Payne, Ellen K.; Walker, Stacy E.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.
Context: Little research is available on how athletic training educators develop their instructional styles over the course of their careers and what influences their teaching practices. Understanding the development of athletic training educators' teaching practices may help promote effective teaching in athletic training programs and help guide…
Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.
Context: Professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs) are becoming more popular as the profession debates what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training. More information is needed related to the potential benefits of PM ATPs. Objective: Describe the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)…
An athletic training curriculum for the training of high school coaches and physical education teachers in Virginia includes courses on: (1) athletic injuries--a basic study of human physiology and anatomy relevant to different athletic injuries; (2) the art and science of sports medicine--prevention, evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of…
Jeukendrup, Asker E.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in delivering carbohydrate and fluid during prolonged exercise and can therefore be a major determinant of performance. The incidence of GI problems in athletes participating in endurance events is high, indicating that GI function is not always optimal in those conditions. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the GI system is highly adaptable. Gastric emptying as well as stomach comfort can be ?trained? and perceptions of fullness...
Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.
Context: Successful athletic training programs should help students develop a desire to work within the athletic training profession while providing adequate preparation for them to enter the workforce. Understanding athletic training students' perceptions of the profession as they leave programs and the factors that influence these…
Rooney, Kevin F.
Athletic trainers work in clinical settings such as secondary schools, colleges and universities, sports medicine clinics, professional sports, hospitals, and other healthcare environments. However, with the rapid expansion of athletic training education programs (ATEP) over the years, another role for the athletic trainer has developed, the…
While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training "dose" that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical "response" when it is excessive or not managed appropriately. It also examines the best approaches to quantifying load and injury risk, acknowledging the relative strengths and weaknesses of subjective and objective approaches. Making evidence-based decisions is emphasized, while the appropriate monitoring techniques are determined by both the sporting context and individual situation. Ultimately a systematic approach to training-load monitoring is recommended for adolescent athletes to both maximize their athletic development and allow an opportunity for learning, reflection, and enhancement of performance knowledge of coaches and practitioners.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri
Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.
Context: Professional socialization is a key process in the professional development of athletic training students. The published athletic training education research has focused on many perspectives regarding socialization; however, it has yet to investigate the program director's (PD's) opinion. Objective: To gain insights from the PD on methods…
Ricardo dos Santos; Aurineider Marcelino da Silva; Glaycon Michels
The adaptation to the training seems to depend on factors such as: intensity of the training volume, frequency and initial level of physical aptitude. However, in highly trained athletes, the intensity of the training and the initial level of performance seem to be the most important main factors influencing the reply to the training and, therefore the performance of the competition considering that the volume of necessary training and the frequency are assured. During the training preparatio...
Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter
The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. psomatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes.
Mansell, Jamie; Moffit, Dani M.; Russ, Anne C.; Thorpe, Justin N.
Context: Sexual harassment is a growing concern in higher education. Athletic training students should feel safe in their programs, whether in the didactic or clinical setting. Though the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education creates standards to keep the students safe, there are none regarding sexual harassment training for…
Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer
Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…
Douglas M. Seavey
Full Text Available The Journal of Sports Medicine & Allied Health Sciences, 2016;2(1 ISSN: 2376-9289 Seavey, Beatty, Lenhoff, & Krause. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Douglas M. Seavey, AT, Christopher T. Beatty, Tyler L. Lenhoff, & Bentley A. Krause, PhD, AT Ohio University, College of Health Sciences & Professions, Division of Athletic Training. ____________________________________________________________________ Context: Athletic trainers (ATs, more than any other healthcare professional, has expertise in areas of on-field assessment and management of sport related concussion and spinal cord injury. A search of the key words “brain” (n=>100 or “spinal cord/spine” (n=~50 were identified in National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statements on Concussion and Spinal Cord Injury. However, a significant gap exists in the basic science knowledge of neuroscience and neuroanatomy. Objective: The goal of this study is to identify the basic science coursework in professional and post-professional athletic training curricula. Design and Setting: This is a descriptive, curricula analysis of CAATE Professional and Post-Professional Athletic Training Programs using web-based search and review. Participants: Curricula for accredited Professional (n=336 and Post-Professional (n=15 Athletic Training Programs were reviewed and analyzed to characteristics basic science content. Interventions: This web-based program review of CAATE standard course content and elective options occurred. Main Outcome Measures: Course titles, numbers and descriptions were accessed at CAATE.net and offerings of anatomy, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy and neuroscience, human physiology, exercise physiology, psychology, chemistry and physics content were quantified. Main outcome measures include frequencies and distributions of courses in each subject area. Results: We reviewed 309
Sep 3, 2016 ... After the three groups of athletes received training of different intensities, there is a significant improvement in their cardiac function to a certain extent, especially Group. C athletes receiving 90-minute running. After training, athletes' cardiac muscle is effectively enhanced, and their myocardial strength is ...
Researchers have reported that athletic training students who earn teacher certification enhance their job marketability. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of athletic training students who pursue teacher certification. A survey was mailed to the directors of the 78 NATA undergraduate programs in 1992. Data from the returned surveys showed that 177 of the 703 expected graduates in 1992 and 148 of the 640 graduates in 1991 pursued teacher certification. The most common teacher certification subject area was Physical Education, followed by Health, and Science or Biology. These students should expect to take an additional 1.6 semesters (range 0 to 4) to complete teacher certification requirements. Program directors cited increased job opportunities as the main advantage, and increased time in school and financial burden as the main disadvantages of pursuing teacher certification. Although the potential for high school jobs seems enormous, there is little indication that high schools are increasingly hiring athletic trainers. Formal counseling and advising for athletic training students regarding teacher certification and job opportunities should occur in the first year of study. Additional research should assess the job market. Imagesp350-a PMID:16558362
Meyer, Linda Platt
Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555
Meyer, Linda Platt
OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.
Meyer, Linda Platt
Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership ...
The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether or not undergraduate athletic training educators are writing learning objectives that foster critical thinking (CT) skills, and (b) to determine if their written assignments and written examinations are measuring the extent to which students have developed CT skills. Thirty institutions seeking accreditation for their athletic training programs from the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Educational Programs in the 1994-95 academic year were asked to provide their curriculum materials (course syllabus, two to three examinations, or both from each athletic training-specific course). Thirteen curriculum directors (43%) provided materials. Each learning objective, examination question, and written assignment was classified as either CT or non-critical thinking (NCT) using Bloom's taxonomy. From 64 usable syllabi, a total of 678 learning objectives were classified as either CT (52%) or NCT (48%). From 81 written examinations, 3215 questions were classified as either CT (14%) or NCT (86%). In addition, a total of 143 written assignments were all classified as CT. The results of this study indicate that educators fostered more CT in their learning objectives and written assignments than in their written exams. Valid educational instruments (eg, Bloom's taxonomy) may help educators design learning objectives, assignments, and examinations.
Nellis, Stephen M.
Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training f...
Nellis, S M
Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training facility's mission. By applying good management and leadership skills, you can implement your mission statement, evaluate your results, and improve the performance of your athletic training facility.
Nellis, Stephen M.
Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training facility's mission. By applying good management and leadership skills, you can implement your mission statement, evaluate your results, and improve the performance of your athletic training facility. PMID:16558296
Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.
This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength…
Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.
Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995?August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study sel...
Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise
Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…
Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.
Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…
Stanek, Justin; Rogers, Katherine; Anderson, Jordan
Researchers have examined the physical activity (PA) habits of certified athletic trainers; however, none have looked specifically at athletic training students. To assess PA participation and constraints to participation among athletic training students. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level athletic training education programs (undergraduate and graduate) across the United States. Participants were 1125 entry-level athletic training students. Self-reported PA participation, including a calculated PA index based on a typical week. Leisure constraints and demographic data were also collected. Only 22.8% (252/1105) of athletic training students were meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for PA through moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise. Although 52.3% (580/1105) were meeting the recommendations through vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise, 60.5% (681/1125) were meeting the recommendations based on the combined total of moderate or vigorous cardiorespiratory exercise. In addition, 57.2% (643/1125) of respondents met the recommendations for resistance exercise. Exercise habits of athletic training students appear to be better than the national average and similar to those of practicing athletic trainers. Students reported structural constraints such as lack of time due to work or studies as the most significant barrier to exercise participation. Athletic training students experienced similar constraints to PA participation as practicing athletic trainers, and these constraints appeared to influence their exercise participation during their entry-level education. Athletic training students may benefit from a greater emphasis on work-life balance during their entry-level education to promote better health and fitness habits.
Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn
.... To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons...
Buoite Stella, Alex; Francescato, Maria P; Sims, Stacy T; Morrison, Shawnda A
Hydration habits during training may differ depending on sports mode and individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess fluid intake behavior in a wide sample of Italian athletes during their regular training. Data on hydration habits during training were collected from a random sample of competitive athletes. Hydration strategies and personal characteristics were queried via questionnaire, including athletes' quantity and type of fluid ingested during a typical training bout, sport characteristics (e.g. mode and training duration), and whether their coach encouraged them to drink during trainings. Three hundred and fifty-two competitive athletes participated to the study; two hundred eighty-nine athletes correctly completed all survey items (age: 8-63 years, median: 21±13 years). Athletes were involved in international (3.1%), national (34.1%) and regional (44.9%) competitions. Median fluid intakes during training were 0.25 L/h; 150 athletes reported fluid intake below the median, whilst 23 athletes (6.5% of total sample) reported fluid intake at or above currently published exercise hydration guidelines (NATA and ACSM). Binary logistic regression indicated that the number of pauses to drink (B=0.771, P=0.000), duration of a typical training bout (B=-2.237, P=0.000), and a coach's encouragement to drink (B=0.601, P=0.030) were each associated with fluid consumption above or below the median value. Athletes across all disciplines reported drinking less fluid during training than currently espoused in hydration guidelines. A coach's encouragement to drink, the number of pauses during training, and bout duration each influence total fluid volume consumed, regardless of competition level, sex or the age of an athlete.
Wham, George S; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James
Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Cross-sectional study. Mailed and e-mailed survey. One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r = 0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P athletic trainer and the size of the sports medicine supply budget. The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for interscholastic athletes.
Bowman, Thomas G; Dodge, Thomas M
Although previous researchers have begun to identify sources of athletic training student stress, the specific reasons for student frustrations are not yet fully understood. It is important for athletic training administrators to understand sources of student frustration to provide a supportive learning environment. To determine the factors that lead to feelings of frustration while completing a professional athletic training education program (ATEP). Qualitative study. National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) accredited postprofessional education program. Fourteen successful graduates (12 women, 2 men) of accredited professional undergraduate ATEPs enrolled in an NATA-accredited postprofessional education program. We conducted semistructured interviews and analyzed data with a grounded theory approach using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. We negotiated over the coding scheme and performed peer debriefings and member checks to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Four themes emerged from the data: (1) Athletic training student frustrations appear to stem from the amount of stress involved in completing an ATEP, leading to anxiety and feelings of being overwhelmed. (2) The interactions students have with classmates, faculty, and preceptors can also be a source of frustration for athletic training students. (3) Monotonous clinical experiences often left students feeling disengaged. (4) Students questioned entering the athletic training profession because of the fear of work-life balance problems and low compensation. In order to reduce frustration, athletic training education programs should validate students' decisions to pursue athletic training and validate their contributions to the ATEP; provide clinical education experiences with graded autonomy; encourage positive personal interactions between students, faculty, and preceptors; and successfully model the benefits of a career in athletic training.
Objective: An effective analysis of correlation between training intensity of athletes and cardiac performance is done to develop scientific and reasonable exercise program and to promote health of athletes. Methods: During December 2013-December 2015, 3600 students from different sports schools were selected for the ...
Wham, George S.; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James
Abstract Context: Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. Objective: To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Mailed and e-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. Intervention(s): The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r = 0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Results: Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P sports medicine supply budget. Conclusions: The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for
Mohansundar Sankaravel; Jeffrey Low Fook Lee; Ong Kuan Boon; Sanmuganathan Jeganathan
Background: Proprioceptive deficiency followed by lateral ankle sprain leads to poor balance is not uncommon. It has been linked with increased injury risk among young athletes. Introducing neuromuscular training programs for this have been believed as one of the means of injury prevention. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the effects of six weeks progressive neuromuscular training (PNM Training) on static balance gains among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains...
Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas
Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134
Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.
Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley
Context: Choosing to pursue an advanced degree in athletic training appears to indicate professional commitment and passion for the profession. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding why some athletic trainers pursue enrollment in a postprofessional athletic training program (PPATP), indicating commitment to the profession, but later depart for another primary role outside of athletic training. Objective: To understand why athletic trainers invested in advanced training via a PPATP but then decided to leave the profession. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Online data collection. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve graduates (8 women [67%], 4 men [33%], age = 31.58 ± 3.06 years) from PPATPs who no longer had primary employment as an athletic trainer. Data Collection and Analysis: Recruits responded to an e-mail invitation to participate by completing a confidential online questionnaire. We analyzed data using a general inductive approach and secured trustworthiness using multiple-analyst triangulation, peer review, and member checks. Results: Two higher-order themes emerged regarding the career commitment of former athletic trainers who were PPATP graduates: (1) departure from an athletic training career and (2) partial continuance in athletic training. Two second-order themes emerged from the reasons for departure: (1) decreased recognition of value and (2) work-life imbalance. Finally, we identified 2 third-order themes from the participants' reasons for departure because of a perceived lack of value: (1) low salary and (2) long, inconsistent hours worked. Conclusions: Most of our participants intended to stay in the profession when they chose to attend a PPATP. However, during role inductance in either the clinical experience of the PPATP they attended or early in their careers, they began to have thoughts of leaving mainly because of inadequate financial compensation, challenging work schedules, or both. PMID:25343531
Sep 3, 2016 ... different schools for study, randomly divided the students ... 2013-December 2015, 3600 students from different sports schools were selected for the test. ... Key words: Athlete, cardiac performance, correlation, training intensity.
M G Miller; C Harvatt; K Hirsch; W R Holcomb
An abstract of a study by Miller et al determining communication aspects using social network analysis for on-campus and off campus clinical placement sites of undergraduate athletic training students is presented...
Pryor, Riana R; Casa, Douglas J; Vandermark, Lesley W; Stearns, Rebecca L; Attanasio, Sarah M; Fontaine, Garrett J; Wafer, Alex M
Authors of the most recent study of athletic training (AT) services have suggested that only 42% of secondary schools have access to athletic trainers. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and was conducted more than 10 years ago. To determine current AT services in public secondary schools. Cross-sectional study. Public secondary schools in the United States. A total of 8509 (57%) of 14,951 secondary schools from all 50 states and Washington, DC, responded to the survey. Data on AT services were collected for individual states, National Athletic Trainers' Association districts, and the nation. Of the 8509 schools that responded, 70% (n = 5930) had AT services, including full-time (n = 3145, 37%), part-time (n = 2619, 31%), and per diem (n = 199, 2%) AT services, and 27% (n = 2299) had AT services from a hospital or physical therapy clinic. A total of 4075 of 8509 schools (48%) provided coverage at all sports practices. Eighty-six percent (2,394,284/2,787,595) of athletes had access to AT services. Since the last national survey, access to AT services increased such that 70% of respondent public secondary schools provided athletic trainers at sports games or practices. Approximately one-third of all public secondary schools had full-time athletic trainers. This number must increase further to provide appropriate medical coverage at athletic practices and games for secondary school athletes.
Thema works: Use of athletic training equipment in fire sport Student: Miroslava Mikulová Supervisor: odb. as. Aleš Kaplan Aims: The aim of this work is based on a questionnaire survey to determine the use of special introductory athletic training and other resources in fire sport for both professional and volunteer firefighters. Methodology: The data that was necessary to write a thesis, I have gained through non-standardized anonymous questionnaire created for both professional and voluntee...
Goodman, Ashley; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M
The athletics model, in which athletic training clinical programs are part of the athletics department, is the predominant model in the collegiate athletic training setting. Little is known about athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of this model, particularly as it relates to organizational hierarchy. To explore the perceived benefits of and barriers in the athletics model. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III. Eight full-time ATs (5 men, 3 women; age = 41 ± 13 years, time employed at the current institution = 14 ± 14 years, experience as a certified AT = 18 ± 13 years) working in the collegiate setting using the athletics model. We conducted semistructured interviews via telephone or in person and used a general inductive approach to analyze the qualitative data. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review established trustworthiness. Two benefits and 3 barriers emerged from the data. Role identity emerged as a benefit that occurred with role clarity, validation, and acceptance of the collegiate AT personality. Role congruence emerged as a benefit of the athletics model that occurred with 2 lower-order themes: relationship building and physician alignment and support. Role strain, staffing concerns, and work-life conflict emerged as barriers in the athletics model. Role strain occurred with 2 primary lower-order themes: role incongruity and role conflict. The athletics model is the most common infrastructure for employing ATs in collegiate athletics. Participants expressed positive experiences via character identity, support, trust relationships, and longevity. However, common barriers remain. To reduce role strain, misaligning values, and work-life conflict, ATs working in the athletics model are encouraged to evaluate their relationships with coaches and their supervisor and consider team physician alignment. Moreover, measures to increase quality athletic training staff from a care
Miller, Michael G; Berry, David C
OBJECTIVE: To establish a time profile to determine how athletic training students use their time in clinical placements and to determine the effects of academic standing, sex, sport type, and risk of injury associated with a sport during athletic training students' clinical placements on instructional, clinical, unengaged, managerial, and active learning time. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects were enrolled in clinical placements within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics, intramural sports, and a local high school. Students were individually videotaped for approximately 4 hours. SUBJECTS: A total of 20 undergraduate athletic training students (17 women, 3 men) from a Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education program. MEASUREMENTS: We created a conceptual behavioral time framework to examine athletic training students' use of clinical-placement time with the performance domains associated with the 1999 National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Role Delineation Study. Students' use of time was analyzed with the Behavior Evaluation Strategies and Taxonomies software. RESULTS: Students spent 7% of their overall clinical-placement time in instructional activities, 23% in clinical activities, 10% in managerial activities, and 59% in unengaged activities. Using multiple 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance, we found that advanced students were engaged in significantly more active learning and clinical time compared with novice and intermediate students. Students assigned to sports in which injuries predominately occur in the upper extremities (upper extremity sports) spent significantly more clinical-placement time unengaged compared with students assigned to sports in which injuries predominantly occur in the lower extremities (lower extremity sports) or in both upper and lower extremities (mixed extremity sports). CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, we
Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Wardenaar, Floris C; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B
Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement among athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-hr dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2- to 4-week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature. These were then used to calculate each athlete's dietary nitrate intake from the web-based recalls. The median[IQR] habitual nitrate intake was 106[75-170] mg/d (range 19-525 mg/d). Nitrate intake correlated with energy intake (ρ = 0.28, p athletes (12.8[9.2-20.0] vs 9.4[6.2-13.8] mg/MJ; p athletes (150[88-236] vs 114[61-183] g/d; p athletes was 106 mg, with large interindividual variation. Dietary nitrate intake was strongly associated with the intake of vegetables. Increasing the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables in the diet might serve as an alternative strategy for nitrate supplementation.
Hoyt, Walter Jordan; Dean, Peter N; John, Anitha S; Gimple, Lawrence W; Mistry, Dilaawar J; Battle, Robert W
Both intense endurance training and valvular regurgitation place a volume load on the right and left ventricles, potentially leading to dilation, but their effects in combination are not well-known. The purpose of this case series is to describe the combined volume load of intense endurance athletic training and regurgitant valvular disease as well as the challenging assessment of each component's cardiovascular effect. In this article, the clinical course of three elite endurance athletes with congenital valvular disease were reviewed. A swimmer with aortic regurgitation, a cyclist with aortic regurgitation, and a cyclist with pulmonary regurgitation were found to have severe dilation of the associated ventricles despite continuing to train at an elite level without symptoms. Because of the cumulative effects of endurance training and valvular regurgitation, each athlete manifested ventricular dilation out of proportion to their valvular disease and symptoms. Although the effects of congenital valvular disease and athletic remodeling on ventricular dilation have been thoroughly studied individually, their cumulative effect is not well understood. This complicates the assessment of athletes with valvular regurgitation and underscores the need for athlete-specific recommendations for valve replacement.
Brenner, Joel S
Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical report "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PHIIT group compared to HICR group. A greater improvement of aerobic capacity was observed in HIIT group (8.8%) compared to the HICR group (1.7%). In relation to physical fitness, the HIIT group improved in the vertical jump while the HICR group did not change. Both the HIIT and HICR groups showed greater improvements in T-test and sit-ups during the intervention period. This study shows the effectiveness of eleven sessions of HIIT in producing significant improvements in anaerobic capacity relevant to successful Taekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.
Biffi, Alessandro; Maron, Barry J; Verdile, Luisa; Fernando, Fredrick; Spataro, Antonio; Marcello, Giuseppe; Ciardo, Roberto; Ammirati, Fabrizio; Colivicchi, Furio; Pelliccia, Antonio
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of athletic training and, in particular, physical deconditioning, on frequent and/or complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias assessed by 24-h ambulatory (Holter) electrocardiogram (ECG). Sudden deaths in athletes are usually mediated by ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Twenty-four hour ambulatory ECGs were recorded at peak training and after a deconditioning period of 19 +/- 6 weeks (range, 12 to 24 weeks) in a population of 70 trained athletes selected on the basis of frequent and/or complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias (i.e., > or =2,000 premature ventricular depolarization [PVD] and/or > or =1 burst of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia [NSVT]/24 h). A significant decrease in the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias was evident after deconditioning: PVDs/24 h: 10,611 +/- 10,078 to 2,165 +/- 4,877 (80% reduction; p deconditioning. In athletes with heart disease, the resolution of such arrhythmias with detraining may represent a mechanism by which risk for sudden death is reduced. Conversely, in athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and the absence of cardiac events in the follow-up support the benign clinical nature of these rhythm disturbances as another expression of athlete's heart.
Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis
Perfectionistic athletes may train harder and for longer than non-perfectionistic athletes, leaving them susceptible to elevated levels of training distress. So far, however, no study has investigated the relationships between perfectionism and training distress, a key indicator of overtraining syndrome. Furthermore, no study has determined psychological predictors of overtraining syndrome. Using a two-wave design, the present study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns and training distress in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years, range = 16-19 years) over 3 months of active training. Multiple regression analyses were employed to test cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between perfectionism and training distress. In all analyses, perfectionism emerged as a significant predictor, but strivings and concerns showed differential relationships. When the cross-sectional relationships were regarded, perfectionistic concerns positively predicted training distress (P .05). The findings suggest that sports scientists who wish to identify athletes at risk of overtraining syndrome may monitor athletes' perfectionistic concerns as a possible risk factor.
Bowman, Thomas G; Dodge, Thomas M
Previous researchers have indicated that athletic training education programs (ATEPs) appear to retain students who are motivated and well integrated into their education programs. However, no researchers have examined the factors leading to successful persistence to graduation of recent graduates from ATEPs. To determine the factors that led students enrolled in a postprofessional education program accredited by the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) to persist to graduation from accredited undergraduate ATEPs. Qualitative study. Postprofessional education program accredited by the NATA. Fourteen graduates (12 women, 2 men) of accredited undergraduate entry-level ATEPs who were enrolled in an NATA-accredited postprofessional education program volunteered to participate. We conducted semistructured interviews and analyzed data through a grounded theory approach. We used open, axial, and selective coding procedures. To ensure trustworthiness, 2 independent coders analyzed the data. The researchers then negotiated over the coding categories until they reached 100% agreement. We also performed member checks and peer debriefing. Four themes emerged from the data. Decisions to persist to graduation from ATEPs appeared to be influenced by students' positive interactions with faculty, clinical instructors, and peers. The environment of the ATEPs also affected their persistence. Participants thought they learned much in both the clinic and the classroom, and this learning motivated them to persist. Finally, participants could see themselves practicing athletic training as a career, and this greatly influenced their eventual persistence. Our study gives athletic training educators insight into the reasons students persist to graduation from ATEPs. Specifically, athletic training programs should strive to develop close-knit learning communities that stress positive interactions between students and instructors. Athletic training educators also must work to
Halson, Shona L
Many athletes, coaches, and support staff are taking an increasingly scientific approach to both designing and monitoring training programs. Appropriate load monitoring can aid in determining whether an athlete is adapting to a training program and in minimizing the risk of developing non-functional overreaching, illness, and/or injury. In order to gain an understanding of the training load and its effect on the athlete, a number of potential markers are available for use. However, very few of these markers have strong scientific evidence supporting their use, and there is yet to be a single, definitive marker described in the literature. Research has investigated a number of external load quantifying and monitoring tools, such as power output measuring devices, time-motion analysis, as well as internal load unit measures, including perception of effort, heart rate, blood lactate, and training impulse. Dissociation between external and internal load units may reveal the state of fatigue of an athlete. Other monitoring tools used by high-performance programs include heart rate recovery, neuromuscular function, biochemical/hormonal/immunological assessments, questionnaires and diaries, psychomotor speed, and sleep quality and quantity. The monitoring approach taken with athletes may depend on whether the athlete is engaging in individual or team sport activity; however, the importance of individualization of load monitoring cannot be over emphasized. Detecting meaningful changes with scientific and statistical approaches can provide confidence and certainty when implementing change. Appropriate monitoring of training load can provide important information to athletes and coaches; however, monitoring systems should be intuitive, provide efficient data analysis and interpretation, and enable efficient reporting of simple, yet scientifically valid, feedback.
Stradley, Stephanie L.; Buckley, Bernadette D.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Fleming, David; Janelle, Christopher M.
Objective: To identify the learning styles and preferred environmental characteristics of undergraduate athletic training students in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education programs and to determine if learning-style differences existed among geographic regions of the country. Design and Setting: Fifty CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs were randomly selected in proportion to the number of programs in each geographic region. Ten students from each school were selected to complete the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS). Subjects: A total of 193 undergraduate athletic training students (84 men, 109 women) with a mean age of 22.3 ± 2.8 years completed the PEPS, while 188 students completed the LSI. Measurements: We used chi-square analyses to determine if differences existed in learning-style type and if these differences were based on geographic location. We calculated analysis of variance to determine if there were any geographic differences in the mean overall combination scores of the LSI. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the PEPS. Results: The overall return rate was 38%. The chi-square analyses revealed no significant difference in learning-style type for athletic training students, regardless of the geographic region. The LSI yielded a relatively even distribution of learning styles: 29.3% of the students were accommodators, 19.7% were divergers, 21.8% were convergers, and 29.3% were assimilators. The overall mean combination scores were 4.9 (abstract-concrete) and 4.9 (active-reflective), and analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in the mean combination scores among the geographic regions. The PEPS revealed that undergraduate athletic training students demonstrated a strong preference for learning in the afternoon. Conclusions: Undergraduate athletic training students demonstrated great
Full Text Available During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD, resistance training (RT is an important means for (i stimulating athletic development, (ii tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age.Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research.In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females, (ii to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters, and (iii to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.
A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…
Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...
... more by reviewing the NATA Media Kit. NATA Marketing Opportunities Join or Renew Joining NATA offers athletic ... looking for more information about athletic training, youth sports safety or specific health issues, we encourage you ...
Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J
Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.
Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott
Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…
Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Wathington, Heather D.
Context: Recent literature has focused on reasons for athletic training student persistence and departure. However, accredited professional bachelor's athletic training program (ATP) directors' opinions regarding student retention have yet to be studied, to our knowledge. Objective: To determine reasons for athletic training student persistence…
Antonio Zarauz Sancho
Full Text Available In the last fifteen years has been in Spain a very significant increase in people over 35 years practicing Athletics at federative level. The aim of this study is to know their addiction to training and relationships with different variables of this training and athletic history. Also, get a sufficiently robust predictive models by sex, taking their addiction to these variables. Valuable descriptive data and training habits and athletic history were obtained, and that the addiction in Spanish master athletes have average levels, with the pleasure and relaxation subscale (positive and desirable that obtains higher values, and abstinence and craving subscale (negative and undesirable which gets lower. Both correlations as in the regression analysis, only one variant has been analyzed to be related or be predictive of addiction or any of its subscales. Due to these results it is necessary to further investigate this population in future research about your addiction to training including psychological variables as predictors of it (motivation, perception and beliefs about the causes of success, intrinsic satisfaction, etc. to explainmore fully his addiction to training, especially in the case of men.
Rankin, James M.
The distribution of resources to athletic training programs varies greatly, depending on the size and scope of the athletic program. No research has been found that assesses the differences in dollars allocated within various athletic training settings or assesses whether the different program levels allocate similar proportions of their resources to like categories of expenditures. In this study, I assessed the financial resources available to athletic training programs at major football NCA...
Full Text Available Background: Proprioceptive deficiency followed by lateral ankle sprain leads to poor balance is not uncommon. It has been linked with increased injury risk among young athletes. Introducing neuromuscular training programs for this have been believed as one of the means of injury prevention. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the effects of six weeks progressive neuromuscular training (PNM Training on static balance gains among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains. Methods: This study was an experimental study design, with pre and post test method to determine the effects of PNM Training on static balance gains. All data were collected at university’s sports rehabilitation lab before and after six weeks of intervention period. There were 20 male and female volunteer young athletes (20.9 ± 0.85 years of age with a previous history of ankle sprain involving various sports were recruited from the University community. All the subjects were participated in a six week PNM Training that included stability, strength and power training. Outcome measures were collected by calculating the errors on balance error scoring system made by the athletes on static balance before and after the six weeks of intervention period. Static balance was tested in firm and foam surfaces and recorded accordingly. Results: The researchers found a significant decrease (2.40 ± 0.82 in total errors among the samples at the post test compared with their pre test (P >0.05. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that a PNM Training can improve the static balance on both the firm and foam surfaces among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains.
Craig, Debbie I.
Objective: To present different concepts and techniques related to the application of brain-based learning principles to Athletic Training clinical education. Background: The body of knowledge concerning how our brains physically learn continues to grow. Brain-based learning principles, developed by numerous authors, offer advice on how to…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Nottingham, Sara; Barrett, Jessica L.
Context: Mentorship is a developmental process whereby a novice individual, as he/she becomes inducted into his/her area of expertise, is guided by a more experienced person. Speculation exists that years of experience can impact this relationship. Objective: To determine the impact mentoring can have on athletic training student development and…
Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue
Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…
Unruh, Scott; Long, Doug; Rudy, Jeff
Context: Alcohol consumption among college students has been evaluated at many levels, but assessment of alcohol consumption among collegiate athletic training students has not been substantially reviewed. Understanding the alcohol use of this college-age group adds to the overall literature on alcohol consumption of the college student population.
Bates, Dana K.; Sikkema, Jill A.; Nynas, Suzette M.; Culp, Clinton
Context: The Examination of Professional Degree Level document presented to the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Directors states that research in athletic training education has not investigated differences in the critical-thinking skills of professional athletic training students. Objective: Investigate the differences in…
Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Wathington, Heather D.
Context: Athletic training programs (ATPs) are charged with meeting an increased demand for athletic trainers with adequate graduates. Currently, the retention rate of athletic training students in ATPs nationwide and the programmatic factors associated with these retention rates remain unknown. Objective: Determine the retention rate for athletic…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas
Context: Limited evidence exists on the role clinical education can play in the development of athletic training student commitment for the profession. Objective: Investigating the role clinical education experiences play on the development of passion for athletic training. Design: Exploratory qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training…
Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M
Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.
Terranova, Aaron B.; Henning, Jolene M.
Context: Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. Objective: To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used separate 3 × 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. Results: We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F2,182 = 7.82, P = .001) and Operating Conditions (F2,182 = 12.01, P job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction. PMID:21669102
Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn
Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 (95% confidence interval = 1,337,441, 1,692,474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 (95% confidence interval = 1,055,482, 1,073,620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values basketball players presenting for treatment in the emergency department and the athletic training setting. Understanding differences specific to clinical settings is crucial to grasping the full epidemiologic and clinical picture of sport-related injuries. Certified athletic trainers play an important role in identifying, assessing, and treating athletes with sport-related injuries who might otherwise present to clinical settings with higher costs, such as the emergency department.
