mWm-2 are observed at the base of the V-shaped ridge. These values are 100 mWm-2 below the profile average, showing that hydrothermal circulations can also affect oceanic crust beneath a thick and relatively impermeable sediment cover. On the other profile, heat flow generally decreases from west to east. On both profiles, higher than average values of heat flow are also present, associated on one of them with a nearly outcropping basement elevation. These contrasting overall heat flow patterns in similar geological context indicate that the likely pattern of hydrothermal circulations is mainly 3D, and not driven only by the presence of basement outcrops. In the near-axis region, where the tectonic structure is more

  13. Magnitude-frequency characteristics and preparatory factors for spatial debris-slide distribution in the northern Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter Jakob; Jensen, Niels H.; Veihe, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are highly susceptible to debris-avalanches and debris-flows originating from debris-slide activity in shallow colluvial soils. To provide data for hazard and risk assessment of debris-avalanches and debris-flows, this study aims at quantifying the ma...

  14. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  15. 76 FR 13583 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... address concerns raised in a recent decision by a NOAA Administrative Law Judge (see Atlantic Tunas Transfer at Sea section for case reference). NMFS has prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA... subtraction of these allocations directly from the TAC, the recommendation allocates the remainder to the UK...

  16. Dropout Prevention Programs in Nine Mid-Atlantic Region School Districts: Additions to a Dropout Prevention Database. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzichelli, Claudia; Mackey, Philip E.; Bausmith, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study replicates work of Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands. It describes dropout prevention programs in nine Mid-Atlantic Region (Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) school districts serving communities with populations of 24,742-107,250 (as of July 2008). All nine…

  17. Dropout Prevention Programs in Nine Mid-Atlantic Region School Districts: Additions to a Dropout Prevention Database. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzichelli, Claudia; Mackey, Philip E.; Bausmith, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study replicates work of Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands. It describes dropout prevention programs in nine Mid-Atlantic Region (Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) school districts serving communities with populations of 24,742-107,250 (as of July 2008). All nine…

  18. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  19. Population Structure of Island-Associated Dolphins: Evidence from Photo-Identification of Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    individuals show fidelity to the areas. A Bayesian analysis designed to determine what range of dispersal rates are consistent with our photo...few hundred meters. What is known is that the waters surrounding the Hawaiian Islands are oligotrophic, and productivity is higher immediately around...to thank Whale Quest Kapalua, UFO Chuting, Central Pacific Ma- rine, and Atlantic Submarine for support. We would like to thank Alison Stimpert

  20. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; TH, Jørgensen; Børglum, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are inhabited by a small population, whose origin is thought to date back to the Viking Age. Historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the present population of the Faroe Islands may have a mixture of Scandinavian and British...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...

  1. Parasites of skipjack, Katsuwonus pelamis, from Madeira, Eastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cavaleiro, Bárbara; Gouveia, Lídia; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2018-04-01

    Skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a tropical species of economic importance for fisheries around the world. It occurs seasonally in subtropical waters around Madeira archipelago, in the warmer months. In this study, a parasitological analysis was carried out on a sample of 30 skipjack caught near Madeira Island. A total of 24 parasite taxa were found in this sample. The skipjack parasite community detected was characterized by a wide diversity of parasites, with a predominance of adult didymozoid trematodes, and high prevalences of Tentacularia coryphaenae cestode larvae and Anisakis sp. larvae. Microhabitat distribution of gill parasites was assessed for the most prevalent species, and correlations between parasite abundance and various host features such as size, condition, and fat content were investigated. Parasite taxa which might be useful as biological tags in future studies of skipjack migrations in the Eastern Atlantic were selected.

  2. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  3. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  4. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  5. CIELO-A GIS integrated model for climatic and water balance simulation in islands environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, E. B.; Pereira, L. S.

    2003-04-01

    The model CIELO (acronym for "Clima Insular à Escala Local") is a physically based model that simulates the climatic variables in an island using data from a single synoptic reference meteorological station. The reference station "knows" its position in the orographic and dynamic regime context. The domain of computation is a GIS raster grid parameterised with a digital elevation model (DEM). The grid is oriented following the direction of the air masses circulation through a specific algorithm named rotational terrain model (RTM). The model consists of two main sub-models. One, relative to the advective component simulation, assumes the Foehn effect to reproduce the dynamic and thermodynamic processes occurring when an air mass moves through the island orographic obstacle. This makes possible to simulate the air temperature, air humidity, cloudiness and precipitation as influenced by the orography along the air displacement. The second concerns the radiative component as affected by the clouds of orographic origin and by the shadow produced by the relief. The initial state parameters are computed starting from the reference meteorological station across the DEM transept until the sea level at the windward side. Then, starting from the sea level, the model computes the local scale meteorological parameters according to the direction of the air displacement, which is adjusted with the RTM. The air pressure, temperature and humidity are directly calculated for each cell in the computational grid, while several algorithms are used to compute the cloudiness, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation. The model presented in this paper has been calibrated and validated using data from some meteorological stations and a larger number of rainfall stations located at various elevations in the Azores Islands.