Bowman, Thomas G; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dodge, Thomas M; Wathington, Heather D
The average retention rate for students enrolled in undergraduate athletic training programs (ATPs) nationwide has been reported to be 81%, and slightly more than half of program directors (PDs) have indicated that retention of athletic training students (ATSs) is a problem. However, why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic is unknown. To determine why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic. Qualitative study. Undergraduate ATPs. We obtained responses from 177 of the 343 PDs (51.6%). Using data saturation as a guide, we randomly selected 16 PDs from the survey responses to participate in follow-up telephone interviews; 8 believed retention was a problem and 8 did not. During audio-recorded telephone interviews, we asked PDs why they thought retention was or was not a problem for athletic training education. Following verbatim transcription, we used grounded theory to analyze the interview data and maintained trustworthiness by using intercoder agreement, member checks, and peer review. Program directors believed that retaining ATSs was a problem because students lack information regarding athletic training and the rigor of the ATP. Program directors were consistent in their perception that ATPs do not have a retention challenge because of the use of a secondary admissions process. This finding was likely based on personal use of a secondary admissions process in the ATPs these PDs lead. Program directors who lead ATPs that struggle to retain ATSs should consider using a secondary admissions process. During the preprofessional phase of the ATP, faculty and staff should work to socialize students to the demands of the ATP and the professional lives of athletic trainers.
Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Skårderud, Finn
Over the past 20 years, a number of studies have been published that generally suggest a higher frequency of eating disorders among athletes than among non-athletes. Participation in competitive sport has also been considered an important factor related to the development of eating disorders. Taken together, most studies have suggested that eating disorders are particularly prevalent in sports that emphasise leanness or low body weight. However, some studies suggest a similar or lower prevalence of eating disorders compared with controls or athletes at a lower competitive level. Athletes constitute a unique population and the impact of factors such as training, eating pattern, extreme diets, restriction of food intake and psychopathological profile among them must be evaluated differently from that among non-athletes. A concerted effort by coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and healthcare personnel is optimal in order to recognise, prevent and treat eating disorders in athletes.
Francine Caetano de Andrade Nogueira
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p638 The aim of this study was to evaluate the correspondence between perceived internal load of volleyball players of different positions with perceived internal load planned by the coach, as well as to compare the perceptions of internal training load between different positions in volleyball. The sample was composed of 15 professional volleyball players who were members of a 2012/2013 team in the Brazilian first division league. The athletes answered the Borg CR-10 scale after training, while the coach answered before the training, as was planned for this study. Data analysis was performed Kappa (K, one-way and two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc using the statistical packages SPSS 19.0 and Statistica 8.0. The results indicated that all positions showed good agreement with the perception of the coach and no significant differences in perceptions of internal training load. However, when analysing the percentage of athletes’ perceptions of intensity proposed by the coach, it was observed that athletes overestimate the sessions of easy training, while they underestimate the intensity of heavy training. The results indicate that there may be differences between the perceptions of coaches and athletes and reinforce the importance of adopting strategies for monitoring/control of daily training loads.
As a method of data gathering tools in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and observation were employed. Taken together, of 12 trainee athletes 9 were interviewed, focus group discussion, and observation were employed. Taken together, of 12 trainee athletes, 9 were interviewed, and 3 athletes those who have not ...
Álvarez-Herms, J; Julià-Sánchez, S; Hamlin, M J; Corbi, F; Pagès, T; Viscor, G
Scientific debate continues into whether hypoxic training has any performance benefit for athletes, and although this type of training seems popular, to our knowledge little empirical evidence on its popularity with endurance-based athletes exists. To quantify the usage of hypoxic training in endurance-based athletes we asked 203 athletes (amateur = 108, professional = 95) to complete a 17-question survey during 2013-2014 season. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes were 4.5 times (3.0-6.8, odds ratio, 95% confidence limits) more likely to undertake hypoxic training. Live-high train-low was the most popular hypoxic training protocol for athletes (52% professional and 80% amateur) with live-high train-high also used (38% professional, 20% amateur). Compared to amateurs, professional athletes tended to use evidence-based hypoxic training methods, seek advice on hypoxic training from reliable sources and were generally more realistic about the potential performance gains as a result of hypoxic training. Almost one third (25-30%) of all athletes suffered illness during their hypoxic training. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes are more likely to undertake hypoxic training and tend to follow current scientific guidelines. Attenuation of the ill effects that occur during hypoxic training may be accomplished if athletes give more attention to monitoring stress and training levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to compare the incidence of injuries between male and female athletes in the junior and youth divisions during competition, as well as to identify body parts commonly injured and the types of injury frequently incurred; second, to assess overall incidence of injuries in relation to the frequency and duration of training as well as supplemental training.
Wikman, Johan Michael
. The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes......Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...
Wikman, Johan Michael
Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well....... The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...
Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…
Harney, M. K.; And Others
Developed and systematically evaluated a prototype set of procedures called the Freshman Athlete Scholastic Training (FAST) program. Describes the design of this applied program and evaluates its efficacy in improving the academic performance of freshman student athletes, male and female, from a variety of athletic programs. The FAST program…
Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S.
Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes which start exercise in sub-optimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite men athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2±1.3 ...
Magda Gaid Sedhom
Background: Walking is a popular, convenient, and relatively safe form of exercise. Humans generally learn walking in forward direction with little difficulty, while walking in backward direction is necessary for normal activities of daily living and accommodates the body with different tasks. This study was conducted to compare between forward and backward walking training on peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles and their effect on knee proprioception. Methods: Forty non athlet...
Sales, Ana Tereza do N; Fregonezi, Guilherme A de F; Ramsook, Andrew H; Guenette, Jordan A; Lima, Illia Nadinne D F; Reid, W Darlene
The objectives of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory muscle endurance (RME) and to determine the RME test that demonstrates the most consistent changes after RMT. Electronic searches were conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE CENTRAL, CINHAL and SPORTDiscus. The PEDro scale was used for quality assessment and meta-analysis were performed to compare effect sizes of different RME tests. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Isocapnic hyperpnea training was performed in 40% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed that RMT improves RME in athletes (P = 0.0007) and non-athletes (P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed differences among tests; maximal sustainable ventilatory capacity (MSVC) and maximal sustainable threshold loading tests demonstrated significant improvement after RMT (P = 0.007; P = 0.003 respectively) compared to the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) (P = 0.11) in athletes whereas significant improvement after RMT was only shown by MSVC in non-athletes. The effect size of MSVC was greater compared to MVV in studies that performed both tests. The meta-analysis results provide evidence that RMT improves RME in athletes and non-athletes and MSVC test that examine endurance over several minutes are more sensitive to improvement after RMT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri E.; Pitney, William A.; Casa, Douglas J.; Burton, Laura
Context Career opportunities for athletic training students (ATSs) have increased substantially over the past few years. However, ATSs commonly appear to be opting for a more diversified professional experience after graduation. With the diversity in available options, an understanding of career decision is imperative. Objective To use the theoretical framework of socialization to investigate the influential factors behind the postgraduation decisions of senior ATSs. Design Qualitative study. Setting Web-based management system and telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-two ATSs (16 females, 6 males; age = 22 ± 2 years) who graduated in May 2010 from 13 different programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Data Collection and Analysis All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed inductively. Data analysis required independent coding by 2 athletic trainers for specific themes. Credibility of the results was confirmed via peer review, methodologic triangulation, and multiple analyst triangulation. Results Two higher-order themes emerged from the data analysis: persistence in athletic training (AT) and decision to leave AT. Faculty and clinical instructor support, marketability, and professional growth were supporting themes describing persistence in AT. Shift of interest away from AT, lack of respect for the AT profession, compensation, time commitment, and AT as a stepping stone were themes sustaining the reasons that ATSs leave AT. The aforementioned reasons to leave often were discussed collectively, generating a collective undesirable outlook on the AT profession. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of faculty support, professional growth, and early socialization into AT. Socialization of pre–AT students could alter retention rates by providing in-depth information about the profession before students commit in their undergraduate education and by helping
Yilmaz, Dilek Cicek; Buyukakilli, Belgin; Gurgul, Serkan; Rencuzogullari, Ibrahim
Background & objectives: Intensive regular physical exercise training is associated with a physiological changes in left ventricular (LV) morphology and functions. This cardiac remodeling observed in the athletes is associated with the specific haemodynamic requirements of the exercise undertaken. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of endurance training on cardiac morphology, systolic and diastolic LV functions and haemodynamic parameters both in male and female athletes. Methods: Seventy nine healthy athletes (age 20.0 ± 2.6 yr; 49% male) and 82 healthy sedentary adolescent (age 20.8 ± 2.2 yr, 49% male) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography and impedance cardiography. Results: Both female and male athletes had greater LV end-diastolic cavity sizes, LV mass and stroke volume (SV) values when compared with controls. Also, in male athletes, LV mass index was higher than in female athletes. While male athletes had lower resting heart rate compared to female athletes, they had higher mean arterial blood pressure. In male athletes, basal septal and mid septal strain values were higher compared to controls. There were no significant differences in strain and peak systolic strain rate values between female athletes and controls. In male athletes, there was a weak positive correlation between SV and LV mass, basal lateral and septal strain values. In female athletes, only a weak positive correlation was found between SV and basal septal strain values. Interpretation & conclusions: Endurance-trained male and female athletes had higher LV mass, LV cavity dimensions and SV compared to sedentary controls. Although there was no difference in diastolic cardiac functions between athletes and controls, local enhanced systolic function was found with increase of SV. Both morphologic and haemodynamic differences were more evident in male athletes. PMID:23852292
Full Text Available It was analysed scientific-methodical and specialized literature on adaptive sports: table tennis, basketball, judo, skiing. It is conducted interviews with leading coaches working in the Deaflympic sport. Monitor the training process of elite athletes with hearing impairments, specializing in ski racing. Found that for technical training of athletes use the principle of learning the exercises and improvement from simple to complex with the rote. It was shown the necessity of attracting able-bodied athletes in the training process deflimpiytsev to optimize their technical training. The data obtained allow us to determine the direction of improving the technical skills of this category of athletes.
Mensch, James; Mitchell, Murray
The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. Therefore, understanding potential recruits' perceptions of athletic training is important. To (1) gain insight regarding undergraduate students' decisions to enter or not enter an athletic training education program (ATEP), and (2) examine potential athletic training recruits' perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of certified athletic trainers. We used a descriptive study employing a grounded theory approach to explore perceptions of the athletic training profession by college students with various levels of interest in athletic training. Athletic training education program from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I research-intensive university. Forty-six undergraduate students (23 interested in applying to an ATEP and 23 who were aware of but not interested in applying to an ATEP). Data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer-debriefing techniques were used to ensure trustworthiness of the study. Three contributing factors appeared to influence the recruitment of students to a career in athletic training: (1) a strong affiliation to a sports/team model, (2) initial exposure at the high school level, and (3) an incomplete understanding of athletic training. Awareness of how students are recruited into ATEPs is important information for our profession. Educators and administrators must create a comprehensive recruitment strategy using factors that influence potential recruits' decisions to enter the athletic training profession, specifically their association with sports and their experiences during high school.
Hull, James; Jackson, Anna; Dickinson, John W.
Cough is the most common respiratory symptom reported by athletes and can significantly impact on health status, ability to train and athletic performance. The presence of cough in an athlete is typically taken to indicate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), yet in many athletes with chronic cough there is no objective evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) or heightened airway inflammation. Moreover, cough in athletes often fails to respond to a therapeutic asthma strategy, th...
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Brachman, Anna; Kamieniarz, Anna; Michalska, Justyna; Pawłowski, Michał; Słomka, Kajetan J.; Juras, Grzegorz
Abstract It has become almost routine practice to incorporate balance exercises into training programs for athletes from different sports. However, the type of training that is most efficient remains unclear, as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise that would be most beneficial have not yet been determined. The following review is based on papers that were found through computerized searches of PubMed and SportDiscus from 2000 to 2016. Articles related to balance training, testing, and injury prevention in young healthy athletes were considered. Based on a Boolean search strategy the independent researchers performed a literature review. A total of 2395 articles were evaluated, yet only 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. In most of the reviewed articles, balance training has proven to be an effective tool for the improvement of postural control. It is difficult to establish one model of training that would be appropriate for each sport discipline, including its characteristics and demands. The main aim of this review was to identify a training protocol based on most commonly used interventions that led to improvements in balance. Our choice was specifically established on the assessment of the effects of balance training on postural control and injury prevention as well as balance training methods. The analyses including papers in which training protocols demonstrated positive effects on balance performance suggest that an efficient training protocol should last for 8 weeks, with a frequency of two training sessions per week, and a single training session of 45 min. This standard was established based on 36 reviewed studies. PMID:28828077
Full Text Available It has become almost routine practice to incorporate balance exercises into training programs for athletes from different sports. However, the type of training that is most efficient remains unclear, as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise that would be most beneficial have not yet been determined. The following review is based on papers that were found through computerized searches of PubMed and SportDiscus from 2000 to 2016. Articles related to balance training, testing, and injury prevention in young healthy athletes were considered. Based on a Boolean search strategy the independent researchers performed a literature review. A total of 2395 articles were evaluated, yet only 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. In most of the reviewed articles, balance training has proven to be an effective tool for the improvement of postural control. It is difficult to establish one model of training that would be appropriate for each sport discipline, including its characteristics and demands. The main aim of this review was to identify a training protocol based on most commonly used interventions that led to improvements in balance. Our choice was specifically established on the assessment of the effects of balance training on postural control and injury prevention as well as balance training methods. The analyses including papers in which training protocols demonstrated positive effects on balance performance suggest that an efficient training protocol should last for 8 weeks, with a frequency of two training sessions per week, and a single training session of 45 min. This standard was established based on 36 reviewed studies.
Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.
Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…
Oppliger, Robert A; Bartok, Cynthia
Dehydration not only reduces athletic performance, but also places athletes at risk of health problems and even death. For athletes, monitoring hydration has significant value in maximising performance during training and competition. It also offers medical personnel the opportunity to reduce health risks in situations where athletes engage in intentional weight loss. Simple non-invasive techniques, including weight monitoring and urine tests, can provide useful information. Bioimpedance methods tend to be easy to use and fairly inexpensive, but generally lack the precision and accuracy necessary for hydration monitoring. Blood tests appear to be the most accurate monitoring method, but are impractical because of cost and invasiveness. Although future research is needed to determine which hydration tests are the most accurate, we encourage sports teams to develop and implement hydration monitoring protocols based on the currently available methods. Medical personnel can use this information to maximise their team's athletic performance and minimise heat- and dehydration-related health risks to athletes.
Silbernagel, Michael S; Short, Sandra E; Ross-Stewart, Lindsay C
Imagery is a cognitive process during which people use their minds to create (or recreate) experiences that are similar to real-life situations. This study examined how college athletes used imagery during weight training. Subjects were 295 Division I (n = 163) and Division II (n = 132) college student athletes (men: n = 138, women: n = 157) who participated in a weight training program as a requirement of their sport. They completed a slightly modified version of the "Weight Lifting Imagery Questionnaire." Results showed that appearance imagery (i.e., images related to the attainment of a fit-looking body) was used and considered the most effective followed by technique imagery (i.e., images related to performing the skill and techniques correctly with good form) and energy imagery (i.e., images related to getting "psyched up" or feeling energized). Other variables that effected imagery use were gender, age, time of season, and levels of motivation. In addition, gender, previous imagery training, and level of motivation had an effect on the perceptions of imagery effectiveness. Confidence in the ability to image was associated with both imagery use and effectiveness, and imagery use and effectiveness were associated with confidence in the weight room. The findings support previous research in exercise imagery that appearance imagery is most used followed by technique and energy imagery and extend them in such a way that strength coaches have practical advice on how to use imagery in a positive way with their athletes. Suggestions about how strength coaches can use imagery with their clients are provided.
Watson, Andrew M
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.
Graham, PL; Poulos, RG
The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924
... have a lasting effect on how strong a woman's bones are later in life. Who Gets Female Athlete Triad? Many girls have concerns about the size and shape of their bodies. But being a highly competitive athlete and participating in a sport that requires you to train extra hard can ...
Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L
Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience. To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters. Cross-sectional study. Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution. We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated. Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track Pes, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE. Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site
Context: The position of clinical education coordinator has been identified as a required one in athletic training education. However, the literature has yet to address the job responsibilities of clinical education coordinators and the commensurate work load/release time needed to accomplish these responsibilities in athletic training education.…
Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Jessica L.
Context: Athletic training students' ability to transition into professional practice is a critical component for the future of the profession. However, research on professional master's students' transition to practice and readiness to provide autonomous care is lacking. Objective: To determine professional master's athletic training students'…
Thon, Sarah; Hansen, Pamela
Context: Recognizing the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students will equip educators to more effectively improve their teaching methods and optimize student learning. Objective: To determine the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students…
Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine
The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10)...
Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer
Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…
Cernohous, Steve; West, Sharon
Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the practical use of a Mandala that: 1) provides opportunities for athletic training students to explore, reflect on and appreciate their clinical experiences; 2) provides educators with a model to understand and value athletic training student experiences; 3) organizes and captures factors and…
Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.
Context: Student retention is a key issue in higher education. With the increasing number of professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs), understanding student retention is necessary to maintain viable programs. Objective: Explore program directors' perceptions of the reasons athletic training students persist and depart from PM…
Engelmann, Jeanine E.
Context: Peer assessment is widely used in medical education as a formative evaluation and preparatory tool for students. Athletic training students learn similar knowledge, skills, and affective traits as medical students. Peer assessment has been widely studied with beneficial results in medical education, yet athletic training education has…
Aronson, Patricia A.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.
Context: The perceptions of athletic training students (ATSs) regarding their clinical education experiences are not fully understood. It is important to investigate ATS perceptions of clinical education to allow athletic training educators to provide educational experiences that will maximize learning. Objective: To determine what ATSs value…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Benes, Sarah S.
Context: Clinical experiences are an integral part of athletic training education and are where students gain the hands-on, practical knowledge and skills necessary to provide quality patient care in the field. However, some clinical education experiences may not allow athletic training students to become clinically integrated. Objective: To…
Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.
Context: Graduates of athletic training programs (ATPs) have identified factors contributing to their persistence through professional education. However, program directors have yet to elaborate on programmatic attributes that might contribute to athletic training student retention in their respective ATPs. Objective: To determine program…
Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.
Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…
Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D
level, the 'live high-train low' model of altitude training can help athletes in endurance events to maximize performance.
Borges, Thiago Oliveira; Dascombe, Ben; Bullock, Nicola; Coutts, Aaron J
This study aimed to profile the physiological characteristics of junior sprint kayak athletes (n=21, VO2max 4.1±0.7 L/min, training experience 2.7±1.2 y) and to establish the relationship between physiological variables (VO2max, VO2 kinetics, muscle-oxygen kinetics, paddling efficiency) and sprint kayak performance. VO2max, power at VO2max, power:weight ratio, paddling efficiency, VO2 at lactate threshold, and whole-body and muscle oxygen kinetics were determined on a kayak ergometer in the laboratory. Separately, on-water time trials (TT) were completed over 200 m and 1000 m. Large to nearly perfect (-.5 to -.9) inverse relationships were found between the physiological variables and on-water TT performance across both distances. Paddling efficiency and lactate threshold shared moderate to very large correlations (-.4 to -.7) with 200- and 1000-m performance. In addition, trivial to large correlations (-.11 to -.5) were observed between muscle-oxygenation parameters, muscle and whole-body oxygen kinetics, and performance. Multiple regression showed that 88% of the unadjusted variance for the 200-m TT performance was explained by VO2max, peripheral muscle deoxygenation, and maximal aerobic power (Pkayak athletes possess a high level of relative aerobic fitness and highlight the importance of the peripheral muscle metabolism for sprint kayak performance, particularly in 200-m races, where finalists and nonfinalists are separated by very small margins. Such data highlight the relative aerobic-fitness variables that can be used as benchmarks for talent-identification programs or monitoring longitudinal athlete development. However, such approaches need further investigation.
In order to investigate the feasibility of serum creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in monitoring pre-competition training of badminton athletes, the pre-competition training load of 20 badminton athletes was studied, and serum CK and BUN were determined before, immediate and next morning after training. The results showed that after intensive training for one week, serum CK levels were significantly increased by 57.53 mmol/L (P0.05). After intermittent training, there was significant difference in the average increased levels of serum CK in athletes (P0.05). It was concluded that serum CK was one of the biochemical indicators monitoring the training load sensitivity of badminton athletes, but BUN was of little value in monitoring the training load. Both serum CK and BUN recovered slowly after one-week intensive training and intermittent training, suggesting the metabolic mechanism of human body in training needs further study.
D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pelliccia, Antonio; Valentini, Francesca; Malandrino, Angela; Natali, Benedetta Maria; Barbati, Riccardo; Focardi, Marta; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio
Little is known about the adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to endurance exercise in children. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 5months of intensive training on RV morphology and function in preadolescent endurance athletes. Ninety-four children were evaluated in this study. Fifty-seven male competitive swimmers (aged 10.8±0.2years) were evaluated before (baseline) and after 5months of the training (peak-training), and compared to 37 age- and sex-matched non-athlete children evaluated at baseline and after 5months of natural growth. All subjects were asymptomatic, with negative family history for cardiomyopathies. At baseline no differences were found between athletes and controls for indexed RV outflow tract (RVOT) (18.5±2.7 vs. 16.8±5.0mm/m2, p=0.18) and RV basal end-diastolic diameter (EDD) (24.9±4.1 vs. 23.6±3.0mm/m2, p=0.15). After 5months, indexed RVOT and RV basal EDD significantly increased in athletes (20.2±2.9mm/m2 and 25.4±3.3mm/m2, pchildren engaged in endurance sports the increase in RV size associated with normal RV function represents a physiological expression of the athlete's heart and should not be misinterpreted as an expression of incipient RV cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan
The manuscript "Plasma Somatomedin-C in 8- to 10-Year-Old Swimmers" by Denison and Ben-Ezra published in the first issue of Pediatric Exercise Science in 1989 was among the first to address the relationship between growth, the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, and exercise. Since their pioneering article, this topic has become of great interest to pediatricians and pediatric exercise researchers, and today our understanding of the effects of exercise training on the growth axis during childhood and puberty, on differences between systemic and local (i.e., muscle) responses to exercise, and our ability to use these responses to assist the adolescent competitive athlete in the evaluation of the training load have markedly improved. The aim of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge on this topic.
Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A
Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Cross-sectional study. Respondents' academic institutions. A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs.
There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…
This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…
Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…
Ross, Michael J.; Berger, R. Scott
Tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (stress inoculation training; SIT) for postsurgical anxiety, pain and physical rehabilitation in injured athletes. Sixty male athletes who underwent arthroscopic surgery for miniscus injury in one knee were randomly assigned to either treatment (SIT and physical therapy) or control…
Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.
Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…
Hawkins, Jeremy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth B.; Williams, Skip M.
Context: The ability to demonstrate sound clinical reasoning is needed for a practicing athletic trainer. However, instruction on how to make a correct clinical decision may be deficient in many athletic training programs. Objective: To provide an overview of how to teach technical and tactical skills, using both a tradition and a nontraditional…
Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L.
Context: Graduating athletic training students must consider both physical and mental aspects of injury to fully rehabilitate the injured athlete; however, programs may not be preparing students to apply psychosocial strategies that can improve the recovery process. Objective: To examine Psychosocial Intervention and Referral (PIR) content area…
Barreiros, Andre; Cote, Jean; Fonseca, Antonio Manuel
This study explored the early development of expert athletes compared to a group of athletes that did not achieve an expert level of performance despite being involved in youth events with their national squads. In particular, the activities, training patterns, and psychosocial influences that characterized their paths in competitive sports were…
Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D
Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective...
Carter, Cordelia W; Micheli, Lyle J
The number of children and adolescents participating in organised athletic activities worldwide is increasing. However, physical fitness levels among youth are lower today than in previous decades. The combination of increased exposure and decreased preparedness for sports participation has led to an epidemic of both acute and chronic sports-related injuries in this population. Poor physical fitness, in addition to having negative health consequences, seems to be a risk factor for sports-related injury. Accurate injury surveillance data are required to better define the magnitude of the problem of injury in youth sports, as well as to identify specific risk factors for injury. From these data, targeted intervention strategies incorporating fitness training may be developed with the goal of preventing sports-related injury. Preliminary experience with several specific injury patterns--anterior cruciate ligament injuries and ankle sprains--has demonstrated the efficacy of such targeted prevention strategies.
Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D
Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995-August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Selected studies determined the effect of ACL intervention training programs on ACL incidence rates (determined by athlete-exposures) and athletic performance tests, such as isokinetic strength, vertical jump height, speed, agility, and dynamic balance. Because no single article contained both criteria, investigations were cross-referenced to obtain data on both factors from the same training programs. The authors reviewed the selected studies for cohort population numbers, age, sports, duration of study, program components, duration of training, number of athlete-exposures, ACL injury incidence rates, and results of athletic performance tests. Initially, 57 studies were identified that described 42 ACL injury prevention training programs. Of these, 17 studies that investigated 5 programs met the inclusion criteria. Two programs significantly reduced ACL injury rates and improved athletic performance tests: Sportsmetrics and the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance program (PEP). Sportsmetrics produced significant increases in lower extremity and abdominal strength, vertical jump height, estimated maximal aerobic power, speed, and agility. Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance significantly improved isokinetic knee flexion strength but did not improve vertical jump height, speed, or agility. The other 3 programs (Myklebust, the "11," and Knee Ligament Injury Prevention) did not improve both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Only the Sportsmetrics and PEP ACL intervention training programs had a
Carbuhn, Aaron F; Fernandez, Tara E; Bragg, Amy F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F
This is a novel descriptive study to characterize off-season, preseason, and postseason bone and body composition measures in women collegiate athletes. From 2006 through 2008, 67 women collegiate athletes from 5 sports, softball (n = 17), basketball (n = 10), volleyball (n = 7), swimming (n = 16), and track jumpers and sprinters (n = 17) were scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 seasonal periods: (a) off-season = before preseason training, (b) preseason = after preseason training, and (c) postseason = after competitive season. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were analyzed for total body mass, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content, bone mineral density (BMD), arm BMD, leg BMD, pelvis BMD, and spine BMD. Data were analyzed between sports using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc follow-ups, and within each sport using repeated-measures ANOVA and LSD; alpha sprinters, -7, +3.5, +1%. Comparisons among athletes in each sport showed bone measurements of swimmers averaged 4-19% lower than that of athletes in any other sport, whereas for track jumpers and sprinters, %BF and FM averaged 36 and 43% lower compared with other sports at all seasonal periods. Values for athletes playing basketball and volleyball were most similar, whereas softball athletes' values fell between all other athletes. These data serve as sport-specific reference values for comparisons at in-season and off-season training periods among women collegiate athletes in various sports.
Sambanis, M; Kofotolis, N; Kalogeropoulou, E; Noussios, G; Sambanis, P; Kalogeropoulos, J
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of sports training on the ovarian cycle of athletes of various disciplines, and of non-athletes, their participation and their performance in competition as well as the appearance of symptoms of discomfort pre and during the duration of menstruation. Athletes from the disciplines of basketball, track athletics, gymnastics, swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo as well as non-athletes took part in this research. All the participants, both athletes and non-athletes were selected and completed a specially designed questionnaire. The results of the research showed that there are no significant differences in the menarche to the duration of the ovarian cycle and to the duration of the menstrual flow. Also, the involvement in different athletic disciplines appears to affect to different degrees the regularity of the cycle although this does not prevent the athlete from participating in training and in competition. The effects are sometimes beneficial to their performance and sometimes they could have a negative effect on their performance. Regarding the symptoms and the discomforts which occasionally appeared pre and during the duration of menstruation e.g. headache symptoms, these appear to be greatly decreased in the athletes of swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo and perhaps this is a result of the beneficial effects of the water. The percentage for abdominal pain appeared decreased for certain disciplines (such as swimming) or stable both pre and during the duration of menstruation. Concerning the pain in the thoracicolumbar region, the percentages were different for every sport: a noticeable decrease was recorded for the athletes of swimming, gymnasts, synchronized swimming, water polo, track athletes and the non-athletes, but with an increase for the basketball players. For the symptoms of weakness and fatigue, the percentages were increased for all the athletic disciplines as well as
Quiterio, A L; Carnero, E A; Silva, A M; Baptista, F; Sardinha, L B
We aimed to explore associations between hours per week of sports training and molecular and cellular body composition components in adolescent athletes. A total of 33 female athletes (13.3+/-3.5 years; 47.8+/-12.6 kg; 154+/-14.0 cm) and 90 male athletes (14.1+/-2.7 years; 60.6+/-17.8 kg; 167+/-16.2 cm) were measured. Based on the total of hours per week of training, athletes were divided into tertiles: body fat (BF), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Total body water (TBW), intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) were assessed using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). Extracellular fluids (ECF), solids (ECS), body cell mass (BCM) and body fluid distribution (E/I) were calculated. Total hours per week of sports training (h/week), habitual physical activity (PA) and dietary were assessed by questionnaire. Statistics included analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and simple regression analyses. Athletes training 9 h/week presented greater levels of TBW, lean, bone mass, BCM, and ECF and a lower %BF, independently of confounders. No significant differences in body composition estimates were found between athletes training fat free components, only in the group exercising 9 h/week In this group of Portuguese athletes from different sports we observed that training 9 h/week significantly improved body composition, especially fat free components, which may be important for a healthy growth and sports performance.
Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence
Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [pcore stability training improves landing kinetics without improving jump height, and may reduce lower extremity injury risk in female athletes.
Zwierko, Teresa; Lubiński, Wojciech; Lesiakowski, Piotr; Steciuk, Hanna; Piasecki, Leszek; Krzepota, Justyna
This longitudinal study investigated visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 11 young female volleyball players who participated in extensive training for 2 years. The control group consisted of 7 age-matched female students who were not involved in any regular sports activity. Recordings of VEPs were performed twice: baseline recording (i.e., before training began) and after 2 years of systematic, volleyball-specific athletic training. The effect of athletic training on visual signal conductivity was assessed by recording the latency of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEPs waveform. Extensive experience with volleyball training reduced signal conductivity time through visual pathway. Specifically, the latency of P100 was reduced on average by 2.2 ms during binocular viewing. Moreover, athletes had reduced N75 latency (difference of 3.3 ms) for visual stimuli that generated greater response from peripheral retina. These results indicate that sport training can affect very early sensory processing in athletes.
In brief: A panel of exercise physiologists and physicians involved with athletes discuss the little-understood subject of overtraining. It is the point where too much training puts the athlete over-rather than at-his or her peak. The panel discusses the signs and causes of overtraining and suggests ways to prevent it by monitoring post-workout weight, evening fluid intake, time to bed, loss of sleep, and morning heart rate. They stress the importance of the coach and emphasize that good communication and ongoing concern for athletes as individuals can go a long way toward preventing overtraining.
Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael
Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.
Magda Gaid Sedhom
Full Text Available Background: Walking is a popular, convenient, and relatively safe form of exercise. Humans generally learn walking in forward direction with little difficulty, while walking in backward direction is necessary for normal activities of daily living and accommodates the body with different tasks. This study was conducted to compare between forward and backward walking training on peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles and their effect on knee proprioception. Methods: Forty non athletic males, with mean age (21.87±1.76 years participated in this study, and were classified into two equal groups. Group (A walked forward on treadmill while group (B walked backward three times/week for a total six weeks. They were assessed by using Biodex system 3 to measure the concentric peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles at angular velocities 60 and 180°/sec and the knee joint proprioception. The assessment was done twice for every subject (pre-study and after six weeks of gait training. Results: t-test revealed statistical significant increase in peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstrings muscles in both groups after training at 60 and 180°/sec (p-value < 0.05. There was statistical significant improvement in knee proprioception in group B only p-value was (0.000. Conclusion: Both forward backward walking training improving the peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, while backward walking is better in improving knee proprioception accuracy.
Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
Chamberlin, Jacob M; Fry, Mary D; Iwasaki, Susumu
Chamberlin, JM, Fry, MD, and Iwasaki, S. High school athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in their off-season training programs. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 736-742, 2017-Athletes benefit tremendously from working hard in off-season training (OST) because it sets them up to avoid injuries and perform their best during the season. Ironically, many athletes struggle to stay motivated to participate regularly in this training. Research has highlighted the benefits for athletes perceiving a caring and task-involving climate, where they gauge their success based on their personal effort and improvement, and perceive each member of the team is treated with mutual kindness and respect. Athletes who perceive a caring and task-involving climate on their teams are more likely to report greater adaptive motivational responses. Research has not currently examined athletes' perceptions of the climate in OST programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of the climate in an OST program and their motivational responses. High school athletes (N = 128; 90 males 35 females; mean age = 15.3 years) participating in summer OST programs completed a survey that included measures of intrinsic motivation, commitment, their valuing OST, feeling like it is their decision to participate in OST, their perceptions that their teammates take OST seriously, and attendance. A canonical correlation revealed that athletes, who perceived a highly caring and task-involving climate reported higher intrinsic motivation, value of and commitment to OST; attendance; and perceived teammates take OST seriously. Results suggest that creating a caring and task-involving climate in OST programs may help athletes optimize their motivation to participate in important strength and conditioning programs.
Achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses and recovery is important in maximising the performance of athletes. A wide range of recovery modalities are now used as integral parts of the training programmes of elite athletes to help attain this balance. This review examined the evidence available as to the efficacy of these recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session recovery in elite athletes. Recovery modalities have largely been investigated with regard to their ability to enhance the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise or to reduce the severity and duration of exercise-induced muscle injury and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Neither of these reflects the circumstances of between-training session recovery in elite athletes. After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between the training sessions of athletes. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS have used untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of elite athletes. Even without considering the above limitations, there is no substantial scientific evidence to support the use of the recovery modalities reviewed to enhance the between-training session recovery of elite athletes. Modalities reviewed were massage, active recovery, cryotherapy, contrast temperature water immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compression garments, stretching, electromyostimulation and combination modalities. Experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to further investigate the efficacy of various recovery modalities for elite athletes. Other potentially important factors associated with recovery, such as the rate of post-exercise glycogen synthesis and the role
Eichner, Edward R.
Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)
Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine
Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…
Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S
Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.
Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article 52 students took part in research...
Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E
Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important...
Full Text Available Purpose: substantiate the use of integral technologies for the psycho-physical training of athletes in sports aerobics. Material & Methods: 46 qualified aerobics participated in the study, 22 athletes made up a control group, 24 were experimental, and 19 aerobists, 9 athletes made up an experimental group, 10 were a control group. Methods: theoretical analysis of literature data; method for evaluating the results of competitive activities; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical statistics with the use of computer programs "EXEL" and "SPSS". Results: psychophysical training should be one of the main parts of the variable component of the general training program for aerobic athletes. It is based on the implementation of special sets of exercises in conjunction with mental imagery of the nature of the movements. The positive effect of the use of integral technologies of psychophysical training on the competitive performance of athletes. Conclusion: construction of the training process with the use of integral technologies of psychophysical training had a positive effect on the effectiveness of the competitive activity of athletes.
Omiya, Kazuto; Sekizuka, Hiromitsu; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ohba, Haruo; Musha, Haruki
Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were enrolled as controls. QT measurements were manually obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram and QTD was calculated as the difference between the longest and shortest QT intervals. A corrected QT interval (QTc) was obtained using Bazett's formula. Subjects were divided into two groups; an endurance training group and a static training group on the basis of their training types. Maximum and minimum QTc were significantly longer in female athletes than in male athletes (max: 414.2 vs. 404.5 ms, min: 375.1 vs. 359.2 ms, psports training may affect QT variables even in young elite athletes. Vigorous static exercise training may independently prolong QT variables.
Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu, Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá
The adolescent athletes are at greater risk of low back pain and structural spine injuries. Spondylolysis is responsible for the majority of back pain cases in young athletes, rarely occurring in adults. We report a case of a 13-year-old judo female athlete, who came to our service with 5 months of progressive low back pain during training which was initially attributed to mechanical causes, without any further investigation by imaging methods. At admission, the patient had lumbar deformity, antalgic posture and bilaterally positive unipodalic lumbar hyperextension maneuver. After a research which showed spondyloptosis, the patient underwent surgery. In this article, we discuss, based on this case report, the diagnostic approach to low back pain in young athletes, since the complaint of chronic back pain can be a marker of a structural lesion that may be permanent and bring irreversible functional loss.
Full Text Available Purpose: improved methods of planning the training process for strength sports athletes with regard to their biorhythms. Material and Methods: the study included 16 athletes qualified yaks were members of the team of the Kharkiv region in weightlifting and powerlifting. Results: revealed that the experimental group athletes who used to planned training load calculations biorhythms improved power rates by 7,2% in compare with the control group who exercised without calculating biorhythms improved results on the power – 4,6%. It was also shown that athletes are more or less manifest Biorhythmic dependence. Conclusions: it was established that the planning of the training process, taking into account jet lag has a positive effect on the result of more than planning the same load without jet lag.
Kutz, Matthew R
Leadership behaviors are an important aspect of athletic training and are needed within all allied health care disciples. A two-phase, exploratory, non-experimental research study using a Delphi technique and a randomly selected sample of athletic trainers (n = 161) was conducted to determine leadership competencies perceived to be important for athletic training practice and education. The Delphi technique (phase one) resulted in the Leadership Development in Athletic Training instrument (LDAT). In the national survey (phase two), respondents used the LDAT to rate the importance of leadership competencies for athletic training practice and for athletic training education. Coefficient alphas ranged from α = 0.83 to 0.97 and provided satisfactory estimates of internal consistency. Concurrent, construct, and convergent validity were established. Forty-nine leadership competencies were rated important for practice and 48 for education (M = 1.5, p ≤ 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that leadership competencies were organized by four constructs (with six emphases): 1) personality characteristics, 2) diagnosing context and people skills, 3) communication and initiative, and 4) strategic thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc adjustments indicated each leadership construct significantly increased in importance as the level of the ATEP progressed.
Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A
Context: Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. Objective: To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Respondents' academic institutions. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Results: Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Conclusions: Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs. PMID:17597953
Martinović, Jelena; Dopsaj, Violeta; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Vujović, Ana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Nešić, Goran
The objectives of this study were to determine (a) if reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are a reliable parameter for monitoring oxidative stress in athletes alone or in association with other parameters of oxidative stress and depending on whether antioxidant supplements are taken or not; (b) the level of oxidative stress in athletes before the competition season; and (c) if oxidative status could be improved in volleyball athletes. Sixteen women athletes (supplemented group) received an antioxidant cocktail containing vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc gluconate, and selenium as a dietary supplement during a 6-week training period, whereas 12 of them (control group) received no dietary supplement. Blood samples were taken before and after the training period. The following parameters were measured: ROMs, superoxide anion (O2⁻₂), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), biological antioxidative potential (BAP), paraoxonase activity toward paraoxon (POase) and diazoxon (DZOase), superoxide dismutase(SOD), total sulfydryl group concentration (SH groups), and lipid status. Reactive oxygen metabolites were taken as the dependent variable and MDA, O2⁻₂, AOPP, and LOOH as independent variables. In the group of athletes who have received supplementation, linear regression analysis revealed that the implemented model had a lower influence on dROMs (70.4 vs. 27.9%) after the training period. The general linear model showed significant differences between parameters before and after training/supplementation (Wilks' lambda = 0.074, F = 11.76, p defense in volleyball athletes.
Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Müller, Lisa; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J
This study examined the impact of relative age effect (RAE) on selection to the Spanish National Athletics Federation (RFEA) training camps (TC) between 2006 and 2013. Overall, 1,334 selected athletes at U15 years (cadet) and U17 years (juvenile) were compared against 27,711 licensed but unselected athletes for the same age groups. The results highlighted the influential role of the RAE on selection to national level track and field training camp opportunities. Interestingly, this effect was mediated by age and gender, where effects were stronger for both males and younger athletes (U15), with no evidence of RAE for older (U17) female athletes. These results support the "maturation-selection" hypothesis as a mechanism for RAE. Particularly given the long-term goals of RFEA (e.g., production of successful senior elite athletes), these results highlight the need to consider the impact of current selection processes on effective provision of opportunities to those athletes with most potential to succeed in the long term. A number of possible context-relevant solutions are discussed, including education and awareness raising, using holistic selection criteria and correction adjustments techniques.
Reed, Casey A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E
Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June 2011). A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance
Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic
Conatser, Phillip; Naugle, Keith; Tillman, Mark; Stopka, Christine
Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are often the first health care providers to treat injured athletes. However, few researchers have studied ATs' beliefs concerning working with Special Olympics athletes. To examine ATs' beliefs toward working with Special Olympics athletes by using the theory of planned behavior model and to examine the influence of moderator variables. Cross-sectional survey. Athletic Trainers' Beliefs Toward Special Olympics Athletes survey instruments were mailed to 147 directors of Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPDs) in 43 states and 120 cities. One hundred twenty ATEPDs (44 women, 76 men). We used stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine whether attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention and to determine which moderator variables predicted attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine ATEPDs' beliefs about how competent they felt working with Special Olympics athletes and whether they were currently working with these athletes. We found that subjective norm, attitude toward the behavior, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention (R = 0.697, R(2) = 0.486, F(3,112) = 35.3, P Olympics athletes, completion of 1 or more courses in adapted physical activity, ATEPDs' competence, completion of 1 or more special education courses, and sex (R = 0.589, R(2) = 0.347, F(5,111) = 11.780, P Olympics athletes and more Special Olympics certifications (R = 0.472, R(2) = 0.222, F(2,112) = 16.009, P Olympics athletes, and a higher educational degree (R = 0.642, R(2) = 0.412, F(4,113) = 19.793, P Olympics athletes; however, their subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention beliefs were unfavorable. The ATEPDs reported they did not feel competent to work with Special Olympics athletes.
Successful endurance training involves the manipulation of training intensity, duration, and frequency, with the implicit goals of maximizing performance, minimizing risk of negative training outcomes, and timing peak fitness and performances to be achieved when they matter most. Numerous descriptive studies of the training characteristics of nationally or internationally competitive endurance athletes training 10 to 13 times per week seem to converge on a typical intensity distribution in which about 80% of training sessions are performed at low intensity (2 mM blood lactate), with about 20% dominated by periods of high-intensity work, such as interval training at approx. 90% VO2max. Endurance athletes appear to self-organize toward a high-volume training approach with careful application of high-intensity training incorporated throughout the training cycle. Training intensification studies performed on already well-trained athletes do not provide any convincing evidence that a greater emphasis on high-intensity interval training in this highly trained athlete population gives long-term performance gains. The predominance of low-intensity, long-duration training, in combination with fewer, highly intensive bouts may be complementary in terms of optimizing adaptive signaling and technical mastery at an acceptable level of stress.
Ilić, Ivan; Djordjević, Vitomir; Stanković, Ivan; Vlahović-Stipac, Alja; Putniković, Biljana; Babić, Rade; Nesković, Aleksandar N
Long-term intensive training is associated with distinctive cardiac adaptations which are known as athlete's heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) could affect echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in elite strength and endurance athletes. A total of 20 elite strength athletes (10 AAS users and 10 non-users) were compared to 12 steroid-free endurance athletes. All the subjects underwent comprehensive standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. After being indexed for body surface area, both left atrium (LA) and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were significantly higher in the endurance than strength athletes, regardless of AAS use (p steroid-free endurance athletes, showing that 75% of LA size variability depends on variability of LVEDD (p steroid-free athletes, regardless of training type (p abuse.
Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.
Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.
Gabbett, Tim J
There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. This paper describes the 'Training-Injury Prevention Paradox' model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load ('internal' and 'external' loads) and suggests capturing both recent ('acute') training loads and more medium-term ('chronic') training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable-acute:chronic workload ratio-as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and thus, time-loss injuries. The appropriately
Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F
The discovery of vitamin D muscle receptors in the last few years suggested a significant role in muscle tissue, pointing out athletes as a special group. Specific data are scarce. The main aim of the current paper was to provide, for the first time, comparable data about vitamin D status in elite Spanish athletes by sport, age, season and training environment. Four hundred and eight elite athletes with a mean age of 22.8 ± 8.4 years were recruited from the High-performance sport centre in Barcelona for this cross-sectional study. Athletes from 34 different sports modalities were analysed. Data were available for vitamin D status, training environment, seasonality and number of medical visits. All data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0. Mean 25(OH)D of all athletes was 56.7 ± 23.4 nmol/L. Approximately 82% of the athletes were below the optimal levels, (outdoors compared with those training indoor (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Tayrose, Gregory A.; Beutel, Bryan G.; Cardone, Dennis A.; Sherman, Orrin H.
Context: With the ever-increasing number of masters athletes, it is necessary to understand how to best provide medical support to this expanding population using a multidisciplinary approach. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2013 using the search terms masters athlete and aging and exercise were identified using MEDLINE. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Preparticipation screening should assess a variety of medical comorbidities, with emphasis on cardiovascular health in high-risk patients. The masters athlete should partake in moderate aerobic exercise and also incorporate resistance and flexibility training. A basic understanding of physiology and age-related changes in muscle composition and declines in performance are prerequisites for providing appropriate care. Osteoarthritis and joint arthroplasty are not contraindications to exercise, and analgesia has an appropriate role in the setting of acute or chronic injuries. Masters athletes should follow regular training regimens to maximize their potential while minimizing their likelihood of injuries. Conclusion: Overall, masters athletes represent a unique population and should be cared for utilizing a multidisciplinary approach. This care should be implemented not only during competitions but also between events when training and injury are more likely to occur. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID:26131307
Paajanen, Hannu [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kuopio (Finland); Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari [Central Hospital of Mikkeli, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland)
Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)
Matina, Robert M; Rogol, Alan D
Growth and pubertal maturation of youth athletes are overwhelmingly within the broad range of normal variability. These include many successful male athletes who mature earlier than average, and many successful female athletes, especially in the "aesthetic" sports (artistic gymnastics, ice-skating, ballet) and distance running, who mature later than average. Artistic gymnasts generally receive the most attention, but their growth and maturation characteristics fall largely within the physiologic range and are indistinguishable from short, late maturing girls. It is difficult to ascribe causality to intensive training for sport as a factor in the later pubertal maturation of heavily training athletes. The alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary function for the GH/IGF-I and gonadal axes are likely appropriate for the stage of adolescent maturation. The selection and sorting processes for elite sport, including ballet, need critical evaluation. If intensive training is a factor affecting growth and pubertal maturation, its effects must be partitioned from (a) other factors known to influence these biological processes, and (b) other components of the overall sport training environment before causality can be established. Other factors which play an indeterminate role include: genetics/epigenetics, stress, psychosocial interactions, family environment and caloric intake, among others. These factors together with the energy expenditure of intensive training may influence the growth and pubertal maturation of some adolescent athletes. The effect is not necessarily attributable to training per se; rather, it is likely embedded in the elite sport training environment which is essentially an adult dominated enterprise.
Heinerichs, Scott; Curtis, Neil; Gardiner-Shires, Alison
Context: Athletic training students (ATSs) are involved in various situations during the clinical experience that may cause them to express levels of frustration. Understanding levels of frustration in ATSs is important because frustration can affect student learning, and the clinical experience is critical to their development as professionals. Objective: To explore perceived levels of frustration in ATSs during clinical situations and to determine if those perceptions differ based on sex. Design: Cross-sectional study with a survey instrument. Setting: A total of 14 of 19 professional, undergraduate athletic training programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education in Pennsylvania. Patients or Other Participants: Of a possible 438 athletic training students, 318 (72.6%) completed the survey. Main Outcomes Measure(s): The Athletic Training Student Frustration Inventory was developed and administered. The survey gathered demographic information and included 24 Likert-scale items centering on situations associated with the clinical experience. Descriptive statistics were computed on all items. The Mann-Whitney U was used to evaluate differences between male and female students. Results: A higher level of frustration was perceived during the following clinical situations: lack of respect by student-athletes and coaching staffs, the demands of the clinical experience, inability of ATSs to perform or remember skills, and ATSs not having the opportunity to apply their skills daily. Higher levels of frustration were perceived in female than male ATSs in several areas. Conclusions: Understanding student frustration during clinical situations is important to better appreciate the clinical education experience. Low levels of this emotion are expected; however, when higher levels exist, learning can be affected. Whereas we cannot eliminate student frustrations, athletic training programs and preceptors need to be
Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch
Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)
Objective: To introduce athletic training educators and practicing professionals to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits that multicultural education, awareness, and training might provide if implemented in athletic training education. Data Sources: I reviewed textbook chapters and articles used in the course of my doctoral studies and searched the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 1998 to 2002 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. I obtained additional information by cross-referencing pertinent articles. Data Synthesis: I present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of athletic training education. I outline the infrastructure in the professional field of athletic training, review some of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy, and examine some of the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education. Conclusions/Recommendations: Future work in this area should focus on various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in athletic training curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies. PMID:16558679
Geisler, Paul R
To introduce athletic training educators and practicing professionals to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits that multicultural education, awareness, and training might provide if implemented in athletic training education. I reviewed textbook chapters and articles used in the course of my doctoral studies and searched the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 1998 to 2002 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. I obtained additional information by cross-referencing pertinent articles. I present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of athletic training education. I outline the infrastructure in the professional field of athletic training, review some of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy, and examine some of the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education. Future work in this area should focus on various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in athletic training curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies.
de Bressy de Guast, Virginie; Golby, Jim; Van Wersch, Anna; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne
This study presents a complete psychological skills training (PST) program with a wheelchair athlete and examines the program effectiveness using a mixed-method approach. After initial testing, the athlete followed a two-month program of self-confidence building, motivational, visualization/relaxation, and injury management techniques. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the impacts on performance and psychological abilities. The triangulated results suggest that the PST program was perceived as effective by the athlete in terms of his sporting performances and mental skills. The characteristics and implications of a PST program with this wheelchair athlete are discussed, as well as the study limitations and the perspectives for future research.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.
Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…
Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens
The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the o......(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...... performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...
Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue
Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…
Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.
Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…
Stepanenko, N P; Levitskaia, T E; Matveeva, E A; Zaĭtsev, A A; Konovalov, A B; Tren'kaeva, N A; Akimova, K K; Kremeno, S V; Dostovalova, O V; Merzliakova, N V
To study dynamics of the indicators of the hormonal and psychological status as well as psychological features of significance for the sportive performance under conditions of rehabilitative treatment during training and post-training periods in the child athlete engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The study included 42 child athletes at the age from 8 to 15 years engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The children of the study group (group 1, n=17) received the combined restorative treatment under conditions of regular training while those comprising group 2 group (n=25) were given a similar treatment in the absence of the training load. All athletes underwent clinical and laboratory examination before and after the treatment for the assessment of their psychological status. The study has demonstrated that additional physical activities were responsible for the development of negative changes in the hormonal and psychological spheres of the child athletes. As a result, they experienced the impairment of certain qualities significant for their sportive performance. The rehabilitative measures during different periods of the training cycle promote normalization of all parameters of the hormonal, psychological, and physical status of the child athletes; moreover, they improve the adaptive capacity of the children.
Armstrong, Kirk J; Weidner, Thomas G
Continuing education (CE) is intended to promote professional growth and, ultimately, to enhance professional practice. To determine certified athletic trainers' participation in formal (ie, approved for CE credit) and informal (ie, not approved for CE credit) CE activities and the perceived effect these activities have on professional practice with regard to improving knowledge, clinical skills and abilities, attitudes toward patient care, and patient care itself. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training practice settings. Of a geographic, stratified random sample of 1000 athletic trainers, 427 (42.7%) completed the survey. The Survey of Formal and Informal Athletic Training Continuing Education Activities was developed and administered electronically. The survey consisted of demographic characteristics and Likert-scale items regarding CE participation and perceived effect of CE on professional practice. Internal consistency of survey items was determined using the Cronbach alpha (alpha = 0.945). Descriptive statistics were computed for all items. An analysis of variance and dependent t tests were calculated to determine differences among respondents' demographic characteristics and their participation in, and perceived effect of, CE activities. The alpha level was set at .05. Respondents completed more informal CE activities than formal CE activities. Participation in informal CE activities included reading athletic training journals (75.4%), whereas formal CE activities included attending a Board of Certification-approved workshop, seminar, or professional conference not conducted by the National Athletic Trainers' Association or affiliates or committees (75.6%). Informal CE activities were perceived to improve clinical skills or abilities and attitudes toward patient care. Formal CE activities were perceived to enhance knowledge. More respondents completed informal CE activities than formal CE activities. Both formal and informal CE activities were perceived to
Full Text Available Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article. 52 students took part in research. It is developed the recommendation for the application of pedagogical conditions of use in the expressway strength and strength training, ability to determine dosing load for students with different level of physical background, methods of power properties development both for boys and for girls. It is shown that using of athletic training at the classes of physical education is contributing of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture.
Full Text Available Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article 52 students took part in research. It is developed the recommendation for the application of pedagogical conditions of use in the expressway strength and strength training, ability to determine dosing load for students with different level of physical background, methods of power properties development both for boys and for girls. It is shown that using of athletic training at the classes of physical education is contributing of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture.
Rhea, Matthew R.; Peterson, M.D.; Lunt, K. T.; Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José
Resisted jumping devices and resisted plyometric training have become more common in recent years. The effectiveness of such training has yet to be determined among high school athletes. Sixty-four high school athletes (50 boys and 14 girls) from a variety of sports were divided into 2 groups and participated in a training intervention that differed only by the use of the VertiMax jump trainer in 1 group. Lower-body power was tested before and after the intervention and compared statistically...
S.Maiyappan; Dr.Louis Raj
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of explosive strength training program on Srm university long jump athletes. Twenty (N=20) male athletes from Srm university, Chennai, aged 19–23 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group. The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for standing broad jump and vertical jump. A schedule of weight training program was employed on the students twice a week for a Period of 12 weeks. Paired t-test was applied to find...
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.
Context The decision has been made to move away from the traditional bachelor's degree professional program to a master's degree professional program. Little is known about the perceptions about this transition from those involved with education. Objective To examine multiple stakeholders' perspectives within athletic training education on the effect that a change to graduate-level education could have on the profession and the educational and professional development of the athletic trainer. Design Qualitative study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants A total of 18 athletic training students (6 men, 12 women; age = 24 ± 5 years), 17 athletic training faculty (6 men, 9 women, 2 unspecified; 7 program directors, 5 faculty members, 3 clinical coordinators, 2 unidentified; age = 45 ± 8 years), and 15 preceptors (7 men, 7 women, 1 unspecified; age = 34 ± 7 years) completed the study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants completed a structured Web-based questionnaire. Each cohort responded to questions matching their roles within an athletic training program. Data were analyzed following a general inductive process. Member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review established credibility. Results Thirty-one (62%) participants supported the transition, 14 (28%) were opposed, and 5 (10%) were neutral or undecided. Advantages of and support for transitioning and disadvantages of and against transitioning emerged. The first higher-order theme, advantages, revealed 4 benefits: (1) alignment of athletic training with other health care professions, (2) advanced coursework and curriculum delivery, (3) improved student and professional retention, and (4) student maturity. The second higher-order theme, disadvantages, was defined by 3 factors: (1) limited time for autonomous practice, (2) financial concerns, and (3) lack of evidence for the transition. Conclusions Athletic training students, faculty, and
Ostojic, S M; Ahmetovic, Z
The objectives of the present study were: a) to investigate the prevalence of iron depletion and anemia among female top-level athletes from different sports; b) to determine a relationship between serum ferritin levels and training status of female athletes. This study was conducted on 84 female professional athletes who were recruited during preparticipation physical examination. Upon entering the laboratory 10 mL of venous blood was drawn from an antecubital vein into a lavender-top tube for a complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, and transferrin and ferritin levels. No significant differences between any of the hematological variables were found between groups of different sports. The lowest hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin and transferrin encountered in the study were Hb of 9.1 g/dL, MCV of 64.5 fL, serum iron of 15 microg/dL, ferritin of 5.4 microg/L, transferrin of 210 microg/dL in a 20-year old female distance runner with functional impairment and iron deficiency anemia. No significant differences were found between female athletes from different sports regarding the prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Serum ferritin level poorly correlate with training duration (r = 0.24) and seems to be inadequate indicator of training tolerance. This study has shown a high prevalence of iron depletion and anemia among female athletes from different sports, with similar incidence in individuals independent of their weekly training volume.
Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and study the diet of athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs in transition training considering the restoration of lean body mass and functional state of an athlete Material and Methods: the study involved 18 athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs included in the national team in the Kharkiv region bodybuilding. Methods were used: the theoretical method and summarize the literature, pedagogical supervision, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: comparative characteristics of the diet have been developed for athletes ectomorphs engaged on bodybuilding to increase muscle weight. It was divided the athletes into two experimental groups: the first EG used a balanced diet that made protein 2 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight and carbohydrates 4–5 g•kg–1 in the second EG was protein 3 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight, and carbohydrate 6 grams kg. Second EG diet consists of 6 single meal and is about 2800–3500 calories per day. Conclusions: on the basis of research by the author offered the optimal diet for athletes ektomorfiv second experimental group engaged in bodybuilding.
Terry, P C; Howe, B L
The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.
Ensign, Kristine A; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M; Ridpath, B David
Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Cross-sectional study. E-mailed survey. A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P student-athletes on their teams and ATs who were not (P student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes.
Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin
The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how
Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p athletes. Animal and plant-based sources of protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.
Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E
Occupation or occupational setting shifts might be occurring in the athletic training profession, and differences between sexes might exist; however, little evidence exists to confirm this supposition. To evaluate trends in male and female athletic training employment patterns in terms of age and occupational setting. Cross-sectional study. We requested demographic data from the National Athletic Trainers' Association (October 27, 2009) and obtained frequency totals of members by sex across the occupational life span by occupational setting. Our sample included 18 571 athletic trainers employed in the 3 largest classifications of occupational settings within the profession: college or university, clinical, and secondary school. We calculated frequencies and percentages to determine demographic and descriptive data. We analyzed the data using an analysis of variance to identify the differences between sexes across age and setting. We observed trends in occupational setting and sex across ages 22 to 67 years. We identified differences between sexes across the ages 22 to 67 years (F(1,18569) = 110818.080, P beginning around age 28 years and an increase in male athletic trainers in the secondary school setting beginning around their middle to late 40s. We observed differences at the intercept between setting and sex (F(1,18569) = 63529.344, P ages (F(1,18569) = 23566787.642, P ages in addition to an overall decrease in the workforce among all professionals. A marked decline in female athletic trainers occurred at age 28 years, yet the male population increased at the secondary school level, suggesting a setting shift. Burnout, fatigue, pay scale, and a misunderstanding of professional culture and job duties might influence the exodus or shift in athletic training.
Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J
The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.
Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Lunt, Kregg T; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio
Resisted jumping devices and resisted plyometric training have become more common in recent years. The effectiveness of such training has yet to be determined among high school athletes. Sixty-four high school athletes (50 boys and 14 girls) from a variety of sports were divided into 2 groups and participated in a training intervention that differed only by the use of the VertiMax jump trainer in 1 group. Lower-body power was tested before and after the intervention and compared statistically for differences between the groups. Athletes from both groups followed a periodized training program with resistance exercises performed 2 or 3 days per week, and sprint and plyometric training (i.e., training control group) or sprint, plyometric, and VertiMax training (i.e., VertiMax group) 1 or 2 days per week, for 12 total weeks. In addition to the traditional compound lower-body lifts and equated sprint work, the VertiMax group performed supplementary exercises on the VertiMax training apparatus. The average improvement in power observed in the training control group was 49.50 +/- 97.83 W, and the increase in power in the VertiMax group was 217.14 +/- 99.21 W. The differences in power after the test and improvements in power with training were found to differ between the groups (P VertiMax training group. Combined with previous research with college athletes, these data show the added effectiveness of resisted jump training on the VertiMax among athletes for the development of lower-body power.
Rivera-Brown, Anita M; De Félix-Dávila, Roberto A
Adolescent judo athletes who train in tropical climates may be in a persistent state of dehydration because they frequently restrict fluids during daily training sessions to maintain or reduce their body weight and are not given enough opportunities to drink. Determine the body hydration status of adolescent judo athletes before, immediately after, and 24 h after (24H) a training session and document sweat Na+ loss and symptoms of dehydration. Body mass and urine color and specific gravity (USG) were measured before, after, and 24 h after a training session in a high-heat-stress environment (29.5 ± 1.0°C; 77.7 ± 6.1% RH) in 24 adolescent athletes. Sweat sodium loss was also determined. A comparison was made between mid-pubertal (MP) and late pubertal (LP) subjects. The majority of the subjects started training with a significant level of dehydration. During the training session, MP subjects lost 1.3 ± 0.8% of their pretraining body mass whereas LP subjects lost 1.9 ± 0.5% (P athletes arrive to practice with a fluid deficit, do not drink enough during training, and experience symptoms of dehydration, which may compromise the quality of training and general well-being.
Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.
This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…
Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.
A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…
Thirty-one championship caliber women athletes participating on varsity teams at Ohio State University were trained using two different conditioning programs, in an attempt to determine the physiological outcomes of weight training versus cardiovascular-oriented conditioning. Fourteen tennis players followed a program of high-resistance weight…
Olav Vikmoen; Truls Raastad; Olivier Seynnes; Kristoffer Bergstrøm; Stian Ellefsen; Bent R Rønnestad
Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes...
Bertoncino, Thomas K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…
Rearick, Matt; Creasy, John; Buriak, Jim
Each year many young athletes suffer injuries from overtraining. According to the existing literature, strategies do exist to help control this growing problem. This article explores the basic nature of training and overtraining, with a particular emphasis on endurance athletes. Several psychological factors are highlighted as the first clear…
Tyssen, Oddvar Jordheim
The purpose of this study was to examine motivation, positive emotions and challenge in groups of elite junior athletes. Results are discussed in terms of self-determination theory and the functional well-being approach. Men and female elite junior athletes (N=211) aged 15-19 years completed a series of online questionnaires. Results revealed that a) older athletes reported higher levels of extrinsic motivation than younger athletes, b) younger athletes reported higher levels of both eudai...
Full Text Available Higher demands which characterize modern judo and analysis of many new things in the area of periodizations have the aim to enable better training effects and to overcome empiric and elemental work of coaches by varying different methodical training parameters and characteristic situational judo training. Strength training is a form of physical activity used for increasing abilities of surmounting or resisting the power. The increasing in muscular strength results in increased success in performing some motoric tasks. In our research, estimation of selected judo athlete muscular strength is done by combination of laboratory and field tests. The research was conducted in two phases during the 10-week preparation period. The obtained results showed statistically significant high values of muscular strength in most tests. That is why we concluded that the applied preparation strength training resulted in increasing muscular strength in judo athletes. We think that the right periodizations of training enable adequate functional adaptation of judo athletes. Strength training applied in preparation period will lead to adequate increasing in muscular strength of judo athletes which make basis for faster performing of movements and efficient performing of techniques during a match.
Kutz, Matthew R; Scialli, Joan
A two-phase exploratory and comparative research study using a Delphi technique and a web-based national survey was done to determine leadership content (i.e., theories, styles, or practices) important to include in athletic training education. Eighteen athletic training experts participated in the Delphi technique, followed by 161 athletic trainers completing the national survey. Consensus of experts was reached after two rounds (77% interrater agreement, alpha = 0.80 and alpha = 0.93 per respective round) and identified 31 leadership content items important to include in athletic training education. The national sample then rated importance of each leadership content area for inclusion in four types of athletic training education programs (entry-level baccalaureate, entry-level master's degree, postgraduate certifications, and doctoral degree). The respondents ranked the leadership content in order of importance according to mean (mean = 1.53 +/- 0.84 to 2.55 +/- 0.55; scale, 0-3). Twenty-two content items (63%) were rated at least "very important" (mean > or = 2.0). Exploratory factor analysis established construct validity and organized leadership content by three factors: managerial leadership and knowledge management; leadership theories; and leadership issues, trends, and policies (alpha = 0.84-0.91). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (Sidak post-hoc adjustments) established criterion-related concurrent validity, which found increasing levels of importance as education type progressed (F = 4.88, p = 0.003-32.56, p = 0.000). Adding leadership content within athletic training enhances the professionalization of students, facilitates leadership competency among students and practicing professionals enrolled in postcertification educational programs, and facilitates job placement and role.
Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike
The purpose of this study was to determine the braking and propulsive phase kinetic variables underpinning reactive strength in highly trained sprint athletes in comparison to a non-sprint trained control group. Twelve highly trained sprint athletes and twelve non-sprint trained participants performed drop jumps (DJs) from 0.25m, 0.50m and 0.75m onto a force plate. One familiarization session was followed by an experimental testing session within the same week. Reactive strength index (RSI), contact time, flight time, and leg stiffness were determined. Kinetic variables including force, power and impulse were assessed within the braking and propulsive phases. Sprint trained athletes demonstrated higher RSI versus non-sprint trained participants across all drop heights (3.02 vs 2.02; ES [±90% CL]: 3.11 ±0.86). This difference was primarily attained by briefer contact times (0.16 vs 0.22 s; ES: -1.49 ±0.53) with smaller differences observed for flight time (0.50 vs 0.46 s; ES: 0.53 ±0.58). Leg stiffness, braking and propulsive phase force and power were higher in sprint trained athletes. Very large differences were observed in mean braking force (51 vs 38 Nkg; ES: 2.57 ±0.73) which was closely associated with contact time (r ±90% CL: -0.93 ±0.05). Sprint trained athletes exhibited superior reactive strength than non-sprint trained participants. This was due to the ability to strike the ground with a stiffer leg spring, an enhanced expression of braking force, and possibly an increased utilization of elastic structures. The DJ kinetic analysis provides additional insight into the determinants of reactive strength which may inform subsequent testing and training.
Francois, Denise; And Others
A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)
Clark, R Preston
The author considers monetary investment in student-athletes. The disparity among the amount of money spent on the average student and the amount of money spent on the average athlete is staggering...
Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L
The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...
Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L
The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long...
Ariadne Maria dos Santos
Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.
Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy
Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968
Stöggl, Thomas L; Sperlich, Billy
Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a "pyramidal" TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called "polarized" TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies.
Hook, Lacole L.
Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…
Schevchenko, Irina; Abramov, Viktor V; Gibson, Paul T; Omar, Hatim A
This article proposes simple medical criteria that can be used by trainers and others for effective medical supervision of young female athletes. The cross-sectional, age-stratified study compared girls 10-17 years of age involved in intensive training in gymnastic floor exercises, trampoline, or badminton. Each sport and/or control group was represented by 40-45 girls. Data included medical history, morphometric variables and observation of biological development. Gymnasts started training earliest (approximately 5-years-old) and trained most intensely (18-20 h/wk), followed by trampolinists and then badmintonists. Height, weight, body mass index, and % body fat were reduced in athletes, with gymnasts showing the greatest reduction. Athletes showed higher ratios of leg length to height and shoulder width/hip width, and smaller pelvic size compared to height. The average age of menarche of gymnasts was 13.8 (1.6 year later than controls). Delays of biological development of more than 2 years were common in athletes, and some gymnasts showed more than a 4-year delay. These delays were related to morphometric indicators of hormonal imbalance and to low body fat. Gymnasts had more childhood diseases, with an infection index of 2.8 compared to 1.1 for the control group, and had a higher level of chronic ENT problems. Trainers need to protect the health of athletes. During the course of training, anamneses, delayed menarche and other signs of delayed biological development must be monitored. Morphometric measures and indicators of biological development are proposed to provide simple criteria important in protecting the athletes' health.
Mandali, Swarna L.
Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…
Gayles, Joy Gaston
Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…
Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the efficiency of different programs of training sessions to improve operational preparedness qualified athletes who specialize in rowing. Materials and Methods: the study included 10 athletes craftsmanship that are part of the national team of Ukraine rowing. To assess the functional training using computer program "SHVSM" and submaximal test PWC170. Results are content authoring program training sessions to improve functional training highly skilled athletes who specialize in rowing and academic results its experimental verification. Conclusions: the experiment confirmed a higher efficiency of the program of training sessions for rowing-sportsmen team Ukraine compared with the program, which is traditionally used, as evidenced by the survey.
Ensign, Kristine A.; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M.; Ridpath, B. David
Abstract Context: Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). Objective: To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: E-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. Results: With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P attitudes toward LGB student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes. PMID:21214353
Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel
Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90).
Full Text Available Purpose : To determine theoretically similar trends and differences in the periods of sports training athletes and Paralympic athletes with similar qualifications, without disabilities. Material : analyzed more than 80 references. Results : at present insufficiently developed periodization sports training many years to prepare athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Also - at the stage of maximum realization of individual empowerment athletes. This applies to the immediate preparation for the main competition. In the first case, periodization can be carried out on the basis of the classical theory. Also on stage, maximizing the individual capabilities. Need to adapt this theory to career achievements of athletes. Also, you must consider the disease. Conclusions : The main factors set differences training tools Paralympic athletes and physically healthy: increased attention to the psychological preparation for the Paralympics, inclusive education and sports training individualization programs already in the first stage of their training.
Full Text Available The system of planning of trainings employments is considered in setup time for sprinters. In research took part sportsmen in age 10-16 years. In all age-dependent groups of athletes of mean of renewal was used one time per a week during 1,5 hours. For sportsmen 10-12 years it was 4,33%, 13-14 years - 6,63%, 15-16 years - 8,46% from the general volume of clock. The planning system is developed taking into account additional restoration measures. The planning system takes into account age of runners, half, stage of long-term sporting preparation.
Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.
Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.
The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.
Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.
Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…
Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bulger, Sean M.
Objective: The growing importance of evidence based practice in athletic training is necessitating academics and clinicians to be able to make judgments about the quality or lack of the body of research evidence and peer-reviewed standards pertaining to clinical questions. To assist in the judgment process, consensus methods, namely brainstorming,…
Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...
Wagner, Meredith G.; Hansen, Pamela; Rhee, Yeong; Brundt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna; Christensen, Bryan
The study assessed the preferred learning style (LS) of college students and compared LS preferences among students majoring in Dietetics, Exercise Science, and Athletic Training. LS questionnaires were distributed to students (N = 693, mean age 20.5 ± 1.7) enrolled in health science courses at three Midwestern universities. Most students…
Peer, Kimberly S.
Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…
Dahlgren, Wendy J.; And Others
Describes the Manitoba Special Olympics Medallion Program which provides Special Olympians with the opportunity to engage in sport-specific training at the level required to improve athletic performance. The program is more competitive than general Special Olympics physical activity programs which are more recreational in nature. (SM)
Gillen, Jenna B.; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C.; Brinkmans, Naomi Y.J.; Versteegen, Joline J.; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Kapp, Christoph; Vries, de Jeanne; Borne, van den Joost J.G.C.; Gibala, Martin J.; Loon, van Luc J.C.
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day
Leone, James E.; Gray, Kimberly A.
Following "Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" by Stephen Covey, this article seeks to communicate effective strategies for athletic training education Program Directors (PDs) to follow. Commentary of Covey's work and practical strategies to integrate them into PD practice and responsibilities are provided. Background: Due to a lack…
Bates, Dana K.
Context: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has been shown to benefit students across educational levels. Current research has investigated perceptions of PAL, postgraduate impact, as well as prevalence. This study investigated athletic training students' perceptions of an intentional PAL pedagogy on both the peer-student and peer-tutor. In this study,…
Barrett, Jessica L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.
Context: The professional socialization process enables athletic training students (ATSs) to gain insights into behaviors, values, and attitudes that characterize their chosen profession. However, the process often focuses on skill development over professional issues. ATSs may be exposed to burnout and work-life conflict, which may impact their…
Nynas, Suzette Marie
Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…
Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.
Context: Researchers have reported that interacting with standardized patients (SPs) is a worthwhile and realistic experience for athletic training (AT) students. These encounters enhance students' interviewing skills, confidence as a clinician, clinical skill development, and interpersonal communication. Objective: To determine how SP encounters…
Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.
Context: Clinical education is an integral part of athletic training programs. This is where students should develop their professional identities and become socialized into the profession. Understanding the student and preceptor perspectives of the impact that clinical experiences have on students can provide valuable insight into this aspect of…
Alasti, Mohammad; Omidvar, Bita; Jadbabaei, Mohammad Hossein
Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete's heart. Athlete's heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete's heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST and traditional training (TT can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG and control group (CG. EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week. The total duration of training was 10 weeks. The measurements including peak torque (PT, PT/body weight (BW, and rate of force development (RFD were used to assess trunk muscles strength. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups' performance when it was tested at the higher velocity of dynamometer (test of muscle power, but less significant differences when the two groups performance was tested at the lower velocity of dynamometer (test of maximum strength. The conclusion of this study is that compared with traditional training methods, suspension training can improve back and trunk flexion muscles strength more effectively. In particular, suspension training can improve the explosive power of trunk extension and flexion muscles.
Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load.Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test.Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05.Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the
Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J
Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.
Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee
This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".
Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy
Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health.
Guskiewicz, Kevin M.
Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…
Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.
Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…
Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E
Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training programs. Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 +/- 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) x 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 +/- 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 +/- 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 +/- 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, eta (2) = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, eta (2) = .013), relativism
Rastislav Salaj; Denisa Čokášová; Beáta Pramuková
.... However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health...
Full Text Available Core stability training (CST has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60], and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]. The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]. The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to postintervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N· NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64], and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N· NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70] landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week
Full Text Available Purpose: develop an experimental training program for lightweight rowers in academic rowing. Material: the study involved 27 qualified athletes who are engaged in academic rowing over 6 years, age 19-22 years, with sports qualifications KMS and MS. To better design the training program was conducted to study this physical condition of athletes also took into account the opinion of the leading coaches in academic rowing that are engaged with lightweight rowers. Results: as a result of an experimental study was designed training program in academic rowing. Conclusions: Experimental training program rowing provided its use for a year and was designed in the form of blocks and aims to developing and improving endurance (speed and power, strength and maximum strength. The experimental technique that was used in the training process, was designed with the preparation phase and plan on mesocycles and microcycle.
Full Text Available Purpose: develop an experimental training program for lightweight rowers in academic rowing. Material: the study involved 27 qualified athletes who are engaged in academic rowing over 6 years, age 19-22 years, with sports qualifications KMS and MS. To better design the training program was conducted to study this physical condition of athletes also took into account the opinion of the leading coaches in academic rowing that are engaged with lightweight rowers. Results: as a result of an experimental study was designed training program in academic rowing. Conclusions: Experimental training program rowing provided its use for a year and was designed in the form of blocks and aims to developing and improving endurance (speed and power, strength and maximum strength. The experimental technique that was used in the training process, was designed with the preparation phase and plan on mesocycles and microcycle.
Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David G; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Salo, Aki I T
To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA. As training progressed, a link in the changes in velocity and step frequency was maintained. There were 71 between-session comparisons with a change in step velocity yielding at least a large effect size (>1.2), of which 73% had a correspondingly large change in step frequency in the same direction. Within-athlete mean session step length remained relatively constant throughout. Reductions in step velocity and frequency occurred during training phases of high volume lifting and running, with subsequent increases in step velocity and frequency happening during phases of low volume lifting and high intensity sprint work. The importance of step frequency over step length to the changes in performance within a training year was clearly evident for the sprinters studied. Understanding the magnitudes and timings of these changes in relation to the training program is important for coaches and athletes. The underpinning neuro-muscular mechanisms require further investigation, but are likely explained by an increase in force producing capability followed by an increase in the ability to produce that force rapidly.
McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele
This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...
Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A, chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while immunoglobulin A (+61% and creatine kinase activity (+43% increased, and chromogranin A decreased (-27% during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15% and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05. None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training.
Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M
Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Mixed-methods study. Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding of these strategies while caring for injured athletes.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Long-term intensive training is associated with distinctive cardiac adaptations which are known as athlete’s heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS could affect echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV morphology and function in elite strength and endurance athletes. Methods. A total of 20 elite strength athletes (10 AAS users and 10 non-users were compared to 12 steroid-free endurance athletes. All the subjects underwent comprehensive standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Results. After being indexed for body surface area, both left atrium (LA and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD were significantly higher in the endurance than strength athletes, regardless of AAS use (p < 0.05, for both. A significant correlation was found between LA diameter and LVEDD in the steroid-free endurance athletes, showing that 75% of LA size variability depends on variability of LVEDD (p < 0.001. No significant differences in ejection fraction and cardiac output were observed among the groups, although mildly reduced LV ejection fraction was seen only in the AAS users. The AAS-using strength athletes had higher A-peak velocity when compared to steroidfree athletes, regardless of training type (p < 0.05 for both. Both AAS-using and AAS-free strength athletes had lower e’ peak velocity and higher E/e’ ratio than endurance athletes (p < 0.05, for all. Conclusions. There is no evidence that LV ejection fraction in elite athletes is altered by either type of training or AAS misuse. Long-term endurance training is associated with preferable effects on LV diastolic function compared to strength training, particularly when the latter is combined with AAS abuse.
Veronica Montfort-Steiger; Williams, Craig A.
Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult ...
Basavarajaiah, Sandeep; Wilson, Matthew; Whyte, Gregory; Shah, Ajay; McKenna, William; Sharma, Sanjay
This study sought to determine the prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in elite athletes. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is considered to be the most common cause of exercise-related sudden death in young athletes...
Carpentier, Joëlle; Mageau, Geneviève A
Change-oriented feedback (COF) quality is predictive of between-athletes differences in their sport experience (Carpentier & Mageau, 2013). This study extends these findings by investigating how training-to-training variations in COF quality influence athletes' training experience (within-athlete differences) while controlling for the impact of promotion-oriented feedback (POF). In total, 49 athletes completed a diary after 15 consecutive training sessions to assess COF and POF received during training, as well as situational outcomes. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed that, when controlling for covariates, COF quality during a specific training session is positively linked to athletes' autonomous motivation, self-confidence and satisfaction of their psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness during the same session. In contrast, COF quantity is negatively linked to athletes' need for competence. POF quality is a significant positive predictor of athletes' self-confidence and needs for autonomy and competence. Contributions to the feedback and SDT literature, and for coaches' training, are discussed.
Walters, Benjamin K; Read, Connor R; Estes, A Reed
In 2014, 60 million youth ages 6-18 participated in some form of generalized athletics. 3.5 million children are injured annually participating in organized sport or recreational activities. While sound physical education can decrease the burden of youth sports injuries, the median annual physical education budget of $764 for United States elementary, middle and high schools may not allow enough flexibility to apply evidenced-based guidelines. The topics were selected after a careful review of the 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development. Articles used to summarize the topics were located by using and cross-referencing sources from this statement. PubMed searches were also conducted using the key words "youth sports injuries," "early sports specialization," "training and maturation," "training versus developmental stage," and "long term athletic development." Youth resistance training has been shown to decrease not only the risk of injury, but also of the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Adequate recovery time also decreases injury risk, and resources such as the RESTQ-Sport are available to help coaches identify stress-recovery imbalances, which can be detected two months before an athlete becomes overreached. Through early detection of overtraining, a significant proportion of overuse injuries can be prevented. Early specialization causes fewer muscle groups to be worked and increased repetition, theoretically increasing the risk of injury and early sport dropout. Prior to puberty, increased neuronal activation and adaptation can be achieved through focusing on agility, balance and coordination, thus taking advantage of increased synaptoplasticity. In these early years, neuronal stimulation is more important than muscle hypertrophy, which plays a greater role in athletic development after puberty. A substantial proportion of youth injuries are preventable. Coaches and physical
Moreira, Alexandre; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Coutts, Aaron; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Kempton, Thomas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and their relationships with training loads (TLs) during a 4-week period of intensive training during the competitive season in elite Brazilian futsal players. Twelve athletes (age: 19 ± 1 years; height: 180 ± 4 cm; and body mass: 73 ± 7 kg) participated in the study. The training program included tactical, technical, specific conditioning and strength training, and competition matches. Training load was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion. Salivary immunoglobulin A, salivary cortisol and symptoms of URTIs were assessed weekly. A significant decrease in weekly TL was observed for week 4 (tapering) compared with that of other weeks (p 0.05). There was a significant decrease in URTI symptom severity during week 4 as compared with that of weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.05), with a significant correlation between weekly TL and URTI severity and weekly TL during week 4 (rs = 0.75; p < 0.05). The present findings suggest that futsal athletes are more susceptible to high URTI symptom severity in the periods of higher training. Therefore, the reduction in TLs before competitions is an appropriate strategy to minimize URTI symptoms ensuring the athlete's ability to train and compete.
Décombaz, J; Gmünder, B; Daget, N; Munoz-Box, R; Howald, H
This study compared the acceptance of two beverages (5% carbohydrate) of distinct osmolarities (hypotonic, 180 mOsm/kg and isotonic, 295 mOsm/kg) during the usual training practice of 97 athletes. A quantitative sensory profile by independent tasters ensured that organoleptic recognition would be unlikely during the tests. Each drink was consumed ad libitum during 3 different training sessions, at home. At each session, a subjective appreciation of hedonic and post-ingestive physiological effects (6 criteria) was obtained by means of a questionnaire. At the end of the experiment, the athletes were asked to express a preference for one of the "six" drinks. More athletes (blindly) chose the isotonic compared to the hypotonic drink (p = 0.03). This difference was not due intrinsically to the drinks, which the subjects were unable to distinguish on any of the criteria, but was related to certain aspects of the consumer's characteristics. Both groups had different drinking practices: the subjects choosing the isotonic beverage drank less before (p = 0.001) and more during (p = 0.013) the exercise. Age, sex, dimensions or type of physical activity (i.e. endurance vs speed/strength disciplines) were unrelated to the preference, except perhaps the duration of habitual exercise (p less than 0.05). We concluded that athletes, although unable to distinguish a hypotonic from an isotonic drink, may have specific habits and/or personal characteristics prompting them to favour one of them.
Breitbach, Anthony P; Brown, Sara D
Accredited Athletic Training Education programs (ATEPs) are sponsored by over 350 universities and are housed in a variety of academic units ranging from schools of education to schools of health professions. There are advantages to all stakeholders housing ATEPs in schools of health professions. Formed in the 1960s, many of the early ATEPs were housed in schools of education, when most program faculty and staff were employed by athletics departments and the profession had a distinct curricular connection to coaching. Athletic training has since evolved to a health care profession, and its educational processes need to reflect this model. By housing ATEPs in units that educate other health care providers, many efficiencies and collaborative opportunities are introduced with a resulting overall improvement in the quality of the professional education of athletic trainers. The authors, directors of ATEPs housed in schools of health professions, provide examples of these benefits, which include opportunities for participation in interprofessional initiatives; opportunities for faculty development and collaborative teaching among like-minded faculty; improved mechanisms for scholarship, support and funding mechanisms; and economies of scale in terms of program delivery requirements.
Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L; Gould, Daniel R; Covassin, Tracey
"Psychosocial Intervention and Referral" is 1 of the 12 content areas in athletic training education programs, but knowledge gained and skill usage after an educational intervention in this area have never been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention in increasing psychology-of-injury knowledge and skill usage in athletic training students (ATSs). Observational study. An accredited athletic training education program at a large Midwestern university. Participants included 26 ATSs divided into 2 groups: intervention group (4 men, 7 women; age = 21.4 +/- 0.67 years, grade point average = 3.37) and control group (7 men, 8 women; age = 21.5 +/- 3.8 years, grade point average = 3.27). All participants completed the Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention. Psychology-of-injury knowledge tests and skill usage surveys were administered to all participants at the following intervals: baseline, intervention week 3, and intervention week 6. Retention tests were administered to intervention-group participants at 7 and 14 weeks after intervention. Analysis techniques included mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated-measures ANOVA. The Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention effectively increased psychology-of-injury knowledge (29-point increase from baseline to intervention week 6; F(2,23) = 29.358, P educational intervention designed to improve ATSs' knowledge and skill usage revealed that the intervention was effective. Although both knowledge and skill usage scores decreased by the end of the retention period, the scores were still higher than baseline scores, indicating that the intervention was effective.
Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim
During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses.
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Riekena, Jeremy W; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Recommendations exist to encourage safe youth participation in sport. These recommendations include not specializing in 1 sport, limiting participation to less than 8 months per year, and limiting participation to fewer hours per week than a child's age. However, limited evidence exists to support or refute these recommendations. High levels of specialization will be associated with a history of injuries and especially overuse injuries, independent of age, sex, or weekly sport training hours. Athletes who exceed current sport volume recommendations will be more likely to have a history of injuries and overuse injuries. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Youth athletes (n = 2011; 989 female and 1022 male; 12-18 years of age) completed a questionnaire regarding their specialization status, yearly and weekly sport participation volume, and injury history. Specialization was classified as low, moderate, or high using a previously utilized 3-point scale. Athletes were classified into groups based on either meeting or exceeding current volume recommendations (months per year and hours per week). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to investigate associations of specialization and volume of participation with a history of sport-related injuries in the past year ( P ≤ .05). Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a previous injury of any kind ( P sport more than 8 months of the year were more likely to report an upper extremity overuse injury ( P = .04; OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.80) or a lower extremity overuse injury ( P = .001; OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.22-2.30). Athletes who participated in their primary sport for more hours per week than their age (ie, a 16-year-old athlete who participated in his or her primary sport for more than 16 h/wk) were more likely to report an injury of any type ( P = .001; OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12-1.61) in the previous year. High levels of specialization were associated with a history of injuries, independent of age
Emilio J. Martínez-López
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight- week (2 days/week training periods of plyometric exercises (PT and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and drop jump (DJ were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52% and 47 females (48%, 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT only, the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after < 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes
Martínez-López, Emilio J; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes.
Full Text Available Objective: to determine the most informative parameters of athletes in cheerleading. The experiment involved 14 athletes (age 16-18 years. To assess the physical fitness of the special developed 20 tests. The possibilities of creating favorable conditions for optimization of the training process and the achievement of high performance sports. Recommended special training to use the funds for the development of coordination abilities. In the general fitness should pay attention to the development and improvement of the spatial-temporal characteristics, the ability to navigate the space and to maintain equilibrium, co-ordination of movement, flexibility, power, speed and speed- strength abilities. Found that the success of the competitive activities of athletes depend on a rational balance of informative indicators.
Garrett, Andrew T; Rehrer, Nancy J; Patterson, Mark J
A rethinking of current heat-acclimation strategies is required as most research and advice for improving physiological strain in the heat includes maintaining hydration using long-term acclimation protocols (>10 days). Furthermore, these strategies have tended to use untrained and moderately trained participants. Therefore, the aims of this review were to (i) investigate the effectiveness of short-term heat acclimation (STHA) with moderately and highly trained athletes; (ii) determine the importance of fluid regulatory strain, which has a thermally independent role in heat adaptation; (iii) assess the impact of STHA on a marker of thermotolerance (inducible heat-shock protein 70 [HSP70]); and (iv) provide further information on the decay of acclimation to heat. The review suggests that 5-day STHA is effective, and adaptations may be more pronounced after fluid regulatory strain from a dehydration-acclimation regimen. Furthermore, highly trained athletes may have similar physiological gains to those who are less trained using STHA. However, research has tended to focus on untrained or moderately trained participants and more information is required for highly trained populations. HSP70 response is upregulated across STHA. This indicates increased thermotolerance and protective adaptive change that may indicate HSP70 response as a useful marker of heat acclimation. Physiological adaptations after heat acclimation are relatively short term and may vanish only a few days or weeks after removal from heat exposure. From a practical perspective 5-day STHA may be the preferred acclimation regimen for moderately and highly trained athletes as it has been shown to be effective, less expensive and less likely to disrupt the tapering for competition in elite performers. Furthermore, updated information on the time course of acclimation decay may allow a reliable estimate of how long individuals can be free from heat exposure before reacclimation is required. This is
Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week
Goolsby, Marci A; Boniquit, Nicole
The health of the skeletal system is important for athletes young and old. From the early benefits of exercise on bones to the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment, bone health affects the ability to be active throughout life. PubMed articles dating from 1986 to 2016 were used for the review. Relevant terms such as keywords and section titles of the article were searched and articles identified were reviewed for relevance to this article. Clinical review. Levels 1 through 4 evidence included. There is strong evidence that exercise benefits bone health at every age and is a critical factor in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Vitamin D, calcium, and hormones play vital roles in ensuring optimal bone health. When there is an imbalance between exercise and nutrition, as seen in the female athlete triad, bone health is compromised and can lead to bone stress injuries and early osteoporosis. Both of these can lead to morbidity and lost time from training and competition. Thus, early recognition and appropriate treatment of the female athlete triad and other stress fracture risk factors are vital to preventing long-term bone health problems. To optimize bone health, adequate nutrition, appropriate weightbearing exercise, strength training, and adequate calcium and vitamin D are necessary throughout life.
Martin, M; Buxton, B
With the onset of the 21 st century and increasing student diversity, institutions of higher education must become more attuned to the challenges, concerns, and needs of students entering the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. This review discusses the characteristics of the 21st-century college student. The sources for this information were courses of study in the authors' doctoral programs from 1980 to 1994. In the 21 st century, students of increasingly diverse ages, races, cultures, ethnicities, and classes will enter the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. Institutions of higher education that recognize the needs of their nontraditional students will be better able to serve these students. To effectively serve the 21st-century student, institutions of higher education must provide multicultural training, flexible schedules, accelerated programs, and learning experiences that are both practical and tangible.
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.
Rasmussen, Christopher J.
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.
Legerlotz, Kirsten; Marzilger, Robert; Bohm, Sebastian; Arampatzis, Adamantios
To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues. The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes. The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area. Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.
Shruti Pandey; Vasudeva Singh
Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal...
Green, D.J; Spence, A; Rowley, N; Thijssen, D.H.J; Naylor, L.H
Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed...
Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Reid, Machar
To investigate the discrepancy between coach and athlete perceptions of internal load and notational analysis of external load in elite junior tennis. Fourteen elite junior tennis players and 6 international coaches were recruited. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded for individual drills and whole sessions, along with a rating of mental exertion, coach rating of intended session exertion, and athlete heart rate (HR). Furthermore, total stroke count and unforced-error count were notated using video coding after each session, alongside coach and athlete estimations of shots and errors made. Finally, regression analyses explained the variance in the criterion variables of athlete and coach RPE. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and interclass correlation coefficients revealed that coaches significantly (P internal-load monitoring may help coach-athlete relationships in individual sports like tennis avoid maladaptive training.
Mersmann, Falk; Bohm, Sebastian; Schroll, Arno; Marzilger, Robert; Arampatzis, Adamantios
With the double stimulus of mechanical loading and maturation acting on the muscle-tendon unit, adolescent athletes might be at increased risk of developing imbalances of muscle strength and tendon mechanical properties. This longitudinal study aims to provide detailed information on how athletic training affects the time course of muscle-tendon adaptation during adolescence. In 12 adolescent elite athletes (A) and 8 similar-aged controls (C), knee extensor muscle strength and patellar tendon mechanical properties were measured over 1 yr in 3-mo intervals. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze time-dependent changes and the residuals of the model to quantify fluctuations over time. The cosine similarity (CS) served as a measure of uniformity of the relative changes of tendon force and stiffness. Muscle strength and tendon stiffness increased significantly in both groups (P uniformity of changes of tendon force and stiffness was lower in athletes (CS A, -0.02 ± 0.5; C, 0.5 ± 0.4; P uniformity of muscle and tendon adaptation, which increases the demand on the tendon with potential implications for tendon injury. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Gabbett, Tim J
Background There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. Main thesis This paper describes the ‘Training-Injury Prevention Paradox’ model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load (‘internal’ and ‘external’ loads) and suggests capturing both recent (‘acute’) training loads and more medium-term (‘chronic’) training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable—acute:chronic workload ratio—as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and
Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes. Key points The combined use of high frequency electromyostimulation and plyometric training 2 days/week in an 8 week training program produce significant improvements in jump height in teenage athletes. A high-frequency (≥ 150 Hz) EMS and its simultaneous application with PT can significantly contribute to the improvement of the three different types of strength manifestations (explosive, explosive-elastic and explosive-elastic-reactive strength). An alternate training with different stimulation frequencies [85Hz EMS/ PT combination and 150Hz EMS
Smoot, M Kyle; Hosey, Robert G
Despite their general high level of health, athletes are not free from the threat of developing pulmonary infection. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are important given the effects of pulmonary infection upon athletic performance and time away from training. This article reviews common etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia and a more in-depth discussion of mycoplasma pneumonie and influenza. Current treatment guidelines, acute bronchitis, fungal pulmonary infection, and return to play principles also are discussed.
McGuine, Timothy A; Keene, James S
Ankle sprains are the most common musculoskeletal injuries that occur in athletes, and they have a profound impact on health care costs and resources. A balance training program can reduce the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. Seven hundred and sixty-five high school soccer and basketball players (523 girls and 242 boys) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (27 teams, 373 subjects) that participated in a balance training program or to a control group (28 teams, 392 subjects) that performed only standard conditioning exercises. On-site athletic trainers recorded athlete exposures and sprains. The rate of ankle sprains was significantly lower for subjects in the intervention group (6.1%, 1.13 of 1000 exposures vs 9.9%, 1.87 of 1000 exposures; P = .04). Athletes with a history of an ankle sprain had a 2-fold increased risk of sustaining a sprain (risk ratio, 2.14), whereas athletes who performed the intervention program decreased their risk of a sprain by one half (risk ratio, 0.56). The ankle sprain rate for athletes without previous sprains was 4.3% in the intervention group and 7.7% in the control group, but this difference was not significant (P = .059). A balance training program will significantly reduce the risk of ankle sprains in high school soccer and basketball players.
Tinto, Amalia; Campanella, Marta; Fasano, Milena
Developing muscle strength and full body stability is essential for the efficient execution of technical moves in synchronized swimming. However, many swimmers find it difficult to control body stability while executing particular figures in water. We evaluated the effects of TRX® suspension training (2 sessions weekly for 6 months on core strength and core stability in young female. Twenty synchronized swimmers (Beginners A category, mean age 10±1 years) are divided in experimental group (EG; N.=10 athletes) and control group (CG; N.=10 athletes). EG received suspension training twice weekly (each session lasting about 15 min) as dryland exercises for 6 months in addition to routine training. CG completed routine training with conventional dryland exercises. Before (T1) and after (T2) completion of the study oblique and transversus abdominis muscle force was measured using a Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback unit, in prone and supine positions, and isotonic muscle endurance was evaluated with the McGill Test. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed a significant increase (Ptraining in dryland exercises for muscle strengthening in young athletes practicing synchronized swimming, and in general reiterates the importance of strengthening the core area to ensure stability and specific adaptations, improve the quality of the movement and prevent against injury.
de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander
The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (Ptraining, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (Pendurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/oral contraceptives (OC) cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad. Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants' own experience of the training programs. No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive. The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.
The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for
Brumitt, Jason; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Manske, Robert C; Niemuth, Paul E; Rauh, Mitchell J
Division III (D III) collegiate coaches are challenged to assess athletic readiness and condition their athletes during the preseason. However, there are few reports on off-season training habits and normative data of functional assessment tests among D III athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine off-season training habits of D III athletes and their relationships to the standing long jump (SLJ) and single-leg hop (SLH) tests. One-hundred and ninety-three athletes (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to the start of their sports seasons. Athletes reported their off-season training habits (weightlifting, cardiovascular exercise, plyometric exercise, and scrimmage) during the six weeks prior to the preseason. Athletes also performed three maximal effort SLJs and three SLHs. Male athletes reported training more hours per exercise category than their female counterparts. Mean SLJ distances (normalized to height) were 0.79 ± 0.10 for females and 0.94 ± 0.12 for males. Mean SLH distances for female athletes' right and left limbs were 0.66 (± 0.10) and 0.65 (± 0.10), respectively. Mean SLH distances for male athletes' right and left limbs were 0.75 (± 0.13) and 0.75 (± 0.12), respectively. Several significant differences between off-season training habits and functional test measures were found for both sexes: males [SLJ and weightlifting (p = 0.04); SLH and weightlifting (p = 0.04), plyometrics (p = 0.05)]; females [SLJ and plyometrics (p = 0.04); SLH and scrimmage (p = 0.02)]. This study provides normative data for off-season training habits and preseason functional test measures in a D III athlete population. Greater SLJ and SLH measures were associated with increased time during off-season training. The findings between functional tests and off-season training activities may be useful for sports medicine professionals and strength coaches when designing their preseason training programs. 4.