  6. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  7. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O Hammill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals are associated with small islets, reefs and rocks exposed at low tide and estuarine habitats throughout eastern Canada. Evidence of harvesting by indigenous people has been found in pre-European contact archaeological excavations. A bounty harvest as well as subsistence and commercial hunting probably lead to a decline in the population from 1949 to the early 1970s. The bounty was removed in 1976, and harbour seals, in the southern parts of their range have been protected since then. There is little information available on total abundance and current population trend. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA research has shown separation between Northeast and Northwest Atlantic harbour seals. Within Canada, the subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor shows some population sub-structure with three distinct units that could be separated into Hudson Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sable Island. Urban development resulting in habitat degradation is probably the most important factor affecting harbour seal populations in AtlanticCanada, although other factors such as incidental catches in commercial fisheries and competition with grey seals may also be important.

  8. Climatic and Environmental Changes Affecting Communities in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liette Vasseur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small rural coastal communities located in Atlantic Canada are vulnerable to the effects of climate and environmental changes. Major storms have impounded the coastline, causing much physical damage and affecting the socioeconomics of these communities that are composed of an aging population. The current study relays findings based on interviews completed in 2011–2012, following the 2010 winter storms in Atlantic Canada. It portrays the physical and social–ecological impacts affecting 10 coastal communities located in the provinces of Québec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Semi-structured interviews held in these provinces are the basis for the contributions of this research. The findings reveal physical changes related to coastal erosion from high-wave impacts and storm surge causing flooding of the coastal zone. Also considered are strategies preferred and actually implemented by residents, such as building of protection walls, although undesirable. Due to funding constraints, however, many of these large-scale flood protection projects are not possible without governmental support. Instead, it is suggested that development be controlled and some respondents in this study upheld that relocation be used to alleviate the situation. Finally, more work is required to improve emergency planning. Better concerted short- and long-term responses need to be coordinated by local authorities and higher up in the government in order to ensure the sustainability of these coastal communities.

  9. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XW79 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine..., recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter/headboat BFT landings constitute...

  10. The coastal rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae of Atlantic Canada: a survey and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The coastline inhabiting rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae of Atlantic Canada are surveyed. Thirty-three species have now been recorded in Atlantic Canada including 26 in New Brunswick, 15 in Newfoundland, 31 in Nova Scotia, and 13 on Prince Edward Island. Oligota parva Kraatz, Acrotona avia (Casey, Strigota ambigua (Erichson, and Myrmecopora vaga (LeConte, are all newly recorded in Canada, and Bledius mandibularis Erichson is newly recorded in Atlantic Canada. We retain A. avia as a species distinct from A. subpygmaea Bernhauer and designate a lectotype and paralectotypes for A. avia. Ten new provincial records are reported, one from New Brunswick, six from Nova Scotia, and three from Prince Edward Island. Four functional groups, halobiont (obligate, halophile (facultative, haloxene (tolerant, and incidental coastal species, are distinguished and the fauna is examined from the perspective of the particular coastline habitats and microhabitats they have been found to inhabit. Fourteen of the 33 staphylinids are introduced, Palearctic species, and eight of these have been associated with historic dry ballast shipping to the region from Great Britain. A trophic analysis indicates that some species are phytophagous algae feeders, while others are either generalist predators, or predators specializing on particular taxonomic or functional groups of invertebrates. Finally, some attention is devoted to discussing the diminished areas of coastline environments such as coastal marshes, and the various kinds of environmental disturbances and degradations they have experienced. These indicate the potential vulnerability of such coastal habitats and consequently of the communities of beetles that inhabit them.

  11. New insights into the biodiversity and generic relationships of foliose Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in Iceland and the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Neefus, Christopher D.; Nielsen, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Foliose species of the Bangiales (Porphyra sensu lato) have a long history of study in the N Atlantic, but there are still regions, especially in the northern parts of the N Atlantic that need more attention. A molecular study using rbcL and cox1 sequences was undertaken to assess the diversity...... of foliose Bangiales species in Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Herbarium collections from the intertidal and subtidal of Iceland (summer and winter) and the Faroe Islands (all seasons) revealed a total of 13 species (11 common to both areas), which were referred to four of the genera recognized in a recent...... two-gene global phylogeny. Boreophyllum birdiae, Porphyra dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia ?leucosticta? A, Pyropia njordii Mols-Mortensen, J. Brodie Porphyra sp. FO and Pyropia elongata were reported from the Faroe Islands but not from Iceland. Boreophyllum birdiae...