De Luca Alessio
Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist. Aim of study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters for better characterize the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different kind of sports. Eventually, verify early on any possible impact due to the regular sport activity not revealed by the standard parameters. Methods 50 young athletes (16 cyclists, 17 soccer players, 17 basket players regularly trained at least three times a week for at least 9 months a year and 10 young controls (mean age 18.5 ± 0.5 years were evaluated either by to 2D echocardiography or by a Speckle Tracking (ST multi-layer approach to calculate Left Ventricle (LV endocardial and epicardial rotation, twist, circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS. Data were compared by ANOVA test. Results All the found values were within the normal range. Left Ventricle Diastolic Diameter (LVDD 51.7 ± 2.6 mm, Cardiac Mass index (CMi 114.5 ± 18.5 g/m2, epi-CS, epi-LS, epicardial apex rotation and the Endo/Epi twist were significantly higher only in cyclists. In all the groups, a physiological difference of the Endo/Epi basal circumferential strain and twist values have been found. A weak but not significant relationship between the Endo and twist values and LVDD (r2 = 0.44, p = .005 and CMi was also reported in cyclists. Conclusions Progressive increase of apical LV twist may represent an important component of myocardial remodelling. This aspect is particularly evident in the young cyclists group where the CMi and the LVDD are higher. ST multilayer approach completes the LV performance evaluation in young trained athletes showing values similar to adults.
Kumpulainen, Susanne; Avela, Janne; Gruber, Markus; Bergmann, Julian; Voigt, Michael; Linnamo, Vesa; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie
PurposeExtensive evidence exists that regular physical exercise offers neuroplastic benefits to the brain. In this study, exercise-specific effects on motor cortex plasticity were compared between 15 skilled and 15 endurance trained athletes and 8 controls.MethodsPlasticity was tested with a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. PAS is a non-invasive stimulation method developed to induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of the cortical projections to the target muscles. Mot...
Cuenca-Fernández, Francisco; Smith, Ian C; Jordan, Matthew J; MacIntosh, Brian R; López-Contreras, Gracia; Arellano, Raúl; Herzog, Walter
Fifteen trained athletes were assessed for postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) of squat jumps (SJs) and power push-ups (PPUs) following upper body activation, lower body activation, upper and lower body activation, and rest. SJ improved similarly across all 4 conditions. PPU could not be assessed. Since the test protocol of SJ and PPU involved upper and lower body activation and caused PAPE in SJ, future work is required to determine if a nonlocalized PAPE effect exists.
Full Text Available Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete’s training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health.
Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm
Full Text Available It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164 by a 3rd degree polynomial regression (R2 = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001. We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days.
Professional socialization during formal educational preparation can help students learn professional roles and can lead to improved organizational socialization as students emerge as members of the occupation's culture. Professional socialization research in athletic training is limited. To present the role of legitimation and how it influences the professional socialization of second-year athletic training students. Modified constructivist grounded theory and case study methods were used for this qualitative study. An accredited undergraduate athletic training education program. Twelve second-year students were selected purposively. The primary sample group (n = 4) was selected according to theoretical sampling guidelines. The remaining students made up the cohort sample (n = 8). Theoretically relevant data were gathered from 14 clinical instructors to clarify emergent student data. Data collection included document examination, observations, and interviews during 1 academic semester. Data were collected and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Data triangulation, member checking, and peer-review strategies were used to ensure trustworthiness. Legitimation from various socializing agents initiated professional socialization. Students viewed trust and team membership as rewards for role fulfillment. My findings are consistent with the socialization literature that shows how learning a social or professional role, using rewards to facilitate role performance, and building trusting relationships with socializing agents are important aspects of legitimation and, ultimately, professional socialization.
Lira Fabio S
Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise protects against the development of cardiovascular disease, partly by lowering plasmatic total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, it is now established that reduction plasmatic adiponectin and increased C-reactive protein (CRP and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels play a role in the maintenance of an inflammatory state and in the development of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to examine plasma lipid profile and inflammatory markers levels in individual with sedentary lifestyle and/or highly trained athletes at rest. Methods: Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7 and highly trained athletes n = 7 were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (~12 h. The plasmatic lipid profile (Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-oxidized and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, glucose, adiponectin, C - reactive protein and PAI-1 levels were determined. Results: Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TG and PAI-1 levels were lower in highly trained athletes group in relation to sedentary subjects (p
Wright, Kenneth E; Stewart, Jeffrey; Wright, Vivian H; Barker, Scott
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current issue and research literature that discusses the use of eLearning in an academic curriculum. We address several components to be examined before eLearning is incorporated into athletic training education. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) from 2000 through 2002 using the key words distance education, online learning, and the individual research studies referenced in this article. DATA SYNTHESIS: Educational research studies have confirmed that multiple methods in instruction delivery exist. Within the changing culture of higher education, the use of effective communication tools has been shown to increase student knowledge and skills. Through eLearning, methods of instruction design are designed to be student centered and allow the educator to become a facilitator. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Even though the use of eLearning faces many challenges in athletic training education, the research literature does support this method of instructional delivery in selected courses in athletic training education.
Venckunas, Tomas; Raugaliene, Rasa; Mazutaitiene, Birute; Ramoskeviciute, Sonata
Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to shed more light on the extent and type of cardiac hypertrophic response to different athletic conditioning in females. Standard two-dimensional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in Caucasian female sprinters (n = 10) and long-distance runners (n = 10) of similar age (range 16-34 years), training experience (5-18 years) and competitive level, and in age-matched healthy female sedentary controls (n = 10). No differences in echocardiographic parameters were detected between female sprinters and sedentary controls (p > 0.05). Interventricular septum and LV wall (p sprinters or sedentary controls. Absolute LV diameter was not increased in long-distance runners (p > 0.05), though relative LV diameter was higher in long-distance runners as compared to sprinters (p 0.05). In conclusion, sprint running training has not been found to induce alterations in cardiac morphology or function at rest in female athletes. Cardiac mass in female long-distance runners is higher mainly due to myocardial wall thickening, while integral myocardial function at rest is not affected as a consequence of either this hypertrophy or sprint training.
Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P
The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition.
Tønnessen, Espen; Rasdal, Vegard; Svendsen, Ida S; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Sandbakk, Øyvind
Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing. To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes' training and determine how endurance and non-endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized. Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non-endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes. Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P endurance training, including 211 ± 44 h of power and ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non-endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P endurance training toward the competition phase, followed by an increase in the relative contribution of power and ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.
Lederman, Douglas; Farrell, Charles S.
A rift among college presidents perils the drive to reform college sports. Cost-cutting measures proposed by the presidents were defeated by NCAA members. Five athletic directors with widely differing programs view their own budget dilemmas, and college officials assail the decision permitting ineligible athletes to play professional football.…
Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…
Nielsen, Thomas Heine
The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...
Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd
In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…
The athletic demands of cheerleading are often overlooked. In order to identify risks and develop injury prevention plans for this population, cheerleaders must first be recognized as the athletes they are. Recommendations for specifics of the preparticipation physicals for cheerleaders are provided. The need for evaluation of their development, nutrition, and associated risk cannot be overstressed.
Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M
Context A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. Objective To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Design Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Setting Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F1,92 = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F1,92 = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F1,92 = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F1,92 = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. Conclusions A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences. PMID:23672327
Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S
Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes.
Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke
Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...
Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke
Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...
Full Text Available This study examined ten-week TKD-specific training effects on aerobic capacity, body composition, hormone responses and hematological parameters in elite TKD athletes with varied initial inflammatory states.Twenty-two elite college TKD athletes were divided into two groups according to their initial neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio (NLR values: Low NLR (N = 11, 9M/2F, age: 21.6 ± 1.0 yrs; NLR: 1.3 ± 0.2 and High NLR (N = 11, 8M/3F, age: 22.0 ± 0.7 yrs, NLR: 2.5 ± 1.3, and participated in a 10-week TKD-specific training program. Aerobic capacity, body composition, hormonal responses and hematological parameters were measured at baseline and 10-weeks after TKD training.VO2max and shuttle run distance were significantly increased in both groups after training. However, the degree of improvement was greater in the Low NLR group than in the High NLR group. After 10-weeks of exercise training, the High NLR group presented markedly higher fat mass percentage and visceral fat area and significantly lowers DHEA-S to cortisol ratio (D/C ratio than the Low NRL group. The post-training NLR was negatively correlated with the D/C ratio. Neutrophil counts and NLR were still significantly higher in the High NLR group after training.This study provides new evidence that young elite TKD athletes with slightly high baseline systemic inflammatory state appear to perturb adaptations to exercise training.
Wei-ting; Hsu Hong-shih; Chou Wen-chang; Chen
The study attempted to identify the dominant intelligences of athletes by comparing the developmental differences of multiple intelligences between athletes and non-athletes. The weekly specialized training hours and years of specialized training was examined to see how it can predict the dominant intelligence with the age factor controlled. There were 355 participants in the research (202 athletes and 153 non-athletes). Collected data were analyzed with one-way MANOVA an...
Aziz, A R; Chia, M Y H; Teh, K C
The aims of the study were: i) to compare the measured maximal oxygen uptake (MVO2max) during the 20 m multi-stage shuttle test (MST) with MVO2max during an incremental treadmill-run test (TRT), and ii) to establish the reliability of MVO2max during MST, in trained athletes. 8 well-trained endurance-athletes (END) and 8 athletes involved in team games (GAM) performed the MST twice (i.e. MST1 and MST2) and the TRT once, in 3 separate sessions. MVO2maxx attained in the MST and TRT was measured using a portable respiratory analyser (model K4 RQ, Cosmed). MVO2max attained in the MST and TRT were significantly different for the END athletes (4.1+/-0.28 vs 4.45+/-0.31 Lxmin-1, P0.05). The 95% limits of agreement for MVO2max in the MST in Lxmin-1 were -0.67 to 0.27. MVO2max in MST1 and MST2 were not significantly different for END athletes (4.18+/-0.39 vs 4.1+/-0.28 Lxmin-1, P>0.05) and GAM athletes (4.01+/-0.55 vs 4.01+/-0.51 Lxmin-1, P>0.05). Reliability indicators for MVO2max in Lxmin-1 for MST test-retest were: typical error (TE)=0.14, coefficient of variation (CV)=3.5 and intra-class correlation (ICC)=0.90. MVO2max in the MST was lower than that measured in the TRT for the END athletes but not for the GAM athletes. Sport-specificity was an important consideration, especially when testing END athletes for VO2max. MVO2max in the MST showed acceptable levels of reproducibility.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.
Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236
de Andrade Kratz, Caroline; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; de Andrade Nemezio, Kleiner Márcio; da Silva, Rafael Pires; Franchini, Emerson; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini
In official judo competitions, athletes usually engage in 5-7 matches in the same day, performing numerous high-intensity efforts interspersed by short recovery intervals. Thus, glycolytic demand in judo is high and acidosis may limit performance. Carnosine is a relevant intracellular acid buffer whose content is increased with beta-alanine supplementation. Thus, we hypothesized that beta-alanine supplementation could attenuate acidosis and improve judo performance. Twenty-three highly-trained judo athletes were randomly assigned to receive either beta-alanine (6.4gday-1) or placebo (dextrose, same dosage) for 4 weeks. Performance was assessed before (PRE) and after (POST) supplementation through a 5-min simulated fight (randori) followed by 3 bouts of the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT). Blood samples were collected for blood pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) and lactate determination. Beta-alanine supplementation improved the number of throws per set and the total number of throws (both p0.05). Blood pH and HCO3- reduced after exercise (all p0.05). However, the lactate response to exercise increased in the beta-alanine group as compared to placebo (pjudo-related performance in highly-trained athletes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Osuna-Pérez, M Catalina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio
The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term stabilometric effects of proprioceptive training in athletes by using a BOSU ball and a Swiss ball as unstable platforms. Thirty-seven athletes from a variety of disciplines were divided into a control group (n = 17) and an experimental group (n = 20). Both performed a warm-up, and in addition, the experimental group carried out a proprioceptive exercise session after the warm-up. Proprioceptive exercise session consisted of six 25-minute exercise sessions with the BOSU ball and the Swiss ball as unstable platforms. Bipedal stabilometry was assessed before the training session (M0), immediately after training (M1), 30 minutes later (M2), 1 hour after training (M3), 6 hours after training (M4), and 24 hours after training (M5). Analysis of variance (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences immediately after training (M1) in speed (p = 0.022) and length covered by the center of pressure (p = 0.021) in the experimental group. These differences were even more acute 6 hours later (M4; p = 0.021). In fact, the same group exhibited significant differences in mediolateral position after 30 minutes (M2; p = 0.001) compared with the baseline measure and the control group. Apart from these, no other significant differences were found. A proprioceptive exercise session using a BOSU ball and a Swiss ball as unstable platforms induced short-term negative effects on the stabilometry of athletes. Likewise, an immediate trend to improvement was apparent in the stabilometry of the control group after the warm-up.
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted ...
McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Lam, Kenneth C; Bay, R Curtis; Valier, Alison R Snyder; Parsons, John T
Increased rates of sport participation and sport-related injury have led to greater emphasis on and attention to medical care of student-athletes in the secondary school setting. Access to athletic training services is seen as a critical factor for delivering adequate injury prevention and medical care to student-athletes. However, few data are available regarding practice characteristics of athletic trainers (ATs) in this setting. To characterize the practices of secondary school athletic trainers (ATs). Descriptive study. Web-based survey. A total of 17 558 ATs with current National Athletic Trainers' Association membership were identified for survey distribution. Of these, 4232 ATs indicated that they practiced in the secondary school setting, and 4045 completed some part of the survey. A Web-based survey was used to obtain demographic information about ATs and their secondary schools and characteristics of athletic training practice. Descriptive data regarding the athletic trainer's personal characteristics, secondary school characteristics, and practice patterns are reported as percentages and frequencies. Most respondents were in the early stages of their careers and relatively new to the secondary school practice setting. Nearly two-thirds (62.4%; n = 2522) of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience as secondary school ATs, 52% (n = 2132) had been certified for 10 or fewer years, and 53.4% (n = 2164) had 10 or fewer years of experience in any practice setting. The majority of respondents (85%) worked in public schools with enrollment of 1000 to 1999 (35.5%) and with football (95.5%). More than half of respondents were employed directly by their school. Most respondents (50.6%) reported an athletic training budget of less than $4000. The majority of ATs performed evaluations (87.5%) on-site all of the time, with a smaller percentage providing treatments (73.3%) or rehabilitation (47.4%) services all of the time. This is the first study to describe
Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U
... or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8...
Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama
Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.
Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.
Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...
Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes
Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran
Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.
Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Full Text Available Introduction. Gaining insight into the mechanisms and scope of possible adaptations of visual functions to the conditions determined by the demands imposed by sports training seems to be very interesting not only from a cognitive point of view, but also with respect to the practical applications of the findings of such investigations in the training process. The aim of the study was to assess the function of early visual processing in athletes representing different sports disciplines with varying training experience. Material and methods. The study involved 95 athletes practising football (n = 24, volleyball (n = 22, boxing (n = 26, and rowing (n = 23. The bioelectric function of the visual pathway was assessed based on recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs. The regions which were stimulated were the peripheral and central areas of the retina. During the test, we recorded the amplitude (μV and latency (ms of the P100 component of the VEP waveform for both monocular stimulation (for the dominant and non-dominant eye and binocular stimulation. Results. Lower VEP P100 amplitude values were found for the peripheral and central locations for monocular and binocular viewing in more experienced volleyball players and rowers (p 0.05 in intragroup variability in VEP P100 latency in relation to training experience in any of the sports disciplines examined. Conclusions. Training experience has an influence on the early stage of sensory processing with respect to neural activity. Training experience has been found to differentiate athletes in terms of the temporal parameters of the visual evoked potentials recorded in the current study only to a limited extent.
Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Dallago, M; Galassi, A; Fernando, F; Biffi, A; Mazzone, P; Pappone, C; Chierchia, S
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a rare event in people younger than 25 years of age, but is probably more frequent in competitive athletes. We analyzed the presence of AF, paroxysmal or chronic, in a population of young elite athletes, including previous Olympic and World champions, who were studied for arrhythmias that endangered their athletic careers. From 1974 to June 1977, 1,772 athletes identified with arrhythmias (1,464 males and 308 females; mean age 21 years) underwent individualized work-ups. Among these, 146 (122 males and 24 females; mean age 24 years) were young elite athletes. They were studied from 1985 to 1997, with a mean follow-up of 62 months. Of the 146 young elite athletes, 13 (9%) had AF (paroxysmal in 11 and chronic in 2); all were male. The paroxysmal AF occurred during effort (n = 7), after effort (n = 1), or at rest (n = 3) and was reinduced by transesophageal pacing or endocavitary electrophysiologic testing under the same clinical circumstances. AF was the cause of symptoms in 13 (40%) of 22 young elite athletes with long-lasting palpitations. Five young elite athletes had a substrate for AF: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) in 3, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) in 1, healed myocarditis in 1, and was considered idiopathic in 8. All elite athletes are alive with a mean follow-up of 62 months and 7 continue in their sports: 3 after radiofrequency catheter ablation (of WPW in 2 and AF with maze-type nonfluoroscopic approach in 1) and 4 after a period of de-training. AF, occurring in young elite athletes and affecting only males, is one of the most frequent causes of prolonged palpitations and is reproduced easily by transesophageal atrial pacing or electrophysiologic testing. AF may be a cause of disqualification from sports eligibility, but may disappear if the athletic activity is stopped for an adequate period of time, if trigger mechanisms are corrected (i.e., WPW), or if the substrate is modified.
Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D
A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.
Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B
Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E
Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.
Knufinke, Melanie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Geurts, Sabine A E; Møst, Els I S; Maase, Kamiel; Moen, Maarten H; Coenen, Anton M L; Kompier, Michiel A J
Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While it is generally assumed that exercise benefits sleep, high training load may jeopardize sleep and hence limit adequate recovery. To examine this, the current study assessed objective sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions in elite athletes and calculated their association with perceived training load. Mixed-methods. Perceived training load, actigraphy and one-channel EEG recordings were collected among 98 elite athletes during 7 consecutive days of regular training. Actigraphy revealed total sleep durations of 7:50±1:08h, sleep onset latencies of 13±15min, wake after sleep onset of 33±17min and sleep efficiencies of 88±5%. Distribution of sleep stages indicated 51±9% light sleep, 21±8% deep sleep, and 27±7% REM sleep. On average, perceived training load was 5.40±2.50 (scale 1-10), showing large daily variability. Mixed-effects models revealed no alteration in sleep quantity or sleep stage distributions as a function of day-to-day variation in preceding training load (all p's>.05). Results indicate healthy sleep durations, but elevated wake after sleep onset, suggesting a potential need for sleep optimization. Large proportions of deep sleep potentially reflect an elevated recovery need. With sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions remaining irresponsive to variations in perceived training load, it is questionable whether athletes' current sleep provides sufficient recovery after strenuous exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Miarka, Bianca; Fukuda, David H
Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Miarka, B, and Fukuda, DH. Sex and weight category differences in time-motion analysis of elite judo athletes: implications for assessment and training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 817-825, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to support training program development through the comparison of combat and pause phases during elite male and female judo competition in athletes of varying weight categories. A total of 1,411 video recorded judo matches between athletes who qualified for the 2012 Olympic Games were analyzed. Within the matches, 111,203 competitive situations were categorized as combat (with subphases of approach, gripping, attack, defense, and groundwork) or pause phases. Time-motion analysis data were compared between extra light, light, middle, and heavyweight categories for men and women. Median times varied between sex and weight category groups for individual combat (23.9-28.5 seconds), pause (4.0-8.8 seconds), and combat subphases (p ≤ 0.05). Sex-based differences in accumulated combat and combat subphase times were primarily found in the middleweight athletes. Heavyweight female athletes had longer accumulated groundwork and pause times, extra lightweight women had greater groundwork time, and both extra light and lightweight women had shorter accumulated attack times compared with their male counterparts. No differences between men and women were found for the time to complete an individual combat action; however, the pause phase and most of the combat subphases displayed differences. The lightest and heaviest judo athletes displayed unique characteristics compared with athletes in the other weight categories, particularly in the attack, defense, groundwork, and pause phases. These results have important implications related to training program design and support the need for the development of normative data for male and female judo athletes of varying weight categories.
There has been a long standing controversy on the role of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) in the preparticipation examination of athletes, as well as in children and adolescents, in leisure time and competitive athletes. Besides other arguments, this was due to the limited validity, which led to false positive and false negative findings. Recent studies from different research groups yielded a significant improvement in establishing ECG criteria in athletes to discriminate normal from abnormal or pathological findings in athletes. This is additionally supported and improved by a software-based ECG device considering the new Seattle criteria. These new criteria from the Seattle conference reliably discriminate normal from abnormal findings. Frequent ECG findings in athletes, especially in those engaged in endurance sports are sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block and signs of left ventricular hypertrophy. Abnormal findings are related to structural left ventricular alterations due to cardiomyopathy, mainly hypertrophic with or without outflow tract obstruction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and dilated cardiomyopathy. The ECG findings suggestive of electrical conductance disorders are observed in channelopathies, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome supraventricular arrhythmias or disturbances of cardiac conduction. The main diseases are long or short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Atrial fibrillation, mostly paroxysmal, is also now more frequently observed especially in middle aged endurance athletes. Interpretation of ECG in young and older athletes requires in-depth knowledge in cardiology and sports medicine. The interpretation can only be carried out by considering medical history, clinical examination and ethnicity. Profound and long-term experience of athlete's ECG interpretation is required to protect athletes and to prevent cardiac emergencies.
Birrer, D; Morgan, G
The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Francis, Peter; McCORMACK, William; Caseley, Aaron; Copeman, June; Jones, Gareth
Swimming, running and cycling are among the most popular and fastest growing sports in the world. Inherent in these sports is a desire to favorably alter body composition. Here we report a ~5.4 kg and ~5.3 kg fat tissue mass (FTM) loss in two separate interventions (12-16 weeks), in the same athlete, separated by 5 years. Whole body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary analysis for intervention 2 was completed using Mc Cance and Widdowson's composition of foods. In 2010, the male athlete (23 years, weight 85 kg, height 195 cm, 18.1% body fat) had a reduction of ~5.4 kg of FTM (15.4 vs. 10.0 kg) and an increase of ~5.1 kg of lean tissue mass (LTM) following 16 weeks of moderate intensity running (213±53 min/week) and circuit training (64±46 min/week). In 2015, the same athlete (28 years, 90.6 kg, 195 cm; 18.2%) had a ~5.3 kg loss of FTM and a ~0.8 kg increase in LTM after 12 weeks, predominately (75%) non-weight bearing exercise (49% cycling, 215±88 min/week; 25% running 110±47 min/week; 19% swimming, 83±27 min/week; 7% rowing machine, 29±26 min/week). Weekday and weekend dietary intake during intervention 2 were estimated as 2560 kcal and 3240 kcal per day, respectively. This report provides support for the hypothesis that an extended period of energy deficit is required to reduce body fat levels in amateur athletes independent of the mode of exercise.
Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D
Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D.; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M.
Context: Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. Objective: The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Design: Mixed-methods study. Setting: Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Results: Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. Conclusions: These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding
Strength training is widely used to increase performance in sports with high physical demands. The use of drugs such as anabolic steroids among athletes is a wellknown phenomenon, and the effects of these drugs on physical performance documented. The studies presented in this thesis focused on the mechanisms of muscle fiber hypertrophy in the vastus lateralis and the trapezius muscles of strength trained elite athletes. The main hypothesis was that the muscle adaptations to strength training ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.
Full Text Available Purpose : To improve the process of technical training of qualified athletes, specializing in the high jump with a running start on the basis of additional funds. Material : The study involved 12 athletes qualified I sports category and candidate masters age 18-20 years. Number of attempts varied from 12-15, depending on the degree of fatigue study. Determined the effect of electrical stimulation on muscle groups leading the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the runway and repulsion, as well as athletic performance. Results : It was established that the integrated use of electrical stimulation affects more effectively to improve the biomechanical characteristics of high jump and effectiveness than using electrical stimulation during takeoff and repulsion separately. Conclusions : On the basis of the experimental data we can recommend the use of complex electrical, as an additional means for improving technical skills and improve performance athletes qualified.
Full Text Available Purpose : To improve the process of technical training of qualified athletes, specializing in the high jump with a running start on the basis of additional funds. Material : The study involved 12 athletes qualified I sports category and candidate masters age 18-20 years. Number of attempts varied from 12-15, depending on the degree of fatigue study. Determined the effect of electrical stimulation on muscle groups leading the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the runway and repulsion, as well as athletic performance. Results : It was established that the integrated use of electrical stimulation affects more effectively to improve the biomechanical characteristics of high jump and effectiveness than using electrical stimulation during takeoff and repulsion separately. Conclusions : On the basis of the experimental data we can recommend the use of complex electrical, as an additional means for improving technical skills and improve performance athletes qualified.
Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Monika; Kusy, Krzysztof; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Jacek
An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RBC, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and RBC distribution width (RDW) were determined in four characteristic training phases (transition, general subphase of the preparation phase, specific subphase of the preparation phase and competition phase). Our main findings are that (1) Hb, MCH and MCHC in triathletes and MCV in both triathletes and sprinters changed significantly over the annual training cycle, (2) triathletes had significantly higher values than sprinters only in case of MCH and MCHC after the transition and general preparation phases but not after the competition phase when MCH and MCHC were higher in sprinters and (3) in triathletes, Hb, MCH and MCHC substantially decreased after the competition phase, which was not observed in sprinters. The athletes maintained normal ranges of all haematological parameters in four characteristic training phases. Although highly-trained sprinters and triathletes do not significantly differ in their levels of most haematological parameters, these groups are characterized by different patterns of changes during the annual training cycle. Our results suggest that when interpreting the values of haematological parameters in speed-power and endurance
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael
Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...
Ross, James A.; Keogh, Justin W.L.; Cameron J. Wilson; Lorenzen, Christian
Background. Kettlebell lifting has gained increased popularity as both a form of resistance training and as a sport, despite the paucity of literature validating its use as a training tool. Kettlebell sport requires participants to complete the kettlebell snatch continuously over prolonged periods of time. Kettlebell sport and weightlifting involve similar exercises, however their traditional uses suggest they are better suited to training different fitness qualities. This study examined the ...
Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub
Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.
Full Text Available Background: Circadian rhythm and physical activity are factors that influence the homeostasis of blood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise in the morning and evening on the blood hemostasis in female athletes. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 30 female athletes aged 18-25 were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into two groups (morning and afternoon exercises. The standard Bruce protocol test was used. In the present study, platelets, fibrinogen, and thromboplastin time were measured as indicators of blood coagulation before and after testing. Paired t-test and covariance analysis were used to analyze the measured indices and P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: An acute exhausting aerobic training session in both groups significantly increased platelet and fibrinogen levels, but a significant decrease was observed in thromboplastin time. Considering the training time, significant difference was observed in the blood thromboplastin time in the morning in comparison with the afternoon. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the circadian rhythm and acute exhausting aerobic training are effective factors on the blood coagulation and a training session in the morning compared with the evening training has a greater effect on the blood coagulation.
Wallenta, C; Granacher, U; Lesinski, M; Schünemann, C; Muehlbauer, T; Mühlbauer, T
Muscle strength and speed are important determinants of soccer performance. It has previously been shown that complex training (CT, combination of strength and plyometric exercises within a single training session) is effective to enhance strength and speed performance in athletes. However, it is unresolved whether CT is more effective than conventional strength training that is delivered in one single block (BT) to increase proxies of athletic performance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CT versus BT on measures of muscle strength/power, speed, and agility in elite youth soccer players. Eighteen male elite youth soccer players conducted six weeks (2 sessions/week, 30 min. each) of progressive CT (n = 10, age: 18.5 ± 2.2 years) or BT (n = 8, age: 18.1 ± 1.6 years) in addition to their regular soccer training (approx. 6 sessions/week, 60-90 min. each). Before and after training, tests were conducted for the assessment of strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM] squat), power (countermovement jump [CMJ]), speed (30-m linear sprint), and agility (T test). Non-parametric analyses were used to calculate differences within (Wilcoxon test) and between (Mann-Whitney-U test) groups. Both CT and BT proved to be safe (i.e. no training-related, but six match-related injuries reported) and feasible (i.e. attendance rate of ≥ 80% in both groups) training regimens when implemented in addition to regular soccer training. The statistical analysis revealed significant improvements from pre-training to post-training tests for the CT group in 1 RM squat (p = 0.043) and CMJ height (p = 0.046). For the BT-group, significantly enhanced sprint times were observed over 5 m (p = 0.039) and 10 m (p = 0.026). Furthermore, both groups significantly improved their t test time (CT: p = 0.046; BT: p = 0.027). However, group comparisons (CT vs. BT) over time (post-training minus pre-training test) did not show any significant differences. Six weeks of CT and
Miller, Sue Ellen
To investigate the concept of sports training, a survey was conducted of 170 Special Olympics coaches in Ohio. The survey sought to determine who was responsible for training Special Olympians, their qualifications, and their specific needs and interests concerning preparation for coaching responsibilities. (Author/JDD)
Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.
... be due to an eating disorder, such as anorexia.Girls and women may be at risk for the female athlete triad if they:are a competitive athleteplay sports that require them to maintain a certain weight ...
.org Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) Page ( 1 ) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that occurs in ... groin area. It most o en occurs during sports that require sudden changes of direction or intense ...
Collins, Kathryn; And Others
Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)
Perry, Tekla S.
The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)
Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.
Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David
This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30.week−1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (panaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797
O'Connor, Caitlin; Grappendorf, Heidi; Burton, Laura; Harmon, Sandra M; Henderson, Angela C; Peel, Judy
Previous researchers have demonstrated that male and female athletes feel more comfortable with treatment by a same-sex athletic trainer for sex-specific injuries and conditions. To address football players' comfort with care provided by same-sex and opposite-sex athletic trainers for sex-specific and non-sex-specific injuries and conditions through the lens of role congruity theory. Cross-sectional study for the quantitative data and qualitative study for the qualitative data. Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Series university football programs. Male football players within the 2 university programs. We replicated existing methods and an existing survey to address male football players' comfort levels. Additionally, an open-ended question was used to determine male football players' perceptions of female athletic trainers. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to identify differences between the responses for the care given by a male athletic trainer and for the care given by a female athletic trainer. Three categories were analyzed: general medical conditions, psychological conditions, and sex-specific injuries. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Male football players were more comfortable with treatment by a male athletic trainer (mean = 3.61 +/- 1.16) for sex-specific injuries and conditions than they were with treatment by a female athletic trainer (mean = 2.82 +/- 1.27; P psychological conditions, although a female athletic trainer was preferred over a male athletic trainer for the treatment of depression (mean = 3.71 +/- 1.07 versus mean = 3.39 +/- 1.16, respectively; P < .001). Qualitative data provided support for role congruity theory. Both quantitative and qualitative evidence were provided for the support of role congruity theory.
Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Steib, Simon
Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular training effects on functional, dynamic and static balance measures. Thirty youth (14.9 ± 3 years) field hockey athletes were randomised to an intervention or control group. The intervention included a 20-min neuromuscular warm-up program performed twice weekly for 10 weeks. Balance assessments were performed at baseline, week three, week six and post-intervention. They included the star excursion balance test (SEBT), balance error scoring system (BESS), jump-landing time to stabilization (TTS) and center of pressure (COP) sway velocity during single-leg standing. No baseline differences were found between groups in demographic data and balance measures. Adherence was at 86%. All balance measures except the medial-lateral TTS improved significantly over time (p controls (31.8 ± 22.1%). There were no significant group by time interactions in the SEBT, TTS and COP sway velocity. Neuromuscular training was effective in improving postural control in youth team athletes. However, this effect was not reflected in all balance measures suggesting that the neuromuscular training did not influence all dimensions of postural control. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of specific warm-up programs to improve postural control.
Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo
Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.
Thomas Leonhard Stöggl
Full Text Available Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a pyramidal TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT. World-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called polarized TID (i.e. significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training, rather than a pyramidal or threshold (THR TID. In contrast to the pyramidal TID, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals. The aims of the present review are to: 1 summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; 2 provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; 3 address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and 4 highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies.
Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U
Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P performance (1%, P performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Saraiva, Alam R; Reis, Victor M; Costa, Pablo B; Bentes, Claudio M; Costa E Silva, Gabriel V; Novaes, Jefferson S
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance training with different exercise orders (upper limbs and lower limbs vs. lower limbs and upper limbs) on flexibility levels in elite judo athletes. Thirty-nine male athletes were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 13), G2 (n = 13), and CG (n = 13). The flexibility was assessed on 8 joint movements: shoulder flexion and shoulder extension, shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction, trunk flexion and trunk extension, and hip flexion and hip extension. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time [pre-experimental vs. post-experimental] × group [G1 vs. G2 vs. CG]) were used to compare the differences between pre- and post-test situations and the differences among groups. The results from the within-group (pre vs. post) comparisons demonstrated significant increases (p training groups, respectively, in all joints. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed for the CG. The results from the between-group comparisons demonstrated no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the range of motion between G1post vs. G2post (1.15%). Although both exercise orders (from upper to lower limbs and from lower to upper limbs) increased flexibility, no significant variations were observed between the different exercise orders. Nevertheless, these findings demonstrate that flexibility gains could be obtained with a resistance training program, and thus, more time can be devoted to sports-specific judo training.
Sudden death is rare in the young athlete. The causes may vary. In the US, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy plays the predominant role whereas in Europe right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia and atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are more frequent. Other causes such as congenital anomalies of the coronary vessels, myocarditis, Marfan's disease, the long QT, the Brugada and the Wollf-Parkinson-White syndromes exist, but are rare. Attentive preparticipation screening (clinical history and medical examination) is mandatory in all future young athletes.
Dilek Ongan; Gülgün Ersoy
Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathl...
Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory; Jones, Ben; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Till, Kevin
Phibbs, PJ, Roe, G, Jones, B, Read, DB, Weakley, J, Darrall-Jones, J, and Till, K. Validity of daily and weekly self-reported training load measures in adolescent athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1121-1126, 2017-The primary aim of the study was to assess the level of agreement between the criterion session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE30min) and a practical measure of a self-reported Web-based training load questionnaire 24 hours after training (sRPE24h) in adolescent athletes. The secondary aim was to assess the agreement between weekly summated sRPE24h values (∑sRPE24h) and a weekly Web-based training diary (sRPEweekly) for all field-based training accumulated on a subsequent training week. Thirty-six male adolescent rugby players (age, 16.7 ± 0.5 years) were recruited from a regional academy. Measures of sRPE30min were recorded 30 minutes after a typical field-based training session. Participants then completed the sRPE24h via a Web-based training load questionnaire 24 hours after training, reporting both session duration and intensity. In addition, on a subsequent week, participants completed the sRPE24h daily and then completed the sRPEweekly at the end of the week, using the same Web-based platform, to recall all field-based training session durations and intensities over those 7 days. Biases were trivial between sRPE30min and sRPE24h for sRPE (0.3% [-0.9 to 1.5]), with nearly perfect correlations (0.99 [0.98-0.99]) and small typical error of the estimate (TEE; 4.3% [3.6-5.4]). Biases were trivial between ∑sRPE24h and sRPEweekly for sRPE (5.9% [-2.1 to 14.2]), with very large correlations (0.87 [0.78-0.93]) and moderate TEE of 28.5% [23.3-36.9]. The results of this study show that sRPE24h is a valid and robust method to quantify training loads in adolescent athletes. However, sRPEweekly was found to have a substantial TEE (28.5%), limiting practical application.
Full Text Available Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany. During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001, indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001 and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022. Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01. Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01. Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with
Full Text Available The purpose of the study - to justify the theoretical and methodological principles and concepts of the training process of building highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training. The results . Calculate the ratio of training loads of different orientation in the annual cycle of training. Means of producing football players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 45.6%, specific - 54.4% (special training exercise - 4.1% subsidiary - 22, 7%, competitive - 27.6% . Means of producing players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 49.0%, specific - 51.0% (special training - 2.3% subsidiary - 26.1%, competitive exercise - 22.0% .
Mizuno, M; Juel, C; Bro-Rasmussen, Thomas
Morphological and biochemical characteristics of biopsies obtained from gastrocnemius (GAS) and triceps brachii muscle (TRI), as well as maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and O2 deficit, were determined in 10 well-trained cross-country skiers before and after a 2-wk stay (2,100 m above sea level) and t...
Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of effectiveness of coordination training methodic of junior taekwondo athletes at stage of pre-basic training. Material: in the research 30 taekwondo athletes of 12-14 yrs age, who composed control and experimental groups, participated. Results: we determined means and methods of training of taekwondo athletes coordination abilities. Correlation of exercises for sense of space, muscular sense, sense of time took from 15 to 25% of total time of training. During 5 seconds’ work quantity of repetitions was from 8 to 12-15 times. Rest pauses between exercises were from 1 to 1-2 minutes. The offered methodic facilitated improvement of coordination fitness indicators of taekwondo athletes: keeping of static balance with open eyes - by 5.08 % and with closed eyes - by 5.63 %; Romberg’s test on left foot - by 11,4% and on tight - by 8.22%; response of choice - by 15.9%; high jump from the spot - by 11.39%; shuttle run - by 5.8%. Conclusions: in the process of perfection of taekwondo athletes coordination it is necessary to solve the following tasks: master more and more complex coordination structures of motor tasks; master quick re-switching of motor functioning, depending on change of situation; improve accuracy of required motor actions; develop stability of space orientation.
Marty, Melissa C.; Henning, Jolene M.; Willse, John T.
Abstract Context: Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. Objective: To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Entry-level master's athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: First-year (n = 5) and second-year (n = 8) students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Results: Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the ϕ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (ϕ = 0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (ϕ = 0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (ϕ = 0.72). Conclusions: Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was
Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh
Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…
Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Fierro, Valentina; Bianchini, Serena; Battistini, Giancarlo; Magini, Valter; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lenzi, Andrea
Worldwide many aging males practice sports. A high prevalence of late-onset male hypogonadism has been observed in general population. Sport-participation influences the neuroendocrine system and may decrease serum testosterone. This preliminary study was designed to estimate the prevalence and the symptoms of undiagnosed testosterone deficiency in aging athletes. This observational survey was performed in 183 caucasian male athletes >50 years, in the setting of pre-participation screening. Pituitary-gonadal hormones and symptoms of hypogonadism were investigated. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), free-T4, and thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) were assayed, and free T, bioactive T, and the LH/TT ratio were calculated. The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-15) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were administered. Hypogonadal athletes were compared with eugonadal athletes as controls. Prevalence and clinical symptoms of severe (TT 70 years (27.5% and 25.0%, respectively). TT did not correlate with age, training duration, or questionnaire scores. No differences were observed for nonspecific symptoms of hypogonadism, IIEF-15 and CES-D scores between eugonadal and severe hypogonadal athletes. Independently of its etiology, a significant percentage of aging athletes had undiagnosed testosterone deficiency. In a relevant number of these cases, testosterone deficiency was not overtly symptomatic. Our results suggest that sport-participation per se can influence the symptoms of hypogonadism. The history of clinical symptoms may be inaccurate to diagnose testosterone deficiency in aging athletes. Future research should address the clinical relevance and the specific risks of testosterone deficiency in aging athletes, and the need of a systematic pre-participation serum testosterone evaluation.
David, Shannon L; Larson, Mary
Health care practitionersface increasingexpectations to provide patient-centered care.Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes.There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-aged Division I student-athletes (8 females; 7 males; 19.3±1.2yrs) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc.) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocoldesigned to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the athletic trainer. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enablingthe best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS, Choice Reaction Time (TRE, Decision Time (TD and the Distributed Attention (AD. Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 yr and more than 35 yr, level of graduation (9th to 4th kyu, 3rd to 1st kyu, DAN and by gender (male and female. Male athletes present significant differences from female athletes in height, weight, years of practice and body fat mass. In relation to TRS all groups tend to a value near to 300 ms without significant differences among them, but the TRE and the TD are significantly higher in the Dan athletes and in the +35 yrs athletes than in the other groups. On the other hand the Dan and +35 yrs athletes tend to do less mistakes. Gender does not influence significantly the reaction time in the Shotokan karate athletes, but it seems that women tend to have smaller reaction times than men. Athletes with more years of practice and more graduation need more time to reply to the stimulus than the other athletes, but they tend to do fewer mistakes on their choices than other subjects. As for distributed attention, no significant differences were found in function of the athlete graduation, nor in function of gender. However, for distributed attention, we found statistical significant differences in function of the age, with the oldest athletes presenting lower levels of distributed attention. Our results seem to show that is necessary to do some modifications in the training process of Portuguese Shotokan karate athletes.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diseases responsible for sudden deaths in athletes differ considerably with regard to age. In young athletes, congenital malformations of the heart and/or vascular system cause the majority of deaths and can only be detected noninvasively by complex diagnostics. In contrast, in older athletes who die suddenly, atherosclerotic disease of the coronary arteries is mostly found. Reports of congenital coronary anomalies as a cause of sudden death in older athletes are rare. Case presentation A 48-year-old man who was a well-trained, long-distance runner collapsed at the finish of a half marathon because of a myocardial infarction with ventricular fibrillation. Coronary angiography showed an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva with minimal wall alterations. Multislice computed tomography of the coronary arteries confirmed these findings. Cardiomagnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mild hypokinesia of the basal right- and left-ventricular posterior wall. An electrophysiological study showed an inducible temporary polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and an inducible ventricular fibrillation. The athlete was subsequently treated by acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg (0-1-0, bisoprolol 2.5 mg (1-0-0 and atorvastatin 10 mg (0-0-1 and was instructed to keep his training intensity under the 'individual anaerobic threshold'. Intense and long-lasting exercise under extreme environmental conditions, particularly heat, should also be avoided. Conclusion This case report presents a coronary anomaly as the most likely reason for an exercise-induced myocardial infarction with ventricular fibrillation in a well-trained 48-year-old endurance athlete. Therefore, coronary anomalies have also to be considered as a possible cause of cardiac problems in older athletes.
Full Text Available The state of problem of the centralized preparation of sportsmen is studied. Historical and modern theoretical and practical developments in preparation of sportsmen in Olympic sport are considered. The analysis of printing and electronic information generators is conducted. The state of modern trainings centers of leading sporting countries is certain. The systems of forming of Centers and spectrum of their services are rotined. The necessity of integration of developments is grounded for creation of model of center of Olympic preparation. Influence of the informative, educational and material and technical providing is marked on preparation of national commands.
Full Text Available Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with many of research papers published annually. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health. The aim of this article is to summarize knowledges about sports nutrition, especially intake of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary supplements and their influence on the performance and recovery of the athlete.doi:10.5219/126
Armstrong, Kirk J; Weidner, Thomas G
Our previous research determined the frequency of participation and perceived effect of formal and informal continuing education (CE) activities. However, actual preferences for and barriers to CE must be characterized. To determine the types of formal and informal CE activities preferred by athletic trainers (ATs) and barriers to their participation in these activities. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training practice settings. Of a geographically stratified random sample of 1000 ATs, 427 ATs (42.7%) completed the survey. As part of a larger study, the Survey of Formal and Informal Athletic Training Continuing Education Activities (FIATCEA) was developed and administered electronically. The FIATCEA consists of demographic characteristics and Likert scale items (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) about preferred CE activities and barriers to these activities. Internal consistency of survey items, as determined by Cronbach α, was 0.638 for preferred CE activities and 0.860 for barriers to these activities. Descriptive statistics were computed for all items. Differences between respondent demographic characteristics and preferred CE activities and barriers to these activities were determined via analysis of variance and dependent t tests. The α level was set at .05. Hands-on clinical workshops and professional networking were the preferred formal and informal CE activities, respectively. The most frequently reported barriers to formal CE were the cost of attending and travel distance, whereas the most frequently reported barriers to informal CE were personal and job-specific factors. Differences were noted between both the cost of CE and travel distance to CE and all other barriers to CE participation (F(1,411) = 233.54, P Informal CE was highly valued by ATs because it could be individualized.
Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Palumbo, Joseph P; Hewett, Timothy E
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity movement biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements in measures of performance would be demonstrated concomitant with improved biomechanical measures related to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Forty-one female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (age, 15.3 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 64.8 +/- 9.96 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 7.21 cm) underwent 6 weeks of training that included 4 main components (plyometric and movement, core strengthening and balance, resistance training, and speed training). Twelve age-, height-, and weight-matched controls underwent the same testing protocol twice 6 weeks apart. Trained athletes demonstrated increased predicted 1 repetition maximum squat (92%) and bench press (20%). Right and left single-leg hop distance increased 10.39 cm and 8.53 cm, respectively, and vertical jump also increased from 39.9 +/- 0.9 cm to 43.2 +/- 1.1 cm with training. Speed in a 9.1-m sprint improved from 1.80 +/- 0.02 seconds to 1.73 +/- 0.01 seconds. Pre- and posttest 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated increased knee flexion-extension range of motion during the landing phase of a vertical jump (right, 71.9 +/- 1.4 degrees to 76.9 +/- 1.4 degrees ; left, 71.3 +/- 1.5 degrees to 77.3 +/- 1.4 degrees ). Training decreased knee valgus (28%) and varus (38%) torques. Control subjects did not demonstrate significant alterations during the 6-week interval. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the combination of multiple-injury prevention-training components into a comprehensive program improves measures of performance and movement biomechanics.
Barkov Aleksandr Yur'evich
Full Text Available The article presents the point rating system for the students-athletes of the Department of Sport Development in Wrestling, which used various indicators of the wrestlers all-around training. The training is divided into a number of modules: speed qualities and endurance; speed-strength quality and flexibility; technical training; functional training; agility and coordination; theoretical training; personal characteristics, moral, strongwilled preparation and self-preparation.Each module corresponds to a certain number of points: from 0 to 20,from 0 to 15,from 0 to 10,from 0 to 5.Using the proposed point rating system evaluation for the students-athletes in wrestling, the training level of the athletes in each of the modules is determined. The range of point values, corresponding to the maximum form are 90—100 points ("excellent".Evaluation of the "good" range is 70—89 points, "satisfactory" — 50—69 points, disappointing — from 0 to 49 points.The authors offer the comparative analysis of the dynamics of high-speed performance and endurance, speed-strength qualities, functional training, agility and coordination, theoretical training and personal qualities of the academic team in wrestling during the summer and training camp of 2013.The objective information, obtained from the routine tests of physical, psychological and functional status of an athlete, the major indicators of his physical fitness, gives the opportunity to effectively manage the training process improvement of the athletes, ensures the steady increase of sportsmanship.The research results of the functional training and the physical qualities of studentsathletes during the preparatory stage of the training help to make the necessary adjustments in time and to bring the wrestlers to the top form till the main student competition.
Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.
Hölmich, P; Uhrskou, P; Ulnits, L
Groin pain is common among athletes. A major cause of long-standing problems is adductor-related groin pain. The purpose of this randomised clinical trial was to compare an active training programme (AT) with a physiotherapy treatment without active training (PT) in the treatment of adductor-rela...
Eakin, C L; Faber, K J; Hawkins, R J; Hovis, W D
It has been proposed that the long head of the biceps functions as a humeral head depressor and stabilizer. In addition, in many overhead sports, the biceps helps to accelerate and decelerate the arm. With improper training or fatigue, inordinate stresses can be placed on the biceps as it attempts to compensate for other muscles. This can lead to attrition and failure, either within the tendon substance or at its origin. Bicipital problems in athletes usually occur in conjunction with other types of shoulder disorders, such as rotator cuff impingement and glenohumeral instability, making determination of the role and degree of biceps involvement difficult. Conditions affecting the biceps tendon in athletes can be generally classified as degeneration, instability, and disorders of the origin. Because of the close association of biceps lesions with other abnormalities, a thorough evaluation of the shoulder with a suspected biceps disorder is essential. Treatment of bicipital problems in athletes must often be accompanied by treatment of associated shoulder conditions.
Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V
Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects
Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert
In Part 1 of this series [see: EJ1044392], the concepts of hemorrhaging, shock, and controlling bleeding as they relate to athletic training and prehospital emergency care along with the use of tourniquets were presented for athletic training educators (ATEs) to teach the skill in the classroom. This article, Part 2 of advanced bleeding control,…
Parnabas, vincent; Mahamood, Yahaya; Parnabas, Julinamary; Nazaruddin, Muhamad Nizam; Abdullah, Nagoor Meera; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Soffian
The aim of this research was to identify the USAge of drugs on athletes by focusing on gender and different categories level of athletes. The sample, which was chosen randomly consisted of 115 athletes, consisting of national athletes (N=35), state athletes (N=35), district athletes (N=19), and university athletes (N=26). Based on gender, the present research consists of 70 male and 45 female athletes. Drug Usage Questionnaire, were used to collect the data. The result showed that the main mo...
.... The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible positive effects of sportsmanship on sleep quality and to assess the possible differences in sleep quality between athletes and non-athletes...
D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pisicchio, Cataldo; Caselli, Stefano; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Spataro, Antonio; Pelliccia, Antonio
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sex and different sports on right ventricular (RV) remodeling and compare the derived upper limits with widely used revised Task Force (TF) reference values. Uncertainties exist regarding the extent and physiological determinants of RV remodeling in highly trained athletes. The issue is important, considering that in athletes RV size occasionally exceeds the cutoff limits proposed to diagnose arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy. A total of 1,009 Olympic athletes (mean age 24 ± 6 years; n = 647 [64%] males) participating in skill, power, mixed, and endurance sport were evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler/tissue Doppler imaging. The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in parasternal long-axis (PLAX) and short-axis views, fractional area change, s' velocity, and morphological features were assessed. Indexed RVOT PLAX was greater in females than in males (15.3 ± 2.2 mm/m2 vs. 14.4 ± 1.9 mm/m2; p view were significantly different among skill, power, mixed, and endurance sports: 14.3 ± 2.1 mm/m2 versus 14.7 ± 1.9 mm/m2 versus 14.0 ± 1.8 mm/m2 versus 15.7 ± 2.2 mm/m2, respectively (p view was 18 mm/m2 and 20 mm/m2, respectively. Fractional area change and s' velocity did not differ among the groups (p = 0.34 for both). RV enlargement compatible with major and minor TF diagnostic criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy was observed in 41 (4%) and 319 (32%) athletes. A rounded apex was described in 823 (81%) athletes, prominent trabeculations in 378 (37%) athletes, and a prominent/hyperreflective moderator band in 5 (0.5%) athletes. RV remodeling occurs in Olympic athletes, with male sex and endurance practice playing the major impact. A significant subset (up to 32%) of athletes exceeds the normal TF limits; therefore, we recommend referring to the 95th percentiles here reported as referral values; alternatively, only major diagnostic TF criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy
Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E
This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Schmit, Cyril; Duffield, Rob; Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Le Meur, Yann
We sought to determine the effect of high- vs. low-intensity training in the heat and ensuing taper period in the heat on endurance performance. Nineteen well-trained triathletes undertook 5 days of normal training and a 1-week taper, including either low- (HA-L, n=10) or high-intensity (HA-H, n=9) training sessions in the heat (30°C, 50% of relative humidity). A control group (n=10) reproduced their usual training in thermoneutral conditions. Indoor twenty-kilometre cycling time-trials (35°C, 50% RH) were performed before (Pre) and after the main heat exposure (Mid) and after the taper (Post). Power output remained stable in the control group from Pre to Mid (ES: -0.10 ± 0.26) and increased from Mid to Post (0.18 ± 0.22). The HA-L group demonstrated a progressive increase in performance from Pre to Mid (0.62 ± 0.33) and from Mid to Post (0.53 ± 0.30), alongside typical physiological signs of HA (reduced core temperature and heart rate, increased body mass loss). While the HA-H group presented similar adaptations, increased perceived fatigue and decreased performance at Mid (-0.35 ± 0.26) were evidenced and reversed at Post (0.50 ± 0.20). No difference in power output was reported at Post between the HA-H and the control groups. HA-H can quickly induce F-OR in non-acclimatized endurance athletes. Since it was associated with a weak subsequent performance supercompensation, coaches and athletes should pay particular attention to training monitoring during a final preparation in the heat and reduce training intensity when early signs of F-OR are identified.
Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Y
The aim of this study was to describe the training routines used by judo athletes and their perception concerning the relevance, effort made, concentration needed, and pleasure obtained during the training sessions conducted 6 months before their Olympic participation and to compare with medal winners and other competitors in these aspects. Sixty-one Olympic Brazilian judo athletes (men = 39; women = 22), representing 66.3% of all Brazilian participants in this Olympic sport (from 1964 to 2008), including 10 medal winners (9 men and 1 woman) answered a questionnaire concerning their training routines. Mann-Whitney and Student's t-test for independent samples were used. Judo medalists and nonmedalists in the Olympic Games did not differ in: (a) the age when they started to practice and to compete in judo, (b) the age when they competed in the Olympic Games, (c) hours of training per week and per training session and the number of training sessions per day in their preparation for this event, (d) frequency and time spent for performing judo-specific and general exercises and their perceived relevance, effort, pleasure, and concentration for these activities performed during the preparation for the Olympic Games. The only differences found were the groundwork (ne-waza) randori practice, which was less frequently performed by medal winners, and perceived relevance attributed to this activity, which was considered less relevant by the medal winners compared with nonmedal winners. Thus, judo Olympic medal winners and nonmedalists did not differ in many training aspects in the final phase of their preparation to the Olympic Games.
AA ghasemnian; A Ghaeini; s Chobineh; b Ghorbanian
Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group) or placebo (control group) exercised on a treadmi...
Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin
Resistance training in untrained adolescents can positively effect health-related fitness as well as improve muscular power and sports performance. The impact of resistance training on adolescent athletes is less clear. The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of resistance training programs on muscular power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies investigating resistance training in adolescent athlete populations. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases was conducted on 21st March 2011 to identify studies evaluating resistance training programs on power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Thirty-four studies were identified. All but two of the studies reported at least one statistically significant improvement in an alactic muscular power outcome. The most common indicators of alactic power were vertical jump (25 studies) and sprint running (13 studies) performance. Fourteen studies provided data to allow for pooling of results in a meta-analysis. A positive effect was detected for resistance training programs on vertical jump performance (mean difference 3.08 [95% CI 1.65, 4.51], Z=4.23 [Psports performance attributable to participation in resistance training was reported by almost half the included studies, however limited objective evidence to support these claims was found. Improvements in motor performance skills, such as jumping, are widely stated as indicators of improvements in sporting performance. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bourdillon, Nicolas; Yazdani, Sasan; Nilchian, Masih; Mariano, Alessio; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Millet, Grégoire P
Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to diagnose overreaching and monitor athletes' responses to training. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is modified by changes in training load and might be another means to detect overreaching. The goal of this study was to assess BRS and HRV changes in two groups of athletes responding either negatively (FOR) or positively (AF) to similar training overload. Fifteen athletes performed 2-week baseline (BSL) training followed by 3-week overload (+45%; OVL) and 2-week recovery (-20%; RCV). HRV, training load and subjective fatigue were measured daily via questionnaires. BRS, salivary cortisol and testosterone, and submaximal exercise and maximal 3-km run performances were measured at the end of each period. Based on their performance change during OVL, 8 athletes were diagnosed as FOR and 7 as AF. Subjective fatigue was increased in FOR athletes during OVL. BRS increased in AF but not in FOR athletes during RCV. At the end of RCV, cortisol and testosterone were higher than BSL in both groups. Three weeks of similar training overload can induce either performance enhancement or overreaching. The changes in submaximal exercise and maximal performances and in subjective fatigue were the fastest-responding parameters that distinguished the two groups of athletes during OVL. Training overload blunted the increase in BRS in FOR only. Most of the differences in BRS were observed during the recovery period. BRS appears to be a more sensitive parameter than HRV for early monitoring of responses to training. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas
As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…
Docheff, Dennis; Mandali, Swarna; Conn, James
Athletes often adjust their dietary routines to enhance sport performance, but problems can arise when athletes turn for guidance to coaches who may not be trained in the field of nutrition, or who, themselves, are poor examples when it comes to healthy eating habits. There are many myths regarding nutrition that are spread throughout the world of…
Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.
Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853
Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.
Sombito, Lester Jamili
Understanding of the persistence of student-athletes in athletics at the D-III level is complex. This research study investigated the issue of student-athlete retention by focusing on Division III (D-III) student-athlete persistence in athletics by asking the following research question, "To what extent do freshman student-athletes persist in…
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years an explosion of research papers concerning protein consumption has been published. The need to consolidate this information has become critical from both practical and future research standpoints. For this reason, the following paper presents an in depth analysis of contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes. Specifically, the paper covers: 1. protein requirements for resistance trained athletes; 2. the effect of the digestion rate of protein on muscular protein balance; 3. the optimal timing of protein intake relative to exercise; 4. the optimal pattern of protein ingestion, relative to how an individual should consume their protein throughout a 24 hour period, and what sources are utilized during this time frame; 5. protein composition and its interaction with measures of protein balance and strength performance; 6. the combination of protein and carbohydrates on plasma insulin levels and protein balance; 7. the efficacy of protein supplements and whole food protein sources. Our goal is to provide the reader with practical information in optimizing protein intake as well as for provision of sound advice to their clients. Finally, special care was taken to provide future research implications.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200
Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued
Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.
Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B.; Chéour, Foued
Abstract Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility) in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes. PMID:28149427
Brenner, James W; Metz, Stacie M; Entriken, Jack; Brenner, Christina J
Alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI) has been an unexamined consequence of alcohol consumption by collegiate athletes. It has a potentially devastating effect on their athletic performances and careers. Awareness of this problem in athletes could have a huge effect on what athletic trainers (ATs) do to recognize, treat, and prevent it in a collegiate athlete population. To examine the experiences and attitudes among collegiate and university ATs about ARUI in the athletes in their care. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 1767 e-mail addresses for collegiate and university ATs within National Athletic Trainers' Association Districts 1, 2, 3, and 9. We calculated frequencies, percentages, and attitudes of ATs regarding ARUI in collegiate athletes during the 2010-2011 academic year. The resulting sample size for the analysis was 459 (26.0%) participants of the initial total sample. More than 56% (n = 260) of the ATs reported that they had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed at least 1 ARUI in a collegiate athlete. On average, these ATs had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed 3 alcohol-related unintentional injuries within the 2010-2011 academic year. About 73% (n = 331) of ATs agreed that ARUI is a serious problem. Nearly 80% (n = 358) indicated they believe ATs should receive more training to identify student-athletes with alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-related unintentional injury is a common and serious consequence of alcohol use among collegiate athletes. Many ATs also view it as a serious problem yet would like more training in how to address it. Alcohol-related unintentional injury may have important negative effects on the careers and athletic performances of athletes. Researchers need to determine how prevalent ARUI is in the collegiate athlete population and what ATs can do to address it.
Brenner, James W.; Metz, Stacie M.; Entriken, Jack; Brenner, Christina J.
Context: Alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI) has been an unexamined consequence of alcohol consumption by collegiate athletes. It has a potentially devastating effect on their athletic performances and careers. Awareness of this problem in athletes could have a huge effect on what athletic trainers (ATs) do to recognize, treat, and prevent it in a collegiate athlete population. Objective: To examine the experiences and attitudes among collegiate and university ATs about ARUI in the athletes in their care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1767 e-mail addresses for collegiate and university ATs within National Athletic Trainers' Association Districts 1, 2, 3, and 9. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated frequencies, percentages, and attitudes of ATs regarding ARUI in collegiate athletes during the 2010–2011 academic year. Results: The resulting sample size for the analysis was 459 (26.0%) participants of the initial total sample. More than 56% (n = 260) of the ATs reported that they had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed at least 1 ARUI in a collegiate athlete. On average, these ATs had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed 3 alcohol-related unintentional injuries within the 2010–2011academic year. About 73% (n = 331) of ATs agreed that ARUI is a serious problem. Nearly 80% (n = 358) indicated they believe ATs should receive more training to identify student–athletes with alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-related unintentional injury is a common and serious consequence of alcohol use among collegiate athletes. Many ATs also view it as a serious problem yet would like more training in how to address it. Alcohol-related unintentional injury may have important negative effects on the careers and athletic performances of athletes. Researchers need to determine how prevalent ARUI is in the collegiate athlete population and what ATs can do to address it. PMID:24377956
Aug 22, 2012 ... Objectives: To explore the female athlete triad components in university track and field athletes, as well as calculate estimated energy availability. ... Athletes with menstrual pattern changes had lower spine [1.043 (0.975-1.059) vs. ..... subject burden and fatigue, and establishing the exact cut-off point.
Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.
Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400…
Bonci, Christine M; Bonci, Leslie J; Granger, Lorita R; Johnson, Craig L; Malina, Robert M; Milne, Leslie W; Ryan, Randa R; Vanderbunt, Erin M
To present recommendations for the prevention, detection, and comprehensive management of disordered eating (DE) in athletes. Athletes with DE rarely self-report their symptoms. They tend to deny the condition and are often resistant to referral and treatment. Thus, screenings and interventions must be handled skillfully by knowledgeable professionals to obtain desired outcomes. Certified athletic trainers have the capacity and responsibility to play active roles as integral members of the health care team. Their frequent daily interactions with athletes help to facilitate the level of medical surveillance necessary for early detection, timely referrals, treatment follow-through, and compliance. These recommendations are intended to provide certified athletic trainers and others participating in the health maintenance and performance enhancement of athletes with specific knowledge and problem-solving skills to better prevent, detect, and manage DE. The individual biological, psychological, sociocultural, and familial factors for each athlete with DE result in widely different responses to intervention strategies, challenging the best that athletics programs have to offer in terms of resources and expertise. The complexity, time intensiveness, and expense of managing DE necessitate an interdisciplinary approach representing medicine, nutrition, mental health, athletic training, and athletics administration in order to facilitate early detection and treatment, make it easier for symptomatic athletes to ask for help, enhance the potential for full recovery, and satisfy medicolegal requirements. Of equal importance is establishing educational initiatives for preventing DE.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the ECG in preparticipation screening of young athletes is detection of potential disorders in asymptomatic young athletes. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the freqency and type of ECG changes observed during preparticipation screening of young athletes. Method: The research included analysis of ECG tests recorded during the regular preparticipation screening of 219 young athletes, aged from 9 to 19 years, predominantly male, who were engaged in 7 different sport disciplines. Standard ECG was recorded at least 24 hours after strenuous physical activity. ECG analysis was performed according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC recommendations for the interpretation of 12-lead ECG in the athletes, with corrections related to the inversion of T wave. Results: ECG was perfectly normal in 103 (47%, and ECG changes were noticed in 116 (53% of the athletes. In 51.6% of examined athletes, ECG changes were of the common type, reflecting adaptation of the heart to regular exercises, and only in 1,4% athletes vwere founded ECG changes that are not consistent with training. The most common (32% of the total examinees was incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB. Sinus bradycardia was present in 12,8% of the athletes, and early repolarization at 7,8%. T wave inversion without clinical significance was observed in 4,1% of athlets. Isolated increase in QRS complex voltage was observed in 3,6%, while the first degree AV block was present in 0,5% of the athletes. ECG changes unrelated to training were recorded in 1,4% of athletes. Significant T wave inversion was observed in 0,9% and pre-excitation (Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrom in 0,5% of the athletes. Conclusion: Preparticipation screening ECG test revealed ECG changes in 51,6% of young athletes. The vast majority of changes are of common, physiological type, that neither requires further investigation, nor termination of active participation in sports. In
This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.
Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)
Hinton, Pamela S
Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance...
Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R
Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).
Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.
Franchini, Emerson; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B; Matsushigue, Karin A; Artioli, Guilherme G
To be successful in international competitions, judo athletes must achieve an excellent level of physical fitness and physical condition during training. This article reviews the physiological profiles of elite judo athletes from different sex, age and weight categories. Body fat is generally low for these athletes, except for the heavyweight competitors. In general, elite judo athletes presented higher upper body anaerobic power and capacity than non-elite athletes. Lower body dynamic strength seems to provide a distinction between elite and recreational judo players, but not high-level judo players competing for a spot on national teams. Even maximal isometric strength is not a discriminant variable among judo players. However, more studies focusing on isometric strength endurance are warranted. Although aerobic power and capacity are considered relevant to judo performance, the available data do not present differences among judo athletes from different competitive levels. Typical maximal oxygen uptake values are around 50-55 mL/kg/min for male and 40-45 mL/kg/min for female judo athletes. As for other variables, heavyweight competitors presented lower aerobic power values. The typical differences commonly observed between males and females in the general population are also seen in judo athletes when analysing anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic power, and maximal strength and power. However, further research is needed concerning the differences among the seven weight categories in which judo athletes compete.
Phillips, Stuart M
... . This Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is cited as adequate for all persons. This amount of protein would be considered by many athletes as the amount to be consumed in a single meal, particularly for strength-training athletes...
Barr, Susan I; Rideout, Candice A
With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss.
Turner James D.
Full Text Available Study aim: Mathematical models of the relationship between training and performance facilitate the design of training protocols to achieve performance goals. However, current linear models do not account for nonlinear physiological effects such as saturation and over-training. This severely limits their practical applicability, especially for optimizing training strategies. This study describes, analyzes, and applies a new nonlinear model to account for these physiological effects. Material and methods: This study considers the equilibria and step response of the nonlinear differential equation model to show its characteristics and trends, optimizes training protocols using genetic algorithms to maximize performance by applying the model under various realistic constraints, and presents a case study fitting the model to human performance data. Results: The nonlinear model captures the saturation and over-training effects; produces realistic training protocols with training progression, a high-intensity phase, and a taper; and closely fits the experimental performance data. Fitting the model parameters to subsets of the data identifies which parameters have the largest variability but reveals that the performance predictions are relatively consistent. Conclusions: These findings provide a new mathematical foundation for modeling and optimizing athletic training routines subject to an individual’s personal physiology, constraints, and performance goals.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the structure of competitive programs of qualified "B" class athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll. Material & Methods: pedagogical, sociological and methods of mathematical statistics were used. In the experimental part of the study, specialists of various categories and qualifications participated, an analysis of the video materials of the competitions of qualified athletes performing in the "B" class. Results: the content and the structure of the competitive compositions of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll have been studied, the components of the competitive program indicators are compiled. Conclusion: main structural components characterizing the competitive program of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll are highlighted. Their components, number and time of execution are determined. It is established that a variety of acrobatic elements, competitive moves, dance figures, design tools and the consistency of the construction of the entire competitive composition with high quality of performance characterizes the winning couple.
Bryant, S; McLaughlin, K; Morgaine, K; Drummond, B
Elite athletes follow demanding training regimes to achieve optimal performance. Training incorporates strategies which coincide with risk factors for dental caries and erosion. The important role of a disease-free oral cavity for peak performance is often overlooked and oral health may be compromised. This initial exploratory study aimed to identify risk factors for dental caries and erosion in elite triathletes. Questionnaires regarding training, diet and oral health were distributed to a sample of elite triathletes in New Zealand. A further sample of 10 athletes was randomly selected from the Dunedin triathlon club to participate in a clinical oral examination. Sports drinks were consumed by 83.9% of the triathletes while training; for 48.4% consumption of both sports drinks and water was described as 'little sips often, from a bottle'. Eating during training sessions was reported by 93.5% of participants; of those 62.1% ate only during cycling training. Only 3.2% perceived training as high risk to oral health. All clinical examination cases were assessed as high risk for developing caries. The diet of elite triathletes is consistent with a high risk profile for caries and erosion. Future research should be aimed at oral health promotion programs for the athletes, coaches and oral-health providers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Howard-Hamilton, Mary F.; Sina, Julie A.
Discusses how college affects student athletes. Research cited includes studies using theories of student development and results from the National Study on Student Learning that describe the desired outcomes of college for student athletes. Discusses implications for policies and practices that address the critical needs of student athletes.…
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey
Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…
Many colleges award more merit-based scholarship money to athletes than to all other undergraduates combined. Critics say this sends disturbing messages about institutional priorities. Others claim athletic scholarships derive from sports-related income. Awarding of athletic scholarships based on need would partially alleviate the problem. (MSE)
I remain deeply concerned by the situation involving our three student-athletes. I remain concerned with the known behavior regardless of the judicial disposition. All of us in the Athletics Department believe behavior above reproach should be the norm for Virginia Tech student-athletes.
Marcos Mecías Calvo
Full Text Available The bodyboard is a surfing discipline whose growth has been considerably since the 60s, so it is considered one of the fastest growing aquatic sport in the world. Despite this, scientific research of this discipline has been reflected poorly compared to other sports. As in any other sport, the bodyboarder requires of specific physical and physiological conditions to help it to practice the sport effectively as it does not follow a specific training or develop conditioning programs. Therefore, this article comes up with the idea of providing a basis for determining the most appropriate training based on study objectives and bodyboard actions to improve physical, technical and psychological condition of the bodyboarders based on the particularities of their own sport and the athlete, taking into account scientific studies in the field at hand: the Bodyboard.
Lam, Kenneth C; Snyder Valier, Alison R; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C
The inclusion of clinical practice factors, beyond epidemiologic data, may help guide medical coverage and care decisions. Trends in injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained by secondary school athletes will differ based on sport. Retrospective analysis of electronic patient records. Level 4. Participants consisted of 3302 boys and 2293 girls who were diagnosed with a sport-related injury or condition during the study years. Injury (sport, body part, diagnosis via ICD-9 codes) and treatment (type, amount, and duration of care) characteristics were grouped by sport and reported using summary statistics. Most injuries and treatments occurred in football, girls' soccer, basketball, volleyball, and track and field. Sprain or strain of the ankle, knee, and thigh/hip/groin and concussion were the most commonly documented injuries across sports. The injury pattern for boys' wrestling differed from other sports and included sprain or strain of the elbow and neck and general medical skin conditions. The most frequently reported service was athletic training evaluation/reevaluation treatment, followed by hot/cold pack, therapeutic exercise, manual therapy techniques, electrical stimulation, and strapping of lower extremity joints. Most sports required 4 to 5 services per injury. With the exception of boys' soccer and girls' softball, duration of care ranged from 10 to 14 days. Girls' soccer and girls' and boys' track and field reported the longest durations of care. Injury and treatment characteristics are generally comparable across sports, suggesting that secondary school athletic trainers may diagnose and treat similar injuries regardless of sport. Subtle sport trends, including skin conditions associated with boys' wrestling and longer duration of care for girls' soccer, are important to note when discussing appropriate medical coverage and care.
Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P
Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...
Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P
way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which......Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...
Winwood, P W; Dudson, M K; Wilson, D; Mclaren-Harrison, J K H; Redjkins, V; Pritchard, H J; Keogh, J W L
This study provides the first empirical evidence of how strongman athletes taper for strongman competitions. Strongman athletes (n=454) (mean ±SD: 33.2 ±8.0y, 178.1 ±10.6cm, 108.6 ±27.9kg, 12.6 ±8.9y general resistance training, 5.3 ±5.0y strongman implement training) completed a self-reported 4-page internet survey on tapering practices. Analysis by gender (male and female), age (≤ 30 and >30y), body mass (≤ 105 and >105kg) and competitive standard (local/regional amateur, national amateur and professional) was conducted. Eighty seven percent (n=396) of strongman athletes reported they used a taper. Athletes stated their typical taper length was 8.6 ±5.0 days, with the step taper the most commonly performed taper (52%). Training volume decreased during the taper by 45.5 ±12.9% and all training ceased 3.9 ±1.8 days out from competition. Typically, athletes reported training frequency and training duration stayed the same or decreased and training intensity decreased to around 50% in the last week. Athletes generally stated that; tapering was performed to achieve recovery, rest and peak performance; the deadlift, yoke walk and stone lifts/work took longer to recover from than other lifts; assistance exercises were reduced or removed in the taper; massage, foam rolling, nutritional changes and static stretching were strategies utilized in the taper; and, poor tapering occurred when athletes trained too heavy/hard or had too short a taper. This data will assist strongman athletes and coaches in the optimization of tapering variables leading to more peak performances. Future research could investigate the priming and pre-activation strategies strongman athletes utilize on competition day.
Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar
Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (Pmusic during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221
Hydren, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M
Thousands of youth athletes travel to high altitude to participate in lift-access alpine sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-altitude exposure on balance, choice reaction time, power, quickness, flexibility, strength endurance, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in youth lowlander athletes during a weeklong preseason training camp in Summit County, CO, USA. Eleven youth ski racers (4 boys and 7 girls; age, 13.7 ± 0.5 years; height, 157.2 ± 12.6 cm; weight, 52.4 ± 6.8 kg) with 7.7 ± 2.2 skiing years of experience participated in baseline testing at 160 m one week before the camp and a set of daily tests in the morning and afternoon at 2,828 m and skied between 3,328 and 3,802 m during a 6-day camp. Balance and choice reaction time tests were stagnant or improved slightly during the first 3 days and then improved on days 4 and 6. Vertical jump, flexibility, T-agility test, and push-ups in 1 minute improved on day 6. The number of sit-ups in 1 minute did not improve, and scores on the multistage fitness test decreased 20.34%. There was no effect of Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) questionnaire scores on performance variables measured. Athletes sojourning to high altitude for ski camps can train on immediate ascent but should slowly increase training volume over the first 3 days. Athletes should expect improvements in balance and reaction time 3-6 days into acclimatization. Coaches and athletes should expect about 20% of youth lowlander athletes to have signs and symptoms of AMS during the first 3 days of altitude exposure for alpine lift access sports at altitudes of up to 3,800 m.
Hankemeier, Dorice A; Walter, Jessica M; McCarty, Cailee W; Newton, Eric J; Walker, Stacy E; Pribesh, Shana L; Jamali, Beth E; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Van Lunen, Bonnie L
Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has become more prevalent, athletic trainers' perceptions of importance and knowledge of these concepts and their confidence in EBP are largely unknown. To assess perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in EBP concepts in athletic trainers in various roles and with different degree levels. Cross-sectional study. Online survey instrument. The survey was sent to 6702 athletic training educators, clinicians, and postprofessional students. A total of 1209 completed the survey, for a response rate of 18.04%. Demographic information and perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in the steps of EBP were obtained. One-way analysis of variance, a Kruskal-Wallis test, and an independent-samples t test were used to determine differences in scores among the demographic variables. Athletic trainers demonstrated low knowledge scores (64.2% ± 1.29%) and mild to moderate confidence (2.71 ± 0.55 out of 4.0). They valued EBP as moderately to extremely important (3.49 ± 0.41 out of 4.0). Perceived importance scores differed among roles (clinicians unaffiliated with an education program scored lower than postprofessional educators, P = .001) and highest educational degree attained (athletic trainers with terminal degrees scored higher than those with bachelor's or master's degrees, P training students demonstrated the highest total EBP knowledge scores (4.65 ± 0.91), whereas clinicians demonstrated the lowest scores (3.62 ± 1.35). Individuals with terminal degrees had higher (P training roles (P importance indicated that athletic trainers valued EBP, but this value was not reflected in the knowledge of EBP concepts. Individuals with a terminal degree possessed higher knowledge scores than those with other educational preparations; however, EBP knowledge needs to increase across all demographics of the profession.
Full Text Available Rodrigo Dias1, Anelena Bueno Frollini1, Diego Trevisan Brunelli1, André Katayama Yamada1, Richard Diego Leite4, Ricardo Adamoli Simões1, Guilherme Souza Lobo Salles1, Débora Trevisan1, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti1, Marcelo de Castro César1, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Rozangela Verlengia1, João Paulo Borin2, Jonato Prestes2,3, Claudia Regina Cavaglieri21Núcleo de Performance Humana, Mestrado em Educação Física, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil; 2Faculdade de Educação Física (FEF Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, Brasil; 3Programa de Mestrado e Doutorado em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, Brasil; 4Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica e Experimental em Biologia Vascular (BioVasc, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrasilBackground: The control of immunological alterations becomes important during in-season training, as a result of increased incidence of infectious diseases, and may assist in avoiding interruptions to training due to illness.Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate 28 weeks of chronic immune modulations in female volleyball athletes.Methods: The sample was composed of twelve athletes aged 19.47 ± 2.49 years, height 1.78 ± 0.08 cm, and body mass 66.77 ± 7.8 kg. Leukocytes, individual immune cell count, interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α plasma cytokines were measured during the competitive period.Results: Results revealed that immune variables were correlated with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and training-load indicators, indicating a possible marker of immune status. There was a statistically significant increase in total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocyte count, a decrease in lymphocytes, and an increase in upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, with no change
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2 or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2 over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1 period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT. Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO increased (p<0.05 after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively, but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively. No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.
Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David
This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1)) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.
Full Text Available Measurement of the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax is a simple, reproducible, and non-invasive method frequently used for estimation of the inspiratory muscle strength. The aim of the study was to assess the PImax values in well-trained representatives of the endurance sports and to determine the basic relationships between these values and age, training experience, somatic indices and aerobic capacity of the tested subjects. Overall, thirty female and thirty-five male elite junior and senior representatives of the endurance sports were included in the investigation. PImax and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max were estimated in all the subjects. In the female athletes the obtained mean PImax values (118±24 cm H2O were significantly lower than the respective values estimated in their male counterparts (143±25 cm H2O. Of all the tested relationships significant correlation was detected only between PImax and VO2max in the females (r=0.475 and only between PImax and the body mass index (BMI in the males (r=0.501. Since the published values of PImax vary greatly depending, among other factors, on the studied population, methods and techniques of the measurement and motivation of the tested subjects it is suggested that each laboratory elaborate its own reference values. The results indicate that in the female and in the male athletes the inspiratory muscle strength is not related to the body size. On the other hand, the detected correlation between PImax and BMI in the males may suggest a possible relationship between the inspiratory muscle strength and the total muscle mass. Presumably, endurance training in the well-trained individuals can not enhance any more the inspiratory muscle strength or the described relationships are indirect and depend on the intersexual differences.
Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H
Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...
Kusy, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Jacek; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Lucja
There are no studies available that portray insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in ageing sprint-trained athletes. We compared male young and master sprint-trained athletes to endurance-trained and untrained individuals. We hypothesised that ageing sprint-trained athletes would preserve insulin sensitivity and β-cell function at a level similar to that of endurance-trained peers and better than in untrained individuals. We showed the associations between age and parameters derived from the updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2 model) in 52 sprint-trained track and field athletes (aged 20-90 years), 85 endurance runners (20-80 years) and 55 untrained individuals (20-70 years). Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were not associated with age in sprint-trained athletes. These variables remained relatively stable across a wide range of age and comparable to those observed in endurance-trained athletes. In contrast, the untrained group showed considerable age-related increase in fasting insulin and β-cell activity and a strong decrease in insulin sensitivity compared to both athletic groups. HOMA2 parameters were significantly related to maximal oxygen in the combined group of participants. In summary, chronic training based on a "sprint model" of physical activity, that contains mixed exercise, seems to be effective in maintaining normal insulin sensitivity with ageing.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of two psychological interventions, named ‘Mental imagery’ and ‘Motivational self-talk’ training used in combination, on perceived excertion and flow state in a sample of Swimrun semi-professional athletes. Methods: Thirty male semi-professional athletes, enrolled for a Swimrun competition, were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP and a control group (CON. The modified Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (RPE and the Flow State Scale (FSS were the dependent variables. Before a Swimrun competition, the EXP Group performed both physical and mental training programs, while the CON group only performed a physical training program. Immediately after the race, we measured the dependent variables in both groups. Results: The results of unpaired-t test showed that levels of perceived exertion were less in EXP group than CON group, (t(28 = 12.87, P < .001, while levels of flow state were higher in EXP group than CON group (t(28 = 5.96, P < .001, immediately after the end of the endurance competition. The use of both mental imagery and self-talk training in order to reduce perceived exertion and improve flow state was supported (P < .001. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of this study support the psychobiological model of endurance performance. Our research is the first to demonstrate that mental imagery used in combination with motivational self-talk can reduce the perceived exertion and improve the flow state in Swimrun athletes during their endurance performance.
Full Text Available Background. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is one of the most common congenital heart disease (0.9%–2% and is frequently found in the athletes and in the general population. BAV can lead to aortic valve dysfunction and to a progressive aortic dilatation. Trained BAV athletes exhibit a progressive enlargement of the left ventricle (LV compared to athletes with normal aortic valve morphology. The present study investigates the possible relationship between different aortic valve morphology and LV dimensions. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2011, we investigated a total of 292 BAV subjects, divided into three different groups (210 athletes, 59 sedentaries, and 23 ex-athletes. A 2D echocardiogram exam to classify BAV morphology and measure the standard LV systo-diastolic parameters was performed. The study was conducted as a 5-year follow-up echocardiographic longitudinal and as cross-sectional study. Results. Typical BAV was more frequent in all three groups (68% athletes, 67% sedentaries, and 63% ex-athletes than atypical. In BAV athletes, the typical form was found in 51% (107/210 of soccer players, 10% (21/210 of basketball players, 10% track and field athletics (20/210, 8% (17/210 of cyclists, 6% (13/210 swimmers, and 15% (32/210 of rugby players and others sport. Despite a progressive enlargement of the LV (P<0.001 observed during the follow-up study, no statistical differences of the LV morphology and function were evident among the diverse BAV patterns either in sedentary subjects or in athletes. Conclusion. In a large population of trained BAV athletes, with different prevalence of typical and atypical BAV type, there is a progressive nonstatistically significant enlargement of the LV. In any case, the dimensions of the LV remained within normal range. The metabolic requirements of the diverse sport examined in the present investigations do not seem to produce any negative impact in BAV athletes
Alaranta, Antti; Alaranta, Hannu; Helenius, Ilkka
Although athletes are young and generally healthy, they use a variety of non-doping classified medicines to treat injuries, cure illnesses and obtain a competitive edge. Athletes and sports medicine physicians try to optimize the treatment of symptoms related to extreme training during an elite athlete's active career. According to several studies, the use of antiasthmatic medication is more frequent among elite athletes than in the general population. The type of training and the kind of sport influence the prevalence of asthma. Asthma is most common among those competing in endurance events, such as cycling, swimming, cross-country skiing and long-distance running. Recent studies show that athletes use also NSAIDs and oral antibacterials more commonly than age-matched controls, especially athletes competing in speed and power sports. Inappropriately high doses and concomitant use of several different NSAIDs has been observed. All medicines have adverse effects that may have deleterious effects on elite athletes' performance. Thus, any unnecessary medication use should be minimized in elite athletes. Inhaled beta(2)-agonists may cause tachycardia and muscle tremor, which are especially harmful in events requiring accuracy and a steady hand. In experimental animal models of acute injury, especially selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors have been shown to be detrimental to tissue-level repair. They have been shown to impair mechanical strength return following acute injury to bone, ligament and tendon. This may have clinical implications for future injury susceptibility. However, it should be noted that the current animal studies have limited translation to the clinical setting. Adverse effects related to the CNS and gastrointestinal adverse reactions are commonly reported in connection with NSAID use also in elite athletes. In addition to the potential for adverse effects, recent studies have shown that NSAID use may negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting
Gould, Trenton E; Caswell, Shane V
The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate differences between athletic training students' and program directors' preferences for teaching and testing methods and (2) to investigate the relationship between style and preferred teaching and testing methods using the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and the Preferred Teaching and Testing Method Inventory (PTTMI). We cluster sampled 200 undergraduate students (100% return; 68 men, 132 women; mean age, 20.12 +/- 2.02 yrs) and simple random sampled 100 program directors (43% return; 22 men, 21 women; mean age, 40.05 +/- 9.30 yrs) from Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs. We used a correlational research design to compare the preferred teaching and testing methods of undergraduate students and program directors. All subjects completed a demographic survey, the GSD, and the PTTMI. Our analyses included two separate 2 (role: student and program director) x 8 (method: teaching or testing techniques) and two separate 4 (style: concrete sequential, abstract sequential, abstract random, concrete random) x 8 (method: teaching and testing techniques) mixed-model analyses of variance. We found that athletic training students and program directors had significantly different preferences for teaching (p teaching or testing method. We recommend that athletic training and allied health educators consider implementing pedagogy that accentuates students' styles and consider self and students' preferences for preferred teaching and testing methods as time and topic permit.
Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco
Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of using hyperbaric oxygen therapy during post-training recovery in jiu-jitsu athletes.Eleven experienced Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes were investigated during and following two training sessions of 1h30min. Using a cross-over design, the athletes were randomly assigned to passive recovery for 2 hours or to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (OHB for the same duration. After a 7-day period, the interventions were reversed. Before, immediately after, post 2 hours and post 24 hours, blood samples were collected to examine hormone concentrations (cortisol and total testosterone and cellular damage markers [creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH]. Moreover, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and recovery (RPR scales were applied.Final lactate [La] values (control: 11.9 ± 1.4 mmol/L, OHB: 10.2 ± 1.4 mmol/L and RPE [control: 14 (13-17 a.u., OHB: 18 (17-20 a.u.] were not significantly different following the training sessions. Furthermore, there was no difference between any time points for blood lactate and RPE in the two experimental conditions (P>0.05. There was no effect of experimental conditions on cortisol (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.793, η2 = 0.00, small, total testosterone (F1,20 = 0.03, P = 0.877, η2 = 0.00, small, CK (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.759, η2 = 0.01, small, AST (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.761, η2 = 0.01, small, ALT (F1,20 = 0.0, P = 0.845, η2 = 0.00, small or LDH (F1,20 = 0.7, P = 0.413, η2 = 0.03, small. However, there was a difference between the two experimental conditions in RPR with higher values at post 2 h and 24 h in OHB when compared to the control condition (P<0.05.Thus, it can be concluded that OHB exerts no influence on the recovery of hormonal status or cellular damage markers. Nonetheless, greater perceived recovery, potentially due to the placebo effect, was evident following the OHB condition.
Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M
Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.
Borgen, J S; Corbin, C B
In brief: Research has indicated that 4% to 19% of female college students have eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, anorexia athletica, or bulimia. To determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes, we analyzed the responses to a questionnaire completed by 168 college women-101 nonathletes, 35 athletes whose sports emphasize leanness, and 32 athletes whose sports do not emphasize leanness. The results showed that 6% of the nonathletes, 20% of the athletes in sports that emphasize leanness, and 10% of all the athletes were either exceptionally preoccupied with weight or had tendencies toward eating disorders.
Full Text Available Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, and it has been hypothesized that training mode and type of exercise modulates long-term cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the study was to compare cardiac structure and function among athletes of various sports and sedentary controls. Standard transthoracic two-dimensional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in Caucasian male canoe/kayak paddlers (n = 9, long distance runners (LDR, n = 18, middle distance runners (MDR, n = 17, basketball players (BP, n = 31, road cyclists (n = 8, swimmers (n = 10, strength/power athletes (n = 9 of similar age (range, 15 to 31 yrs, training experience (4 to 9 years, and age-matched healthy male sedentary controls (n = 15. Absolute interventricular septum (IVS thickness and LV wall thickness, but not LV diameter, were greater in athletes than sedentary controls. Left ventricular mass of all athletes but relative wall thickness of only BP, swimmers, cyclists, and strength/power athletes were higher as compared with controls (p < 0.05. Among athletes, smaller IVS thickness was observed in MDR than BP, cyclists, swimmers or strength/power athletes, while LDR had higher body size-adjusted LV diameter as compared to BP, cyclists and strength/power athletes. In conclusion, relative LV diameter was increased in long distance runners as compared with basketball players, cyclists, and strength/power athletes. Basketball, road cycling, strength/power, and swimming training were associated with increased LV concentricity as compared with paddling or distance running
Huonker, M; Schmid, A; Schmidt-Trucksass, A; Grathwohl, D; Keul, J
In a cross-sectional study, central and peripheral arteries were investigated noninvasively in high-performance athletes and in untrained subjects. The diastolic inner vessel diameter (D) of the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the subclavian artery (Sub), and common femoral artery (Fem) were determined by duplex sonography in 18 able-bodied professional tennis players, 34 able-bodied elite road cyclist athletes, 26 athletes with paraplegia, 17 below-knee amputated athletes, and 30 able-bodied, untrained subjects. The vessel cross-sectional areas (CSA) were set in relation to body surface area (BSA), and the cross-section index (CS-index = CSA/BSA) was calculated. Volumetric blood flow was determined in Sub and Fem via a pulsed-wave Doppler system and was set in relation to heart rate to calculate the stroke flow. A significantly increased D of Sub was found in the racket arm of able-bodied tennis players compared with the opposite arm (19%). Fem of able-bodied road cyclist athletes and of the intact limb in below-knee amputated athletes showed similar increases. D of Fem was lower in athletes with paraplegia (37%) and in below-knee amputated athletes proximal to the lesion (21%) compared with able-bodied, untrained subjects; CS-indexes were reduced 57 and 31%, respectively. Athletes with paraplegia demonstrated a larger D (19%) and a larger CS-index in Sub (54%) than able-bodied, untrained subjects. No significant differences in D and CS-indexes of the thoracic and abdominal aorta were found between any of the groups. The changes measured in Sub and Fem were associated with corresponding alterations in blood flow and stroke flow in all groups. The study suggests that the size and blood flow volume of the proximal limb arteries are adjusted to the metabolic needs of the corresponding extremity musculature and underscore the impact of exercise training or disuse on the structure and the function of the arterial system.
Mikicin, Mirosław; Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Paluch, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Marek; Wróbel, Andrzej
In recent years, EEG-neurofeedback training (EEG-NFB) has been increasingly used to optimize various brain functions. Better performance in various activities was also reported after relaxation trainings, another popular method in therapeutic practice. Both these methods are used as a part of professional coaching in sports training centers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of such holistic training on physiological (EEG) and behavioral measures on semi-professional athletes. EEG-NFB paradigm was intended for amplification of the amplitudes of SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta1 (13-20 Hz) bands and simultaneous reduction of the amplitude of theta (4-7.5 Hz) and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Participation in NFB sessions was accompanied with self-administration of relaxing, audio-visual stimulation after each daily athletic training session. The training program resulted in the increase of alpha and beta1 power of trained participants when assessed in rest with eyes-closed. In eyes - open state, participants of the trained group maintained the same level in all frequency bands, in opposite to the control subjects, whose power decreased in the second measurement in beta1 band when compared to the first one. The trained group exhibited greater reduction of reaction times in a test of visual attention than the control group and showed improvement in several performance measures of Kraepelin's work-curve, used to evaluate speed, effectiveness and work accuracy. Together, these results present initial support for the use of holistic, neurophysiological training in sports workout.
Bejder, J; Andersen, A B; Goetze, J P; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Nordsborg, N B
The time course of plasma volume (PV) reduction following an increased training load period is unknown and was investigated. The accompanying fluctuations in [Hb] and OFF-hr score were analyzed in the Athlete Biological Passport. Further, whether fluctuations in plasma albumin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) concentrations correlate with PV fluctuations was investigated. Eleven high-level competitive cyclists were investigated for 3 weeks. After initial measurements in week 1, training load was increased ~250% in week 2 followed by a reversion to baseline training load in week 3. PV and hematological variables were determined frequently during all weeks. The higher training load in week 2 increased (Ptraining load period were reverted within 2 and 4 days after returning to baseline training load, respectively, while OFF-hr remained altered for 6 days. Furthermore, some atypical blood profiles were induced during and subsequent to the increased training load, demonstrating the importance of knowledge on naturally occurring hematological fluctuations. Finally, concentrations of albumin, sTfR, and proANP could not explain PV fluctuations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stinson, Cheryl; Bowman, Doug A
Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains; however, to date there is little research investigating its benefits for sport psychology training. We hypothesized that using high-fidelity VR systems to display realistic 3D sport environments could trigger anxiety, allowing resilience-training systems to prepare athletes for real-world, highpressure situations. In this work we investigated the feasibility and usefulness of using VR for sport psychology training. We developed a virtual soccer goalkeeping application for the Virginia Tech Visionarium VisCube (a CAVE-like display system), in which users defend against simulated penalty kicks using their own bodies. Using the application, we ran a controlled, within-subjects experiment with three independent variables: known anxiety triggers, field of regard, and simulation fidelity. The results demonstrate that a VR sport-oriented system can induce increased anxiety (physiological and subjective measures) compared to a baseline condition. There were a number of main effects and interaction effects for all three independent variables in terms of the subjective measures of anxiety. Both known anxiety triggers and simulation fidelity had a direct relationship to anxiety, while field of regard had an inverse relationship. Overall, the results demonstrate great potential for VR sport psychology training systems; however, further research is needed to determine if training in a VR environment can lead to long-term reduction in sport-induced anxiety.
Schoor, F.R. van de; Aengevaeren, V.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Oxborough, D.L.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.
Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a common phenomenon in the late stages of diverse cardiac diseases and is a predictive factor for sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging has also been reported in athletes. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health, but
Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M
Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with
Zarrouk, Nidhal; Hammouda, Omar; Latiri, Imed; Adala, Hela; Bouhlel, Ezzedine; Rebai, Haithem; Dogui, Mohamed
The present study aimed to investigate the concomitant effects of Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) and muscle fatigue on neuromuscular performances and reaction times in young trained athletes. Eight karate players (17.2 ± 0.5 years) were tested on three sessions: during a control period (S1: one week before Ramadan), and during the first (S2) and the fourth week of RIF (S3). Dietary intake and anthropometric measurements were assessed before each session. During each test session, participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) and a submaximal contraction at 75 % MVC until exhaustion (T lim ) of the right elbow flexors. Surface electromyography was recorded from biceps brachii muscle during MVC and T lim . Simple (SRT) and choice (CRT) reaction times were evaluated at rest and just after T lim in a random order. The total daily energy (S2: +19.5 %, p < 0.05; S3: +27.4 %, p < 0.01) and water (S2: +26.8 %, p < 0.01; S3: +23.2 %, p < 0.05) intake were significantly increased during RIF. However, neither body mass nor body mass index was altered by RIF (F (2,14) = 0.80, p = 0.47 and F (2,14) = 0.78, p = 0.48, respectively). In addition, T lim (F (2,14) = 2.53, p = 0.12), MVC (F (2,14) = 0.51, p = 0.61) and associated electrical activity (F (2,14) = 0.13, p = 0.88) as well as neuromuscular efficiency (F (2,14) = 0.27, p = 0.76) were maintained during RIF. Moreover, neither SRT nor CRT was affected by RIF (F (2,14) = 1.82, p = 0.19 and F (2,14) = 0.26, p = 0.78, respectively) or neuromuscular fatigue (F (1,7) = 0.0002, p = 0.98 and F (1,7) = 3.78, p = 0.09, respectively). The present results showed that RIF did not adversely affect the neuromuscular performances and anthropometric parameters of elite karate athletes who were undertaking their usual training schedule. In addition, neither RIF nor neuromuscular fatigue poorly affects reaction
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Pitney, William A; Mueller, Megan N
Work-family conflict (WFC) has received much attention in athletic training, yet several factors related to this phenomenon have not been examined, specifically a practitioner's sex, occupational setting, willingness to leave the profession, and willingness to use work-leave benefits. To examine how sex and occupational differences in athletic training affect WFC and to examine willingness to leave the profession and use work-leave benefits. Cross-sectional study. Multiple occupational settings, including clinic/outreach, education, collegiate, industrial, professional sports, secondary school, and sales. A total of 246 athletic trainers (ATs) (men = 110, women = 136) participated. Of these, 61.4% (n = 151) were between 20 and 39 years old. Participants responded to a previously validated and reliable WFC instrument. We created and validated a 3-item instrument that assessed willingness to use work-leave benefits, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.88), as well as a single question about willingness to leave the profession. The mean (± SD) WFC score was 16.88 ± 4.4 (range = 5 [least amount of conflict] to 25 [highest amount of conflict]). Men scored 17.01 ± 4.5, and women scored 16.76 ± 4.36, indicating above-average WFC. We observed no difference between men and women based on conflict scores (t244 = 0.492, P = .95) or their willingness to leave the profession (t244 = -1.27, P = .21). We noted differences among ATs in different practice settings (F8,245 = 5.015, P school settings had higher reported WFC scores. A negative relationship existed between WFC score and comfort using work-leave benefits (2-tailed r = -0.533, P < .001). Comfort with using work-leave benefits was different among practice settings (F8,245 = 3.01, P = .003). The ATs employed in traditional practice settings reported higher levels of WFC. Male and female ATs had comparable experiences of WFC and willingness to leave the profession.