  12. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of ocean shoreline location on the Virginia barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Shoreline change along the Eastern Atlantic shore of Virginia has been studied for the individual barrier islands but not as an integrated system. This study combines the Atlantic shoreline locations for eleven barrier islands obtained from LANDSAT 5, 7, and 8 images. Approximately 250 shoreline locations over a 24-year period from Jan 1990 to Dec 2014 were extracted from the digitized shoreline data at 338 transects. The resulting 338 by 250 matrix was analyzed by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) technique. The first four principal components (PC) explained 86 percent of the sample variance. Since the data was not detrended, the first PC was the overall trend of the data with a discontinuity in 2004-2005. The 2004-2005 interval included storm events and large shoreline changes. PCs 2 to 4 reflect the effects of El Nino events and tropical and non-tropical storms. Eigenvectors 1 to 4 all show the effects of the nine inlets in the island group. Eigenvector (EV) 1 explains 59 percent of the shoreline spatial variance and shows the largest changes at the northern and southern island ends. EVs 2 to 4 reflect the pattern of EV1 but at sequentially smaller percentages of the spatial variance. As a group, the eleven islands are losing ocean side shoreline. The lone exception is Hog Island. Sea level had the strongest correlation with the shoreline loss trend of PC1. The coefficient of determination was 0.41. The NAO and MEI also correlated with PC1 with correlations of determination of 0.05 and 0.12 respectively. These confidence level for the three factors was better than 99 percent. Sea level also correlated with PC3 and PC4. The PCs as a group show that the year intervals 2004-2005 and 2009-2010 had large effects on the shoreline change pattern for the island group. EVs 1 to 4 had the highest range of shoreline change at the island ends indicating the effect the changes of the inlets have on the adjacent islands. The smaller islands as a group had a higher level

  13. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... The Council will consider input from the workgroup and workshops during its June meeting in Orlando... Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... public meeting and public workshop. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will...

  14. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... 130402317-3707-01] RIN 0648-XC611 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing opportunities for commercial shark...

  15. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  16. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    .... 100825390-0431-01] RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures... on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals...

  17. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic... are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  18. 78 FR 26523 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... final specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including annual catch limits...

  19. 77 FR 25100 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual catch limit, total allowable landings...

  20. 77 FR 8776 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    .... 120201086-2085-01] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual...

  1. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... 130104009-3099-01] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including...

  2. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... AP will also review Amendment 19 to the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP regarding alternatives for bag...

  3. A comparative analysis of terrestrial arthropod assemblages from a relict forest unveils historical extinctions and colonization differences between two oceanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Rego, Carla; Crespo, Luis; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Cardoso, Pedro; Rigal, François; Silva, Isamberto; Pereira, Fernando; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.

    2018-01-01

    During the last few centuries oceanic island biodiversity has been drastically modified by human-mediated activities. These changes have led to the increased homogenization of island biota and to a high number of extinctions lending support to the recognition of oceanic islands as major threatspots worldwide. Here, we investigate the impact of habitat changes on the spider and ground beetle assemblages of the native forests of Madeira (Madeira archipelago) and Terceira (Azores archipelago) and evaluate its effects on the relative contribution of rare endemics and introduced species to island biodiversity patterns. We found that the native laurel forest of Madeira supported higher species richness of spiders and ground beetles compared with Terceira, including a much larger proportion of indigenous species, particularly endemics. In Terceira, introduced species are well-represented in both terrestrial arthropod taxa and seem to thrive in native forests as shown by the analysis of species abundance distributions (SAD) and occupancy frequency distributions (OFD). Low abundance range-restricted species in Terceira are mostly introduced species dispersing from neighbouring man-made habitats while in Madeira a large number of true rare endemic species can still be found in the native laurel forest. Further, our comparative analysis shows striking differences in species richness and composition that are due to the geographical and geological particularities of the two islands, but also seem to reflect the differences in the severity of human-mediated impacts between them. The high proportion of introduced species, the virtual absence of rare native species and the finding that the SADs and OFDs of introduced species match the pattern of native species in Terceira suggest the role of man as an important driver of species diversity in oceanic islands and add evidence for an extensive and severe human-induced species loss in the native forests of Terceira. PMID:29694360

  4. Multidecadal trends in the nesting phenology of Pacific and Atlantic leatherback turtles are associated with population demography

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Nathan J.; Valentine, Sara E.; Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Saba, Vincent S.; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms influencing phenology can provide insights into the adaptability of species to climate change. Here, we investigated the factors influencing multidecadal trends in the nesting phenology of the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea at Playa Grande, Costa Rica, in the eastern Pacific Ocean and at Sandy Point, US Virgin Islands, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Between 1993 and 2013, the median nesting date (MND) at Playa Grande occurred later, at a rate of ~0.3 d yr-...

  5. Extended correlation of the Paleogene Faroe Islands and East Greenland plateau basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2008-01-01

    on the Faroe Islands but with a lot lower intensity than on the other side of the rift. This demonstrates that large parts of the km-thick volcanic successions of the North Atlantic LIP developed in parallel on the juxtaposed rifted continental margins during break-up, although the centre of eruptions moved......New analytical data are presented for 13 enriched high-Ti tholeiitic basalts from the top of the Faroese lava pile that was formed by the time of break-up of the North Atlantic  56-55  Ma ago and are located on the eastern continental margin of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples fall in three groups...

  6. The energy sector : an investment in the people and communities of Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The opportunity for Atlantic Canada to meet the North American demand for more energy and increased security was discussed. Energy accounts for nearly half of all exports from Atlantic Canada. The region delivers oil, natural gas and electricity to its own communities and for export around the continent and is poised to significantly increase its reach, given its proximity to the New England States. Over the past decade, the energy industry in Atlantic Canada has laid the foundation for what has become one of the most significant sectors in the regional economy. It has a diverse mix of traditional thermal and hydroelectric generation with newer technology such as nuclear, wind, bioenergy and tidal. The discovery and development of offshore oil and gs fields at the end of the twentieth century significantly enhanced the regional energy sector and shifted the public policy focus from domestic production to the development of export markets. The projects have brought significant outside investment from a broad range of oil and gas companies. This paper listed the projects and players in the energy sector in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland and Labrador. The issue of exporting energy resources and importing human resources was also considered. A list of skilled trades, professional services and support services that will be needed by the Atlantic Canadian energy sector over the next decade was also provided. It was noted that employment growth is driven by demographics, technology and the trend for environmental stewardship. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  7. The intertropical convergence zone modulates intense hurricane strikes on the western North Atlantic margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Fall, Patricia L; Toomey, Michael R; Albury, Nancy A; Kakuk, Brian

    2016-02-24

    Most Atlantic hurricanes form in the Main Development Region between 9°N to 20°N along the northern edge of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Previous research has suggested that meridional shifts in the ITCZ position on geologic timescales can modulate hurricane activity, but continuous and long-term storm records are needed from multiple sites to assess this hypothesis. Here we present a 3000 year record of intense hurricane strikes in the northern Bahamas (Abaco Island) based on overwash deposits in a coastal sinkhole, which indicates that the ITCZ has likely helped modulate intense hurricane strikes on the western North Atlantic margin on millennial to centennial-scales. The new reconstruction closely matches a previous reconstruction from Puerto Rico, and documents a period of elevated intense hurricane activity on the western North Atlantic margin from 2500 to 1000 years ago when paleo precipitation proxies suggest that the ITCZ occupied a more northern position. Considering that anthropogenic warming is predicted to be focused in the northern hemisphere in the coming century, these results provide a prehistoric analog that an attendant northern ITCZ shift in the future may again return the western North Atlantic margin to an active hurricane interval.

  8. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011–2012 El Hierro eruption

    OpenAIRE

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2016-01-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and geodetic data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region (including the NW African margin) and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary I...

  9. Geomechanical characterization of volcanic rocks using empirical systems and data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    T. Miranda; L.R. Sousa; A.T. Gomes; J. Tinoco; C. Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    This paper tries to characterize volcanic rocks through the development and application of an empirical geomechanical system. Geotechnical information was collected from the samples from several Atlantic Ocean islands including Madeira, Azores and Canarias archipelagos. An empirical rock classification system termed as the volcanic rock system (VRS) is developed and presented in detail. Results using the VRS are compared with those obtained using the traditional rock mass rating (RMR) system....

  10. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  11. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-03-03

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images.

  12. Three new records of Desmodorids (Nematoda, Desmodoridae) from sandy seabeds of the Canary islands

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; Núñez, Jorge; Brito, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In an ecological study of meiofaunal assemblages in two locations (Los Abrigos and Los Cristianos) of Tenerife (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean), several desmodorid species were found throughout the study period. Three species belonging to the family Desmodoridae were collected in intertidal and shallow subtidal sandy seabeds. These species were Desmodorella aff. tenuispiculum Allgen, 1928, Metachromadora sp. and Spirinia parasitifera Bastian, 1865. Descriptions, figures and tables with mer...

  13. A Bayesian Network to Predict Barrier Island Geomorphologic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, B.; Plant, N. G.; Thieler, E. R.; Turecek, A.; Stippa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how barrier islands along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States respond to storms and sea-level rise is an important management concern. Although these threats are well recognized, quantifying the integrated vulnerability is challenging due to the range of time and space scalesover which these processes act. Developing datasets and methods to identify the physical vulnerabilities of coastal environments due to storms and sea-level rise thus is an important scientific focus that supports land management decision making. Here we employ a Bayesian Network (BN) to model the interactions between geomorphic variables sampled from existing datasets that capture both storm-and sea-level rise related coastal evolution. The BN provides a means of estimating probabilities of changes in specific geomorphic characteristics such as foredune crest height, beach width, beach height, given knowledge of barrier island width, maximum barrier island elevation, distance from an inlet, the presence of anthropogenic modifications, and long-term shoreline change rates, which we assume to be directly related to sea-level rise. We evaluate BN skill and explore how different constraints, such as shoreline change characteristics (eroding, stable, accreting), distance to nearby inlets and island width, affect the probability distributions of future morphological characteristics. Our work demonstrates that a skillful BN can be constructed and that factors such as distance to inlet, shoreline change rate, and the presence of human alterations have the strongest influences on network performance. For Assateague Island, Maryland/Virginia, USA, we find that different shoreline change behaviors affect the probabilities of specific geomorphic characteristics, such as dune height, which allows us to identify vulnerable locations on the barrier island where habitat or infrastructure may be vulnerable to storms and sea-level rise.