Full Text Available The research is made on intentional sample of participants, members of Macedonian Karate Representation, in the period of preparing to qualify for the world championship in Tokyo 2008. Within the research, were used 19 (nineteen variables for evaluation the following motorics areas: tests for evaluate muscles strength, explosive strength, movement frequency of lower extremity, rhythmic and coordination. Basic purpose of the research was to establish difference within the variables to evaluate motorics abilities between male karate athletes on the age of 18 to 28 (seniors, after a nine-day programmed training in the period of preparing. Using comparative method the results from the both measures, whereby there were evident numerical improvement in the whole motorist abilities, but no difference in the levels of statistic significances.
Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Barber Foss, Kim D; Pepin, Michael J; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E
Objective The aim of this study was to determine key components in neuromuscular training that optimise ACL injury reduction in female athletes using meta-regression analyses. Design Systematic review and meta-regression. Data sources The literature search was performed in PubMed and EBSCO. Eligibility criteria Inclusion criteria for the current analysis were: (1) documented the number of ACL injuries, (2) employed a neuromuscular training intervention that aimed to reduce ACL injuries, (3) had a comparison group, (4) used a prospective control study design and (5) recruited female athletes as participants. Two independent reviewers extracted studies which met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of included study and strength of recommendation were evaluated. Number of ACL injuries and participants in control and intervention groups, age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and status of verbal feedback were extracted. Results The meta-regression analyses identified age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback as significant predictors of ACL injury reduction (p=0.01 in fixed-effects model, p=0.03 in random-effects model). Inclusion of 1 of the 4 components in neuromuscular training could reduce ACL injury risk by 17.2–17.7% in female athletes. No significant heterogeneity and publication bias effects were detected. Strength of recommendation was rated as A (recommendation based on consistent and good-quality patient-oriented study evidence). Conclusions Age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback are predictors that influence the optimisation of prophylactic effects of neuromuscular training and the resultant ACL injury reduction in female athletes. PMID:27251898
Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Barber Foss, Kim D; Pepin, Michael J; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E
The aim of this study was to determine key components in neuromuscular training that optimise ACL injury reduction in female athletes using meta-regression analyses. Systematic review and meta-regression. The literature search was performed in PubMed and EBSCO. Inclusion criteria for the current analysis were: (1) documented the number of ACL injuries, (2) employed a neuromuscular training intervention that aimed to reduce ACL injuries, (3) had a comparison group, (4) used a prospective control study design and (5) recruited female athletes as participants. Two independent reviewers extracted studies which met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of included study and strength of recommendation were evaluated. Number of ACL injuries and participants in control and intervention groups, age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and status of verbal feedback were extracted. The meta-regression analyses identified age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback as significant predictors of ACL injury reduction (p=0.01 in fixed-effects model, p=0.03 in random-effects model). Inclusion of 1 of the 4 components in neuromuscular training could reduce ACL injury risk by 17.2-17.7% in female athletes. No significant heterogeneity and publication bias effects were detected. Strength of recommendation was rated as A (recommendation based on consistent and good-quality patient-oriented study evidence). Age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback are predictors that influence the optimisation of prophylactic effects of neuromuscular training and the resultant ACL injury reduction in female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Vitarelli, Antonio; Capotosto, Lidia; Placanica, Giuseppe; Caranci, Fiorella; Pergolini, Mario; Zardo, Francesco; Martino, Francesco; De Chiara, Stefania; Vitarelli, Massimo
Previous studies have shown distinct models of cardiac adaptations to the training in master athletes and different effects of endurance and strength-training on cardiovascular function. We attempted to assess left-ventricular (LV) function, aortic (Ao) function, and right-ventricular (RV) function in athletes with different forms of training by using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle-tracking imaging (STI). We examined 35 male marathon runners (endurance-trained athletes, ETA), 35 powerlifting athletes (strength-trained athletes, STA), 35 martial arts athletes (mixed-trained athletes, MTA), and 35 sedentary untrained healthy men (controls, CTR). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography were performed for the assessment of LV and RV systolic/diastolic function. LV and RV longitudinal strain (LS) and LV torsion (LVtor) were determined using STI (EchoPAC BT11, GE-Ultrasound). Maximum velocity of systolic wall expansion peaks (AoSvel) was determined using TDI. ETA experienced LV eccentric hypertrophy with increased 3D LV end-diastolic volume and mass and significant increase in peak systolic apical rotation and LVtor. In all groups of athletes, RV-LS was reduced at rest and improved after exercise. AoSvel was significantly increased in ETA and MTA and significantly decreased in STA compared with CTR. There were good correlations between LV remodelling and aortic stiffness values. Multivariate analysis showed aortic wall velocities to be independently related to LV mass index. In strength-trained, endurance-trained, and mixed-trained athletes, ventricular and vascular response assessed by 3DE, TDI, and STI underlies different adaptations of LV, RV, and aortic indexes.
Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo
In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products.
Stemmans, Catherine L.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Langley, David J.
Objective: The phrase learning style refers to the method one uses to obtain and use information to learn. Personal learning styles can be assessed by specifically designed inventories. We conducted this study to determine if undergraduate athletic training students possess a dominant learning style, according to the Kolb Learning Style Inventory IIA (KLSI IIA), the newest version of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (KLSI), and whether this style is related to education program admission success. Design and Setting: A 1 × 4 factorial design was used. The independent variable was learning style type with 4 levels (converger, diverger, assimilator, or accommodator). The dependent variable was successful versus unsuccessful admission into selected programs. Subjects: Forty undergraduate students (21 men, 19 women) from 3 institutions (mean ± SD age, 20.7 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SD grade point average, 3.26 ± 0.43) participated in this study. No subjects had previously taken the KLSI IIA, and none had a diagnosed learning disability. Measurements: The KLSI IIA was administered to the participants at their respective institutions. We used 2 separate χ2 analyses to determine if the observed distribution of learning styles differed from the expected distribution. Additionally, a Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine if the learning style distributions of those subjects who were successfully admitted to the selected programs differed from those who were not. Results: No significant differences existed between the observed distribution and the expected distribution for those admitted and those not admitted (χ23 = 3.8, P = .28; and χ23 = 3.1, P = .4, respectively). Also, no significant differences existed between the learning style distributions of the groups when compared with each other (Mann-Whitney U = 158, P = .5). Conclusions: Learning styles can be easily identified through the use of the KLSI IIA. We found no dominant learning style among undergraduate
Horak, Martin; Zlamal, Filip; Iliev, Robert; Kucera, Jan; Cacek, Jan; Svobodova, Lenka; Hlavonova, Zuzana; Kalina, Tomas; Slaby, Ondrej; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie
The aim of the study was to compare selected extracellular miRNA levels (miR-16, miR-21, miR-93 and miR-222 with the response to 8-week-long explosive strength training (EXPL), hypertrophic strength training (HYP) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). 30 young male athletes of white European origin (mean age: 22.5 ± 4.06 years) recruited at the Faculty of Sports Studies of Masaryk University were enrolled in this study. The study participants were randomly assigned to three possible training scenarios: EXPL, HYP or HITT and participated in 8-week-long program in given arm. Blood plasma samples were collected at the baseline and at week 5 and 8 and anthropometric and physical activity parameters were measured. Pre- and post-intervention characteristics were compared and participants were further evaluated as responders (RES) or non-responders (NRES). RES/NRES status was established for the following characteristics: 300°/s right leg extension (t300), 60°/s right leg extension (t60), isometric extension (IE), vertical jump, isometric extension of the right leg and body fat percentage (BFP). No differences in miRNA levels were apparent between the intervention groups at baseline. No statistically significant prediction role was observed using crude univariate stepwise regression model analysis where RES/NRES status for t300, t60, IE, vertical jump and pFM was used as a dependent variable and miR-21, miR-222, miR-16 and miR-93 levels at baseline were used as independent variables. The baseline levels of miR-93 expressed an independent prediction role for responder status based on isometric extension of the right leg (beta estimate 0.76, 95% CI: -0.01; 1.53, p = 0.052). The results of the study indicate that 8-week-long explosive strength training, hypertrophic strength training and high-intensity interval training regimens are associated with significant changes in miR-16, mir-21, miR-222 and miR-93 levels compared to a baseline in athletic young men.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare selected extracellular miRNA levels (miR-16, miR-21, miR-93 and miR-222 with the response to 8-week-long explosive strength training (EXPL, hypertrophic strength training (HYP and high-intensity interval training (HIIT.30 young male athletes of white European origin (mean age: 22.5 ± 4.06 years recruited at the Faculty of Sports Studies of Masaryk University were enrolled in this study. The study participants were randomly assigned to three possible training scenarios: EXPL, HYP or HITT and participated in 8-week-long program in given arm. Blood plasma samples were collected at the baseline and at week 5 and 8 and anthropometric and physical activity parameters were measured. Pre- and post-intervention characteristics were compared and participants were further evaluated as responders (RES or non-responders (NRES. RES/NRES status was established for the following characteristics: 300°/s right leg extension (t300, 60°/s right leg extension (t60, isometric extension (IE, vertical jump, isometric extension of the right leg and body fat percentage (BFP.No differences in miRNA levels were apparent between the intervention groups at baseline. No statistically significant prediction role was observed using crude univariate stepwise regression model analysis where RES/NRES status for t300, t60, IE, vertical jump and pFM was used as a dependent variable and miR-21, miR-222, miR-16 and miR-93 levels at baseline were used as independent variables. The baseline levels of miR-93 expressed an independent prediction role for responder status based on isometric extension of the right leg (beta estimate 0.76, 95% CI: -0.01; 1.53, p = 0.052.The results of the study indicate that 8-week-long explosive strength training, hypertrophic strength training and high-intensity interval training regimens are associated with significant changes in miR-16, mir-21, miR-222 and miR-93 levels compared to a baseline in athletic young men.
Menaspà, Miranda J; Menaspà, Paolo; Clark, Sally A; Fanchini, Maurizio
The aim of this study was to validate the quantification of training load (s-RPE) in an Australian Olympic squad (women's water polo), assessed with the use of a modified RPE scale collected via a newly developed online system (Athlete Management System, AMS). Sixteen elite women water polo players (age 26 ± 3 y, height 1.78 ± 0.05 m, body mass 75.5 ± 7.1 kg) participated in the study. Thirty training sessions were monitored, for a total of 303 individual sessions. Heart rate was recorded during training sessions using continuous heart-rate telemetry. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of the training sessions on the AMS-RPE scale, using an online application within 30 min of the completion of the sessions. Individual relationships between s-RPE and both Banister TRIMP and Edward's Method were analysed. Individual correlations with s-RPE ranged between r=0.51 to 0.79 (Banister TRIMP), and r=0.54 to 0.83 (Edward's Method), respectively. The percentages of moderate and large correlation were 81% and 19% between s-RPE method and Banister TRIMP, and 56% and 44% between s-RPE and Edward's Method. The use of the online AMS application for assessing s-RPE was shown to be a valid indicator of internal training load and can be used in elite sport.
Full Text Available Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual’s oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball. After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes, and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ²=14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ²=14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye and fusional convergence (χ²=8.522, p=0.014. The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training
Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech
Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.
Andrews, Ashley; Wojcik, Janet R; Boyd, Joni M; Bowers, Charles J
... to be a successful student-athlete. Additional aspects of a student-athlete's training regimen should include proper sports nutrition and effective strength training. These two aspects can be overlooked, but they are extremely important factors student-athletes should incorporate into their training plans. Typically, competitive athletes have t...
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.
Parisi, A; Tranchita, E; Minganti, C; Sperandii, F; Guerra, E; Calò, L; Borrione, P; Pigozzi, F
Isolated ventricular premature beats (VPBs) are commonly found during pre-participation screening in athletes. Currently, the debate about the role of detraining in reducing the number of VPBs is still open. This study evaluated the arrhythmic risk in a population of young competitive athletes who showed VPBs during eligibility evaluation and that did not undergo detraining but continued practicing competitive sports. 3746 consecutive subjects underwent pre-participation screening. Athletes who showed VPBs were selected and underwent second level evaluation (Echocardiogram, 24 hour Holter ECG and Exercise test). Athletes were re-evaluated after a follow-up period (6-48 months) while they continued practicing competitive sports. 5.3% of the whole population showed ventricular arrhythmias. 73% of the subjects showed isolated VPBs. 88% of the subjects showed monomorphic VPBs, and 12% of athletes showed polymorphic VPBs. At echocardiogram, there was not any pathology which contraindicated competitive sport activity. At 24 hour Holter ECG recording, mean number of daily VPBs was 1592±3217 (range 0-16678). At holter ECG follow-up (16±12 months), the median number of VPBs decreased from 93 (IQR 20-3065) to a new value of 72 (IQR 2-1299). Continuing competitive sport in subjects with ventricular arrhythmias even though frequent but with a low grade of complexity and without structural cardiomyopathy does not increase sudden death risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Elizabeth L. Earhart, Edward P. Weiss, Rabia Rahman, Patrick V. Kelly
Full Text Available Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS during one trial and placebo (PL during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials. Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr-1 during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459. Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress (“warm/hot” ratings but were not different between trials (p = 0.825. Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919. Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05. High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse
Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens
Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level...... into the beneficial effects of SET have been conducted in untrained and recreationally active individuals, making extrapolation towards athletes' performance difficult. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that only few weeks of SET enhances intense exercise performance in highly-trained individuals...
Martin, Luc J; Anderson, Scott H; Schmale, Matthew S; Hallworth, Jillian R; Hazell, Tom J
Sprint interval training (SIT) can elicit improvements in aerobic and anaerobic capacity. While variations in SIT protocols have been investigated, the influence of social processes cannot be overlooked. As research supports the use of groups to influence individual cognitions and behaviours, the current project assessed the effectiveness of a group-based intervention with participants conducting SIT. Specifically, 53 amateur athletes (age, 21.9 ± 2.9 years; 53% females) took part in a 4-week training program (3 sessions per week, 30-s "all-out" efforts with 4 min active recovery, repeated 4-6 times per session), and were assigned to "true group", aggregate, or individual conditions. Results indicated no significant differences between groups for the physiological measures. With regards to training improvements from baseline for all participants- regardless of condition - significant main effects for time were identified for maximal oxygen uptake (2.5-2.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p motivation (p = 0.033, η(2) = 0.13), task self-efficacy (p = 0.018, η(2) = 0.15), and scheduling self-efficacy (p = 0.003, η(2) = 0.22). The true group experienced greater improvements in motivation than the individual condition, but the aggregate and individual conditions demonstrated greater increases in task and scheduling self-efficacy. Though the SIT paradigm employed induced training improvements similar to previous work, the group intervention was not able to further these improvements.
Gordon, Robert L.
Four issues involving the student-athlete are identified as important to academic advising: the relationship between athletic participation and academic performance, individual differences among student-athletes, the possible conflict in the role of student and athletes, and the debate over the need for special programs for student-athletes. (MLW)
Frank L. Smoll
Full Text Available Coaches and parents play a major role in determining the consequences of sport participation in young athletes. This study focuses on the assessment of a systemic, empirically inspired intervention directed at coaches and parents. Parallel workshops derived in part from achievement goal theory were presented to the coaches and parents of 9 to 15 year old boys and girls participating in community-based basketball programs, and their effects were compared with a matched control condition. Multilevel analyses revealed significant Time x Condition interactions on all three subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 and on a total anxiety score. Athletes in the intervention condition decreased in cognitive and somatic anxiety scores on the SAS-2, whereas athletes in the control condition exhibited increases in cognitive and somatic anxiety. Results suggest the potential efficacy of brief, economical interventions in enhancing the psychosocial impact of the youth sport environment.
Sufficient sleep or sleep of sufficient quality is essential for the health of children, adolescents and adults, as sleep influences almost all dimensions of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible positive effects of sportsmanship on sleep quality and to assess the possible differences in sleep quality between athletes and non-athletes. Sedentary or non-athletes subjects (n=103) and athletes (n=93) participated in this study. The Turkish version of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was used to assess the points associated with sleep quality of participants before and one month after wet cupping therapy. Athletes had statistically significantly higher Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index parameters compared with non-athletes. Long-term exercise or physical fitness is advised for better health and a life without stress, anxiety and depression and also for the normal brain function and emotional stability.
Full Text Available Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1, after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8 and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11. Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery. With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l, urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl, free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml. For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling
Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina
Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. Objective To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent...... handball players (n = 53), participated in the study. Generalized joint hypermobility was classified by Beighton score as GJH4 (4/9 or greater), GJH5 (5/9 or greater), and GJH6 (6/9 or greater). Function of the lower extremity, musculoskeletal injuries, and HRQoL were assessed with self...... (24.6%) than in team handball players (13.2%). There was no significant difference in lower extremity function, injury prevalence and related factors (exacerbation, recurrence, and absence from training), HRQoL, or lengths of hop tests for those with and without GJH. However, the GJH group had...... significantly larger center-of-pressure path length across sway tests. Conclusion For ballet dancers and TeamGym gymnasts, the prevalence of GJH4 was higher than that of team handball players. For ballet dancers, the prevalence of GJH5 and GJH6 was higher than that of team handball players and the general...
Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina
Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was
Chevalier, Laurent; Kervio, Gaëlle; Corneloup, Luc; Vincent, Marie-Pierre; Baudot, Christophe; Rebeyrol, Jean-Louis; Merle, Francis; Gencel, Laurent; Carré, François
Athlete's heart patterns have been widely described. However, to our knowledge, few studies have focused on professional rugby players, who train differently according to their field position. To describe electrocardiographic and echocardiographic patterns observed in elite rugby players according to their field position. One hundred and thirty-five professional rugby players at the end of the competitive season were included. According to a modified Pelliccia's classification, 68.1% of electrocardiograms were normal or had minor abnormalities, 27.2% were mildly abnormal and 3.7% were distinctly abnormal. Heart rate was higher in scrum first-row players (P<0.05). Absolute and indexed left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameters (LVIDd; absolute value 59.3±4.7 mm) exceeded 65 mm and 32 mm/m2 in 13% and 1.5% of players, respectively. Indexed LVIDd values were higher in back players (P<0.001). Left ventricular interventricular septum and posterior wall thicknesses (absolute values 9.4±1.7 mm and 9.2±1.6 mm, respectively) exceeded 13 mm in 3.7% of players. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was noted in 3.7% of players. Except for one Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, players with significant ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities showed no cardiovascular event or disease during follow-up. Thus, elite rugby players present similar heart patterns to elite athletes in other sports. Major electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities are quite rare. Eccentric cardiac remodelling is more frequent in back players. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the change in the level of choreographic preparedness of young athletes at the stage of preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: an expert evaluation of 61 athletes, gymnasts, sports aerobics. Following research methods were used: theoretical analysis of literary sources, method of expert evaluation, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: a methodology for assessing the choreographic preparedness of athletes at the stage of preliminary basic training was introduced. Based on the data obtained, it was found that in the group of gymnasts there was a significant increase in the choreographic skill, which was recorded according to the group indices of the formation of the choreographic preparedness, as well as all the criteria for choreographic readiness. Conclusion: experimentally proved the effectiveness of the introduction of the author's program of choreographic training in the training process of gymnasts at all stages of training athletes in order to improve their choreographic skills.
Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Walter, Jessica M.; McCarty, Cailee W.; Newton, Eric J.; Walker, Stacy E.; Pribesh, Shana L.; Jamali, Beth E.; Manspeaker, Sarah A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.
Context: Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has become more prevalent, athletic trainers' perceptions of importance and knowledge of these concepts and their confidence in EBP are largely unknown. Objective: To assess perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in EBP concepts in athletic trainers in various roles and with different degree levels. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: The survey was sent to 6702 athletic training educators, clinicians, and postprofessional students. A total of 1209 completed the survey, for a response rate of 18.04%. Main Outcome Measure(s): Demographic information and perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in the steps of EBP were obtained. One-way analysis of variance, a Kruskal-Wallis test, and an independent-samples t test were used to determine differences in scores among the demographic variables. Results: Athletic trainers demonstrated low knowledge scores (64.2% ± 1.29%) and mild to moderate confidence (2.71 ± 0.55 out of 4.0). They valued EBP as moderately to extremely important (3.49 ± 0.41 out of 4.0). Perceived importance scores differed among roles (clinicians unaffiliated with an education program scored lower than postprofessional educators, P = .001) and highest educational degree attained (athletic trainers with terminal degrees scored higher than those with bachelor's or master's degrees, P training students demonstrated the highest total EBP knowledge scores (4.65 ± 0.91), whereas clinicians demonstrated the lowest scores (3.62 ± 1.35). Individuals with terminal degrees had higher (P training roles (P < .001). Conclusions: Overall knowledge of the basic EBP steps remained low across the various athletic trainers' roles. The higher level of importance indicated that athletic trainers valued EBP, but this value was not reflected in the knowledge of EBP concepts. Individuals with a terminal degree possessed higher knowledge
Sandbakk, Øyvind; Rasdal, Vegard; Bråten, Steinar; Moen, Frode; Ettema, Gertjan
To compare sport-specific laboratory capacities and the annual training of world-class Nordic combined (NC) athletes with specialized ski jumpers (SJ) and cross-country (XC) skiers. Five world-class athletes from each sports discipline were compared. Ski jump imitations were performed on a 3-dimensional force plate in NC athletes and SJ, whereas XC skiing characteristics were obtained from submaximal and maximal roller ski skating on a treadmill in NC athletes and XC skiers. In addition, anthropometrics and annual training characteristics were determined. NC athletes demonstrated 9% higher body mass and showed 17% lower vertical speed in the ski jump imitation than SJ (all P training, mainly caused by lower amounts of low- and moderate-intensity training in the classical technique, whereas high-intensity strength and speed training and endurance training in the skating technique did not differ substantially from XC skiers. To simultaneously optimize endurance, explosive, and technical capacities in 2 different disciplines, world-class NC athletes train approximately two-thirds of the XC skier's endurance training volume and perform one-half of the ski-jump-specific training compared with SJ. Still, the various laboratory capacities differed only 10-17% compared with SJ and XC skiers.
Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R
Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.
Kalenichenko Aleksej Vladimirovich
Full Text Available Performed blood pressure (BP and hemodynamics of 85 students: 30 non-athletes (group I, 27 athletes power enforcement types (group II and 28 - endurance sports (group III. It was found that the second and third groups had higher systolic and mean arterial pressure than in the I group. There are differences in blood pressure reactivity to changes in body position, mental and physical activity among the various groups studied. It is shown that the formation of moderate hypertension in group III is carried out by increasing peripheral vascular resistance, and II - at the expense of increased cardiac output.
Janssen, Ina; van der Worp, Henk; Hensing, Sjoerd; Zwerver, Johannes
Although injury surveillance in athletics is routinely conducted, discipline-specific Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore discipline-specific tendinopathy prevalence and identify whether injury-specific risk factors differed in athletes. Elite athletes were recruited and provided information on their sport training including Achilles and patellar tendon pain history. In order to ascertain whether between-discipline differences existed, data were categorized into discipline groups. Middle-distance athletes reported the highest prevalence of Achilles tendinopathy and the combined athletes reported the highest patellar tendinopathy prevalence. Greater calf stiffness was reported in athletes who experienced Achilles tendinopathy compared to those who did not. A substantial portion of athletes believed their performance decreased as a result of their tendon pain. In order to develop discipline-specific evidence-based injury prevention programmes, further discipline-specific research is required to quantify the mechanism for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy development in elite athletics.
Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.
Johnson, C; Powers, P S; Dick, R
To present findings from a collaborative study with the National College Athletic Association regarding the prevalence of disordered eating among student athletes. 1,445 student athletes from 11 Division 1 schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. Results indicated that 1.1% of the females met DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa versus 0% for males. None of the student athletes met DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa. 9.2% of the females were identified as having clinically significant problems with bulimia versus .01% of the males. 2.85% of the females were identified as having a clinically significant problem with anorexia nervosa versus 0% for males. 10.85% of the females reported binge eating on a weekly or greater basis versus 13.02% of the males 5.52% of the females reported purging behavior (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics) on a weekly or greater basis versus 2.04% for the males. Results from the current investigation are more conservative than previous studies of student athletes, but comparable to another large study of elite Norwegian athletes. Reasons for these differences are discussed. Clearly female athletes report more difficulty with disordered eating than male athletes. Some specific risk factors for female athletes are discussed.
Palmer, Thomas; Uhl, Timothy L; Howell, Dana; Hewett, Timothy E; Viele, Kert; Mattacola, Carl G
The ability to generate, absorb, and transmit forces through the proximal segments of the pelvis, spine, and trunk has been proposed to influence sport performance, yet traditional training techniques targeting the proximal segments have had limited success improving sport-specific performance. To investigate the effects of a traditional endurance-training program and a sport-specific power-training program targeting the muscles that support the proximal segments and throwing velocity. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University research laboratory and gymnasium. A total of 46 (age = 20 ± 1.3 years, height = 175.7 ± 8.7 cm) healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female softball (n = 17) and male baseball (n = 29) players. Blocked stratification for sex and position was used to randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 training groups for 7 weeks: a traditional endurance-training group (ET group; n = 21) or a power-stability-training group (PS group; n = 25). Mean Outcome Measure(s) : The change score in peak throwing velocity (km/h) normalized for body weight (BW; kilograms) and change score in tests that challenge the muscles of the proximal segments normalized for BW (kilograms). We used 2-tailed independent-samples t tests to compare differences between the change scores. The peak throwing velocity (ET group = 0.01 ± 0.1 km/h/kg of BW, PS group = 0.08 ± 0.03 km/h/kg of BW; P sport-specific training regimen targeting the proximal segments.
Kim, Sang-Hoon; An, Ho-Jung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Youn
[Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment. [Subjects and Methods] We also aimed at using the findings to propose an efficient training program in hypobaric hypoxia for endurance athletes with disabilities. The study participants were three cycling athletes with physical disabilities from the Korean national team (A, B, and C athletes). They underwent complex (repetition, interval, and continued) training with a roller-type cycle in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment (simulated altitude, 4,000 m above sea level). The training was conducted in twelve 60-min sessions for 2 weeks and it was based on the ventilatory threshold intensity, measured in an exercise stress test, conducted prior to training, at constant temperature (23 °C ± 2 °C) and humidity conditions (50% ± 5%). [Results] B and C athletes showed no noticeable changes in relative VO 2 max and HRmax values after training. A, B, and C athletes all showed increases in all-out time, 2'09″ (13.1%), 2'43″ (18.7%), and 1'22″ (7.4%), respectively after training. Although the relative VO 2 max and HRmax values were not improved, submaximal exercise performance ability was improved. [Conclusion] Therefore, 2 weeks of intermittent training in a hypobaric hypoxia environment positively affected aerobic energy metabolism and performance.
Mohammad Hossein Jadbabaei
Full Text Available Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies.The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete’s heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death.
Pruna, Ricard; Lizarraga, Antonia; Domínguez, David
Practicing sports at a professional level requires the body to be in good health. The fact of carrying out a continuous and high intensity physical activity in the presence of pathological conditions and/or a maladaptation of the body can be detrimental to the athletes' health and, therefore, to their performance. Many of the problems that arise in the sports field could be prevented with a periodic and well-structured medical assessment. In this review, we describe the protocol of the medical service of a high-level sports club for the assessment of its professional athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Currie, Katharine D; Sless, Ryan T; Notarius, Catherine F; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M
Untrained individuals with exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses to graded exercise testing are characterized as having resting dysfunction of the sympathetic and cardiovascular systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the resting cardiovascular state of endurance-trained individuals with EBP through a comparison of normotensive athletes with and without EBP. EBP was defined as a maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 190 mmHg and at least 210 mmHg for women and men respectively, in response to a graded exercise test. Twenty-two life-long endurance-trained athletes (56 ± 5 years, 16 men) with EBP (EBP+) and 11 age and sex-matched athletes (55 ± 5 years, eight men) without EBP (EBP-) participated in the study. Sympathetic reactivity was assessed using BP responses to a cold pressor test, isometric handgrip exercise, and postexercise muscle ischemia. Resting left ventricular structure and function was assessed using two-dimensional echocardiography, whereas central arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity. Calf vascular conductance was measured at rest and peak postexercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. All sympathetic reactivity, left ventricular, and arterial stiffness indices were similar between groups. There was no between-group difference in resting vascular conductance, whereas peak vascular conductance was higher in EBP+ relative to EBP- (1.81 ± 0.65 vs. 1.45 ± 0.32 ml/100 ml/min/mmHg, P < 0.05). Findings from this study suggest that athletes with EBP do not display the resting cardiovascular state typically observed in untrained individuals with EBP. This response in athletes, therefore, is likely a compensatory mechanism to satisfy peripheral blood-flow demands rather than indicative of latent dysfunction.
Michael F Joseph
Full Text Available Michael F Joseph1, Craig R Denegar1, Elaine Horn1, Bradley MacDougall1, Michael Rahl1, Jessica Sheehan1, Thomas Trojian2, Jeffery M Anderson1, James E Clark1, William J Kraemer11Department of Kinesiology, 2Department of Sports Medicine, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: Lower extremity mechanics during landing have been linked to traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries, particularly in women’s athletics. The effects of efforts to mitigate these risks have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that a 5° medial wedge reduced ankle eversion and knee valgus. In the present report we further investigated the effect of a 5° medial wedge inserted in the shoes of female athletes on frontal plane hip motion, as well as ankle, knee, hip, and trunk saggital plane motion during a jump landing task. Kinematic data were obtained from 10 intercollegiate female athletes during jump landings from a 31 cm platform with and without a 5° medial wedge. Hip adduction was reduced 1.98° (95% CI 0.97–2.99° by the medial wedge but saggital plane motions were unaffected. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal plane motion and takes the knee away from a position associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although frontal plane motion was not captured it is unlikely to have increased in a bilateral landing task. Thus, it is likely that greater muscle forces were generated in these highly trained athletes to dissipate ground reaction forces when a medial wedge was in place. Additional investigation in younger and lesser trained athletes is warranted to assess the impact of orthotic devices on knee joint mechanics.Keywords: jump landing, foot orthotic, lower extremity kinematics, knee biomechanics, knee injury
Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.
Jõesaar, Helen; Hein, Vello
The aim of this study was to examine the differences in psychosocial and motivational variables between persistent and dropout youth athletes and between groups with different years in training. Team and individual youth athletes completed questionnaires measuring autonomy support from parents and coaches, peer motivational climate, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and sport motivation. The results showed that athletes who dropped out perceived significantly less competence, relatedness, and autonomy need satisfaction, and they perceived less autonomy support from parents and were less intrinsically motivated than persistent athletes. Youth athletes with up to one year in training reported significantly lower effort and intra-team conflict with peers, relatedness need satisfaction, and external motivation than athletes with 1 to 3 years and >3 years in training. Findings extend knowledge of the psychosocial determinants of sport continuation behaviour among young athletes.
Edg E, Johann; Bishop, David; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel
We measured the muscle buffer capacity (betam) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport athletes (n = 7), endurance trained (n = 6) or untrained but physically active (n = 8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine VO(2peak) followed 2 days later by a cycle test of RSA (5 x 6 s, every 30 s). Resting muscle samples (Vastus lateralis) were taken to determine betam. The team-sport group had a significantly higher betam than either the endurance-trained