  14. HLA genes in Madeira Island (Portugal) inferred from sequence-based typing: footprints from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Mora, Marian Gantes; Middleton, Derek; Brehm, António

    2006-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms were examined in Madeira Island populations. The data was obtained at high-resolution level, using sequence-based typing (SBT). The most frequent alleles at each loci were: A*020101 (24.6%), B*5101 (9.7%), B*440201 (9.2%), and DRB1*070101 (15.7%). The predominant three-loci haplotypes in Madeira were A*020101-B*510101-DRB1*130101 (2.7%) and A*010101-B*0801-DRB1*030101 (2.4%), previously found in north and central Portugal. The present study corroborates historical sources and other genetic studies that say Madeira were populated not only by Europeans, mostly Portuguese, but also sub-Saharan Africans due to slave trade. Comparison with other populations shows that Madeira experienced a stronger African influence due to slave trade than Portugal mainland and even the Azores archipelago. Despite this African genetic input, haplotype and allele frequencies were predominantly from European origin, mostly common to mainland Portugal.

  15. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  16. First record of Naushonia sp. (Decapoda: Laomediidae) larva from the Equatorial Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Albuquerque Lira, Simone Maria; De Santana, Claudeilton Severino; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2018-02-26

    The first zoeal-stage larva of a possibly new species of mud shrimp Naushonia (Decapoda: Gebiidea: Laomediidae) was described from plankton samples taken off the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, being the first occurrence at the oceanic islands of the Equatorial Atlantic. Five zoea I larvae were obtained and dissected for observation of mouthparts. This zoea I of Naushonia sp. is well distinguished from the first larvae of N. portoricensis (Rathbun 1901) from the Caribbean and N. cangronoides (Kingsley 1897) from the Northwest Atlantic in terms of development and setation of appendages, and possibly belongs to a new, undescribed species. The present study widens the knowledge on tropical oceanic decapod larvae and provides detailed drawings and new photographic illustrations with extended depth of field of these organisms.

  17. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  18. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  19. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  20. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  1. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  2. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  3. Further contributions to the Hydradephaga (Coleoptera, Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae) fauna of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records, distributions and faunal composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarie, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Haliplidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) of Prince Edward Island, Canada were surveyed during the years 2004-2005. A total of 2450 individuals from 79 species were collected from 98 different localities, among which 30 species are newly recorded from that region. Among these, Acilius sylvanus Hilsenhoff, Rhantus consimilis Motschulsky and Neoporus sulcipennis (Fall) stand out as representing the easternmost reports of these species in Canada. Once removed, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte (Gyrinidae) is reinstated in the faunal list of Prince Edward Island. According to this study and literature 84 species of Hydradephaga are currently known from Prince Edward Island. The Nearctic component of the fauna is made up of 68 species (80.9%) and the Holarctic component of 16 species (19.1%). Most species are characteristic of the Boreal and Atlantic Maritime Ecozones and have a transcontinental distribution. In an examination of the Hydradephaga of insular portions of Atlantic Canada, we found that despite significantly different land areas and different distances to the neighbouring continental mainland the island faunas of Prince Edward Island and insular Newfoundland are very similar in the number of species (84 and 94 species respectively) despite differences in composition. With a land area significantly larger than that of Prince Edward Island, however, the fauna of Cape Breton Island was 39% smaller consisting of 53 species. This difference could be due to the comparative lack of collecting efforts on Cape Breton Island.

  4. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  5. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  6. Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure and near-surface temperature differences between the Azores High and the Icelandic Low for the period of 1900-2012 within the spatial-temporal average-out (20º latitude, 20º longitude and 12 years) were considered. The secular term of phase states of the system under consideration was found to divide into three non-intersecting subsets. Each of that was put in consequence with one of three climatic scenarios related to the periods of 1905-1935 (relatively warm phase), 1940-1970 (colder phase) and 1980-2000 (warmer phase). A life time of such a scenario lasted about 20-35 years, and the transition from one scenario to another covered 4-6 years, i.e. it run comparatively quickly. The revealed non-overlapping sub-aggregates of the thermodynamic indices related to each particular climate scenario gave an idea to follow the circulation peculiarities and the interrelated temperature differences within the limits of the Northern Atlantic ocean-atmosphere regional system. The results of this analysis bear evidence that the most probable intermittent strengthening and weakening of Hadley and Ferrell circulations occurred there in coincided phase. The analogous character of the climate system behavior was also detected in some other regional atmospheric activity centers that can be considered as a witness on the global nature of the detected phase type of modern climate inter-decadal variability. Hence, we have the grounds to suppose that mentioned above the short-period inter-decadal excitations of the modern climate have a global nature and appears everywhere. Finally, the attention was paid to the fact that at the early XXI century the thermodynamic state of the Northern Atlantic regional climate system has shown a tendency to face towards the situation, similar to the cooler scenario of the 1940-1970. We used the heat content of upper 700m Atlantic Ocean layer data from NODC to calculate its anomalies for the periods of 1955-1970, 1980-2000 and

  7. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  8. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  9. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  10. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F; Jelks, Howard L

    2014-05-29

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  11. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  12. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  13. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  14. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  15. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  16. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  17. Diving behavior of the Atlantic walrus in high Arctic Greenland and Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of diving behavior of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the high Arctic Greenland and Canada are important for understanding behavioral adaptations and area utilization of this Arctic benthic feeder. Furthermore, such information along with estimations of annual......% CI: 1.0–2.6). Based on dive rates, time at depth, haul-out and percentage of feeding dives Alexandra Fjord and Princess Mary Bay in NE Canada and Carey Island in NW Greenland were identified as the most important areas for walrus feeding during summer. Walrus predation on the standing bivalve biomass...

  18. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  19. Natural Surfactant Enrichments in the Atlantic Ocean Between 50°N and 50°S: Data from the Atlantic Meridional Transect, Oct-Nov 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbaghzadeh, B.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Nightingale, P. D.; Beale, R.

    2016-02-01

    Surfactants that decrease air-sea gas exchange by suppressing the gas transfer velocity (kw) show variable enrichments in the sea surface microlayer (SML) relative to the underlying water. This reflects variability in the rates of surfactant production and consumption. Total surfactant activity (SA: equivalent to Triton-X-100, mgL -1) was determined daily between the UK and the Falkland Islands, during cruise 24 of the Atlantic Meridional Transect programme (AMT 24). Samples were simultaneously obtained from the SML (Garrett screen), from the ship's underway system (inlet at 7m) and in hydrocasts to 500m. SA analysis was by hanging mercury drop electrode polarography (Metrohm 797 VA Computrace). SA enrichment factors (EF: SML SA / underlying water SA) >1 were observed at most locations, showing the SML to be consistently SA-enriched along the entire cruise transect. The persistence of these enrichments up to wind speeds 12m s-¹ support previous conclusions regarding the stability of the SML under high winds. More specifically, SA in the SML was up to four-fold higher in the Atlantic Northern Hemisphere than in the Atlantic Southern Hemisphere. Even so, EF values were not significantly different between the two hemispheres (p >0.05). These various findings have potentially important implications for kw variability across ocean basin scales.

  20. Mapping mesoscale variability of the Azores Current using TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimetry, together with hydrographic and Lagrangian measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fabrice; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Morrow, Rosemary

    1995-12-01

    The SEMAPHORE mesoscale air/sea experiment was conducted in the Azores-Madeira region from July to November 1993. TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) and ERS 1 were flying simultaneously at that time. The main purposes of this paper are to evaluate the estimation of the oceanic mesoscale circulation from the two different sets of altimetric data (T/P and ERS 1) and to compare the results with in situ measurements provided by the SEMAPHORE hydrographic surveys and surface drifters (three expendable bathytermograph conductivity-temperature-depth surveys in a 500-km2 box and a set of 47 Lagrangian surface drifters drogued at 150 m). Comparisons are carried out through the maps obtained by objective analysis from the four data sets. The mapping accuracy of T/P, ERS 1, T/P and ERS 1 combined, and in situ data is investigated, as well as the sensitivity of the mapping to the correlation functions used. There is a good qualitative agreement between altimetric maps and corresponding drifter and hydrographic maps for the three hydrographic surveys. Correlations are about 0.8, and the regression fit is about 0.6-0.7; the lower values are due to the smooth climatology used to reference the altimetric maps. The correlation for time differences is better, with regression lines not significantly different from 1, especially when ERS 1 and T/P are combined. T/P mapping is almost as good as ERS 1 mapping, which was rather unexpected since the ERS 1 space-time sampling is better suited for the mesoscale. This may reflect the fact that the signal mapped by the hydrography and drifters does not contain the high frequency/wavenumber components. T/P and ERS 1 combined provide better results, although the improvement is not as large as expected, probably for the same reason.

  1. The quest for chron E23r at Partridge Island, bay of Fundy, Canada: CAMP emplacement postdates the end-Triassic extinction event at the North American craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, M.H.L.; Krijgsman, W.; Ruhl, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Partridge Island stratigraphic section at the Bay of Fundy, Maritime Canada, reveals a continental sedimentary succession with the end-Triassic mass extinction level closely followed by basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). New Paleomagnetic data show that a short reverse

  2. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  3. Chemical composition of deep hydrothermal fluids in the Ribeira Grande geothermal field (São Miguel, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. R.; Forjaz, V. H.; Almeida, C.

    2006-08-01

    The Ribeira Grande geothermal field is a water-dominated geothermal system, located within Água de Pau/Fogo Volcano in the central part of the São Miguel Island. This geothermal system is exploited for energy production by wells sustaining two power plants. The wells produce from a formation of pillow lavas divided into different aquifers, with a fairly isothermal zone from 800 to 1300 m in depth, where reservoir temperature reaches 230 to 245 °C. Below the depth of 1300 m there is a slight temperature reversal. The fluid produced has excess enthalpy and, separated at atmospheric pressure, is characterized by mineralization of sodium-chloride type up to 6-7 g/l, the concentration of dissolved silica varies between 450 and 650 mg/l and the pH ranges between 8 and 8.6. The gas phase is dominantly CO 2, at a concentration of 98% of NCG. The composition of the deep geothermal fluid was obtained by computer simulation, using the WATCH program, and was compared with the composition of the bottom-hole samples. The approximations, in this simulation, were considered the single- and multi-step steam separation. The reference temperatures were based on: (i) the measured temperature in wells; (ii) the Na/K geothermometric temperature and (iii) the enthalpy-saturation temperature. According to both the measured and geothermometric temperatures, the deep fluid of the wells has two phases with a steam fraction up to 0.34, at higher well discharges. The measured enthalpy is always greater than the calculated enthalpy. The calcite equilibrium indicates scaling, since the fluid is flashing, around 2.28 mg/l CaCO 3 at the maximum discharge. The geothermal wells exploit three different aquifers, the lower of which is liquid and slightly colder than the upper ones. The intermediate is a two-phase aquifer with a steam fraction up to 0.081. The upper aquifer is probably of steam phase. The main differences between the aquifers are the temperature and boiling; both enthalpy and

  4. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  5. Barrier island community change: What controls it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dows, B.; Young, D.; Zinnert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Conversion from grassland to woody dominated communities has been observed globally. In recent decades, this pattern has been observed in coastal communities along the mid-Atlantic U.S. In coastal environments, a suite of biotic and abiotic factors interact as filters to determine plant community structure and distribution. Microclimatic conditions: soil and air temperature, soil moisture and salinity, and light attenuation under grass cover were measured across a grassland-woody encroachment gradient on a Virginia barrier island; to identify the primary factors that mediate this change. Woody establishment was associated with moderately dense (2200 shoots/m2) grass cover, but reduced at high (> 6200 shoots/ m2) and low (Moderately dense grass cover reduced light attenuation (82.50 % reduction) to sufficiently reduce soil temperature thereby limiting soil moisture evaporation. However, high grass density reduced light attenuation (98.7 % reduction) enough to inhibit establishment of woody species; whereas low grass density attenuated much less light (48.7 % reduction) which allowed for greater soil moisture evaporation. Soil salinity was dynamic as rainfall, tidal inundation, and sea spray produce spatiotemporal variation throughout the barrier island landscape. The importance of light and temperature were compounded as they also indirectly affect soil salinity via their affects on soil moisture. Determining how these biotic and abiotic factors relate to sea level rise and climate change will improve understanding coastal community response as global changes proceed. Understanding how community shifts affect ecosystem function and their potential to affect adjacent systems will also improve predictive ability of coastal ecosystem responses.

  6. Mapping natural radioactivity of soils in the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, M A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Tejera, A; González, A; González, J; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P; Bolivar, J P

    2017-01-01

    The Canary Islands archipielago (Spain) comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for around 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, between latitudes 27°N and 30°N, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast. The administrative province of Las Palmas comprises the three eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria). An extensive study of terrestrial gamma dose rates in surface soils has been carried out to cover the entire territory of the province (4093 km 2 ). The average outdoor gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above ground is 73 nGyh -1  at Gran Canaria, 32 nGyh -1  at Fuerteventura, and 25 nGyh -1  at Lanzarote. To complete the radiological characterization of this volcanic area, 350 soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected to cover all the geologic typologies of the islands. These samples were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. The average values obtained were 25.2 Bq/kg, 28.9 Bq/kg, and 384.4 Bq/kg, respectively. Maps of terrestrial gamma activity, effective dose, and activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for the region have been developed through the use of geostatistical interpolation techniques. These maps are in accord with the geology of the islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predação de ninhos artificiais em uma ilha na Mata Atlântica: testando o local e o tipo de ovo Artificial nest predation in Atlantic Forest Island: testing the place and the different types of egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane D. Alvarez

    2007-12-01

    in a island with high abundance of nest predators. The study was carry out in October 2004 at Anchieta Island, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The nests on the ground showed a statistical significance difference in the predation of quail eggs, plasticine and canary eggs. However, we did not find differences between plasticine and canaries eggs. The nests in the understory had a different pattern on the ground of quail eggs (25% and plasticine (28% and there was a difference when we compare canary eggs with plasticine and quail eggs. Our work pointed out that different eggs may have different predation rates. Therefore, studies that evaluate reproductive fitness of the bird community based on artificial nests must considered different egg types and strata.

  8. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  9. Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Hosia

    Full Text Available The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV. Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d. when used at the same stations (n = 6. While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering

  10. Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenhaug, Tone; Baxter, Emily J.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)). Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d.) when used at the same stations (n = 6). While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering sampling methodology

  11. Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosia, Aino; Falkenhaug, Tone; Baxter, Emily J; Pagès, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)). Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d.) when used at the same stations (n = 6). While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering sampling methodology

  12. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  13. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  14. The ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the sub-polar front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; ECO-MAR project strategy and description of the sampling programme 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.; Billett, David S. M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Inall, Mark; Miller, Peter I.; Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Fujii, Toyonobu

    2013-12-01

    The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of the MAR in the years 2007-2010; a pair of northern stations at 54°N in cold water north of the sub-polar front and southern stations at 49°N in warmer water influenced by eddies from the North Atlantic Current. At each station an instrumented mooring was deployed with current meters and sediment traps (100 and 1000 m above the sea floor) to sample downward flux of particulate matter. The patterns of water flow, fronts, primary production and export flux in the region were studied by a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Sonar, tow nets and profilers sampled pelagic fauna over the MAR. Swath bathymetry surveys across the ridge revealed sediment-covered flat terraces parallel to the axis of the MAR with intervening steep rocky slopes. Otter trawls, megacores, baited traps and a suite of tools carried by the R.O.V. Isis including push cores, grabs and a suction device collected benthic fauna. Video and photo surveys were also conducted using the SHRIMP towed vehicle and the R.O.V. Isis. Additional surveying and sampling by landers and R.O.V. focussed on the summit of a seamount (48°44‧N, 28°10‧W) on the western crest of the MAR between the two southern stations.

  15. Northern tropical Atlantic climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), and increased Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical Atlantic is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical Atlantic. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical Atlantic is important because the tropical Atlantic Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical Atlantic (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for

  16. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    ) policy stipulates that natural coastal processes be maintained to the greatest extent possible and not be impeded so as to conserve landforms, habitats and natural ecosystem resources that reply on the landforms and processes for long-term sustainability of the national park. Storms and associated processes such as waves, tides, currents and relative sea-level change are critical elements for the formation and evolution of these barrier islands, sand dunes, back-barrier sand flats and lagoons and vegetated wetlands. Processes such as wave run-up, overwash and barrier beaching, which occur during elevated storm surge are all necessary processes in enabling the efficient transfer of sediments, nutrients and marine water from the Atlantic Ocean across barriers and into Great South Bay. A large body of scientific data and information published over the past 50 years shows that such transfers of sediment and water from the ocean to the bays are essential for the long-term maintenance of the barrier island and back-bay systems and their biologically diverse habitats an d ecosystems. Current relative sea-level rise (~12 in/century) is chronic and pervasive in driving Long Island coastal change and with the likelihood of accelerating sea level rise in the near future, coastal hazards such as erosion, inundation, and storm surge flooding will increase, with corresponding increased risk to life and property on both Fire Island and on the mainland. In addition, the cumulative effects over the past century and more, both direct and indirect, of human impacts on the Long Island coast have altered the barrier beach and dunes and sediment transport processes. These impacts have likely increased the potential for breaching and increased risk to life and property on the coast and the mainland. Examples of direct impacts are: the stone jetties at Moriches, Shinnecock, and Fire Island tidal inlets and groin field structures at Westhampton that alter littoral processes, armoring and erosion

  17. Distribution of polymorphisms IL4-590 C/T and IL4 RP2 in the human populations of Madeira, Azores, Portugal, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Anabela G; Câmara, Rita A; Brehm, António D; Oliveira, Susana; Fernandes, Ana T

    2012-01-01

    The IL4 gene is located on chromosome 5q23.3-31.2. Polymorphisms within this cytokine gene, like the derivative allele T of IL4-590, have been reported as being associated to elevated IgE serum levels and asthma. In the present work, the allelic and genotypic frequency of the IL4-590 and IL4 RP2 polymorphisms was carried out in 599 individuals from Madeira, Azores, Portugal mainland, Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau and in a sample of 101 asthmatics from Madeira population. In all populations the polymorphisms were in LD and presented a significant dissimilar allelic and genotypic distribution (pMadeira when compared to Azores. Significant differences regarding both loci were found between Madeira population and the group of asthmatics. Genotype 183183TT frequency is higher for African populations while 253253CC prevails in Caucasian populations. The existence of a Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium in Guinea-Bissau population not observed in neutral markers leads to the hypothesis of natural selection occurring in these loci probably associated to a rapid population growth an hypothesis strengthened by neutral STRs D5S818 and CSF1PO gene diversity.

  18. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, T. [Atlantica Centre for Energy, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: tim.curry@atlanticaenergy.org

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging.

  19. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  20. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging