WorldWideScience

Sample records for athletic training services

  1. Athletic training services in public secondary schools: a benchmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Casa, Douglas J; Vandermark, Lesley W; Stearns, Rebecca L; Attanasio, Sarah M; Fontaine, Garrett J; Wafer, Alex M

    2015-02-01

    Authors of the most recent study of athletic training (AT) services have suggested that only 42% of secondary schools have access to athletic trainers. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and was conducted more than 10 years ago. To determine current AT services in public secondary schools. Cross-sectional study. Public secondary schools in the United States. A total of 8509 (57%) of 14,951 secondary schools from all 50 states and Washington, DC, responded to the survey. Data on AT services were collected for individual states, National Athletic Trainers' Association districts, and the nation. Of the 8509 schools that responded, 70% (n = 5930) had AT services, including full-time (n = 3145, 37%), part-time (n = 2619, 31%), and per diem (n = 199, 2%) AT services, and 27% (n = 2299) had AT services from a hospital or physical therapy clinic. A total of 4075 of 8509 schools (48%) provided coverage at all sports practices. Eighty-six percent (2,394,284/2,787,595) of athletes had access to AT services. Since the last national survey, access to AT services increased such that 70% of respondent public secondary schools provided athletic trainers at sports games or practices. Approximately one-third of all public secondary schools had full-time athletic trainers. This number must increase further to provide appropriate medical coverage at athletic practices and games for secondary school athletes.

  2. Key factors for providing appropriate medical care in secondary school athletics: athletic training services and budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wham, George S; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Cross-sectional study. Mailed and e-mailed survey. One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r = 0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P athletic trainer and the size of the sports medicine supply budget. The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for interscholastic athletes.

  3. Key Factors for Providing Appropriate Medical Care in Secondary School Athletics: Athletic Training Services and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wham, George S.; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. Objective: To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Mailed and e-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. Intervention(s): The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r  =  0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Results: Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P sports medicine supply budget. Conclusions: The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for

  4. Exploring Athletic Training Educators' Development as Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Ellen K.; Walker, Stacy E.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Little research is available on how athletic training educators develop their instructional styles over the course of their careers and what influences their teaching practices. Understanding the development of athletic training educators' teaching practices may help promote effective teaching in athletic training programs and help guide…

  5. Description of Professional Master's Athletic Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs) are becoming more popular as the profession debates what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training. More information is needed related to the potential benefits of PM ATPs. Objective: Describe the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)…

  6. A Proposed Athletic Training Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Sue

    An athletic training curriculum for the training of high school coaches and physical education teachers in Virginia includes courses on: (1) athletic injuries--a basic study of human physiology and anatomy relevant to different athletic injuries; (2) the art and science of sports medicine--prevention, evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of…

  7. Training the Gut for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in delivering carbohydrate and fluid during prolonged exercise and can therefore be a major determinant of performance. The incidence of GI problems in athletes participating in endurance events is high, indicating that GI function is not always optimal in those conditions. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the GI system is highly adaptable. Gastric emptying as well as stomach comfort can be ?trained? and perceptions of fullness...

  8. Factors Influencing Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of the Athletic Training Profession and Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Successful athletic training programs should help students develop a desire to work within the athletic training profession while providing adequate preparation for them to enter the workforce. Understanding athletic training students' perceptions of the profession as they leave programs and the factors that influence these…

  9. Sexual Harassment Training and Reporting in Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Jamie; Moffit, Dani M.; Russ, Anne C.; Thorpe, Justin N.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Sexual harassment is a growing concern in higher education. Athletic training students should feel safe in their programs, whether in the didactic or clinical setting. Though the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education creates standards to keep the students safe, there are none regarding sexual harassment training for…

  10. Training characteristics in highly treined athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo dos Santos; Aurineider Marcelino da Silva; Glaycon Michels

    2008-01-01

    The adaptation to the training seems to depend on factors such as: intensity of the training volume, frequency and initial level of physical aptitude. However, in highly trained athletes, the intensity of the training and the initial level of performance seem to be the most important main factors influencing the reply to the training and, therefore the performance of the competition considering that the volume of necessary training and the frequency are assured. During the training preparatio...

  11. Athletic Training: Instructors Perceived Preparedness for Teaching in an Athletic Training Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Kevin F.

    2013-01-01

    Athletic trainers work in clinical settings such as secondary schools, colleges and universities, sports medicine clinics, professional sports, hospitals, and other healthcare environments. However, with the rapid expansion of athletic training education programs (ATEP) over the years, another role for the athletic trainer has developed, the…

  12. Managing the Training Load in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training "dose" that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical "response" when it is excessive or not managed appropriately. It also examines the best approaches to quantifying load and injury risk, acknowledging the relative strengths and weaknesses of subjective and objective approaches. Making evidence-based decisions is emphasized, while the appropriate monitoring techniques are determined by both the sporting context and individual situation. Ultimately a systematic approach to training-load monitoring is recommended for adolescent athletes to both maximize their athletic development and allow an opportunity for learning, reflection, and enhancement of performance knowledge of coaches and practitioners.

  13. Female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.

  14. Athletic Training Student Socialization Part I: Socializing Students in Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Professional socialization is a key process in the professional development of athletic training students. The published athletic training education research has focused on many perspectives regarding socialization; however, it has yet to investigate the program director's (PD's) opinion. Objective: To gain insights from the PD on methods…

  15. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. psomatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes.

  16. Characteristics of Athletic Training Students That Preceptors Find Desirable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Thomas, Spencer; Paulsen, Jenica; Chiu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students acquire clinical hours under the direct supervision of athletic training preceptors. Objective: The purpose of this project was to explore what characteristics preceptors desire in their athletic training students. Design and Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 286…

  17. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Seavey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sports Medicine & Allied Health Sciences, 2016;2(1 ISSN: 2376-9289 Seavey, Beatty, Lenhoff, & Krause. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Douglas M. Seavey, AT, Christopher T. Beatty, Tyler L. Lenhoff, & Bentley A. Krause, PhD, AT Ohio University, College of Health Sciences & Professions, Division of Athletic Training. ____________________________________________________________________ Context: Athletic trainers (ATs, more than any other healthcare professional, has expertise in areas of on-field assessment and management of sport related concussion and spinal cord injury. A search of the key words “brain” (n=>100 or “spinal cord/spine” (n=~50 were identified in National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statements on Concussion and Spinal Cord Injury. However, a significant gap exists in the basic science knowledge of neuroscience and neuroanatomy. Objective: The goal of this study is to identify the basic science coursework in professional and post-professional athletic training curricula. Design and Setting: This is a descriptive, curricula analysis of CAATE Professional and Post-Professional Athletic Training Programs using web-based search and review. Participants: Curricula for accredited Professional (n=336 and Post-Professional (n=15 Athletic Training Programs were reviewed and analyzed to characteristics basic science content. Interventions: This web-based program review of CAATE standard course content and elective options occurred. Main Outcome Measures: Course titles, numbers and descriptions were accessed at CAATE.net and offerings of anatomy, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy and neuroscience, human physiology, exercise physiology, psychology, chemistry and physics content were quantified. Main outcome measures include frequencies and distributions of courses in each subject area. Results: We reviewed 309

  18. Teacher Certification Among Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Neil

    1995-01-01

    Researchers have reported that athletic training students who earn teacher certification enhance their job marketability. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of athletic training students who pursue teacher certification. A survey was mailed to the directors of the 78 NATA undergraduate programs in 1992. Data from the returned surveys showed that 177 of the 703 expected graduates in 1992 and 148 of the 640 graduates in 1991 pursued teacher certification. The most common teacher certification subject area was Physical Education, followed by Health, and Science or Biology. These students should expect to take an additional 1.6 semesters (range 0 to 4) to complete teacher certification requirements. Program directors cited increased job opportunities as the main advantage, and increased time in school and financial burden as the main disadvantages of pursuing teacher certification. Although the potential for high school jobs seems enormous, there is little indication that high schools are increasingly hiring athletic trainers. Formal counseling and advising for athletic training students regarding teacher certification and job opportunities should occur in the first year of study. Additional research should assess the job market. Imagesp350-a PMID:16558362

  19. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  20. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  1. Strength Training for Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    This guide is designed to serve as a resource for developing strength training programs for children. Chapter 1 uses research findings to explain why strength training is appropriate for children. Chapter 2 explains some of the important physiological concepts involved in children's growth and development as they apply to developing strength…

  2. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... After the three groups of athletes received training of different intensities, there is a significant improvement in their cardiac function to a certain extent, especially Group. C athletes receiving 90-minute running. After training, athletes' cardiac muscle is effectively enhanced, and their myocardial strength is ...

  3. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership ...

  4. Critical thinking in undergraduate athletic training education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D

    1997-07-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether or not undergraduate athletic training educators are writing learning objectives that foster critical thinking (CT) skills, and (b) to determine if their written assignments and written examinations are measuring the extent to which students have developed CT skills. Thirty institutions seeking accreditation for their athletic training programs from the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Educational Programs in the 1994-95 academic year were asked to provide their curriculum materials (course syllabus, two to three examinations, or both from each athletic training-specific course). Thirteen curriculum directors (43%) provided materials. Each learning objective, examination question, and written assignment was classified as either CT or non-critical thinking (NCT) using Bloom's taxonomy. From 64 usable syllabi, a total of 678 learning objectives were classified as either CT (52%) or NCT (48%). From 81 written examinations, 3215 questions were classified as either CT (14%) or NCT (86%). In addition, a total of 143 written assignments were all classified as CT. The results of this study indicate that educators fostered more CT in their learning objectives and written assignments than in their written exams. Valid educational instruments (eg, Bloom's taxonomy) may help educators design learning objectives, assignments, and examinations.

  5. Leadership and Management: Techniques and Principles for Athletic Training

    OpenAIRE

    Nellis, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training f...

  6. Leadership and management: techniques and principles for athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, S M

    1994-12-01

    Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training facility's mission. By applying good management and leadership skills, you can implement your mission statement, evaluate your results, and improve the performance of your athletic training facility.

  7. Leadership and Management: Techniques and Principles for Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training facility's mission. By applying good management and leadership skills, you can implement your mission statement, evaluate your results, and improve the performance of your athletic training facility. PMID:16558296

  8. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995?August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study sel...

  9. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  10. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  11. Physical activity participation and constraints among athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Justin; Rogers, Katherine; Anderson, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have examined the physical activity (PA) habits of certified athletic trainers; however, none have looked specifically at athletic training students. To assess PA participation and constraints to participation among athletic training students. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level athletic training education programs (undergraduate and graduate) across the United States. Participants were 1125 entry-level athletic training students. Self-reported PA participation, including a calculated PA index based on a typical week. Leisure constraints and demographic data were also collected. Only 22.8% (252/1105) of athletic training students were meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for PA through moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise. Although 52.3% (580/1105) were meeting the recommendations through vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise, 60.5% (681/1125) were meeting the recommendations based on the combined total of moderate or vigorous cardiorespiratory exercise. In addition, 57.2% (643/1125) of respondents met the recommendations for resistance exercise. Exercise habits of athletic training students appear to be better than the national average and similar to those of practicing athletic trainers. Students reported structural constraints such as lack of time due to work or studies as the most significant barrier to exercise participation. Athletic training students experienced similar constraints to PA participation as practicing athletic trainers, and these constraints appeared to influence their exercise participation during their entry-level education. Athletic training students may benefit from a greater emphasis on work-life balance during their entry-level education to promote better health and fitness habits.

  12. Fluid intake behavior in athletes during typical training bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoite Stella, Alex; Francescato, Maria P; Sims, Stacy T; Morrison, Shawnda A

    2017-11-01

    Hydration habits during training may differ depending on sports mode and individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess fluid intake behavior in a wide sample of Italian athletes during their regular training. Data on hydration habits during training were collected from a random sample of competitive athletes. Hydration strategies and personal characteristics were queried via questionnaire, including athletes' quantity and type of fluid ingested during a typical training bout, sport characteristics (e.g. mode and training duration), and whether their coach encouraged them to drink during trainings. Three hundred and fifty-two competitive athletes participated to the study; two hundred eighty-nine athletes correctly completed all survey items (age: 8-63 years, median: 21±13 years). Athletes were involved in international (3.1%), national (34.1%) and regional (44.9%) competitions. Median fluid intakes during training were 0.25 L/h; 150 athletes reported fluid intake below the median, whilst 23 athletes (6.5% of total sample) reported fluid intake at or above currently published exercise hydration guidelines (NATA and ACSM). Binary logistic regression indicated that the number of pauses to drink (B=0.771, P=0.000), duration of a typical training bout (B=-2.237, P=0.000), and a coach's encouragement to drink (B=0.601, P=0.030) were each associated with fluid consumption above or below the median value. Athletes across all disciplines reported drinking less fluid during training than currently espoused in hydration guidelines. A coach's encouragement to drink, the number of pauses during training, and bout duration each influence total fluid volume consumed, regardless of competition level, sex or the age of an athlete.

  13. The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. This paper describes the 'Training-Injury Prevention Paradox' model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load ('internal' and 'external' loads) and suggests capturing both recent ('acute') training loads and more medium-term ('chronic') training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable-acute:chronic workload ratio-as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and thus, time-loss injuries. The appropriately

  14. Frustrations among graduates of athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Dodge, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Although previous researchers have begun to identify sources of athletic training student stress, the specific reasons for student frustrations are not yet fully understood. It is important for athletic training administrators to understand sources of student frustration to provide a supportive learning environment. To determine the factors that lead to feelings of frustration while completing a professional athletic training education program (ATEP). Qualitative study. National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) accredited postprofessional education program. Fourteen successful graduates (12 women, 2 men) of accredited professional undergraduate ATEPs enrolled in an NATA-accredited postprofessional education program. We conducted semistructured interviews and analyzed data with a grounded theory approach using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. We negotiated over the coding scheme and performed peer debriefings and member checks to ensure trustworthiness of the results. Four themes emerged from the data: (1) Athletic training student frustrations appear to stem from the amount of stress involved in completing an ATEP, leading to anxiety and feelings of being overwhelmed. (2) The interactions students have with classmates, faculty, and preceptors can also be a source of frustration for athletic training students. (3) Monotonous clinical experiences often left students feeling disengaged. (4) Students questioned entering the athletic training profession because of the fear of work-life balance problems and low compensation. In order to reduce frustration, athletic training education programs should validate students' decisions to pursue athletic training and validate their contributions to the ATEP; provide clinical education experiences with graded autonomy; encourage positive personal interactions between students, faculty, and preceptors; and successfully model the benefits of a career in athletic training.

  15. EFFECT OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING ON BALANCE AMONG UNIVERSITY ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohansundar Sankaravel; Jeffrey Low Fook Lee; Ong Kuan Boon; Sanmuganathan Jeganathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proprioceptive deficiency followed by lateral ankle sprain leads to poor balance is not uncommon. It has been linked with increased injury risk among young athletes. Introducing neuromuscular training programs for this have been believed as one of the means of injury prevention. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the effects of six weeks progressive neuromuscular training (PNM Training) on static balance gains among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains...

  16. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  17. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  18. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: An effective analysis of correlation between training intensity of athletes and cardiac performance is done to develop scientific and reasonable exercise program and to promote health of athletes. Methods: During December 2013-December 2015, 3600 students from different sports schools were selected for the ...

  19. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  20. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  1. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... different schools for study, randomly divided the students ... 2013-December 2015, 3600 students from different sports schools were selected for the test. ... Key words: Athlete, cardiac performance, correlation, training intensity.

  2. Network Analysis of Clinical Placement of Athletic Training Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M G Miller; C Harvatt; K Hirsch; W R Holcomb

    2017-01-01

    An abstract of a study by Miller et al determining communication aspects using social network analysis for on-campus and off campus clinical placement sites of undergraduate athletic training students is presented...

  3. Career Commitment of Postprofessional Athletic Training Program Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Choosing to pursue an advanced degree in athletic training appears to indicate professional commitment and passion for the profession. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding why some athletic trainers pursue enrollment in a postprofessional athletic training program (PPATP), indicating commitment to the profession, but later depart for another primary role outside of athletic training. Objective: To understand why athletic trainers invested in advanced training via a PPATP but then decided to leave the profession. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Online data collection. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve graduates (8 women [67%], 4 men [33%], age = 31.58 ± 3.06 years) from PPATPs who no longer had primary employment as an athletic trainer. Data Collection and Analysis: Recruits responded to an e-mail invitation to participate by completing a confidential online questionnaire. We analyzed data using a general inductive approach and secured trustworthiness using multiple-analyst triangulation, peer review, and member checks. Results: Two higher-order themes emerged regarding the career commitment of former athletic trainers who were PPATP graduates: (1) departure from an athletic training career and (2) partial continuance in athletic training. Two second-order themes emerged from the reasons for departure: (1) decreased recognition of value and (2) work-life imbalance. Finally, we identified 2 third-order themes from the participants' reasons for departure because of a perceived lack of value: (1) low salary and (2) long, inconsistent hours worked. Conclusions: Most of our participants intended to stay in the profession when they chose to attend a PPATP. However, during role inductance in either the clinical experience of the PPATP they attended or early in their careers, they began to have thoughts of leaving mainly because of inadequate financial compensation, challenging work schedules, or both. PMID:25343531

  4. Use of athletic training equipment in fire sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulová, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Thema works: Use of athletic training equipment in fire sport Student: Miroslava Mikulová Supervisor: odb. as. Aleš Kaplan Aims: The aim of this work is based on a questionnaire survey to determine the use of special introductory athletic training and other resources in fire sport for both professional and volunteer firefighters. Methodology: The data that was necessary to write a thesis, I have gained through non-standardized anonymous questionnaire created for both professional and voluntee...

  5. Epidemiologic comparison of injured high school basketball athletes reporting to emergency departments and the athletic training setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-01-01

    .... To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons...

  6. An Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical-Placement Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael G; Berry, David C

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a time profile to determine how athletic training students use their time in clinical placements and to determine the effects of academic standing, sex, sport type, and risk of injury associated with a sport during athletic training students' clinical placements on instructional, clinical, unengaged, managerial, and active learning time. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects were enrolled in clinical placements within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics, intramural sports, and a local high school. Students were individually videotaped for approximately 4 hours. SUBJECTS: A total of 20 undergraduate athletic training students (17 women, 3 men) from a Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education program. MEASUREMENTS: We created a conceptual behavioral time framework to examine athletic training students' use of clinical-placement time with the performance domains associated with the 1999 National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Role Delineation Study. Students' use of time was analyzed with the Behavior Evaluation Strategies and Taxonomies software. RESULTS: Students spent 7% of their overall clinical-placement time in instructional activities, 23% in clinical activities, 10% in managerial activities, and 59% in unengaged activities. Using multiple 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance, we found that advanced students were engaged in significantly more active learning and clinical time compared with novice and intermediate students. Students assigned to sports in which injuries predominately occur in the upper extremities (upper extremity sports) spent significantly more clinical-placement time unengaged compared with students assigned to sports in which injuries predominantly occur in the lower extremities (lower extremity sports) or in both upper and lower extremities (mixed extremity sports). CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, we

  7. Perfectionism and training distress in junior athletes: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Daniel J; Stoeber, Joachim; Passfield, Louis

    2017-03-01

    Perfectionistic athletes may train harder and for longer than non-perfectionistic athletes, leaving them susceptible to elevated levels of training distress. So far, however, no study has investigated the relationships between perfectionism and training distress, a key indicator of overtraining syndrome. Furthermore, no study has determined psychological predictors of overtraining syndrome. Using a two-wave design, the present study examined perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns and training distress in 141 junior athletes (mean age = 17.3 years, range = 16-19 years) over 3 months of active training. Multiple regression analyses were employed to test cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between perfectionism and training distress. In all analyses, perfectionism emerged as a significant predictor, but strivings and concerns showed differential relationships. When the cross-sectional relationships were regarded, perfectionistic concerns positively predicted training distress (P  .05). The findings suggest that sports scientists who wish to identify athletes at risk of overtraining syndrome may monitor athletes' perfectionistic concerns as a possible risk factor.

  8. Endurance Training on Congenital Valvular Regurgitation: An Athlete Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Walter Jordan; Dean, Peter N; John, Anitha S; Gimple, Lawrence W; Mistry, Dilaawar J; Battle, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Both intense endurance training and valvular regurgitation place a volume load on the right and left ventricles, potentially leading to dilation, but their effects in combination are not well-known. The purpose of this case series is to describe the combined volume load of intense endurance athletic training and regurgitant valvular disease as well as the challenging assessment of each component's cardiovascular effect. In this article, the clinical course of three elite endurance athletes with congenital valvular disease were reviewed. A swimmer with aortic regurgitation, a cyclist with aortic regurgitation, and a cyclist with pulmonary regurgitation were found to have severe dilation of the associated ventricles despite continuing to train at an elite level without symptoms. Because of the cumulative effects of endurance training and valvular regurgitation, each athlete manifested ventricular dilation out of proportion to their valvular disease and symptoms. Although the effects of congenital valvular disease and athletic remodeling on ventricular dilation have been thoroughly studied individually, their cumulative effect is not well understood. This complicates the assessment of athletes with valvular regurgitation and underscores the need for athlete-specific recommendations for valve replacement.

  9. Sports Specialization and Intensive Training in Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Joel S

    2016-09-01

    Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical report "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Habitual Dietary Nitrate Intake in Highly Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Wardenaar, Floris C; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-04-01

    Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement among athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-hr dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2- to 4-week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature. These were then used to calculate each athlete's dietary nitrate intake from the web-based recalls. The median[IQR] habitual nitrate intake was 106[75-170] mg/d (range 19-525 mg/d). Nitrate intake correlated with energy intake (ρ = 0.28, p athletes (12.8[9.2-20.0] vs 9.4[6.2-13.8] mg/MJ; p athletes (150[88-236] vs 114[61-183] g/d; p athletes was 106 mg, with large interindividual variation. Dietary nitrate intake was strongly associated with the intake of vegetables. Increasing the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables in the diet might serve as an alternative strategy for nitrate supplementation.

  11. Factors of persistence among graduates of athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Dodge, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Previous researchers have indicated that athletic training education programs (ATEPs) appear to retain students who are motivated and well integrated into their education programs. However, no researchers have examined the factors leading to successful persistence to graduation of recent graduates from ATEPs. To determine the factors that led students enrolled in a postprofessional education program accredited by the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) to persist to graduation from accredited undergraduate ATEPs. Qualitative study. Postprofessional education program accredited by the NATA. Fourteen graduates (12 women, 2 men) of accredited undergraduate entry-level ATEPs who were enrolled in an NATA-accredited postprofessional education program volunteered to participate. We conducted semistructured interviews and analyzed data through a grounded theory approach. We used open, axial, and selective coding procedures. To ensure trustworthiness, 2 independent coders analyzed the data. The researchers then negotiated over the coding categories until they reached 100% agreement. We also performed member checks and peer debriefing. Four themes emerged from the data. Decisions to persist to graduation from ATEPs appeared to be influenced by students' positive interactions with faculty, clinical instructors, and peers. The environment of the ATEPs also affected their persistence. Participants thought they learned much in both the clinic and the classroom, and this learning motivated them to persist. Finally, participants could see themselves practicing athletic training as a career, and this greatly influenced their eventual persistence. Our study gives athletic training educators insight into the reasons students persist to graduation from ATEPs. Specifically, athletic training programs should strive to develop close-knit learning communities that stress positive interactions between students and instructors. Athletic training educators also must work to

  12. A Nationwide Learning-Style Assessment of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students in CAAHEP-Accredited Athletic Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradley, Stephanie L.; Buckley, Bernadette D.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Fleming, David; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify the learning styles and preferred environmental characteristics of undergraduate athletic training students in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education programs and to determine if learning-style differences existed among geographic regions of the country. Design and Setting: Fifty CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs were randomly selected in proportion to the number of programs in each geographic region. Ten students from each school were selected to complete the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS). Subjects: A total of 193 undergraduate athletic training students (84 men, 109 women) with a mean age of 22.3 ± 2.8 years completed the PEPS, while 188 students completed the LSI. Measurements: We used chi-square analyses to determine if differences existed in learning-style type and if these differences were based on geographic location. We calculated analysis of variance to determine if there were any geographic differences in the mean overall combination scores of the LSI. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the PEPS. Results: The overall return rate was 38%. The chi-square analyses revealed no significant difference in learning-style type for athletic training students, regardless of the geographic region. The LSI yielded a relatively even distribution of learning styles: 29.3% of the students were accommodators, 19.7% were divergers, 21.8% were convergers, and 29.3% were assimilators. The overall mean combination scores were 4.9 (abstract-concrete) and 4.9 (active-reflective), and analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in the mean combination scores among the geographic regions. The PEPS revealed that undergraduate athletic training students demonstrated a strong preference for learning in the afternoon. Conclusions: Undergraduate athletic training students demonstrated great

  13. Impact of physical deconditioning on ventricular tachyarrhythmias in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Alessandro; Maron, Barry J; Verdile, Luisa; Fernando, Fredrick; Spataro, Antonio; Marcello, Giuseppe; Ciardo, Roberto; Ammirati, Fabrizio; Colivicchi, Furio; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of athletic training and, in particular, physical deconditioning, on frequent and/or complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias assessed by 24-h ambulatory (Holter) electrocardiogram (ECG). Sudden deaths in athletes are usually mediated by ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Twenty-four hour ambulatory ECGs were recorded at peak training and after a deconditioning period of 19 +/- 6 weeks (range, 12 to 24 weeks) in a population of 70 trained athletes selected on the basis of frequent and/or complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias (i.e., > or =2,000 premature ventricular depolarization [PVD] and/or > or =1 burst of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia [NSVT]/24 h). A significant decrease in the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias was evident after deconditioning: PVDs/24 h: 10,611 +/- 10,078 to 2,165 +/- 4,877 (80% reduction; p deconditioning. In athletes with heart disease, the resolution of such arrhythmias with detraining may represent a mechanism by which risk for sudden death is reduced. Conversely, in athletes without cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and the absence of cardiac events in the follow-up support the benign clinical nature of these rhythm disturbances as another expression of athlete's heart.

  14. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  15. Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-11-01

    Many athletes, coaches, and support staff are taking an increasingly scientific approach to both designing and monitoring training programs. Appropriate load monitoring can aid in determining whether an athlete is adapting to a training program and in minimizing the risk of developing non-functional overreaching, illness, and/or injury. In order to gain an understanding of the training load and its effect on the athlete, a number of potential markers are available for use. However, very few of these markers have strong scientific evidence supporting their use, and there is yet to be a single, definitive marker described in the literature. Research has investigated a number of external load quantifying and monitoring tools, such as power output measuring devices, time-motion analysis, as well as internal load unit measures, including perception of effort, heart rate, blood lactate, and training impulse. Dissociation between external and internal load units may reveal the state of fatigue of an athlete. Other monitoring tools used by high-performance programs include heart rate recovery, neuromuscular function, biochemical/hormonal/immunological assessments, questionnaires and diaries, psychomotor speed, and sleep quality and quantity. The monitoring approach taken with athletes may depend on whether the athlete is engaging in individual or team sport activity; however, the importance of individualization of load monitoring cannot be over emphasized. Detecting meaningful changes with scientific and statistical approaches can provide confidence and certainty when implementing change. Appropriate monitoring of training load can provide important information to athletes and coaches; however, monitoring systems should be intuitive, provide efficient data analysis and interpretation, and enable efficient reporting of simple, yet scientifically valid, feedback.

  16. The level of medical services and secondary school-aged athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Terry L; Unruh, Scott A; Seshadri, Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Medical organizations have recommended that administrators, parents, and community leaders explore every opportunity to make interscholastic athletic programs safe for participation, including employing athletic trainers at practices and competitive events. To determine the overall level of medical services provided for secondary school-aged athletes at high school athletic events in a rural southern state, to evaluate the employment of athletic trainers in the provision of medical services in secondary schools, and to compare athletic training medical services provided at athletic events among schools of various sizes. Cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were sent to administrators at 199 secondary schools. A total of 144 administrators, including interscholastic athletic directors and school principals, from 199 secondary schools participated (72% response rate). Participants completed the Self-Appraisal Checklist for Health Supervision in Scholastic Athletic Programs from the American Academy of Pediatrics, which has been demonstrated to be valid and reliable. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to measure differences in groups. We found differences in cumulative scores when measuring between institutional classifications (P ≤ .05). Cumulative scores for the Event Coverage section of the instrument ranged from 80.5 to 109.6 out of a total possible score of 126. We also found differences in several factors identified in the Event Coverage section (P ≤ .05). The number of coaching staff certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation or first aid was minimal. Most schools did not have a plan for providing minimal emergency equipment, ice, or water for visiting teams. We found that 88% (n = 7) of the 8 essential Event Coverage components that the American Academy of Pediatrics deems important were not addressed by schools represented in our study.

  17. Predictor variables of addiction to training in Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years has been in Spain a very significant increase in people over 35 years practicing Athletics at federative level. The aim of this study is to know their addiction to training and relationships with different variables of this training and athletic history. Also, get a sufficiently robust predictive models by sex, taking their addiction to these variables. Valuable descriptive data and training habits and athletic history were obtained, and that the addiction in Spanish master athletes have average levels, with the pleasure and relaxation subscale (positive and desirable that obtains higher values, and abstinence and craving subscale (negative and undesirable which gets lower. Both correlations as in the regression analysis, only one variant has been analyzed to be related or be predictive of addiction or any of its subscales. Due to these results it is necessary to further investigate this population in future research about your addiction to training including psychological variables as predictors of it (motivation, perception and beliefs about the causes of success, intrinsic satisfaction, etc. to explainmore fully his addiction to training, especially in the case of men.

  18. EFFECT OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING ON BALANCE AMONG UNIVERSITY ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohansundar Sankaravel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proprioceptive deficiency followed by lateral ankle sprain leads to poor balance is not uncommon. It has been linked with increased injury risk among young athletes. Introducing neuromuscular training programs for this have been believed as one of the means of injury prevention. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the effects of six weeks progressive neuromuscular training (PNM Training on static balance gains among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains. Methods: This study was an experimental study design, with pre and post test method to determine the effects of PNM Training on static balance gains. All data were collected at university’s sports rehabilitation lab before and after six weeks of intervention period. There were 20 male and female volunteer young athletes (20.9 ± 0.85 years of age with a previous history of ankle sprain involving various sports were recruited from the University community. All the subjects were participated in a six week PNM Training that included stability, strength and power training. Outcome measures were collected by calculating the errors on balance error scoring system made by the athletes on static balance before and after the six weeks of intervention period. Static balance was tested in firm and foam surfaces and recorded accordingly. Results: The researchers found a significant decrease (2.40 ± 0.82 in total errors among the samples at the post test compared with their pre test (P >0.05. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that a PNM Training can improve the static balance on both the firm and foam surfaces among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains.

  19. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  20. Program Directors' Perceptions of Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Student Decisions to Persist and Depart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Wathington, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent literature has focused on reasons for athletic training student persistence and departure. However, accredited professional bachelor's athletic training program (ATP) directors' opinions regarding student retention have yet to be studied, to our knowledge. Objective: To determine reasons for athletic training student persistence…

  1. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PHIIT group compared to HICR group. A greater improvement of aerobic capacity was observed in HIIT group (8.8%) compared to the HICR group (1.7%). In relation to physical fitness, the HIIT group improved in the vertical jump while the HICR group did not change. Both the HIIT and HICR groups showed greater improvements in T-test and sit-ups during the intervention period. This study shows the effectiveness of eleven sessions of HIIT in producing significant improvements in anaerobic capacity relevant to successful Taekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  2. Internal training load: perception of volleyball coaches and athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Caetano de Andrade Nogueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p638 The aim of this study was to evaluate the correspondence between perceived internal load of volleyball players of different positions with perceived internal load planned by the coach, as well as to compare the perceptions of internal training load between different positions in volleyball. The sample was composed of 15 professional volleyball players who were members of a 2012/2013 team in the Brazilian first division league. The athletes answered the Borg CR-10 scale after training, while the coach answered before the training, as was planned for this study. Data analysis was performed Kappa (K, one-way and two-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc using the statistical packages SPSS 19.0 and Statistica 8.0. The results indicated that all positions showed good agreement with the perception of the coach and no significant differences in perceptions of internal training load. However, when analysing the percentage of athletes’ perceptions of intensity proposed by the coach, it was observed that athletes overestimate the sessions of easy training, while they underestimate the intensity of heavy training. The results indicate that there may be differences between the perceptions of coaches and athletes and reinforce the importance of adopting strategies for monitoring/control of daily training loads.

  3. Applying Brain-Based Learning Principles to Athletic Training Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present different concepts and techniques related to the application of brain-based learning principles to Athletic Training clinical education. Background: The body of knowledge concerning how our brains physically learn continues to grow. Brain-based learning principles, developed by numerous authors, offer advice on how to…

  4. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Mentorship in Clinical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Nottingham, Sara; Barrett, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Mentorship is a developmental process whereby a novice individual, as he/she becomes inducted into his/her area of expertise, is guided by a more experienced person. Speculation exists that years of experience can impact this relationship. Objective: To determine the impact mentoring can have on athletic training student development and…

  5. Designing Simulations for Athletic Training Students through Interprofessional Teaching Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…

  6. Injuries and training variables in Filipino judo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewski Reylin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to compare the incidence of injuries between male and female athletes in the junior and youth divisions during competition, as well as to identify body parts commonly injured and the types of injury frequently incurred; second, to assess overall incidence of injuries in relation to the frequency and duration of training as well as supplemental training.

  7. Financial Resources for Conducting Athletic Training Programs in the Collegiate and High School Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of resources to athletic training programs varies greatly, depending on the size and scope of the athletic program. No research has been found that assesses the differences in dollars allocated within various athletic training settings or assesses whether the different program levels allocate similar proportions of their resources to like categories of expenditures. In this study, I assessed the financial resources available to athletic training programs at major football NCA...

  8. Popularity of hypoxic training methods for endurance-based professional and amateur athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Herms, J; Julià-Sánchez, S; Hamlin, M J; Corbi, F; Pagès, T; Viscor, G

    2015-05-01

    Scientific debate continues into whether hypoxic training has any performance benefit for athletes, and although this type of training seems popular, to our knowledge little empirical evidence on its popularity with endurance-based athletes exists. To quantify the usage of hypoxic training in endurance-based athletes we asked 203 athletes (amateur = 108, professional = 95) to complete a 17-question survey during 2013-2014 season. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes were 4.5 times (3.0-6.8, odds ratio, 95% confidence limits) more likely to undertake hypoxic training. Live-high train-low was the most popular hypoxic training protocol for athletes (52% professional and 80% amateur) with live-high train-high also used (38% professional, 20% amateur). Compared to amateurs, professional athletes tended to use evidence-based hypoxic training methods, seek advice on hypoxic training from reliable sources and were generally more realistic about the potential performance gains as a result of hypoxic training. Almost one third (25-30%) of all athletes suffered illness during their hypoxic training. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes are more likely to undertake hypoxic training and tend to follow current scientific guidelines. Attenuation of the ill effects that occur during hypoxic training may be accomplished if athletes give more attention to monitoring stress and training levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Program directors' perceptions of undergraduate athletic training student retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Hertel, Jay; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dodge, Thomas M; Wathington, Heather D

    2015-02-01

    The average retention rate for students enrolled in undergraduate athletic training programs (ATPs) nationwide has been reported to be 81%, and slightly more than half of program directors (PDs) have indicated that retention of athletic training students (ATSs) is a problem. However, why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic is unknown. To determine why PDs do or do not believe ATS retention is problematic. Qualitative study. Undergraduate ATPs. We obtained responses from 177 of the 343 PDs (51.6%). Using data saturation as a guide, we randomly selected 16 PDs from the survey responses to participate in follow-up telephone interviews; 8 believed retention was a problem and 8 did not. During audio-recorded telephone interviews, we asked PDs why they thought retention was or was not a problem for athletic training education. Following verbatim transcription, we used grounded theory to analyze the interview data and maintained trustworthiness by using intercoder agreement, member checks, and peer review. Program directors believed that retaining ATSs was a problem because students lack information regarding athletic training and the rigor of the ATP. Program directors were consistent in their perception that ATPs do not have a retention challenge because of the use of a secondary admissions process. This finding was likely based on personal use of a secondary admissions process in the ATPs these PDs lead. Program directors who lead ATPs that struggle to retain ATSs should consider using a secondary admissions process. During the preprofessional phase of the ATP, faculty and staff should work to socialize students to the demands of the ATP and the professional lives of athletic trainers.

  10. Organizational Infrastructure in the Collegiate Athletic Training Setting, Part II: Benefits of and Barriers in the Athletics Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2017-01-01

     The athletics model, in which athletic training clinical programs are part of the athletics department, is the predominant model in the collegiate athletic training setting. Little is known about athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of this model, particularly as it relates to organizational hierarchy.  To explore the perceived benefits of and barriers in the athletics model.  Qualitative study.  National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III.  Eight full-time ATs (5 men, 3 women; age = 41 ± 13 years, time employed at the current institution = 14 ± 14 years, experience as a certified AT = 18 ± 13 years) working in the collegiate setting using the athletics model.  We conducted semistructured interviews via telephone or in person and used a general inductive approach to analyze the qualitative data. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review established trustworthiness.  Two benefits and 3 barriers emerged from the data. Role identity emerged as a benefit that occurred with role clarity, validation, and acceptance of the collegiate AT personality. Role congruence emerged as a benefit of the athletics model that occurred with 2 lower-order themes: relationship building and physician alignment and support. Role strain, staffing concerns, and work-life conflict emerged as barriers in the athletics model. Role strain occurred with 2 primary lower-order themes: role incongruity and role conflict.  The athletics model is the most common infrastructure for employing ATs in collegiate athletics. Participants expressed positive experiences via character identity, support, trust relationships, and longevity. However, common barriers remain. To reduce role strain, misaligning values, and work-life conflict, ATs working in the athletics model are encouraged to evaluate their relationships with coaches and their supervisor and consider team physician alignment. Moreover, measures to increase quality athletic training staff from a care

  11. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  12. Critical-Thinking Skills of First-Year Athletic Training Students Enrolled in Professional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dana K.; Sikkema, Jill A.; Nynas, Suzette M.; Culp, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    Context: The Examination of Professional Degree Level document presented to the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Directors states that research in athletic training education has not investigated differences in the critical-thinking skills of professional athletic training students. Objective: Investigate the differences in…

  13. Programmatic Factors Associated with Undergraduate Athletic Training Student Retention and Attrition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training programs (ATPs) are charged with meeting an increased demand for athletic trainers with adequate graduates. Currently, the retention rate of athletic training students in ATPs nationwide and the programmatic factors associated with these retention rates remain unknown. Objective: Determine the retention rate for athletic…

  14. Role of Clinical Education Experiences on Athletic Training Students' Development of Professional Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Limited evidence exists on the role clinical education can play in the development of athletic training student commitment for the profession. Objective: Investigating the role clinical education experiences play on the development of passion for athletic training. Design: Exploratory qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training…

  15. Balance Training Programs in Athletes – a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachman, Anna; Kamieniarz, Anna; Michalska, Justyna; Pawłowski, Michał; Słomka, Kajetan J.; Juras, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract It has become almost routine practice to incorporate balance exercises into training programs for athletes from different sports. However, the type of training that is most efficient remains unclear, as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise that would be most beneficial have not yet been determined. The following review is based on papers that were found through computerized searches of PubMed and SportDiscus from 2000 to 2016. Articles related to balance training, testing, and injury prevention in young healthy athletes were considered. Based on a Boolean search strategy the independent researchers performed a literature review. A total of 2395 articles were evaluated, yet only 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. In most of the reviewed articles, balance training has proven to be an effective tool for the improvement of postural control. It is difficult to establish one model of training that would be appropriate for each sport discipline, including its characteristics and demands. The main aim of this review was to identify a training protocol based on most commonly used interventions that led to improvements in balance. Our choice was specifically established on the assessment of the effects of balance training on postural control and injury prevention as well as balance training methods. The analyses including papers in which training protocols demonstrated positive effects on balance performance suggest that an efficient training protocol should last for 8 weeks, with a frequency of two training sessions per week, and a single training session of 45 min. This standard was established based on 36 reviewed studies. PMID:28828077

  16. Balance Training Programs in Athletes – A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brachman Anna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost routine practice to incorporate balance exercises into training programs for athletes from different sports. However, the type of training that is most efficient remains unclear, as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise that would be most beneficial have not yet been determined. The following review is based on papers that were found through computerized searches of PubMed and SportDiscus from 2000 to 2016. Articles related to balance training, testing, and injury prevention in young healthy athletes were considered. Based on a Boolean search strategy the independent researchers performed a literature review. A total of 2395 articles were evaluated, yet only 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. In most of the reviewed articles, balance training has proven to be an effective tool for the improvement of postural control. It is difficult to establish one model of training that would be appropriate for each sport discipline, including its characteristics and demands. The main aim of this review was to identify a training protocol based on most commonly used interventions that led to improvements in balance. Our choice was specifically established on the assessment of the effects of balance training on postural control and injury prevention as well as balance training methods. The analyses including papers in which training protocols demonstrated positive effects on balance performance suggest that an efficient training protocol should last for 8 weeks, with a frequency of two training sessions per week, and a single training session of 45 min. This standard was established based on 36 reviewed studies.

  17. Alcohol Consumption Behaviors Among Athletic Training Students at Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association

    OpenAIRE

    Unruh, Scott; Long, Doug; Rudy, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Context: Alcohol consumption among college students has been evaluated at many levels, but assessment of alcohol consumption among collegiate athletic training students has not been substantially reviewed. Understanding the alcohol use of this college-age group adds to the overall literature on alcohol consumption of the college student population.

  18. BACKWARD WALKING TRAINING IMPROVES KNEE PROPRIOCEPTION IN NON ATHLETIC MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Gaid Sedhom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Walking is a popular, convenient, and relatively safe form of exercise. Humans generally learn walking in forward direction with little difficulty, while walking in backward direction is necessary for normal activities of daily living and accommodates the body with different tasks. This study was conducted to compare between forward and backward walking training on peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles and their effect on knee proprioception. Methods: Forty non athlet...

  19. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Sport Psychology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Martin, Scott B; Wrisberg, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Quantitative study. A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes.

  20. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Sport Psychology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Martin, Scott B.; Wrisberg, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are responsible for integrating relevant professionals into the rehabilitation team to assist with the holistic care of injured athletes. Objective:  To explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (DI) ATs' experience with sport psychology consultants (SPCs), willingness to encourage athletes to use SPCs for injury rehabilitation, and perceptions of the benefits of sport psychology services. Design:  Quantitative study. Setting:  A Web-based survey was administered to a national sample of DI ATs. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 659 (341 men, 318 women) ATs completed the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Athletic trainers' experience with SPCs, willingness to encourage athletes to seek sport psychology services, and perceptions of the benefits of those services in injury-rehabilitation settings were self-reported using a rating scale that ranged from 1 (never or not at all) to 5 (definitely or extremely). Results:  Logistic regression revealed that the availability of SPCs, previous encouragement to athletes to seek sport psychology services, and previous positive interactions with SPCs predicted the ATs' willingness to encourage athletes to use these services (P psychology services might call on SPCs to complement their work with injured athletes. PMID:27159188

  1. Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael

    . The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes......Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...

  2. Development of an Evidence-Based Sport Psychological Training Program for Young Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael

    Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well....... The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...

  3. Methods and Descriptive Epidemiology of Services Provided by Athletic Trainers in High Schools: The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Dalton, Sara L.; Miller, Sayers John; Hayden, Ross; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Context Research is limited on the extent and nature of the care provided by athletic trainers (ATs) to student-athletes in the high school setting. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) project and provide the descriptive epidemiology of AT services for injury care in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Athletic training room (ATR) visits and AT services data collected in 147 high schools from 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011−2012 through 2013−2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) The number of ATR visits and individual AT services, as well as the mean number of ATR visits (per injury) and AT services (per injury and ATR visit) were calculated by sport and for time-loss (TL) and non–time-loss (NTL) injuries. Results Over the 3-year period, 210 773 ATR visits and 557 381 AT services were reported for 50 604 injuries. Most ATR visits (70%) were for NTL injuries. Common AT services were therapeutic activities or exercise (45.4%), modalities (18.6%), and AT evaluation and reevaluation (15.9%), with an average of 4.17 ± 6.52 ATR visits and 11.01 ± 22.86 AT services per injury. Compared with NTL injuries, patients with TL injuries accrued more ATR visits (7.76 versus 3.47; P school student-athletes and demonstrate that patients with NTL injuries require substantial amounts of AT services. PMID:26678290

  4. Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Influences on Career Decisions After Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri E.; Pitney, William A.; Casa, Douglas J.; Burton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Context Career opportunities for athletic training students (ATSs) have increased substantially over the past few years. However, ATSs commonly appear to be opting for a more diversified professional experience after graduation. With the diversity in available options, an understanding of career decision is imperative. Objective To use the theoretical framework of socialization to investigate the influential factors behind the postgraduation decisions of senior ATSs. Design Qualitative study. Setting Web-based management system and telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-two ATSs (16 females, 6 males; age = 22 ± 2 years) who graduated in May 2010 from 13 different programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Data Collection and Analysis All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed inductively. Data analysis required independent coding by 2 athletic trainers for specific themes. Credibility of the results was confirmed via peer review, methodologic triangulation, and multiple analyst triangulation. Results Two higher-order themes emerged from the data analysis: persistence in athletic training (AT) and decision to leave AT. Faculty and clinical instructor support, marketability, and professional growth were supporting themes describing persistence in AT. Shift of interest away from AT, lack of respect for the AT profession, compensation, time commitment, and AT as a stepping stone were themes sustaining the reasons that ATSs leave AT. The aforementioned reasons to leave often were discussed collectively, generating a collective undesirable outlook on the AT profession. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of faculty support, professional growth, and early socialization into AT. Socialization of pre–AT students could alter retention rates by providing in-depth information about the profession before students commit in their undergraduate education and by helping

  5. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs eGranacher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD, resistance training (RT is an important means for (i stimulating athletic development, (ii tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age.Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research.In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females, (ii to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters, and (iii to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.

  7. The national sports safety in secondary schools benchmark (N4SB) study: defining athletic training practice characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Lam, Kenneth C; Bay, R Curtis; Valier, Alison R Snyder; Parsons, John T

    2013-01-01

    Increased rates of sport participation and sport-related injury have led to greater emphasis on and attention to medical care of student-athletes in the secondary school setting. Access to athletic training services is seen as a critical factor for delivering adequate injury prevention and medical care to student-athletes. However, few data are available regarding practice characteristics of athletic trainers (ATs) in this setting. To characterize the practices of secondary school athletic trainers (ATs). Descriptive study. Web-based survey. A total of 17 558 ATs with current National Athletic Trainers' Association membership were identified for survey distribution. Of these, 4232 ATs indicated that they practiced in the secondary school setting, and 4045 completed some part of the survey. A Web-based survey was used to obtain demographic information about ATs and their secondary schools and characteristics of athletic training practice. Descriptive data regarding the athletic trainer's personal characteristics, secondary school characteristics, and practice patterns are reported as percentages and frequencies. Most respondents were in the early stages of their careers and relatively new to the secondary school practice setting. Nearly two-thirds (62.4%; n = 2522) of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience as secondary school ATs, 52% (n = 2132) had been certified for 10 or fewer years, and 53.4% (n = 2164) had 10 or fewer years of experience in any practice setting. The majority of respondents (85%) worked in public schools with enrollment of 1000 to 1999 (35.5%) and with football (95.5%). More than half of respondents were employed directly by their school. Most respondents (50.6%) reported an athletic training budget of less than $4000. The majority of ATs performed evaluations (87.5%) on-site all of the time, with a smaller percentage providing treatments (73.3%) or rehabilitation (47.4%) services all of the time. This is the first study to describe

  8. Science and Practice of Coaching a Strength Training Program for Novice and Intermediate-Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Addresses various aspects of the athletic coaching process in strength training, including: teaching and coaching exercises to novice and intermediate level athletes (typical high school and younger college aged athletes); technical analysis and modification of student technique; student motivation; goal setting; reinforcement; and the overall…

  9. Design and Systematic Evaluation of the Freshman Athlete Scholastic Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, M. K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Developed and systematically evaluated a prototype set of procedures called the Freshman Athlete Scholastic Training (FAST) program. Describes the design of this applied program and evaluates its efficacy in improving the academic performance of freshman student athletes, male and female, from a variety of athletic programs. The FAST program…

  10. Features of the technical training athletes with hearing impaired in various sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurtyk D.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It was analysed scientific-methodical and specialized literature on adaptive sports: table tennis, basketball, judo, skiing. It is conducted interviews with leading coaches working in the Deaflympic sport. Monitor the training process of elite athletes with hearing impairments, specializing in ski racing. Found that for technical training of athletes use the principle of learning the exercises and improvement from simple to complex with the rote. It was shown the necessity of attracting able-bodied athletes in the training process deflimpiytsev to optimize their technical training. The data obtained allow us to determine the direction of improving the technical skills of this category of athletes.

  11. FLUID BALANCE DURING TRAINING IN ELITE YOUNG ATHLETES OF DIFFERENT SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes which start exercise in sub-optimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite men athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2±1.3 ...

  12. Athletes' use of exercise imagery during weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Michael S; Short, Sandra E; Ross-Stewart, Lindsay C

    2007-11-01

    Imagery is a cognitive process during which people use their minds to create (or recreate) experiences that are similar to real-life situations. This study examined how college athletes used imagery during weight training. Subjects were 295 Division I (n = 163) and Division II (n = 132) college student athletes (men: n = 138, women: n = 157) who participated in a weight training program as a requirement of their sport. They completed a slightly modified version of the "Weight Lifting Imagery Questionnaire." Results showed that appearance imagery (i.e., images related to the attainment of a fit-looking body) was used and considered the most effective followed by technique imagery (i.e., images related to performing the skill and techniques correctly with good form) and energy imagery (i.e., images related to getting "psyched up" or feeling energized). Other variables that effected imagery use were gender, age, time of season, and levels of motivation. In addition, gender, previous imagery training, and level of motivation had an effect on the perceptions of imagery effectiveness. Confidence in the ability to image was associated with both imagery use and effectiveness, and imagery use and effectiveness were associated with confidence in the weight room. The findings support previous research in exercise imagery that appearance imagery is most used followed by technique and energy imagery and extend them in such a way that strength coaches have practical advice on how to use imagery in a positive way with their athletes. Suggestions about how strength coaches can use imagery with their clients are provided.

  13. Application of serum CK and BUN determination in monitoring pre-competition training of badminton athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun

    2007-02-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of serum creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in monitoring pre-competition training of badminton athletes, the pre-competition training load of 20 badminton athletes was studied, and serum CK and BUN were determined before, immediate and next morning after training. The results showed that after intensive training for one week, serum CK levels were significantly increased by 57.53 mmol/L (P0.05). After intermittent training, there was significant difference in the average increased levels of serum CK in athletes (P0.05). It was concluded that serum CK was one of the biochemical indicators monitoring the training load sensitivity of badminton athletes, but BUN was of little value in monitoring the training load. Both serum CK and BUN recovered slowly after one-week intensive training and intermittent training, suggesting the metabolic mechanism of human body in training needs further study.

  14. Choosing a career in athletic training: exploring the perceptions of potential recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, James; Mitchell, Murray

    2008-01-01

    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. Therefore, understanding potential recruits' perceptions of athletic training is important. To (1) gain insight regarding undergraduate students' decisions to enter or not enter an athletic training education program (ATEP), and (2) examine potential athletic training recruits' perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of certified athletic trainers. We used a descriptive study employing a grounded theory approach to explore perceptions of the athletic training profession by college students with various levels of interest in athletic training. Athletic training education program from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I research-intensive university. Forty-six undergraduate students (23 interested in applying to an ATEP and 23 who were aware of but not interested in applying to an ATEP). Data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer-debriefing techniques were used to ensure trustworthiness of the study. Three contributing factors appeared to influence the recruitment of students to a career in athletic training: (1) a strong affiliation to a sports/team model, (2) initial exposure at the high school level, and (3) an incomplete understanding of athletic training. Awareness of how students are recruited into ATEPs is important information for our profession. Educators and administrators must create a comprehensive recruitment strategy using factors that influence potential recruits' decisions to enter the athletic training profession, specifically their association with sports and their experiences during high school.

  15. Epidemiologic comparison of injured high school basketball athletes reporting to emergency departments and the athletic training setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 (95% confidence interval = 1,337,441, 1,692,474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 (95% confidence interval = 1,055,482, 1,073,620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values basketball players presenting for treatment in the emergency department and the athletic training setting. Understanding differences specific to clinical settings is crucial to grasping the full epidemiologic and clinical picture of sport-related injuries. Certified athletic trainers play an important role in identifying, assessing, and treating athletes with sport-related injuries who might otherwise present to clinical settings with higher costs, such as the emergency department.

  16. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, PL; Poulos, RG

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo. PMID:26424924

  17. Athletic Trainer Services in US Private Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. Objective: To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Design: Concurrent mixed-methods study. Setting: Private secondary schools in the United States. Patients or Other Participants: Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. Main Outcome Measure(s): School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Results: Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. Conclusions: More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting. PMID

  18. Athletic Trainer Services in US Private Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Concurrent mixed-methods study. Private secondary schools in the United States. Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting.

  19. Athletic Training Student Core Competency Implementation During Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L

    2018-02-08

      Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience.   To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution.   We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated.   Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track Pes, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE.   Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site

  20. The endocrine response to exercise and training in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    The manuscript "Plasma Somatomedin-C in 8- to 10-Year-Old Swimmers" by Denison and Ben-Ezra published in the first issue of Pediatric Exercise Science in 1989 was among the first to address the relationship between growth, the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, and exercise. Since their pioneering article, this topic has become of great interest to pediatricians and pediatric exercise researchers, and today our understanding of the effects of exercise training on the growth axis during childhood and puberty, on differences between systemic and local (i.e., muscle) responses to exercise, and our ability to use these responses to assist the adolescent competitive athlete in the evaluation of the training load have markedly improved. The aim of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge on this topic.

  1. The Role and Load of the Athletic Training Clinical Education Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Context: The position of clinical education coordinator has been identified as a required one in athletic training education. However, the literature has yet to address the job responsibilities of clinical education coordinators and the commensurate work load/release time needed to accomplish these responsibilities in athletic training education.…

  2. Professional Master's Athletic Training Programs Use Clinical Education to Facilitate Transition to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students' ability to transition into professional practice is a critical component for the future of the profession. However, research on professional master's students' transition to practice and readiness to provide autonomous care is lacking. Objective: To determine professional master's athletic training students'…

  3. Preferred Learning Styles of Professional Undergraduate and Graduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Sarah; Hansen, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Context: Recognizing the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students will equip educators to more effectively improve their teaching methods and optimize student learning. Objective: To determine the preferred learning style of professional undergraduate and graduate athletic training students…

  4. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10)...

  5. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  6. A Mandala: A Diagram of the Clinical Education Experience in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernohous, Steve; West, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the practical use of a Mandala that: 1) provides opportunities for athletic training students to explore, reflect on and appreciate their clinical experiences; 2) provides educators with a model to understand and value athletic training student experiences; 3) organizes and captures factors and…

  7. Program Directors' Perceptions of Reasons Professional Master's Athletic Training Students Persist and Depart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Student retention is a key issue in higher education. With the increasing number of professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs), understanding student retention is necessary to maintain viable programs. Objective: Explore program directors' perceptions of the reasons athletic training students persist and depart from PM…

  8. Peer Assessment of Clinical Skills and Professional Behaviors among Undergraduate Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jeanine E.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Peer assessment is widely used in medical education as a formative evaluation and preparatory tool for students. Athletic training students learn similar knowledge, skills, and affective traits as medical students. Peer assessment has been widely studied with beneficial results in medical education, yet athletic training education has…

  9. Evaluating Perceptions of Culminating Clinical Education Experiences of Senior Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Patricia A.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The perceptions of athletic training students (ATSs) regarding their clinical education experiences are not fully understood. It is important to investigate ATS perceptions of clinical education to allow athletic training educators to provide educational experiences that will maximize learning. Objective: To determine what ATSs value…

  10. Defining the Engaging Learning Experience from the Athletic Training Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Benes, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical experiences are an integral part of athletic training education and are where students gain the hands-on, practical knowledge and skills necessary to provide quality patient care in the field. However, some clinical education experiences may not allow athletic training students to become clinically integrated. Objective: To…

  11. Program Directors' Perceptions of Programmatic Attributes Contributing to Athletic Training Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Graduates of athletic training programs (ATPs) have identified factors contributing to their persistence through professional education. However, program directors have yet to elaborate on programmatic attributes that might contribute to athletic training student retention in their respective ATPs. Objective: To determine program…

  12. Who Should Mentor Me? Giving a Voice to Black Women Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…

  13. Adaptation of heart to training: A comparative study using echocardiography & impedance cardiography in male & female athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Dilek Cicek; Buyukakilli, Belgin; Gurgul, Serkan; Rencuzogullari, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Intensive regular physical exercise training is associated with a physiological changes in left ventricular (LV) morphology and functions. This cardiac remodeling observed in the athletes is associated with the specific haemodynamic requirements of the exercise undertaken. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of endurance training on cardiac morphology, systolic and diastolic LV functions and haemodynamic parameters both in male and female athletes. Methods: Seventy nine healthy athletes (age 20.0 ± 2.6 yr; 49% male) and 82 healthy sedentary adolescent (age 20.8 ± 2.2 yr, 49% male) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography and impedance cardiography. Results: Both female and male athletes had greater LV end-diastolic cavity sizes, LV mass and stroke volume (SV) values when compared with controls. Also, in male athletes, LV mass index was higher than in female athletes. While male athletes had lower resting heart rate compared to female athletes, they had higher mean arterial blood pressure. In male athletes, basal septal and mid septal strain values were higher compared to controls. There were no significant differences in strain and peak systolic strain rate values between female athletes and controls. In male athletes, there was a weak positive correlation between SV and LV mass, basal lateral and septal strain values. In female athletes, only a weak positive correlation was found between SV and basal septal strain values. Interpretation & conclusions: Endurance-trained male and female athletes had higher LV mass, LV cavity dimensions and SV compared to sedentary controls. Although there was no difference in diastolic cardiac functions between athletes and controls, local enhanced systolic function was found with increase of SV. Both morphologic and haemodynamic differences were more evident in male athletes. PMID:23852292

  14. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

    2010-03-01

    level, the 'live high-train low' model of altitude training can help athletes in endurance events to maximize performance.

  15. Physiological characteristics of well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thiago Oliveira; Dascombe, Ben; Bullock, Nicola; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to profile the physiological characteristics of junior sprint kayak athletes (n=21, VO2max 4.1±0.7 L/min, training experience 2.7±1.2 y) and to establish the relationship between physiological variables (VO2max, VO2 kinetics, muscle-oxygen kinetics, paddling efficiency) and sprint kayak performance. VO2max, power at VO2max, power:weight ratio, paddling efficiency, VO2 at lactate threshold, and whole-body and muscle oxygen kinetics were determined on a kayak ergometer in the laboratory. Separately, on-water time trials (TT) were completed over 200 m and 1000 m. Large to nearly perfect (-.5 to -.9) inverse relationships were found between the physiological variables and on-water TT performance across both distances. Paddling efficiency and lactate threshold shared moderate to very large correlations (-.4 to -.7) with 200- and 1000-m performance. In addition, trivial to large correlations (-.11 to -.5) were observed between muscle-oxygenation parameters, muscle and whole-body oxygen kinetics, and performance. Multiple regression showed that 88% of the unadjusted variance for the 200-m TT performance was explained by VO2max, peripheral muscle deoxygenation, and maximal aerobic power (Pkayak athletes possess a high level of relative aerobic fitness and highlight the importance of the peripheral muscle metabolism for sprint kayak performance, particularly in 200-m races, where finalists and nonfinalists are separated by very small margins. Such data highlight the relative aerobic-fitness variables that can be used as benchmarks for talent-identification programs or monitoring longitudinal athlete development. However, such approaches need further investigation.

  16. National collegiate athletic association division and primary job title of athletic trainers and their job satisfaction or intention to leave athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Aaron B; Henning, Jolene M

    2011-01-01

    Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Cross-sectional study. A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. We used separate 3 x 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F(2182) = 7.82, P = .001 ) and Operating Conditions (F(2,182) = 12.01, P job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction.

  17. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division and Primary Job Title of Athletic Trainers and Their Job Satisfaction or Intention to Leave Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Aaron B.; Henning, Jolene M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Membership in the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) has declined in recent years, generating much debate about professional commitment. Objective: To compare the contributing factors of job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training of certified athletic trainers (ATs) employed in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A link to a Web-based questionnaire containing the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and an original Intention to Leave Survey (ITLS) was distributed by e-mail to 1003 certified members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 191 certified members of the NATA employed in a college or university setting in a primarily clinical capacity; representing all NCAA divisions; and having the job title of head athletic trainer, associate/assistant athletic trainer, or graduate assistant/intern athletic trainer. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used separate 3 × 3 factorial analyses of variance to compare the mean scores of each JSS subscale and of the ITLS with NCAA division and job title. A stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the strength of the relationships between the JSS subscales and the ITLS. Results: We found differences for job title in the subscales of Fringe Benefits (F2,182 = 7.82, P = .001) and Operating Conditions (F2,182 = 12.01, P job satisfaction and intention to leave athletic training. The NCAA division seemed to have no effect on an individual's job satisfaction or intention to leave the profession. In addition, only Fringe Benefits and Operating Conditions seemed to be affected by job title. The ATs had similar levels of job satisfaction regardless of NCAA division, and their job titles were not a major factor in job satisfaction. PMID:21669102

  18. BACKWARD WALKING TRAINING IMPROVES KNEE PROPRIOCEPTION IN NON ATHLETIC MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Gaid Sedhom

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Walking is a popular, convenient, and relatively safe form of exercise. Humans generally learn walking in forward direction with little difficulty, while walking in backward direction is necessary for normal activities of daily living and accommodates the body with different tasks. This study was conducted to compare between forward and backward walking training on peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles and their effect on knee proprioception. Methods: Forty non athletic males, with mean age (21.87±1.76 years participated in this study, and were classified into two equal groups. Group (A walked forward on treadmill while group (B walked backward three times/week for a total six weeks. They were assessed by using Biodex system 3 to measure the concentric peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles at angular velocities 60 and 180°/sec and the knee joint proprioception. The assessment was done twice for every subject (pre-study and after six weeks of gait training. Results: t-test revealed statistical significant increase in peak torque of Quadriceps and Hamstrings muscles in both groups after training at 60 and 180°/sec (p-value < 0.05. There was statistical significant improvement in knee proprioception in group B only p-value was (0.000. Conclusion: Both forward backward walking training improving the peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, while backward walking is better in improving knee proprioception accuracy.

  19. Athletic Trainer Services in Public and Private Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alicia M; Pryor, Riana R; Vandermark, Lesley W; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-01-01

     The presence of athletic trainers (ATs) in secondary schools to provide medical care is crucial, especially with the rise in sports participation and resulting high volume of injuries. Previous authors have investigated the level of AT services offered, but the differences in medical care offered between the public and private sectors have not been explored.  To compare the level of AT services in public and private secondary schools.  Concurrent mixed-methods study.  Public and private secondary schools in the United States.  A total of 10 553 secondary schools responded to the survey (8509 public, 2044 private).  School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. Descriptive statistics depict national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis.  A greater percentage of public secondary schools than private secondary schools hired ATs. Public secondary schools provided a higher percentage of full-time, part-time, and clinic AT services than private secondary schools. Only per diem AT services were more frequent in the private sector. Regardless of the extent of services, reasons for not employing an AT were similar between sectors. Common barriers were budget, school size, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. Unique to the public sector, remote location was identified as a challenge faced by some administrators.  Both public and private secondary schools lacked ATs, but higher percentages of total AT services and full-time services were available in the public sector. Despite differences in AT services, both settings provided a similar number of student-athletes with access to medical care. Barriers to hiring ATs were comparable between public and private secondary schools; however, remote location was a unique challenge for the public sector.

  20. Respiratory muscle endurance after training in athletes and non-athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Ana Tereza do N; Fregonezi, Guilherme A de F; Ramsook, Andrew H; Guenette, Jordan A; Lima, Illia Nadinne D F; Reid, W Darlene

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory muscle endurance (RME) and to determine the RME test that demonstrates the most consistent changes after RMT. Electronic searches were conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE CENTRAL, CINHAL and SPORTDiscus. The PEDro scale was used for quality assessment and meta-analysis were performed to compare effect sizes of different RME tests. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Isocapnic hyperpnea training was performed in 40% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed that RMT improves RME in athletes (P = 0.0007) and non-athletes (P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed differences among tests; maximal sustainable ventilatory capacity (MSVC) and maximal sustainable threshold loading tests demonstrated significant improvement after RMT (P = 0.007; P = 0.003 respectively) compared to the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) (P = 0.11) in athletes whereas significant improvement after RMT was only shown by MSVC in non-athletes. The effect size of MSVC was greater compared to MVV in studies that performed both tests. The meta-analysis results provide evidence that RMT improves RME in athletes and non-athletes and MSVC test that examine endurance over several minutes are more sensitive to improvement after RMT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical components of neuromuscular training to reduce ACL injury risk in female athletes: meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Barber Foss, Kim D; Pepin, Michael J; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine key components in neuromuscular training that optimise ACL injury reduction in female athletes using meta-regression analyses. Systematic review and meta-regression. The literature search was performed in PubMed and EBSCO. Inclusion criteria for the current analysis were: (1) documented the number of ACL injuries, (2) employed a neuromuscular training intervention that aimed to reduce ACL injuries, (3) had a comparison group, (4) used a prospective control study design and (5) recruited female athletes as participants. Two independent reviewers extracted studies which met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of included study and strength of recommendation were evaluated. Number of ACL injuries and participants in control and intervention groups, age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and status of verbal feedback were extracted. The meta-regression analyses identified age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback as significant predictors of ACL injury reduction (p=0.01 in fixed-effects model, p=0.03 in random-effects model). Inclusion of 1 of the 4 components in neuromuscular training could reduce ACL injury risk by 17.2-17.7% in female athletes. No significant heterogeneity and publication bias effects were detected. Strength of recommendation was rated as A (recommendation based on consistent and good-quality patient-oriented study evidence). Age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback are predictors that influence the optimisation of prophylactic effects of neuromuscular training and the resultant ACL injury reduction in female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Training the child athlete: physical fitness, health and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cordelia W; Micheli, Lyle J

    2011-09-01

    The number of children and adolescents participating in organised athletic activities worldwide is increasing. However, physical fitness levels among youth are lower today than in previous decades. The combination of increased exposure and decreased preparedness for sports participation has led to an epidemic of both acute and chronic sports-related injuries in this population. Poor physical fitness, in addition to having negative health consequences, seems to be a risk factor for sports-related injury. Accurate injury surveillance data are required to better define the magnitude of the problem of injury in youth sports, as well as to identify specific risk factors for injury. From these data, targeted intervention strategies incorporating fitness training may be developed with the goal of preventing sports-related injury. Preliminary experience with several specific injury patterns--anterior cruciate ligament injuries and ankle sprains--has demonstrated the efficacy of such targeted prevention strategies.

  3. Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Lubiński, Wojciech; Lesiakowski, Piotr; Steciuk, Hanna; Piasecki, Leszek; Krzepota, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 11 young female volleyball players who participated in extensive training for 2 years. The control group consisted of 7 age-matched female students who were not involved in any regular sports activity. Recordings of VEPs were performed twice: baseline recording (i.e., before training began) and after 2 years of systematic, volleyball-specific athletic training. The effect of athletic training on visual signal conductivity was assessed by recording the latency of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEPs waveform. Extensive experience with volleyball training reduced signal conductivity time through visual pathway. Specifically, the latency of P100 was reduced on average by 2.2 ms during binocular viewing. Moreover, athletes had reduced N75 latency (difference of 3.3 ms) for visual stimuli that generated greater response from peripheral retina. These results indicate that sport training can affect very early sensory processing in athletes.

  4. Leadership behaviors of athletic training leaders compared with leaders in other fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A

    2007-01-01

    Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Cross-sectional study. Respondents' academic institutions. A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs.

  5. Challenges of Tirunesh Dibaba National Athletics Training Center ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a method of data gathering tools in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and observation were employed. Taken together, of 12 trainee athletes 9 were interviewed, focus group discussion, and observation were employed. Taken together, of 12 trainee athletes, 9 were interviewed, and 3 athletes those who have not ...

  6. Weekly training hours are associated with molecular and cellular body composition levels in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiterio, A L; Carnero, E A; Silva, A M; Baptista, F; Sardinha, L B

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to explore associations between hours per week of sports training and molecular and cellular body composition components in adolescent athletes. A total of 33 female athletes (13.3+/-3.5 years; 47.8+/-12.6 kg; 154+/-14.0 cm) and 90 male athletes (14.1+/-2.7 years; 60.6+/-17.8 kg; 167+/-16.2 cm) were measured. Based on the total of hours per week of training, athletes were divided into tertiles: body fat (BF), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Total body water (TBW), intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) were assessed using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). Extracellular fluids (ECF), solids (ECS), body cell mass (BCM) and body fluid distribution (E/I) were calculated. Total hours per week of sports training (h/week), habitual physical activity (PA) and dietary were assessed by questionnaire. Statistics included analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and simple regression analyses. Athletes training 9 h/week presented greater levels of TBW, lean, bone mass, BCM, and ECF and a lower %BF, independently of confounders. No significant differences in body composition estimates were found between athletes training fat free components, only in the group exercising 9 h/week In this group of Portuguese athletes from different sports we observed that training 9 h/week significantly improved body composition, especially fat free components, which may be important for a healthy growth and sports performance.

  7. Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-03-29

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [pcore stability training improves landing kinetics without improving jump height, and may reduce lower extremity injury risk in female athletes.

  8. What is best practice for training intensity and duration distribution in endurance athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Successful endurance training involves the manipulation of training intensity, duration, and frequency, with the implicit goals of maximizing performance, minimizing risk of negative training outcomes, and timing peak fitness and performances to be achieved when they matter most. Numerous descriptive studies of the training characteristics of nationally or internationally competitive endurance athletes training 10 to 13 times per week seem to converge on a typical intensity distribution in which about 80% of training sessions are performed at low intensity (2 mM blood lactate), with about 20% dominated by periods of high-intensity work, such as interval training at approx. 90% VO2max. Endurance athletes appear to self-organize toward a high-volume training approach with careful application of high-intensity training incorporated throughout the training cycle. Training intensification studies performed on already well-trained athletes do not provide any convincing evidence that a greater emphasis on high-intensity interval training in this highly trained athlete population gives long-term performance gains. The predominance of low-intensity, long-duration training, in combination with fewer, highly intensive bouts may be complementary in terms of optimizing adaptive signaling and technical mastery at an acceptable level of stress.

  9. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Athletes' Postsurgical Pain and Rehabilitation after Orthopedic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael J.; Berger, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (stress inoculation training; SIT) for postsurgical anxiety, pain and physical rehabilitation in injured athletes. Sixty male athletes who underwent arthroscopic surgery for miniscus injury in one knee were randomly assigned to either treatment (SIT and physical therapy) or control…

  10. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  11. Take a Page from Your Coach's Play Book: Teaching Technical and Tactical Skills in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth B.; Williams, Skip M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The ability to demonstrate sound clinical reasoning is needed for a practicing athletic trainer. However, instruction on how to make a correct clinical decision may be deficient in many athletic training programs. Objective: To provide an overview of how to teach technical and tactical skills, using both a tradition and a nontraditional…

  12. Athletic Training Educators' Instructional Methods and Confidence in Graduating Students' Abilities regarding Psychosocial Intervention and Referral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Graduating athletic training students must consider both physical and mental aspects of injury to fully rehabilitate the injured athlete; however, programs may not be preparing students to apply psychosocial strategies that can improve the recovery process. Objective: To examine Psychosocial Intervention and Referral (PIR) content area…

  13. Training and Psychosocial Patterns during the Early Development of Portuguese National Team Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiros, Andre; Cote, Jean; Fonseca, Antonio Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early development of expert athletes compared to a group of athletes that did not achieve an expert level of performance despite being involved in youth events with their national squads. In particular, the activities, training patterns, and psychosocial influences that characterized their paths in competitive sports were…

  14. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968

  15. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a "pyramidal" TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called "polarized" TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies.

  16. Academic Support Services and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gary N.; Jasinski, Dale; Dunn, Steve; Fletcher, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between evaluations of academic support services and student athletes' career decision-making self-efficacy. One hundred and fifty-eight NCAA athletes (68% male) from 11 Division I teams completed measures of satisfaction with their academic support services, career decision-making self-efficacy, general…

  17. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes: A Systematic Review of Injury Reduction and Results of Athletic Performance Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective...

  18. Students' inclusion to the value of physical culture during the process of athletic training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sychov S.O

    2011-01-01

    Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article 52 students took part in research...

  19. Individual moral philosophies and ethical decision making of undergraduate athletic training students and educators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

    2008-01-01

    Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important...

  20. Sport and training influence bone and body composition in women collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbuhn, Aaron F; Fernandez, Tara E; Bragg, Amy F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2010-07-01

    This is a novel descriptive study to characterize off-season, preseason, and postseason bone and body composition measures in women collegiate athletes. From 2006 through 2008, 67 women collegiate athletes from 5 sports, softball (n = 17), basketball (n = 10), volleyball (n = 7), swimming (n = 16), and track jumpers and sprinters (n = 17) were scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 seasonal periods: (a) off-season = before preseason training, (b) preseason = after preseason training, and (c) postseason = after competitive season. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were analyzed for total body mass, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content, bone mineral density (BMD), arm BMD, leg BMD, pelvis BMD, and spine BMD. Data were analyzed between sports using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc follow-ups, and within each sport using repeated-measures ANOVA and LSD; alpha sprinters, -7, +3.5, +1%. Comparisons among athletes in each sport showed bone measurements of swimmers averaged 4-19% lower than that of athletes in any other sport, whereas for track jumpers and sprinters, %BF and FM averaged 36 and 43% lower compared with other sports at all seasonal periods. Values for athletes playing basketball and volleyball were most similar, whereas softball athletes' values fell between all other athletes. These data serve as sport-specific reference values for comparisons at in-season and off-season training periods among women collegiate athletes in various sports.

  1. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses and recovery is important in maximising the performance of athletes. A wide range of recovery modalities are now used as integral parts of the training programmes of elite athletes to help attain this balance. This review examined the evidence available as to the efficacy of these recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session recovery in elite athletes. Recovery modalities have largely been investigated with regard to their ability to enhance the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise or to reduce the severity and duration of exercise-induced muscle injury and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Neither of these reflects the circumstances of between-training session recovery in elite athletes. After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between the training sessions of athletes. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS have used untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of elite athletes. Even without considering the above limitations, there is no substantial scientific evidence to support the use of the recovery modalities reviewed to enhance the between-training session recovery of elite athletes. Modalities reviewed were massage, active recovery, cryotherapy, contrast temperature water immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compression garments, stretching, electromyostimulation and combination modalities. Experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to further investigate the efficacy of various recovery modalities for elite athletes. Other potentially important factors associated with recovery, such as the rate of post-exercise glycogen synthesis and the role

  2. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ataee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load.Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test.Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05.Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the

  3. Athletic Training Educators' Pedagogical Strategies for Preparing Students to Address Sudden Death in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…

  4. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the o......(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...... performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...

  5. Integral technologies of psycho-physical training of athletes in sports aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shepelenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiate the use of integral technologies for the psycho-physical training of athletes in sports aerobics. Material & Methods: 46 qualified aerobics participated in the study, 22 athletes made up a control group, 24 were experimental, and 19 aerobists, 9 athletes made up an experimental group, 10 were a control group. Methods: theoretical analysis of literature data; method for evaluating the results of competitive activities; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical statistics with the use of computer programs "EXEL" and "SPSS". Results: psychophysical training should be one of the main parts of the variable component of the general training program for aerobic athletes. It is based on the implementation of special sets of exercises in conjunction with mental imagery of the nature of the movements. The positive effect of the use of integral technologies of psychophysical training on the competitive performance of athletes. Conclusion: construction of the training process with the use of integral technologies of psychophysical training had a positive effect on the effectiveness of the competitive activity of athletes.

  6. Influence of gender and types of sports training on QT variables in young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Kazuto; Sekizuka, Hiromitsu; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ohba, Haruo; Musha, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were enrolled as controls. QT measurements were manually obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram and QTD was calculated as the difference between the longest and shortest QT intervals. A corrected QT interval (QTc) was obtained using Bazett's formula. Subjects were divided into two groups; an endurance training group and a static training group on the basis of their training types. Maximum and minimum QTc were significantly longer in female athletes than in male athletes (max: 414.2 vs. 404.5 ms, min: 375.1 vs. 359.2 ms, psports training may affect QT variables even in young elite athletes. Vigorous static exercise training may independently prolong QT variables.

  7. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  8. Training-induced right ventricular remodelling in pre-adolescent endurance athletes: The athlete's heart in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pelliccia, Antonio; Valentini, Francesca; Malandrino, Angela; Natali, Benedetta Maria; Barbati, Riccardo; Focardi, Marta; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to endurance exercise in children. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 5months of intensive training on RV morphology and function in preadolescent endurance athletes. Ninety-four children were evaluated in this study. Fifty-seven male competitive swimmers (aged 10.8±0.2years) were evaluated before (baseline) and after 5months of the training (peak-training), and compared to 37 age- and sex-matched non-athlete children evaluated at baseline and after 5months of natural growth. All subjects were asymptomatic, with negative family history for cardiomyopathies. At baseline no differences were found between athletes and controls for indexed RV outflow tract (RVOT) (18.5±2.7 vs. 16.8±5.0mm/m2, p=0.18) and RV basal end-diastolic diameter (EDD) (24.9±4.1 vs. 23.6±3.0mm/m2, p=0.15). After 5months, indexed RVOT and RV basal EDD significantly increased in athletes (20.2±2.9mm/m2 and 25.4±3.3mm/m2, pchildren engaged in endurance sports the increase in RV size associated with normal RV function represents a physiological expression of the athlete's heart and should not be misinterpreted as an expression of incipient RV cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of the effects on the ovarian cycle of athletic training in different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambanis, M; Kofotolis, N; Kalogeropoulou, E; Noussios, G; Sambanis, P; Kalogeropoulos, J

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of sports training on the ovarian cycle of athletes of various disciplines, and of non-athletes, their participation and their performance in competition as well as the appearance of symptoms of discomfort pre and during the duration of menstruation. Athletes from the disciplines of basketball, track athletics, gymnastics, swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo as well as non-athletes took part in this research. All the participants, both athletes and non-athletes were selected and completed a specially designed questionnaire. The results of the research showed that there are no significant differences in the menarche to the duration of the ovarian cycle and to the duration of the menstrual flow. Also, the involvement in different athletic disciplines appears to affect to different degrees the regularity of the cycle although this does not prevent the athlete from participating in training and in competition. The effects are sometimes beneficial to their performance and sometimes they could have a negative effect on their performance. Regarding the symptoms and the discomforts which occasionally appeared pre and during the duration of menstruation e.g. headache symptoms, these appear to be greatly decreased in the athletes of swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo and perhaps this is a result of the beneficial effects of the water. The percentage for abdominal pain appeared decreased for certain disciplines (such as swimming) or stable both pre and during the duration of menstruation. Concerning the pain in the thoracicolumbar region, the percentages were different for every sport: a noticeable decrease was recorded for the athletes of swimming, gymnasts, synchronized swimming, water polo, track athletes and the non-athletes, but with an increase for the basketball players. For the symptoms of weakness and fatigue, the percentages were increased for all the athletic disciplines as well as

  10. Improving the training process of power sports athletes based on their biorhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Piven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: improved methods of planning the training process for strength sports athletes with regard to their biorhythms. Material and Methods: the study included 16 athletes qualified yaks were members of the team of the Kharkiv region in weightlifting and powerlifting. Results: revealed that the experimental group athletes who used to planned training load calculations biorhythms improved power rates by 7,2% in compare with the control group who exercised without calculating biorhythms improved results on the power – 4,6%. It was also shown that athletes are more or less manifest Biorhythmic dependence. Conclusions: it was established that the planning of the training process, taking into account jet lag has a positive effect on the result of more than planning the same load without jet lag.

  11. Effects of Sport-Specific Training Intensity on Sleep Patterns and Psychomotor Performance in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.

  12. Leadership in athletic training: implications for practice and education in allied health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Leadership behaviors are an important aspect of athletic training and are needed within all allied health care disciples. A two-phase, exploratory, non-experimental research study using a Delphi technique and a randomly selected sample of athletic trainers (n = 161) was conducted to determine leadership competencies perceived to be important for athletic training practice and education. The Delphi technique (phase one) resulted in the Leadership Development in Athletic Training instrument (LDAT). In the national survey (phase two), respondents used the LDAT to rate the importance of leadership competencies for athletic training practice and for athletic training education. Coefficient alphas ranged from α = 0.83 to 0.97 and provided satisfactory estimates of internal consistency. Concurrent, construct, and convergent validity were established. Forty-nine leadership competencies were rated important for practice and 48 for education (M = 1.5, p ≤ 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that leadership competencies were organized by four constructs (with six emphases): 1) personality characteristics, 2) diagnosing context and people skills, 3) communication and initiative, and 4) strategic thinking. Repeated measures ANOVA with Sidak post-hoc adjustments indicated each leadership construct significantly increased in importance as the level of the ATEP progressed.

  13. High School Athletes' Perceptions of the Motivational Climate in Their Off-Season Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Jacob M; Fry, Mary D; Iwasaki, Susumu

    2017-03-01

    Chamberlin, JM, Fry, MD, and Iwasaki, S. High school athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in their off-season training programs. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 736-742, 2017-Athletes benefit tremendously from working hard in off-season training (OST) because it sets them up to avoid injuries and perform their best during the season. Ironically, many athletes struggle to stay motivated to participate regularly in this training. Research has highlighted the benefits for athletes perceiving a caring and task-involving climate, where they gauge their success based on their personal effort and improvement, and perceive each member of the team is treated with mutual kindness and respect. Athletes who perceive a caring and task-involving climate on their teams are more likely to report greater adaptive motivational responses. Research has not currently examined athletes' perceptions of the climate in OST programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of the climate in an OST program and their motivational responses. High school athletes (N = 128; 90 males 35 females; mean age = 15.3 years) participating in summer OST programs completed a survey that included measures of intrinsic motivation, commitment, their valuing OST, feeling like it is their decision to participate in OST, their perceptions that their teammates take OST seriously, and attendance. A canonical correlation revealed that athletes, who perceived a highly caring and task-involving climate reported higher intrinsic motivation, value of and commitment to OST; attendance; and perceived teammates take OST seriously. Results suggest that creating a caring and task-involving climate in OST programs may help athletes optimize their motivation to participate in important strength and conditioning programs.

  14. Special features of the training process in the system of multi sports training young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnikova N.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of planning of trainings employments is considered in setup time for sprinters. In research took part sportsmen in age 10-16 years. In all age-dependent groups of athletes of mean of renewal was used one time per a week during 1,5 hours. For sportsmen 10-12 years it was 4,33%, 13-14 years - 6,63%, 15-16 years - 8,46% from the general volume of clock. The planning system is developed taking into account additional restoration measures. The planning system takes into account age of runners, half, stage of long-term sporting preparation.

  15. Sport training and the growth and pubertal maturation of young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matina, Robert M; Rogol, Alan D

    2011-09-01

    Growth and pubertal maturation of youth athletes are overwhelmingly within the broad range of normal variability. These include many successful male athletes who mature earlier than average, and many successful female athletes, especially in the "aesthetic" sports (artistic gymnastics, ice-skating, ballet) and distance running, who mature later than average. Artistic gymnasts generally receive the most attention, but their growth and maturation characteristics fall largely within the physiologic range and are indistinguishable from short, late maturing girls. It is difficult to ascribe causality to intensive training for sport as a factor in the later pubertal maturation of heavily training athletes. The alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary function for the GH/IGF-I and gonadal axes are likely appropriate for the stage of adolescent maturation. The selection and sorting processes for elite sport, including ballet, need critical evaluation. If intensive training is a factor affecting growth and pubertal maturation, its effects must be partitioned from (a) other factors known to influence these biological processes, and (b) other components of the overall sport training environment before causality can be established. Other factors which play an indeterminate role include: genetics/epigenetics, stress, psychosocial interactions, family environment and caloric intake, among others. These factors together with the energy expenditure of intensive training may influence the growth and pubertal maturation of some adolescent athletes. The effect is not necessarily attributable to training per se; rather, it is likely embedded in the elite sport training environment which is essentially an adult dominated enterprise.

  16. Sprint Running Performance and Technique Changes in Athletes During Periodized Training: An Elite Training Group Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David G; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Salo, Aki I T

    2017-11-15

    To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA. As training progressed, a link in the changes in velocity and step frequency was maintained. There were 71 between-session comparisons with a change in step velocity yielding at least a large effect size (>1.2), of which 73% had a correspondingly large change in step frequency in the same direction. Within-athlete mean session step length remained relatively constant throughout. Reductions in step velocity and frequency occurred during training phases of high volume lifting and running, with subsequent increases in step velocity and frequency happening during phases of low volume lifting and high intensity sprint work. The importance of step frequency over step length to the changes in performance within a training year was clearly evident for the sprinters studied. Understanding the magnitudes and timings of these changes in relation to the training program is important for coaches and athletes. The underpinning neuro-muscular mechanisms require further investigation, but are likely explained by an increase in force producing capability followed by an increase in the ability to produce that force rapidly.

  17. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes: e0150799

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olav Vikmoen; Truls Raastad; Olivier Seynnes; Kristoffer Bergstrøm; Stian Ellefsen; Bent R Rønnestad

    2016-01-01

      Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes...

  18. The effects of isolated and integrated 'core stability' training on athletic performance measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Casey A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2012-08-01

    Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June 2011). A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance

  19. The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training in female athletes: a systematic review of injury reduction and results of athletic performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D

    2012-01-01

    Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995-August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Selected studies determined the effect of ACL intervention training programs on ACL incidence rates (determined by athlete-exposures) and athletic performance tests, such as isokinetic strength, vertical jump height, speed, agility, and dynamic balance. Because no single article contained both criteria, investigations were cross-referenced to obtain data on both factors from the same training programs. The authors reviewed the selected studies for cohort population numbers, age, sports, duration of study, program components, duration of training, number of athlete-exposures, ACL injury incidence rates, and results of athletic performance tests. Initially, 57 studies were identified that described 42 ACL injury prevention training programs. Of these, 17 studies that investigated 5 programs met the inclusion criteria. Two programs significantly reduced ACL injury rates and improved athletic performance tests: Sportsmetrics and the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance program (PEP). Sportsmetrics produced significant increases in lower extremity and abdominal strength, vertical jump height, estimated maximal aerobic power, speed, and agility. Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance significantly improved isokinetic knee flexion strength but did not improve vertical jump height, speed, or agility. The other 3 programs (Myklebust, the "11," and Knee Ligament Injury Prevention) did not improve both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Only the Sportsmetrics and PEP ACL intervention training programs had a

  1. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  2. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long...

  3. Leadership Behaviors of Athletic Training Leaders Compared With Leaders in Other Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. Objective: To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Respondents' academic institutions. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Results: Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Conclusions: Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs. PMID:17597953

  4. Oxidative stress biomarker monitoring in elite women volleyball athletes during a 6-week training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, Jelena; Dopsaj, Violeta; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Vujović, Ana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Nešić, Goran

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) if reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are a reliable parameter for monitoring oxidative stress in athletes alone or in association with other parameters of oxidative stress and depending on whether antioxidant supplements are taken or not; (b) the level of oxidative stress in athletes before the competition season; and (c) if oxidative status could be improved in volleyball athletes. Sixteen women athletes (supplemented group) received an antioxidant cocktail containing vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc gluconate, and selenium as a dietary supplement during a 6-week training period, whereas 12 of them (control group) received no dietary supplement. Blood samples were taken before and after the training period. The following parameters were measured: ROMs, superoxide anion (O2⁻₂), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), biological antioxidative potential (BAP), paraoxonase activity toward paraoxon (POase) and diazoxon (DZOase), superoxide dismutase(SOD), total sulfydryl group concentration (SH groups), and lipid status. Reactive oxygen metabolites were taken as the dependent variable and MDA, O2⁻₂, AOPP, and LOOH as independent variables. In the group of athletes who have received supplementation, linear regression analysis revealed that the implemented model had a lower influence on dROMs (70.4 vs. 27.9%) after the training period. The general linear model showed significant differences between parameters before and after training/supplementation (Wilks' lambda = 0.074, F = 11.76, p defense in volleyball athletes.

  5. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  6. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  7. Exploring Intercollegiate Athletic Department-Community Partnerships through the Lens of Community Service Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Per G.; Huml, Matthew R.; Hancock, Meg G.

    2014-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are increasingly engaging in partnerships with local communities. Within a sport context, the creation of the NCAA CHAMPS/Life Skills Program has emphasized partnerships between athletic departments and local community service organizations (CSOs). Prior studies, however, have used student-athletes rather than the…

  8. Multiculturalism and Athletic Training Education: Implications for Educational and Professional Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To introduce athletic training educators and practicing professionals to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits that multicultural education, awareness, and training might provide if implemented in athletic training education. Data Sources: I reviewed textbook chapters and articles used in the course of my doctoral studies and searched the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 1998 to 2002 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. I obtained additional information by cross-referencing pertinent articles. Data Synthesis: I present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of athletic training education. I outline the infrastructure in the professional field of athletic training, review some of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy, and examine some of the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education. Conclusions/Recommendations: Future work in this area should focus on various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in athletic training curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies. PMID:16558679

  9. Multiculturalism and athletic training education: implications for educational and professional progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Paul R

    2003-04-01

    To introduce athletic training educators and practicing professionals to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits that multicultural education, awareness, and training might provide if implemented in athletic training education. I reviewed textbook chapters and articles used in the course of my doctoral studies and searched the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 1998 to 2002 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. I obtained additional information by cross-referencing pertinent articles. I present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of athletic training education. I outline the infrastructure in the professional field of athletic training, review some of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy, and examine some of the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education. Future work in this area should focus on various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in athletic training curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies.

  10. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  11. The effectiveness of resisted jump training on the VertiMax in high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Lunt, Kregg T; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio

    2008-05-01

    Resisted jumping devices and resisted plyometric training have become more common in recent years. The effectiveness of such training has yet to be determined among high school athletes. Sixty-four high school athletes (50 boys and 14 girls) from a variety of sports were divided into 2 groups and participated in a training intervention that differed only by the use of the VertiMax jump trainer in 1 group. Lower-body power was tested before and after the intervention and compared statistically for differences between the groups. Athletes from both groups followed a periodized training program with resistance exercises performed 2 or 3 days per week, and sprint and plyometric training (i.e., training control group) or sprint, plyometric, and VertiMax training (i.e., VertiMax group) 1 or 2 days per week, for 12 total weeks. In addition to the traditional compound lower-body lifts and equated sprint work, the VertiMax group performed supplementary exercises on the VertiMax training apparatus. The average improvement in power observed in the training control group was 49.50 +/- 97.83 W, and the increase in power in the VertiMax group was 217.14 +/- 99.21 W. The differences in power after the test and improvements in power with training were found to differ between the groups (P VertiMax training group. Combined with previous research with college athletes, these data show the added effectiveness of resisted jump training on the VertiMax among athletes for the development of lower-body power.

  12. Development of framework centralized training of athletes in Olympic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova N.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of problem of the centralized preparation of sportsmen is studied. Historical and modern theoretical and practical developments in preparation of sportsmen in Olympic sport are considered. The analysis of printing and electronic information generators is conducted. The state of modern trainings centers of leading sporting countries is certain. The systems of forming of Centers and spectrum of their services are rotined. The necessity of integration of developments is grounded for creation of model of center of Olympic preparation. Influence of the informative, educational and material and technical providing is marked on preparation of national commands.

  13. Students' inclusion to the value of physical culture during the process of athletic training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychov S.O.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article. 52 students took part in research. It is developed the recommendation for the application of pedagogical conditions of use in the expressway strength and strength training, ability to determine dosing load for students with different level of physical background, methods of power properties development both for boys and for girls. It is shown that using of athletic training at the classes of physical education is contributing of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture.

  14. Students' inclusion to the value of physical culture during the process of athletic training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychov S.O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Means and methods of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture, during the process of athletic training on the classes of physical education are opened in this article 52 students took part in research. It is developed the recommendation for the application of pedagogical conditions of use in the expressway strength and strength training, ability to determine dosing load for students with different level of physical background, methods of power properties development both for boys and for girls. It is shown that using of athletic training at the classes of physical education is contributing of students' inclusion to the value of physical culture.

  15. The effectiveness of resisted jump training on the VertiMax in high school athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Peterson, M.D.; Lunt, K. T.; Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José

    2008-01-01

    Resisted jumping devices and resisted plyometric training have become more common in recent years. The effectiveness of such training has yet to be determined among high school athletes. Sixty-four high school athletes (50 boys and 14 girls) from a variety of sports were divided into 2 groups and participated in a training intervention that differed only by the use of the VertiMax jump trainer in 1 group. Lower-body power was tested before and after the intervention and compared statistically...

  16. Effect of Twelve Week Explosive Strength Training on SRM University Long Jump Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    S.Maiyappan; Dr.Louis Raj

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of explosive strength training program on Srm university long jump athletes. Twenty (N=20) male athletes from Srm university, Chennai, aged 19–23 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group. The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for standing broad jump and vertical jump. A schedule of weight training program was employed on the students twice a week for a Period of 12 weeks. Paired t-test was applied to find...

  17. Perceived Levels of Frustration During Clinical Situations in Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinerichs, Scott; Curtis, Neil; Gardiner-Shires, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletic training students (ATSs) are involved in various situations during the clinical experience that may cause them to express levels of frustration. Understanding levels of frustration in ATSs is important because frustration can affect student learning, and the clinical experience is critical to their development as professionals. Objective:  To explore perceived levels of frustration in ATSs during clinical situations and to determine if those perceptions differ based on sex. Design:  Cross-sectional study with a survey instrument. Setting:  A total of 14 of 19 professional, undergraduate athletic training programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education in Pennsylvania. Patients or Other Participants:  Of a possible 438 athletic training students, 318 (72.6%) completed the survey. Main Outcomes Measure(s):  The Athletic Training Student Frustration Inventory was developed and administered. The survey gathered demographic information and included 24 Likert-scale items centering on situations associated with the clinical experience. Descriptive statistics were computed on all items. The Mann-Whitney U was used to evaluate differences between male and female students. Results:  A higher level of frustration was perceived during the following clinical situations: lack of respect by student-athletes and coaching staffs, the demands of the clinical experience, inability of ATSs to perform or remember skills, and ATSs not having the opportunity to apply their skills daily. Higher levels of frustration were perceived in female than male ATSs in several areas. Conclusions:  Understanding student frustration during clinical situations is important to better appreciate the clinical education experience. Low levels of this emotion are expected; however, when higher levels exist, learning can be affected. Whereas we cannot eliminate student frustrations, athletic training programs and preceptors need to be

  18. Hydration status in adolescent judo athletes before and after training in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; De Félix-Dávila, Roberto A

    2012-03-01

    Adolescent judo athletes who train in tropical climates may be in a persistent state of dehydration because they frequently restrict fluids during daily training sessions to maintain or reduce their body weight and are not given enough opportunities to drink. Determine the body hydration status of adolescent judo athletes before, immediately after, and 24 h after (24H) a training session and document sweat Na+ loss and symptoms of dehydration. Body mass and urine color and specific gravity (USG) were measured before, after, and 24 h after a training session in a high-heat-stress environment (29.5 ± 1.0°C; 77.7 ± 6.1% RH) in 24 adolescent athletes. Sweat sodium loss was also determined. A comparison was made between mid-pubertal (MP) and late pubertal (LP) subjects. The majority of the subjects started training with a significant level of dehydration. During the training session, MP subjects lost 1.3 ± 0.8% of their pretraining body mass whereas LP subjects lost 1.9 ± 0.5% (P athletes arrive to practice with a fluid deficit, do not drink enough during training, and experience symptoms of dehydration, which may compromise the quality of training and general well-being.

  19. Pain and Injury Associated with Powerlifting Training in Visually Impaired Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…

  20. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  1. Changes in Body Composition and Strength of Female Athletes on Two Different Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster, Nancy

    Thirty-one championship caliber women athletes participating on varsity teams at Ohio State University were trained using two different conditioning programs, in an attempt to determine the physiological outcomes of weight training versus cardiovascular-oriented conditioning. Fourteen tennis players followed a program of high-resistance weight…

  2. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapandian Ponnusamy, J. Robert Grove

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217. The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures.

  3. [The medical and psychological support for the child athletes during different periods of the training cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, N P; Levitskaia, T E; Matveeva, E A; Zaĭtsev, A A; Konovalov, A B; Tren'kaeva, N A; Akimova, K K; Kremeno, S V; Dostovalova, O V; Merzliakova, N V

    2014-01-01

    To study dynamics of the indicators of the hormonal and psychological status as well as psychological features of significance for the sportive performance under conditions of rehabilitative treatment during training and post-training periods in the child athlete engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The study included 42 child athletes at the age from 8 to 15 years engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The children of the study group (group 1, n=17) received the combined restorative treatment under conditions of regular training while those comprising group 2 group (n=25) were given a similar treatment in the absence of the training load. All athletes underwent clinical and laboratory examination before and after the treatment for the assessment of their psychological status. The study has demonstrated that additional physical activities were responsible for the development of negative changes in the hormonal and psychological spheres of the child athletes. As a result, they experienced the impairment of certain qualities significant for their sportive performance. The rehabilitative measures during different periods of the training cycle promote normalization of all parameters of the hormonal, psychological, and physical status of the child athletes; moreover, they improve the adaptive capacity of the children.

  4. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes the importance of outdoor training adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F

    2014-07-01

    The discovery of vitamin D muscle receptors in the last few years suggested a significant role in muscle tissue, pointing out athletes as a special group. Specific data are scarce. The main aim of the current paper was to provide, for the first time, comparable data about vitamin D status in elite Spanish athletes by sport, age, season and training environment. Four hundred and eight elite athletes with a mean age of 22.8 ± 8.4 years were recruited from the High-performance sport centre in Barcelona for this cross-sectional study. Athletes from 34 different sports modalities were analysed. Data were available for vitamin D status, training environment, seasonality and number of medical visits. All data were analysed using SPSS version 18.0. Mean 25(OH)D of all athletes was 56.7 ± 23.4 nmol/L. Approximately 82% of the athletes were below the optimal levels, (outdoors compared with those training indoor (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2017-11-01

    An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/oral contraceptives (OC) cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad. Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants' own experience of the training programs. No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive. The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

  6. The Kinetic Determinants of Reactive Strength in Highly Trained Sprint Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this study was to determine the braking and propulsive phase kinetic variables underpinning reactive strength in highly trained sprint athletes in comparison to a non-sprint trained control group. Twelve highly trained sprint athletes and twelve non-sprint trained participants performed drop jumps (DJs) from 0.25m, 0.50m and 0.75m onto a force plate. One familiarization session was followed by an experimental testing session within the same week. Reactive strength index (RSI), contact time, flight time, and leg stiffness were determined. Kinetic variables including force, power and impulse were assessed within the braking and propulsive phases. Sprint trained athletes demonstrated higher RSI versus non-sprint trained participants across all drop heights (3.02 vs 2.02; ES [±90% CL]: 3.11 ±0.86). This difference was primarily attained by briefer contact times (0.16 vs 0.22 s; ES: -1.49 ±0.53) with smaller differences observed for flight time (0.50 vs 0.46 s; ES: 0.53 ±0.58). Leg stiffness, braking and propulsive phase force and power were higher in sprint trained athletes. Very large differences were observed in mean braking force (51 vs 38 Nkg; ES: 2.57 ±0.73) which was closely associated with contact time (r ±90% CL: -0.93 ±0.05). Sprint trained athletes exhibited superior reactive strength than non-sprint trained participants. This was due to the ability to strike the ground with a stiffer leg spring, an enhanced expression of braking force, and possibly an increased utilization of elastic structures. The DJ kinetic analysis provides additional insight into the determinants of reactive strength which may inform subsequent testing and training.

  7. On the question of periodization training content and Paralympic athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system in the light of the general theory of sports training

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    V.N. Derkach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To determine theoretically similar trends and differences in the periods of sports training athletes and Paralympic athletes with similar qualifications, without disabilities. Material : analyzed more than 80 references. Results : at present insufficiently developed periodization sports training many years to prepare athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Also - at the stage of maximum realization of individual empowerment athletes. This applies to the immediate preparation for the main competition. In the first case, periodization can be carried out on the basis of the classical theory. Also on stage, maximizing the individual capabilities. Need to adapt this theory to career achievements of athletes. Also, you must consider the disease. Conclusions : The main factors set differences training tools Paralympic athletes and physically healthy: increased attention to the psychological preparation for the Paralympics, inclusive education and sports training individualization programs already in the first stage of their training.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF PREPARATION PERIOD TRAINING PROGRAM ON MUSCULAR STRENGHT OF FIRST-CLASS JUDO ATHLETES

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    Dragan Radovanovic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands which characterize modern judo and analysis of many new things in the area of periodizations have the aim to enable better training effects and to overcome empiric and elemental work of coaches by varying different methodical training parameters and characteristic situational judo training. Strength training is a form of physical activity used for increasing abilities of surmounting or resisting the power. The increasing in muscular strength results in increased success in performing some motoric tasks. In our research, estimation of selected judo athlete muscular strength is done by combination of laboratory and field tests. The research was conducted in two phases during the 10-week preparation period. The obtained results showed statistically significant high values of muscular strength in most tests. That is why we concluded that the applied preparation strength training resulted in increasing muscular strength in judo athletes. We think that the right periodizations of training enable adequate functional adaptation of judo athletes. Strength training applied in preparation period will lead to adequate increasing in muscular strength of judo athletes which make basis for faster performing of movements and efficient performing of techniques during a match.

  9. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  10. The improvement of suspension training for trunk muscle power in Sanda athletes

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    Xiujie Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST and traditional training (TT can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG and control group (CG. EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week. The total duration of training was 10 weeks. The measurements including peak torque (PT, PT/body weight (BW, and rate of force development (RFD were used to assess trunk muscles strength. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups' performance when it was tested at the higher velocity of dynamometer (test of muscle power, but less significant differences when the two groups performance was tested at the lower velocity of dynamometer (test of maximum strength. The conclusion of this study is that compared with traditional training methods, suspension training can improve back and trunk flexion muscles strength more effectively. In particular, suspension training can improve the explosive power of trunk extension and flexion muscles.

  11. Multistakeholder Perspectives on the Transition to a Graduate-Level Athletic Training Educational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context  The decision has been made to move away from the traditional bachelor's degree professional program to a master's degree professional program. Little is known about the perceptions about this transition from those involved with education. Objective  To examine multiple stakeholders' perspectives within athletic training education on the effect that a change to graduate-level education could have on the profession and the educational and professional development of the athletic trainer. Design  Qualitative study. Setting  Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 18 athletic training students (6 men, 12 women; age = 24 ± 5 years), 17 athletic training faculty (6 men, 9 women, 2 unspecified; 7 program directors, 5 faculty members, 3 clinical coordinators, 2 unidentified; age = 45 ± 8 years), and 15 preceptors (7 men, 7 women, 1 unspecified; age = 34 ± 7 years) completed the study. Data Collection and Analysis  Participants completed a structured Web-based questionnaire. Each cohort responded to questions matching their roles within an athletic training program. Data were analyzed following a general inductive process. Member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review established credibility. Results  Thirty-one (62%) participants supported the transition, 14 (28%) were opposed, and 5 (10%) were neutral or undecided. Advantages of and support for transitioning and disadvantages of and against transitioning emerged. The first higher-order theme, advantages, revealed 4 benefits: (1) alignment of athletic training with other health care professions, (2) advanced coursework and curriculum delivery, (3) improved student and professional retention, and (4) student maturity. The second higher-order theme, disadvantages, was defined by 3 factors: (1) limited time for autonomous practice, (2) financial concerns, and (3) lack of evidence for the transition. Conclusions  Athletic training students, faculty, and

  12. Yin and yang, or peas in a pod? Individual-sport versus team-sport athletes and altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.

  13. Weekly training volume and hematological status in female top-level athletes of different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, S M; Ahmetovic, Z

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were: a) to investigate the prevalence of iron depletion and anemia among female top-level athletes from different sports; b) to determine a relationship between serum ferritin levels and training status of female athletes. This study was conducted on 84 female professional athletes who were recruited during preparticipation physical examination. Upon entering the laboratory 10 mL of venous blood was drawn from an antecubital vein into a lavender-top tube for a complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, and transferrin and ferritin levels. No significant differences between any of the hematological variables were found between groups of different sports. The lowest hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin and transferrin encountered in the study were Hb of 9.1 g/dL, MCV of 64.5 fL, serum iron of 15 microg/dL, ferritin of 5.4 microg/L, transferrin of 210 microg/dL in a 20-year old female distance runner with functional impairment and iron deficiency anemia. No significant differences were found between female athletes from different sports regarding the prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Serum ferritin level poorly correlate with training duration (r = 0.24) and seems to be inadequate indicator of training tolerance. This study has shown a high prevalence of iron depletion and anemia among female athletes from different sports, with similar incidence in individuals independent of their weekly training volume.

  14. Formal and informal continuing education activities and athletic training professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J; Weidner, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    Continuing education (CE) is intended to promote professional growth and, ultimately, to enhance professional practice. To determine certified athletic trainers' participation in formal (ie, approved for CE credit) and informal (ie, not approved for CE credit) CE activities and the perceived effect these activities have on professional practice with regard to improving knowledge, clinical skills and abilities, attitudes toward patient care, and patient care itself. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training practice settings. Of a geographic, stratified random sample of 1000 athletic trainers, 427 (42.7%) completed the survey. The Survey of Formal and Informal Athletic Training Continuing Education Activities was developed and administered electronically. The survey consisted of demographic characteristics and Likert-scale items regarding CE participation and perceived effect of CE on professional practice. Internal consistency of survey items was determined using the Cronbach alpha (alpha = 0.945). Descriptive statistics were computed for all items. An analysis of variance and dependent t tests were calculated to determine differences among respondents' demographic characteristics and their participation in, and perceived effect of, CE activities. The alpha level was set at .05. Respondents completed more informal CE activities than formal CE activities. Participation in informal CE activities included reading athletic training journals (75.4%), whereas formal CE activities included attending a Board of Certification-approved workshop, seminar, or professional conference not conducted by the National Athletic Trainers' Association or affiliates or committees (75.6%). Informal CE activities were perceived to improve clinical skills or abilities and attitudes toward patient care. Formal CE activities were perceived to enhance knowledge. More respondents completed informal CE activities than formal CE activities. Both formal and informal CE activities were perceived to

  15. The construction of the training process highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training

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    Kostyukevych V.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - to justify the theoretical and methodological principles and concepts of the training process of building highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training. The results . Calculate the ratio of training loads of different orientation in the annual cycle of training. Means of producing football players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 45.6%, specific - 54.4% (special training exercise - 4.1% subsidiary - 22, 7%, competitive - 27.6% . Means of producing players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 49.0%, specific - 51.0% (special training - 2.3% subsidiary - 26.1%, competitive exercise - 22.0% .

  16. Injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained in interscholastic athletics: a report from the athletic training practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kenneth C; Snyder Valier, Alison R; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of clinical practice factors, beyond epidemiologic data, may help guide medical coverage and care decisions. Trends in injury and treatment characteristics of sport-specific injuries sustained by secondary school athletes will differ based on sport. Retrospective analysis of electronic patient records. Level 4. Participants consisted of 3302 boys and 2293 girls who were diagnosed with a sport-related injury or condition during the study years. Injury (sport, body part, diagnosis via ICD-9 codes) and treatment (type, amount, and duration of care) characteristics were grouped by sport and reported using summary statistics. Most injuries and treatments occurred in football, girls' soccer, basketball, volleyball, and track and field. Sprain or strain of the ankle, knee, and thigh/hip/groin and concussion were the most commonly documented injuries across sports. The injury pattern for boys' wrestling differed from other sports and included sprain or strain of the elbow and neck and general medical skin conditions. The most frequently reported service was athletic training evaluation/reevaluation treatment, followed by hot/cold pack, therapeutic exercise, manual therapy techniques, electrical stimulation, and strapping of lower extremity joints. Most sports required 4 to 5 services per injury. With the exception of boys' soccer and girls' softball, duration of care ranged from 10 to 14 days. Girls' soccer and girls' and boys' track and field reported the longest durations of care. Injury and treatment characteristics are generally comparable across sports, suggesting that secondary school athletic trainers may diagnose and treat similar injuries regardless of sport. Subtle sport trends, including skin conditions associated with boys' wrestling and longer duration of care for girls' soccer, are important to note when discussing appropriate medical coverage and care.

  17. Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes.

  18. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of different training programs for athletes of high qualification, specializing in rowing

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    Dina Miftahutdinova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the efficiency of different programs of training sessions to improve operational preparedness qualified athletes who specialize in rowing. Materials and Methods: the study included 10 athletes craftsmanship that are part of the national team of Ukraine rowing. To assess the functional training using computer program "SHVSM" and submaximal test PWC170. Results are content authoring program training sessions to improve functional training highly skilled athletes who specialize in rowing and academic results its experimental verification. Conclusions: the experiment confirmed a higher efficiency of the program of training sessions for rowing-sportsmen team Ukraine compared with the program, which is traditionally used, as evidenced by the survey.

  19. The impact of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and type of training on left ventricular remodeling and function in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivan; Djordjević, Vitomir; Stanković, Ivan; Vlahović-Stipac, Alja; Putniković, Biljana; Babić, Rade; Nesković, Aleksandar N

    2014-04-01

    Long-term intensive training is associated with distinctive cardiac adaptations which are known as athlete's heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) could affect echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in elite strength and endurance athletes. A total of 20 elite strength athletes (10 AAS users and 10 non-users) were compared to 12 steroid-free endurance athletes. All the subjects underwent comprehensive standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. After being indexed for body surface area, both left atrium (LA) and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were significantly higher in the endurance than strength athletes, regardless of AAS use (p steroid-free endurance athletes, showing that 75% of LA size variability depends on variability of LVEDD (p steroid-free athletes, regardless of training type (p abuse.

  20. Psychological skills training of an elite wheelchair water-skiing athlete: a single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bressy de Guast, Virginie; Golby, Jim; Van Wersch, Anna; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2013-10-01

    This study presents a complete psychological skills training (PST) program with a wheelchair athlete and examines the program effectiveness using a mixed-method approach. After initial testing, the athlete followed a two-month program of self-confidence building, motivational, visualization/relaxation, and injury management techniques. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the impacts on performance and psychological abilities. The triangulated results suggest that the PST program was perceived as effective by the athlete in terms of his sporting performances and mental skills. The characteristics and implications of a PST program with this wheelchair athlete are discussed, as well as the study limitations and the perspectives for future research.

  1. Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncino, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…

  2. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

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    Cherednychenko M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  3. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cherednychenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  4. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-01-01

    ... or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8...

  5. Correlation of general and special physical training of athletes cheerleaders at the stage the specialized training base

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    Lutsenko L.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the most informative parameters of athletes in cheerleading. The experiment involved 14 athletes (age 16-18 years. To assess the physical fitness of the special developed 20 tests. The possibilities of creating favorable conditions for optimization of the training process and the achievement of high performance sports. Recommended special training to use the funds for the development of coordination abilities. In the general fitness should pay attention to the development and improvement of the spatial-temporal characteristics, the ability to navigate the space and to maintain equilibrium, co-ordination of movement, flexibility, power, speed and speed- strength abilities. Found that the success of the competitive activities of athletes depend on a rational balance of informative indicators.

  6. Organisational and methodological aspects of experimental training programs for athletes lightweights in academic rowing

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    E.S. Omelchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop an experimental training program for lightweight rowers in academic rowing. Material: the study involved 27 qualified athletes who are engaged in academic rowing over 6 years, age 19-22 years, with sports qualifications KMS and MS. To better design the training program was conducted to study this physical condition of athletes also took into account the opinion of the leading coaches in academic rowing that are engaged with lightweight rowers. Results: as a result of an experimental study was designed training program in academic rowing. Conclusions: Experimental training program rowing provided its use for a year and was designed in the form of blocks and aims to developing and improving endurance (speed and power, strength and maximum strength. The experimental technique that was used in the training process, was designed with the preparation phase and plan on mesocycles and microcycle.

  7. Organisational and methodological aspects of experimental training programs for athletes lightweights in academic rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchenko E.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: develop an experimental training program for lightweight rowers in academic rowing. Material: the study involved 27 qualified athletes who are engaged in academic rowing over 6 years, age 19-22 years, with sports qualifications KMS and MS. To better design the training program was conducted to study this physical condition of athletes also took into account the opinion of the leading coaches in academic rowing that are engaged with lightweight rowers. Results: as a result of an experimental study was designed training program in academic rowing. Conclusions: Experimental training program rowing provided its use for a year and was designed in the form of blocks and aims to developing and improving endurance (speed and power, strength and maximum strength. The experimental technique that was used in the training process, was designed with the preparation phase and plan on mesocycles and microcycle.

  8. Leadership content important in athletic training education with implications for allied health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Matthew R; Scialli, Joan

    2008-01-01

    A two-phase exploratory and comparative research study using a Delphi technique and a web-based national survey was done to determine leadership content (i.e., theories, styles, or practices) important to include in athletic training education. Eighteen athletic training experts participated in the Delphi technique, followed by 161 athletic trainers completing the national survey. Consensus of experts was reached after two rounds (77% interrater agreement, alpha = 0.80 and alpha = 0.93 per respective round) and identified 31 leadership content items important to include in athletic training education. The national sample then rated importance of each leadership content area for inclusion in four types of athletic training education programs (entry-level baccalaureate, entry-level master's degree, postgraduate certifications, and doctoral degree). The respondents ranked the leadership content in order of importance according to mean (mean = 1.53 +/- 0.84 to 2.55 +/- 0.55; scale, 0-3). Twenty-two content items (63%) were rated at least "very important" (mean > or = 2.0). Exploratory factor analysis established construct validity and organized leadership content by three factors: managerial leadership and knowledge management; leadership theories; and leadership issues, trends, and policies (alpha = 0.84-0.91). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (Sidak post-hoc adjustments) established criterion-related concurrent validity, which found increasing levels of importance as education type progressed (F = 4.88, p = 0.003-32.56, p = 0.000). Adding leadership content within athletic training enhances the professionalization of students, facilitates leadership competency among students and practicing professionals enrolled in postcertification educational programs, and facilitates job placement and role.

  9. Training-induced annual changes in red blood cell profile in highly-trained endurance and speed-power athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Monika; Kusy, Krzysztof; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Jacek

    2017-10-24

    An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RBC, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and RBC distribution width (RDW) were determined in four characteristic training phases (transition, general subphase of the preparation phase, specific subphase of the preparation phase and competition phase). Our main findings are that (1) Hb, MCH and MCHC in triathletes and MCV in both triathletes and sprinters changed significantly over the annual training cycle, (2) triathletes had significantly higher values than sprinters only in case of MCH and MCHC after the transition and general preparation phases but not after the competition phase when MCH and MCHC were higher in sprinters and (3) in triathletes, Hb, MCH and MCHC substantially decreased after the competition phase, which was not observed in sprinters. The athletes maintained normal ranges of all haematological parameters in four characteristic training phases. Although highly-trained sprinters and triathletes do not significantly differ in their levels of most haematological parameters, these groups are characterized by different patterns of changes during the annual training cycle. Our results suggest that when interpreting the values of haematological parameters in speed-power and endurance

  10. Salivary hormones response to preparation and pre-competitive training of world-class level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël eGuilhem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A, chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while immunoglobulin A (+61% and creatine kinase activity (+43% increased, and chromogranin A decreased (-27% during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15% and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05. None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training.

  11. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p athletes. Animal and plant-based sources of protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  12. Age, sex, and setting factors and labor force in athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E

    2011-01-01

    Occupation or occupational setting shifts might be occurring in the athletic training profession, and differences between sexes might exist; however, little evidence exists to confirm this supposition. To evaluate trends in male and female athletic training employment patterns in terms of age and occupational setting. Cross-sectional study. We requested demographic data from the National Athletic Trainers' Association (October 27, 2009) and obtained frequency totals of members by sex across the occupational life span by occupational setting. Our sample included 18 571 athletic trainers employed in the 3 largest classifications of occupational settings within the profession: college or university, clinical, and secondary school. We calculated frequencies and percentages to determine demographic and descriptive data. We analyzed the data using an analysis of variance to identify the differences between sexes across age and setting. We observed trends in occupational setting and sex across ages 22 to 67 years. We identified differences between sexes across the ages 22 to 67 years (F(1,18569) = 110818.080, P beginning around age 28 years and an increase in male athletic trainers in the secondary school setting beginning around their middle to late 40s. We observed differences at the intercept between setting and sex (F(1,18569) = 63529.344, P ages (F(1,18569) = 23566787.642, P ages in addition to an overall decrease in the workforce among all professionals. A marked decline in female athletic trainers occurred at age 28 years, yet the male population increased at the secondary school level, suggesting a setting shift. Burnout, fatigue, pay scale, and a misunderstanding of professional culture and job duties might influence the exodus or shift in athletic training.

  13. Medical supervision of young female athletes training in complex coordinational sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevchenko, Irina; Abramov, Viktor V; Gibson, Paul T; Omar, Hatim A

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes simple medical criteria that can be used by trainers and others for effective medical supervision of young female athletes. The cross-sectional, age-stratified study compared girls 10-17 years of age involved in intensive training in gymnastic floor exercises, trampoline, or badminton. Each sport and/or control group was represented by 40-45 girls. Data included medical history, morphometric variables and observation of biological development. Gymnasts started training earliest (approximately 5-years-old) and trained most intensely (18-20 h/wk), followed by trampolinists and then badmintonists. Height, weight, body mass index, and % body fat were reduced in athletes, with gymnasts showing the greatest reduction. Athletes showed higher ratios of leg length to height and shoulder width/hip width, and smaller pelvic size compared to height. The average age of menarche of gymnasts was 13.8 (1.6 year later than controls). Delays of biological development of more than 2 years were common in athletes, and some gymnasts showed more than a 4-year delay. These delays were related to morphometric indicators of hormonal imbalance and to low body fat. Gymnasts had more childhood diseases, with an infection index of 2.8 compared to 1.1 for the control group, and had a higher level of chronic ENT problems. Trainers need to protect the health of athletes. During the course of training, anamneses, delayed menarche and other signs of delayed biological development must be monitored. Morphometric measures and indicators of biological development are proposed to provide simple criteria important in protecting the athletes' health.

  14. The training—injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    Background There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury. Main thesis This paper describes the ‘Training-Injury Prevention Paradox’ model; a phenomenon whereby athletes accustomed to high training loads have fewer injuries than athletes training at lower workloads. The Model is based on evidence that non-contact injuries are not caused by training per se, but more likely by an inappropriate training programme. Excessive and rapid increases in training loads are likely responsible for a large proportion of non-contact, soft-tissue injuries. If training load is an important determinant of injury, it must be accurately measured up to twice daily and over periods of weeks and months (a season). This paper outlines ways of monitoring training load (‘internal’ and ‘external’ loads) and suggests capturing both recent (‘acute’) training loads and more medium-term (‘chronic’) training loads to best capture the player's training burden. I describe the critical variable—acute:chronic workload ratio—as a best practice predictor of training-related injuries. This provides the foundation for interventions to reduce players risk, and

  15. Monitoring internal training load and mucosal immune responses in futsal athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Coutts, Aaron; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Kempton, Thomas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and their relationships with training loads (TLs) during a 4-week period of intensive training during the competitive season in elite Brazilian futsal players. Twelve athletes (age: 19 ± 1 years; height: 180 ± 4 cm; and body mass: 73 ± 7 kg) participated in the study. The training program included tactical, technical, specific conditioning and strength training, and competition matches. Training load was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion. Salivary immunoglobulin A, salivary cortisol and symptoms of URTIs were assessed weekly. A significant decrease in weekly TL was observed for week 4 (tapering) compared with that of other weeks (p 0.05). There was a significant decrease in URTI symptom severity during week 4 as compared with that of weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.05), with a significant correlation between weekly TL and URTI severity and weekly TL during week 4 (rs = 0.75; p < 0.05). The present findings suggest that futsal athletes are more susceptible to high URTI symptom severity in the periods of higher training. Therefore, the reduction in TLs before competitions is an appropriate strategy to minimize URTI symptoms ensuring the athlete's ability to train and compete.

  16. Online video-based resistance training improves the physical capacity of junior basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.

  17. Features power ectomorphs athletes are engaged in bodybuilding in transition training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dzhym

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and study the diet of athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs in transition training considering the restoration of lean body mass and functional state of an athlete Material and Methods: the study involved 18 athletes engaged in bodybuilding ectomorphs included in the national team in the Kharkiv region bodybuilding. Methods were used: the theoretical method and summarize the literature, pedagogical supervision, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: comparative characteristics of the diet have been developed for athletes ectomorphs engaged on bodybuilding to increase muscle weight. It was divided the athletes into two experimental groups: the first EG used a balanced diet that made protein 2 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight and carbohydrates 4–5 g•kg–1 in the second EG was protein 3 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight, and carbohydrate 6 grams kg. Second EG diet consists of 6 single meal and is about 2800–3500 calories per day. Conclusions: on the basis of research by the author offered the optimal diet for athletes ektomorfiv second experimental group engaged in bodybuilding.

  18. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paajanen, Hannu [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kuopio (Finland); Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari [Central Hospital of Mikkeli, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)

  19. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  20. The Delphi Method: An Approach for Facilitating Evidence Based Practice in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bulger, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The growing importance of evidence based practice in athletic training is necessitating academics and clinicians to be able to make judgments about the quality or lack of the body of research evidence and peer-reviewed standards pertaining to clinical questions. To assist in the judgment process, consensus methods, namely brainstorming,…

  1. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  2. Learning Style Preferences of Undergraduate Dietetics, Athletic Training, and Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meredith G.; Hansen, Pamela; Rhee, Yeong; Brundt, Ardith; Terbizan, Donna; Christensen, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the preferred learning style (LS) of college students and compared LS preferences among students majoring in Dietetics, Exercise Science, and Athletic Training. LS questionnaires were distributed to students (N = 693, mean age 20.5 ± 1.7) enrolled in health science courses at three Midwestern universities. Most students…

  3. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  4. The Medallion Program: Using the Generic Sport Model to Train Athletes with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Wendy J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Manitoba Special Olympics Medallion Program which provides Special Olympians with the opportunity to engage in sport-specific training at the level required to improve athletic performance. The program is more competitive than general Special Olympics physical activity programs which are more recreational in nature. (SM)

  5. Dietary protein intake and distribution patterns of well-trained Dutch athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillen, Jenna B.; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C.; Brinkmans, Naomi Y.J.; Versteegen, Joline J.; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Kapp, Christoph; Vries, de Jeanne; Borne, van den Joost J.G.C.; Gibala, Martin J.; Loon, van Luc J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day

  6. Strategies for Highly Effective Athletic Training Education Program Directors: A Practical Approach to Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E.; Gray, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Following "Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" by Stephen Covey, this article seeks to communicate effective strategies for athletic training education Program Directors (PDs) to follow. Commentary of Covey's work and practical strategies to integrate them into PD practice and responsibilities are provided. Background: Due to a lack…

  7. Perceptions from Athletic Training Students Involved in an Intentional Peer-Assisted Learning Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has been shown to benefit students across educational levels. Current research has investigated perceptions of PAL, postgraduate impact, as well as prevalence. This study investigated athletic training students' perceptions of an intentional PAL pedagogy on both the peer-student and peer-tutor. In this study,…

  8. Exploring Senior Level Athletic Training Students' Perceptions on Burnout and Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jessica L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The professional socialization process enables athletic training students (ATSs) to gain insights into behaviors, values, and attitudes that characterize their chosen profession. However, the process often focuses on skill development over professional issues. ATSs may be exposed to burnout and work-life conflict, which may impact their…

  9. The Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Knowledge and Behavior to Provide Culturally Competent Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynas, Suzette Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…

  10. Standardized Patient Encounters Improved Athletic Training Students' Confidence in Clinical Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Researchers have reported that interacting with standardized patients (SPs) is a worthwhile and realistic experience for athletic training (AT) students. These encounters enhance students' interviewing skills, confidence as a clinician, clinical skill development, and interpersonal communication. Objective: To determine how SP encounters…

  11. The Impact of Clinical Experiences from Athletic Training Student and Preceptor Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Sarah S.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical education is an integral part of athletic training programs. This is where students should develop their professional identities and become socialized into the profession. Understanding the student and preceptor perspectives of the impact that clinical experiences have on students can provide valuable insight into this aspect of…

  12. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and

  13. Individual moral philosophies and ethical decision making of undergraduate athletic training students and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Gould, Trenton E

    2008-01-01

    Ethics research in athletic training is lacking. Teaching students technical skills is important, but teaching them how to reason and to behave in a manner that befits responsible health care professionals is equally important. To expand ethics research in athletic training by (1) describing undergraduate athletic training students' and educators' individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making abilities and (2) investigating the effects of sex and level of education on mean composite individual moral philosophies and ethical decision-making scores. Stratified, multistage, cluster-sample correlational study. Mailed survey instruments were distributed in classroom settings at 30 institutions having Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training programs. Undergraduate students and educators (n = 598: 373 women, 225 men; mean age = 23.5 +/- 6.3 years) from 25 CAAHEP-accredited athletic training programs. We used the Ethics Position Questionnaire and the Dilemmas in Athletic Training Questionnaire to compute participants' mean composite individual moral philosophies (idealism and relativism) and ethical decision-making scores, respectively. Three separate 2 (sex: male, female) x 3 (education level: underclass, upper class, educator) between-subjects factorial analyses of variance using idealism, relativism, and ethical decision-making scores as dependent measures were performed. Respondents reported higher idealism scores (37.57 +/- 4.91) than relativism scores (31.70 +/- 4.80) (response rate = 83%). The mean ethical decision-making score for all respondents was 80.76 +/- 7.88. No significant interactions were revealed. The main effect for sex illustrated that men reported significantly higher relativism scores ( P = .0014, eta (2) = .015) than did women. The main effect for education level revealed significant differences between students' and educators' idealism ( P = .0190, eta (2) = .013), relativism

  14. Concurrent Development of Endurance Capacity and Explosiveness: Training Characteristics of World-Class Nordic-Combined Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Espen; Rasdal, Vegard; Svendsen, Ida S; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-07-01

    Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing. To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes' training and determine how endurance and non-endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized. Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non-endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes. Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P endurance training, including 211 ± 44 h of power and ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non-endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P endurance training toward the competition phase, followed by an increase in the relative contribution of power and ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.

  15. Train hard, sleep well? Perceived training load, sleep quantity and sleep stage distribution in elite level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knufinke, Melanie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Geurts, Sabine A E; Møst, Els I S; Maase, Kamiel; Moen, Maarten H; Coenen, Anton M L; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-07-12

    Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While it is generally assumed that exercise benefits sleep, high training load may jeopardize sleep and hence limit adequate recovery. To examine this, the current study assessed objective sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions in elite athletes and calculated their association with perceived training load. Mixed-methods. Perceived training load, actigraphy and one-channel EEG recordings were collected among 98 elite athletes during 7 consecutive days of regular training. Actigraphy revealed total sleep durations of 7:50±1:08h, sleep onset latencies of 13±15min, wake after sleep onset of 33±17min and sleep efficiencies of 88±5%. Distribution of sleep stages indicated 51±9% light sleep, 21±8% deep sleep, and 27±7% REM sleep. On average, perceived training load was 5.40±2.50 (scale 1-10), showing large daily variability. Mixed-effects models revealed no alteration in sleep quantity or sleep stage distributions as a function of day-to-day variation in preceding training load (all p's>.05). Results indicate healthy sleep durations, but elevated wake after sleep onset, suggesting a potential need for sleep optimization. Large proportions of deep sleep potentially reflect an elevated recovery need. With sleep quantity and sleep stage distributions remaining irresponsive to variations in perceived training load, it is questionable whether athletes' current sleep provides sufficient recovery after strenuous exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying talented track and field athletes: The impact of relative age effect on selection to the Spanish National Athletics Federation training camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Müller, Lisa; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the impact of relative age effect (RAE) on selection to the Spanish National Athletics Federation (RFEA) training camps (TC) between 2006 and 2013. Overall, 1,334 selected athletes at U15 years (cadet) and U17 years (juvenile) were compared against 27,711 licensed but unselected athletes for the same age groups. The results highlighted the influential role of the RAE on selection to national level track and field training camp opportunities. Interestingly, this effect was mediated by age and gender, where effects were stronger for both males and younger athletes (U15), with no evidence of RAE for older (U17) female athletes. These results support the "maturation-selection" hypothesis as a mechanism for RAE. Particularly given the long-term goals of RFEA (e.g., production of successful senior elite athletes), these results highlight the need to consider the impact of current selection processes on effective provision of opportunities to those athletes with most potential to succeed in the long term. A number of possible context-relevant solutions are discussed, including education and awareness raising, using holistic selection criteria and correction adjustments techniques.

  17. EFFECTS OF ELECTROSTIMULATION AND PLYOMETRIC TRAINING PROGRAM COMBINATION ON JUMP HEIGHT IN TEENAGE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Martínez-López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight- week (2 days/week training periods of plyometric exercises (PT and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and drop jump (DJ were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52% and 47 females (48%, 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT only, the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after < 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes

  18. Effects of electrostimulation and plyometric training program combination on jump height in teenage athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Emilio J; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes.

  19. Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Simone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Core stability training (CST has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60], and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]. The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]. The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to postintervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N· NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64], and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N· NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70] landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week

  20. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  1. Induction and decay of short-term heat acclimation in moderately and highly trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Andrew T; Rehrer, Nancy J; Patterson, Mark J

    2011-09-01

    A rethinking of current heat-acclimation strategies is required as most research and advice for improving physiological strain in the heat includes maintaining hydration using long-term acclimation protocols (>10 days). Furthermore, these strategies have tended to use untrained and moderately trained participants. Therefore, the aims of this review were to (i) investigate the effectiveness of short-term heat acclimation (STHA) with moderately and highly trained athletes; (ii) determine the importance of fluid regulatory strain, which has a thermally independent role in heat adaptation; (iii) assess the impact of STHA on a marker of thermotolerance (inducible heat-shock protein 70 [HSP70]); and (iv) provide further information on the decay of acclimation to heat. The review suggests that 5-day STHA is effective, and adaptations may be more pronounced after fluid regulatory strain from a dehydration-acclimation regimen. Furthermore, highly trained athletes may have similar physiological gains to those who are less trained using STHA. However, research has tended to focus on untrained or moderately trained participants and more information is required for highly trained populations. HSP70 response is upregulated across STHA. This indicates increased thermotolerance and protective adaptive change that may indicate HSP70 response as a useful marker of heat acclimation. Physiological adaptations after heat acclimation are relatively short term and may vanish only a few days or weeks after removal from heat exposure. From a practical perspective 5-day STHA may be the preferred acclimation regimen for moderately and highly trained athletes as it has been shown to be effective, less expensive and less likely to disrupt the tapering for competition in elite performers. Furthermore, updated information on the time course of acclimation decay may allow a reliable estimate of how long individuals can be free from heat exposure before reacclimation is required. This is

  2. External kinetics of the kettlebell snatch in trained athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, James A.; Keogh, Justin W.L.; Cameron J. Wilson; Lorenzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Kettlebell lifting has gained increased popularity as both a form of resistance training and as a sport, despite the paucity of literature validating its use as a training tool. Kettlebell sport requires participants to complete the kettlebell snatch continuously over prolonged periods of time. Kettlebell sport and weightlifting involve similar exercises, however their traditional uses suggest they are better suited to training different fitness qualities. This study examined the ...

  3. Effects of resistance training, overtraining, and early specialization on youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Benjamin K; Read, Connor R; Estes, A Reed

    2017-06-08

    In 2014, 60 million youth ages 6-18 participated in some form of generalized athletics. 3.5 million children are injured annually participating in organized sport or recreational activities. While sound physical education can decrease the burden of youth sports injuries, the median annual physical education budget of $764 for United States elementary, middle and high schools may not allow enough flexibility to apply evidenced-based guidelines. The topics were selected after a careful review of the 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development. Articles used to summarize the topics were located by using and cross-referencing sources from this statement. PubMed searches were also conducted using the key words "youth sports injuries," "early sports specialization," "training and maturation," "training versus developmental stage," and "long term athletic development." Youth resistance training has been shown to decrease not only the risk of injury, but also of the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Adequate recovery time also decreases injury risk, and resources such as the RESTQ-Sport are available to help coaches identify stress-recovery imbalances, which can be detected two months before an athlete becomes overreached. Through early detection of overtraining, a significant proportion of overuse injuries can be prevented. Early specialization causes fewer muscle groups to be worked and increased repetition, theoretically increasing the risk of injury and early sport dropout. Prior to puberty, increased neuronal activation and adaptation can be achieved through focusing on agility, balance and coordination, thus taking advantage of increased synaptoplasticity. In these early years, neuronal stimulation is more important than muscle hypertrophy, which plays a greater role in athletic development after puberty. A substantial proportion of youth injuries are preventable. Coaches and physical

  4. Effects of Electrostimulation and Plyometric Training Program Combination on Jump Height in Teenage Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Benito-Martínez, Elisa; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lara-Sánchez, Amador; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight-week (2 days/week) training periods of plyometric exercises (PT) and neuromuscular electrostimulation (EMS) on jump height in young athletes. Squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were performed to assess the effects of the training protocols 98 athletes (100 & 200m and 100m & 110m hurdles) voluntarily took part in this study, 51 males (52%) and 47 females (48%), 17.91 ± 1.42 years old, and 5.16 ± 2.56 years of training experience. The participants were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the frequency and the timing of the stimulation. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effects of every training program on jump height. Our findings suggest that compared to control (Plyometrics (PT) only), the combination of 150Hz EMS + PT simultaneously combined in an 8 week (2days/week) training program, we could observe significant jump height improvements in the different types of strength: explosive, explosive-elastic, and explosive-elastic-reactive. The combination of PT after ≤ 85 Hz EMS did not show any jump height significant increase in sprinters. In conclusion, an eight week training program (with just two days per week) of EMS combined with plyometric exercises has proven useful for the improvement of every kind of vertical jump ability required for sprint and hurdles disciplines in teenage athletes. Key points The combined use of high frequency electromyostimulation and plyometric training 2 days/week in an 8 week training program produce significant improvements in jump height in teenage athletes. A high-frequency (≥ 150 Hz) EMS and its simultaneous application with PT can significantly contribute to the improvement of the three different types of strength manifestations (explosive, explosive-elastic and explosive-elastic-reactive strength). An alternate training with different stimulation frequencies [85Hz EMS/ PT combination and 150Hz EMS

  5. The 21st-century college student: implications for athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Buxton, B

    1997-01-01

    With the onset of the 21 st century and increasing student diversity, institutions of higher education must become more attuned to the challenges, concerns, and needs of students entering the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. This review discusses the characteristics of the 21st-century college student. The sources for this information were courses of study in the authors' doctoral programs from 1980 to 1994. In the 21 st century, students of increasingly diverse ages, races, cultures, ethnicities, and classes will enter the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. Institutions of higher education that recognize the needs of their nontraditional students will be better able to serve these students. To effectively serve the 21st-century student, institutions of higher education must provide multicultural training, flexible schedules, accelerated programs, and learning experiences that are both practical and tangible.

  6. Physiological Adaptations following Resistance Training in Youth Athletes-A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Marzilger, Robert; Bohm, Sebastian; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2016-11-01

    To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues. The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes. The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area. Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.

  7. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  8. Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düking, Peter; Hotho, Andreas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables) provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete's training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health.

  9. Predicting Sport Experience During Training: The Role of Change-Oriented Feedback in Athletes' Motivation, Self-Confidence and Needs Satisfaction Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Joëlle; Mageau, Geneviève A

    2016-02-01

    Change-oriented feedback (COF) quality is predictive of between-athletes differences in their sport experience (Carpentier & Mageau, 2013). This study extends these findings by investigating how training-to-training variations in COF quality influence athletes' training experience (within-athlete differences) while controlling for the impact of promotion-oriented feedback (POF). In total, 49 athletes completed a diary after 15 consecutive training sessions to assess COF and POF received during training, as well as situational outcomes. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed that, when controlling for covariates, COF quality during a specific training session is positively linked to athletes' autonomous motivation, self-confidence and satisfaction of their psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness during the same session. In contrast, COF quantity is negatively linked to athletes' need for competence. POF quality is a significant positive predictor of athletes' self-confidence and needs for autonomy and competence. Contributions to the feedback and SDT literature, and for coaches' training, are discussed.

  10. Training Personnel and Procedures for Special Olympics Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sue Ellen

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the concept of sports training, a survey was conducted of 170 Special Olympics coaches in Ohio. The survey sought to determine who was responsible for training Special Olympians, their qualifications, and their specific needs and interests concerning preparation for coaching responsibilities. (Author/JDD)

  11. Strenght training and anabolic steroids : a comparative study of the trapezius, a shoulder muscle and the vastus lateralis, a thigh muscle, of strength trained athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Strength training is widely used to increase performance in sports with high physical demands. The use of drugs such as anabolic steroids among athletes is a wellknown phenomenon, and the effects of these drugs on physical performance documented. The studies presented in this thesis focused on the mechanisms of muscle fiber hypertrophy in the vastus lateralis and the trapezius muscles of strength trained elite athletes. The main hypothesis was that the muscle adaptations to strength training ...

  12. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...

  13. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which......Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...

  14. Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

  15. Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…

  16. Importance of Various Training-Load Measures in Injury Incidence of Professional Rugby League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.

  17. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164 by a 3rd degree polynomial regression (R2 = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001. We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days.

  18. An evaluation of an educational intervention in psychology of injury for athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller-Ostrowski, Jennifer L; Gould, Daniel R; Covassin, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    "Psychosocial Intervention and Referral" is 1 of the 12 content areas in athletic training education programs, but knowledge gained and skill usage after an educational intervention in this area have never been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention in increasing psychology-of-injury knowledge and skill usage in athletic training students (ATSs). Observational study. An accredited athletic training education program at a large Midwestern university. Participants included 26 ATSs divided into 2 groups: intervention group (4 men, 7 women; age = 21.4 +/- 0.67 years, grade point average = 3.37) and control group (7 men, 8 women; age = 21.5 +/- 3.8 years, grade point average = 3.27). All participants completed the Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention. Psychology-of-injury knowledge tests and skill usage surveys were administered to all participants at the following intervals: baseline, intervention week 3, and intervention week 6. Retention tests were administered to intervention-group participants at 7 and 14 weeks after intervention. Analysis techniques included mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated-measures ANOVA. The Applied Sport Psychology for Athletic Trainers educational intervention effectively increased psychology-of-injury knowledge (29-point increase from baseline to intervention week 6; F(2,23) = 29.358, P educational intervention designed to improve ATSs' knowledge and skill usage revealed that the intervention was effective. Although both knowledge and skill usage scores decreased by the end of the retention period, the scores were still higher than baseline scores, indicating that the intervention was effective.

  19. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim

    2009-10-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses.

  20. Acceptance of isotonic and hypotonic rehydrating beverages by athletes during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décombaz, J; Gmünder, B; Daget, N; Munoz-Box, R; Howald, H

    1992-01-01

    This study compared the acceptance of two beverages (5% carbohydrate) of distinct osmolarities (hypotonic, 180 mOsm/kg and isotonic, 295 mOsm/kg) during the usual training practice of 97 athletes. A quantitative sensory profile by independent tasters ensured that organoleptic recognition would be unlikely during the tests. Each drink was consumed ad libitum during 3 different training sessions, at home. At each session, a subjective appreciation of hedonic and post-ingestive physiological effects (6 criteria) was obtained by means of a questionnaire. At the end of the experiment, the athletes were asked to express a preference for one of the "six" drinks. More athletes (blindly) chose the isotonic compared to the hypotonic drink (p = 0.03). This difference was not due intrinsically to the drinks, which the subjects were unable to distinguish on any of the criteria, but was related to certain aspects of the consumer's characteristics. Both groups had different drinking practices: the subjects choosing the isotonic beverage drank less before (p = 0.001) and more during (p = 0.013) the exercise. Age, sex, dimensions or type of physical activity (i.e. endurance vs speed/strength disciplines) were unrelated to the preference, except perhaps the duration of habitual exercise (p less than 0.05). We concluded that athletes, although unable to distinguish a hypotonic from an isotonic drink, may have specific habits and/or personal characteristics prompting them to favour one of them.

  1. The institutional and professional benefits of housing athletic training education programs in schools of health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbach, Anthony P; Brown, Sara D

    2011-01-01

    Accredited Athletic Training Education programs (ATEPs) are sponsored by over 350 universities and are housed in a variety of academic units ranging from schools of education to schools of health professions. There are advantages to all stakeholders housing ATEPs in schools of health professions. Formed in the 1960s, many of the early ATEPs were housed in schools of education, when most program faculty and staff were employed by athletics departments and the profession had a distinct curricular connection to coaching. Athletic training has since evolved to a health care profession, and its educational processes need to reflect this model. By housing ATEPs in units that educate other health care providers, many efficiencies and collaborative opportunities are introduced with a resulting overall improvement in the quality of the professional education of athletic trainers. The authors, directors of ATEPs housed in schools of health professions, provide examples of these benefits, which include opportunities for participation in interprofessional initiatives; opportunities for faculty development and collaborative teaching among like-minded faculty; improved mechanisms for scholarship, support and funding mechanisms; and economies of scale in terms of program delivery requirements.

  2. Core strengthening and synchronized swimming: TRX® suspension training in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Amalia; Campanella, Marta; Fasano, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Developing muscle strength and full body stability is essential for the efficient execution of technical moves in synchronized swimming. However, many swimmers find it difficult to control body stability while executing particular figures in water. We evaluated the effects of TRX® suspension training (2 sessions weekly for 6 months on core strength and core stability in young female. Twenty synchronized swimmers (Beginners A category, mean age 10±1 years) are divided in experimental group (EG; N.=10 athletes) and control group (CG; N.=10 athletes). EG received suspension training twice weekly (each session lasting about 15 min) as dryland exercises for 6 months in addition to routine training. CG completed routine training with conventional dryland exercises. Before (T1) and after (T2) completion of the study oblique and transversus abdominis muscle force was measured using a Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback unit, in prone and supine positions, and isotonic muscle endurance was evaluated with the McGill Test. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed a significant increase (Ptraining in dryland exercises for muscle strengthening in young athletes practicing synchronized swimming, and in general reiterates the importance of strengthening the core area to ensure stability and specific adaptations, improve the quality of the movement and prevent against injury.

  3. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (Ptraining, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (Pendurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Initial systemic inflammatory state perturbs exercise training adaptations in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yu Chen

    Full Text Available This study examined ten-week TKD-specific training effects on aerobic capacity, body composition, hormone responses and hematological parameters in elite TKD athletes with varied initial inflammatory states.Twenty-two elite college TKD athletes were divided into two groups according to their initial neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio (NLR values: Low NLR (N = 11, 9M/2F, age: 21.6 ± 1.0 yrs; NLR: 1.3 ± 0.2 and High NLR (N = 11, 8M/3F, age: 22.0 ± 0.7 yrs, NLR: 2.5 ± 1.3, and participated in a 10-week TKD-specific training program. Aerobic capacity, body composition, hormonal responses and hematological parameters were measured at baseline and 10-weeks after TKD training.VO2max and shuttle run distance were significantly increased in both groups after training. However, the degree of improvement was greater in the Low NLR group than in the High NLR group. After 10-weeks of exercise training, the High NLR group presented markedly higher fat mass percentage and visceral fat area and significantly lowers DHEA-S to cortisol ratio (D/C ratio than the Low NRL group. The post-training NLR was negatively correlated with the D/C ratio. Neutrophil counts and NLR were still significantly higher in the High NLR group after training.This study provides new evidence that young elite TKD athletes with slightly high baseline systemic inflammatory state appear to perturb adaptations to exercise training.

  5. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozmen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.

  6. The impact of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and type of training on left ventricular remodeling and function in competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Long-term intensive training is associated with distinctive cardiac adaptations which are known as athlete’s heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS could affect echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV morphology and function in elite strength and endurance athletes. Methods. A total of 20 elite strength athletes (10 AAS users and 10 non-users were compared to 12 steroid-free endurance athletes. All the subjects underwent comprehensive standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Results. After being indexed for body surface area, both left atrium (LA and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD were significantly higher in the endurance than strength athletes, regardless of AAS use (p < 0.05, for both. A significant correlation was found between LA diameter and LVEDD in the steroid-free endurance athletes, showing that 75% of LA size variability depends on variability of LVEDD (p < 0.001. No significant differences in ejection fraction and cardiac output were observed among the groups, although mildly reduced LV ejection fraction was seen only in the AAS users. The AAS-using strength athletes had higher A-peak velocity when compared to steroidfree athletes, regardless of training type (p < 0.05 for both. Both AAS-using and AAS-free strength athletes had lower e’ peak velocity and higher E/e’ ratio than endurance athletes (p < 0.05, for all. Conclusions. There is no evidence that LV ejection fraction in elite athletes is altered by either type of training or AAS misuse. Long-term endurance training is associated with preferable effects on LV diastolic function compared to strength training, particularly when the latter is combined with AAS abuse.

  7. Fire Service Training. Portable Fire Extinguishers. (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of portable fire extinguishers. Designed to be used with the Robert J. Brady Transparencies and/or the film "Portable Fire Extinguishers" and with the International Fire Service Training Association Manual No. 101,…

  8. Short-term effects of proprioceptive training with unstable platform on athletes' stabilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Osuna-Pérez, M Catalina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term stabilometric effects of proprioceptive training in athletes by using a BOSU ball and a Swiss ball as unstable platforms. Thirty-seven athletes from a variety of disciplines were divided into a control group (n = 17) and an experimental group (n = 20). Both performed a warm-up, and in addition, the experimental group carried out a proprioceptive exercise session after the warm-up. Proprioceptive exercise session consisted of six 25-minute exercise sessions with the BOSU ball and the Swiss ball as unstable platforms. Bipedal stabilometry was assessed before the training session (M0), immediately after training (M1), 30 minutes later (M2), 1 hour after training (M3), 6 hours after training (M4), and 24 hours after training (M5). Analysis of variance (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences immediately after training (M1) in speed (p = 0.022) and length covered by the center of pressure (p = 0.021) in the experimental group. These differences were even more acute 6 hours later (M4; p = 0.021). In fact, the same group exhibited significant differences in mediolateral position after 30 minutes (M2; p = 0.001) compared with the baseline measure and the control group. Apart from these, no other significant differences were found. A proprioceptive exercise session using a BOSU ball and a Swiss ball as unstable platforms induced short-term negative effects on the stabilometry of athletes. Likewise, an immediate trend to improvement was apparent in the stabilometry of the control group after the warm-up.

  9. Brain-training for physical performance: a study of EEG-neurofeedback and alpha relaxation training in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Paluch, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Marek; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, EEG-neurofeedback training (EEG-NFB) has been increasingly used to optimize various brain functions. Better performance in various activities was also reported after relaxation trainings, another popular method in therapeutic practice. Both these methods are used as a part of professional coaching in sports training centers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of such holistic training on physiological (EEG) and behavioral measures on semi-professional athletes. EEG-NFB paradigm was intended for amplification of the amplitudes of SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta1 (13-20 Hz) bands and simultaneous reduction of the amplitude of theta (4-7.5 Hz) and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Participation in NFB sessions was accompanied with self-administration of relaxing, audio-visual stimulation after each daily athletic training session. The training program resulted in the increase of alpha and beta1 power of trained participants when assessed in rest with eyes-closed. In eyes - open state, participants of the trained group maintained the same level in all frequency bands, in opposite to the control subjects, whose power decreased in the second measurement in beta1 band when compared to the first one. The trained group exhibited greater reduction of reaction times in a test of visual attention than the control group and showed improvement in several performance measures of Kraepelin's work-curve, used to evaluate speed, effectiveness and work accuracy. Together, these results present initial support for the use of holistic, neurophysiological training in sports workout.

  10. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes

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    De Luca Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist. Aim of study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters for better characterize the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different kind of sports. Eventually, verify early on any possible impact due to the regular sport activity not revealed by the standard parameters. Methods 50 young athletes (16 cyclists, 17 soccer players, 17 basket players regularly trained at least three times a week for at least 9 months a year and 10 young controls (mean age 18.5 ± 0.5 years were evaluated either by to 2D echocardiography or by a Speckle Tracking (ST multi-layer approach to calculate Left Ventricle (LV endocardial and epicardial rotation, twist, circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS. Data were compared by ANOVA test. Results All the found values were within the normal range. Left Ventricle Diastolic Diameter (LVDD 51.7 ± 2.6 mm, Cardiac Mass index (CMi 114.5 ± 18.5 g/m2, epi-CS, epi-LS, epicardial apex rotation and the Endo/Epi twist were significantly higher only in cyclists. In all the groups, a physiological difference of the Endo/Epi basal circumferential strain and twist values have been found. A weak but not significant relationship between the Endo and twist values and LVDD (r2 = 0.44, p = .005 and CMi was also reported in cyclists. Conclusions Progressive increase of apical LV twist may represent an important component of myocardial remodelling. This aspect is particularly evident in the young cyclists group where the CMi and the LVDD are higher. ST multilayer approach completes the LV performance evaluation in young trained athletes showing values similar to adults.

  11. Differential modulation of motor cortex plasticity in skill- and endurance-trained athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpulainen, Susanne; Avela, Janne; Gruber, Markus; Bergmann, Julian; Voigt, Michael; Linnamo, Vesa; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    PurposeExtensive evidence exists that regular physical exercise offers neuroplastic benefits to the brain. In this study, exercise-specific effects on motor cortex plasticity were compared between 15 skilled and 15 endurance trained athletes and 8 controls.MethodsPlasticity was tested with a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. PAS is a non-invasive stimulation method developed to induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of the cortical projections to the target muscles. Mot...

  12. Nonlocalized postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects in trained athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Fernández, Francisco; Smith, Ian C; Jordan, Matthew J; MacIntosh, Brian R; López-Contreras, Gracia; Arellano, Raúl; Herzog, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Fifteen trained athletes were assessed for postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) of squat jumps (SJs) and power push-ups (PPUs) following upper body activation, lower body activation, upper and lower body activation, and rest. SJ improved similarly across all 4 conditions. PPU could not be assessed. Since the test protocol of SJ and PPU involved upper and lower body activation and caused PAPE in SJ, future work is required to determine if a nonlocalized PAPE effect exists.

  13. Limb skeletal muscle adaptation in athletes after training at altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, M; Juel, C; Bro-Rasmussen, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical characteristics of biopsies obtained from gastrocnemius (GAS) and triceps brachii muscle (TRI), as well as maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and O2 deficit, were determined in 10 well-trained cross-country skiers before and after a 2-wk stay (2,100 m above sea level) and t...

  14. High School Football Injury Rates and Services by Athletic Trainer Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Lynall, Robert C; Mauntel, Timothy C; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Reported injury rates and services in sports injury surveillance may be influenced by the employment setting of the certified athletic trainers (ATs) reporting these data. To determine whether injury rates and the average number of AT services per injury in high school football varied by AT employment status. Cross-sectional study. We used data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network and surveyed ATs about their employment setting. Forty-four responding ATs (37.9% of all National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network participants) worked at high schools with football programs and were included in this study. Fourteen ATs were full-time employees of the high school, and 30 ATs were employed as outreach ATs (i.e., full-time and part-time ATs from nearby clinics, hospitals, and graduate school programs). We calculated injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures and average number of AT services per injury. Reported injury rates and services per injury were greater among full-time school employees compared with outreach ATs. However, injury rates did not differ when restricted to time-loss injuries only. Our findings suggest that ATs who are full-time school employees may be able to identify and care for more patients with injuries.

  15. Service Quality and Satisfaction Perspectives at the 2011 International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) World Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kil; Kim, Suk-Kyu; Lee, Donghun; Judge, Lawrence W.; Huang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and analyze the factors that contribute to perceived service quality, user satisfaction, and behavioral intention in covering megasporting events at the Main Media Center for the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) Track and Field World Championships. The data were collected…

  16. [Effects of Complex Versus Block Strength Training on the Athletic Performance of Elite Youth Soccer Players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenta, C; Granacher, U; Lesinski, M; Schünemann, C; Muehlbauer, T; Mühlbauer, T

    2016-03-01

    Muscle strength and speed are important determinants of soccer performance. It has previously been shown that complex training (CT, combination of strength and plyometric exercises within a single training session) is effective to enhance strength and speed performance in athletes. However, it is unresolved whether CT is more effective than conventional strength training that is delivered in one single block (BT) to increase proxies of athletic performance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CT versus BT on measures of muscle strength/power, speed, and agility in elite youth soccer players. Eighteen male elite youth soccer players conducted six weeks (2 sessions/week, 30 min. each) of progressive CT (n = 10, age: 18.5 ± 2.2 years) or BT (n = 8, age: 18.1 ± 1.6 years) in addition to their regular soccer training (approx. 6 sessions/week, 60-90 min. each). Before and after training, tests were conducted for the assessment of strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM] squat), power (countermovement jump [CMJ]), speed (30-m linear sprint), and agility (T test). Non-parametric analyses were used to calculate differences within (Wilcoxon test) and between (Mann-Whitney-U test) groups. Both CT and BT proved to be safe (i.e. no training-related, but six match-related injuries reported) and feasible (i.e. attendance rate of ≥ 80% in both groups) training regimens when implemented in addition to regular soccer training. The statistical analysis revealed significant improvements from pre-training to post-training tests for the CT group in 1 RM squat (p = 0.043) and CMJ height (p = 0.046). For the BT-group, significantly enhanced sprint times were observed over 5 m (p = 0.039) and 10 m (p = 0.026). Furthermore, both groups significantly improved their t test time (CT: p = 0.046; BT: p = 0.027). However, group comparisons (CT vs. BT) over time (post-training minus pre-training test) did not show any significant differences. Six weeks of CT and

  17. The role of legitimation in the professional socialization of second-year undergraduate athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossner, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Professional socialization during formal educational preparation can help students learn professional roles and can lead to improved organizational socialization as students emerge as members of the occupation's culture. Professional socialization research in athletic training is limited. To present the role of legitimation and how it influences the professional socialization of second-year athletic training students. Modified constructivist grounded theory and case study methods were used for this qualitative study. An accredited undergraduate athletic training education program. Twelve second-year students were selected purposively. The primary sample group (n = 4) was selected according to theoretical sampling guidelines. The remaining students made up the cohort sample (n = 8). Theoretically relevant data were gathered from 14 clinical instructors to clarify emergent student data. Data collection included document examination, observations, and interviews during 1 academic semester. Data were collected and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Data triangulation, member checking, and peer-review strategies were used to ensure trustworthiness. Legitimation from various socializing agents initiated professional socialization. Students viewed trust and team membership as rewards for role fulfillment. My findings are consistent with the socialization literature that shows how learning a social or professional role, using rewards to facilitate role performance, and building trusting relationships with socializing agents are important aspects of legitimation and, ultimately, professional socialization.

  18. Sedentary subjects have higher PAI-1 and lipoproteins levels than highly trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Fabio S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise protects against the development of cardiovascular disease, partly by lowering plasmatic total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, it is now established that reduction plasmatic adiponectin and increased C-reactive protein (CRP and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels play a role in the maintenance of an inflammatory state and in the development of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to examine plasma lipid profile and inflammatory markers levels in individual with sedentary lifestyle and/or highly trained athletes at rest. Methods: Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7 and highly trained athletes n = 7 were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (~12 h. The plasmatic lipid profile (Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-oxidized and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, glucose, adiponectin, C - reactive protein and PAI-1 levels were determined. Results: Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TG and PAI-1 levels were lower in highly trained athletes group in relation to sedentary subjects (p

  19. eLearning: Is There a Place in Athletic Training Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth E; Stewart, Jeffrey; Wright, Vivian H; Barker, Scott

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current issue and research literature that discusses the use of eLearning in an academic curriculum. We address several components to be examined before eLearning is incorporated into athletic training education. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) from 2000 through 2002 using the key words distance education, online learning, and the individual research studies referenced in this article. DATA SYNTHESIS: Educational research studies have confirmed that multiple methods in instruction delivery exist. Within the changing culture of higher education, the use of effective communication tools has been shown to increase student knowledge and skills. Through eLearning, methods of instruction design are designed to be student centered and allow the educator to become a facilitator. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Even though the use of eLearning faces many challenges in athletic training education, the research literature does support this method of instructional delivery in selected courses in athletic training education.

  20. Endurance rather than sprint running training increases left ventricular wall thickness in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Raugaliene, Rasa; Mazutaitiene, Birute; Ramoskeviciute, Sonata

    2008-02-01

    Competitive athletics is often associated with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to shed more light on the extent and type of cardiac hypertrophic response to different athletic conditioning in females. Standard two-dimensional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest in Caucasian female sprinters (n = 10) and long-distance runners (n = 10) of similar age (range 16-34 years), training experience (5-18 years) and competitive level, and in age-matched healthy female sedentary controls (n = 10). No differences in echocardiographic parameters were detected between female sprinters and sedentary controls (p > 0.05). Interventricular septum and LV wall (p sprinters or sedentary controls. Absolute LV diameter was not increased in long-distance runners (p > 0.05), though relative LV diameter was higher in long-distance runners as compared to sprinters (p 0.05). In conclusion, sprint running training has not been found to induce alterations in cardiac morphology or function at rest in female athletes. Cardiac mass in female long-distance runners is higher mainly due to myocardial wall thickening, while integral myocardial function at rest is not affected as a consequence of either this hypertrophy or sprint training.

  1. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition.

  2. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-09-01

    To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.

  3. Effects of Intermittent Training on Anaerobic Performance and MCT Transporters in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J.; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R.; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30.week−1) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (panaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective. PMID:24797797

  4. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimani Maamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  5. Analysis of the Relationship Between Training Experience and Visual Sensory Functions in Athletes from Different Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesiakowski Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gaining insight into the mechanisms and scope of possible adaptations of visual functions to the conditions determined by the demands imposed by sports training seems to be very interesting not only from a cognitive point of view, but also with respect to the practical applications of the findings of such investigations in the training process. The aim of the study was to assess the function of early visual processing in athletes representing different sports disciplines with varying training experience. Material and methods. The study involved 95 athletes practising football (n = 24, volleyball (n = 22, boxing (n = 26, and rowing (n = 23. The bioelectric function of the visual pathway was assessed based on recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs. The regions which were stimulated were the peripheral and central areas of the retina. During the test, we recorded the amplitude (μV and latency (ms of the P100 component of the VEP waveform for both monocular stimulation (for the dominant and non-dominant eye and binocular stimulation. Results. Lower VEP P100 amplitude values were found for the peripheral and central locations for monocular and binocular viewing in more experienced volleyball players and rowers (p 0.05 in intragroup variability in VEP P100 latency in relation to training experience in any of the sports disciplines examined. Conclusions. Training experience has an influence on the early stage of sensory processing with respect to neural activity. Training experience has been found to differentiate athletes in terms of the temporal parameters of the visual evoked potentials recorded in the current study only to a limited extent.

  6. The Association of Sport Specialization and Training Volume With Injury History in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Riekena, Jeremy W; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    2017-05-01

    Recommendations exist to encourage safe youth participation in sport. These recommendations include not specializing in 1 sport, limiting participation to less than 8 months per year, and limiting participation to fewer hours per week than a child's age. However, limited evidence exists to support or refute these recommendations. High levels of specialization will be associated with a history of injuries and especially overuse injuries, independent of age, sex, or weekly sport training hours. Athletes who exceed current sport volume recommendations will be more likely to have a history of injuries and overuse injuries. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Youth athletes (n = 2011; 989 female and 1022 male; 12-18 years of age) completed a questionnaire regarding their specialization status, yearly and weekly sport participation volume, and injury history. Specialization was classified as low, moderate, or high using a previously utilized 3-point scale. Athletes were classified into groups based on either meeting or exceeding current volume recommendations (months per year and hours per week). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to investigate associations of specialization and volume of participation with a history of sport-related injuries in the past year ( P ≤ .05). Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a previous injury of any kind ( P sport more than 8 months of the year were more likely to report an upper extremity overuse injury ( P = .04; OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.80) or a lower extremity overuse injury ( P = .001; OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.22-2.30). Athletes who participated in their primary sport for more hours per week than their age (ie, a 16-year-old athlete who participated in his or her primary sport for more than 16 h/wk) were more likely to report an injury of any type ( P = .001; OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12-1.61) in the previous year. High levels of specialization were associated with a history of injuries, independent of age

  7. Off-season training habits and preseason functional test measures of division iii collegiate athletes: a descriptive report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumitt, Jason; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Manske, Robert C; Niemuth, Paul E; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2014-08-01

    Division III (D III) collegiate coaches are challenged to assess athletic readiness and condition their athletes during the preseason. However, there are few reports on off-season training habits and normative data of functional assessment tests among D III athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine off-season training habits of D III athletes and their relationships to the standing long jump (SLJ) and single-leg hop (SLH) tests. One-hundred and ninety-three athletes (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to the start of their sports seasons. Athletes reported their off-season training habits (weightlifting, cardiovascular exercise, plyometric exercise, and scrimmage) during the six weeks prior to the preseason. Athletes also performed three maximal effort SLJs and three SLHs. Male athletes reported training more hours per exercise category than their female counterparts. Mean SLJ distances (normalized to height) were 0.79 ± 0.10 for females and 0.94 ± 0.12 for males. Mean SLH distances for female athletes' right and left limbs were 0.66 (± 0.10) and 0.65 (± 0.10), respectively. Mean SLH distances for male athletes' right and left limbs were 0.75 (± 0.13) and 0.75 (± 0.12), respectively. Several significant differences between off-season training habits and functional test measures were found for both sexes: males [SLJ and weightlifting (p = 0.04); SLH and weightlifting (p = 0.04), plyometrics (p = 0.05)]; females [SLJ and plyometrics (p = 0.04); SLH and scrimmage (p = 0.02)]. This study provides normative data for off-season training habits and preseason functional test measures in a D III athlete population. Greater SLJ and SLH measures were associated with increased time during off-season training. The findings between functional tests and off-season training activities may be useful for sports medicine professionals and strength coaches when designing their preseason training programs. 4.

  8. Athletic training affects the uniformity of muscle and tendon adaptation during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersmann, Falk; Bohm, Sebastian; Schroll, Arno; Marzilger, Robert; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2016-10-01

    With the double stimulus of mechanical loading and maturation acting on the muscle-tendon unit, adolescent athletes might be at increased risk of developing imbalances of muscle strength and tendon mechanical properties. This longitudinal study aims to provide detailed information on how athletic training affects the time course of muscle-tendon adaptation during adolescence. In 12 adolescent elite athletes (A) and 8 similar-aged controls (C), knee extensor muscle strength and patellar tendon mechanical properties were measured over 1 yr in 3-mo intervals. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze time-dependent changes and the residuals of the model to quantify fluctuations over time. The cosine similarity (CS) served as a measure of uniformity of the relative changes of tendon force and stiffness. Muscle strength and tendon stiffness increased significantly in both groups (P uniformity of changes of tendon force and stiffness was lower in athletes (CS A, -0.02 ± 0.5; C, 0.5 ± 0.4; P uniformity of muscle and tendon adaptation, which increases the demand on the tendon with potential implications for tendon injury. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Comparison of non-invasive individual monitoring of the training and health of athletes with commercially available wearable technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eDüking

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes adapt their training daily to optimize performance, as well as avoid fatigue, overtraining and other undesirable effects on their health. To optimize training load, each athlete must take his/her own personal objective and subjective characteristics into consideration and an increasing number of wearable technologies (wearables provide convenient monitoring of various parameters. Accordingly, it is important to help athletes decide which parameters are of primary interest and which wearables can monitor these parameters most effectively. Here, we discuss the wearable technologies available for non-invasive monitoring of various parameters concerning an athlete’s training and health. On the basis of these considerations, we suggest directions for future development. Furthermore, we propose that a combination of several wearables is most effective for accessing all relevant parameters, disturbing the athlete as little as possible, and optimizing performance and promoting health.

  10. Clinical Integration and How It Affects Student Retention in Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M

    2013-01-01

    Context A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. Objective To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Design Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Setting Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F1,92 = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F1,92 = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F1,92 = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F1,92 = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. Conclusions A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences. PMID:23672327

  11. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  12. The Effect of Acute Training and Circadian Rhythm on Blood Hemostasis in Female Athletes

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    Salimeh Mahmoodinezhad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circadian rhythm and physical activity are factors that influence the homeostasis of blood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise in the morning and evening on the blood hemostasis in female athletes. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 30 female athletes aged 18-25 were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into two groups (morning and afternoon exercises. The standard Bruce protocol test was used. In the present study, platelets, fibrinogen, and thromboplastin time were measured as indicators of blood coagulation before and after testing. Paired t-test and covariance analysis were used to analyze the measured indices and P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: An acute exhausting aerobic training session in both groups significantly increased platelet and fibrinogen levels, but a significant decrease was observed in thromboplastin time. Considering the training time, significant difference was observed in the blood thromboplastin time in the morning in comparison with the afternoon. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the circadian rhythm and acute exhausting aerobic training are effective factors on the blood coagulation and a training session in the morning compared with the evening training has a greater effect on the blood coagulation.

  13. Validity of Daily and Weekly Self-Reported Training Load Measures in Adolescent Athletes.

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    Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory; Jones, Ben; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Till, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Phibbs, PJ, Roe, G, Jones, B, Read, DB, Weakley, J, Darrall-Jones, J, and Till, K. Validity of daily and weekly self-reported training load measures in adolescent athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1121-1126, 2017-The primary aim of the study was to assess the level of agreement between the criterion session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE30min) and a practical measure of a self-reported Web-based training load questionnaire 24 hours after training (sRPE24h) in adolescent athletes. The secondary aim was to assess the agreement between weekly summated sRPE24h values (∑sRPE24h) and a weekly Web-based training diary (sRPEweekly) for all field-based training accumulated on a subsequent training week. Thirty-six male adolescent rugby players (age, 16.7 ± 0.5 years) were recruited from a regional academy. Measures of sRPE30min were recorded 30 minutes after a typical field-based training session. Participants then completed the sRPE24h via a Web-based training load questionnaire 24 hours after training, reporting both session duration and intensity. In addition, on a subsequent week, participants completed the sRPE24h daily and then completed the sRPEweekly at the end of the week, using the same Web-based platform, to recall all field-based training session durations and intensities over those 7 days. Biases were trivial between sRPE30min and sRPE24h for sRPE (0.3% [-0.9 to 1.5]), with nearly perfect correlations (0.99 [0.98-0.99]) and small typical error of the estimate (TEE; 4.3% [3.6-5.4]). Biases were trivial between ∑sRPE24h and sRPEweekly for sRPE (5.9% [-2.1 to 14.2]), with very large correlations (0.87 [0.78-0.93]) and moderate TEE of 28.5% [23.3-36.9]. The results of this study show that sRPE24h is a valid and robust method to quantify training loads in adolescent athletes. However, sRPEweekly was found to have a substantial TEE (28.5%), limiting practical application.

  14. The effect of a balance training program on the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes.

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    McGuine, Timothy A; Keene, James S

    2006-07-01

    Ankle sprains are the most common musculoskeletal injuries that occur in athletes, and they have a profound impact on health care costs and resources. A balance training program can reduce the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. Seven hundred and sixty-five high school soccer and basketball players (523 girls and 242 boys) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (27 teams, 373 subjects) that participated in a balance training program or to a control group (28 teams, 392 subjects) that performed only standard conditioning exercises. On-site athletic trainers recorded athlete exposures and sprains. The rate of ankle sprains was significantly lower for subjects in the intervention group (6.1%, 1.13 of 1000 exposures vs 9.9%, 1.87 of 1000 exposures; P = .04). Athletes with a history of an ankle sprain had a 2-fold increased risk of sustaining a sprain (risk ratio, 2.14), whereas athletes who performed the intervention program decreased their risk of a sprain by one half (risk ratio, 0.56). The ankle sprain rate for athletes without previous sprains was 4.3% in the intervention group and 7.7% in the control group, but this difference was not significant (P = .059). A balance training program will significantly reduce the risk of ankle sprains in high school soccer and basketball players.

  15. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

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    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  16. Examining physical training versus physical and mental training programmes in Swimrun semi-professional athletes: A randomised, controlled, trial

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    Francesco Chirico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of two psychological interventions, named ‘Mental imagery’ and ‘Motivational self-talk’ training used in combination, on perceived excertion and flow state in a sample of Swimrun semi-professional athletes. Methods: Thirty male semi-professional athletes, enrolled for a Swimrun competition, were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP and a control group (CON. The modified Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (RPE and the Flow State Scale (FSS were the dependent variables. Before a Swimrun competition, the EXP Group performed both physical and mental training programs, while the CON group only performed a physical training program. Immediately after the race, we measured the dependent variables in both groups. Results: The results of unpaired-t test showed that levels of perceived exertion were less in EXP group than CON group, (t(28 = 12.87, P < .001, while levels of flow state were higher in EXP group than CON group (t(28 = 5.96, P < .001, immediately after the end of the endurance competition. The use of both mental imagery and self-talk training in order to reduce perceived exertion and improve flow state was supported (P < .001. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of this study support the psychobiological model of endurance performance. Our research is the first to demonstrate that mental imagery used in combination with motivational self-talk can reduce the perceived exertion and improve the flow state in Swimrun athletes during their endurance performance.

  17. Beta-alanine supplementation enhances judo-related performance in highly-trained athletes.

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    de Andrade Kratz, Caroline; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; de Andrade Nemezio, Kleiner Márcio; da Silva, Rafael Pires; Franchini, Emerson; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2017-04-01

    In official judo competitions, athletes usually engage in 5-7 matches in the same day, performing numerous high-intensity efforts interspersed by short recovery intervals. Thus, glycolytic demand in judo is high and acidosis may limit performance. Carnosine is a relevant intracellular acid buffer whose content is increased with beta-alanine supplementation. Thus, we hypothesized that beta-alanine supplementation could attenuate acidosis and improve judo performance. Twenty-three highly-trained judo athletes were randomly assigned to receive either beta-alanine (6.4gday-1) or placebo (dextrose, same dosage) for 4 weeks. Performance was assessed before (PRE) and after (POST) supplementation through a 5-min simulated fight (randori) followed by 3 bouts of the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT). Blood samples were collected for blood pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) and lactate determination. Beta-alanine supplementation improved the number of throws per set and the total number of throws (both p0.05). Blood pH and HCO3- reduced after exercise (all p0.05). However, the lactate response to exercise increased in the beta-alanine group as compared to placebo (pjudo-related performance in highly-trained athletes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes.

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    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Palumbo, Joseph P; Hewett, Timothy E

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity movement biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements in measures of performance would be demonstrated concomitant with improved biomechanical measures related to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Forty-one female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (age, 15.3 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 64.8 +/- 9.96 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 7.21 cm) underwent 6 weeks of training that included 4 main components (plyometric and movement, core strengthening and balance, resistance training, and speed training). Twelve age-, height-, and weight-matched controls underwent the same testing protocol twice 6 weeks apart. Trained athletes demonstrated increased predicted 1 repetition maximum squat (92%) and bench press (20%). Right and left single-leg hop distance increased 10.39 cm and 8.53 cm, respectively, and vertical jump also increased from 39.9 +/- 0.9 cm to 43.2 +/- 1.1 cm with training. Speed in a 9.1-m sprint improved from 1.80 +/- 0.02 seconds to 1.73 +/- 0.01 seconds. Pre- and posttest 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated increased knee flexion-extension range of motion during the landing phase of a vertical jump (right, 71.9 +/- 1.4 degrees to 76.9 +/- 1.4 degrees ; left, 71.3 +/- 1.5 degrees to 77.3 +/- 1.4 degrees ). Training decreased knee valgus (28%) and varus (38%) torques. Control subjects did not demonstrate significant alterations during the 6-week interval. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the combination of multiple-injury prevention-training components into a comprehensive program improves measures of performance and movement biomechanics.

  19. A nonlinear model for the characterization and optimization of athletic training and performance

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    Turner James D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Mathematical models of the relationship between training and performance facilitate the design of training protocols to achieve performance goals. However, current linear models do not account for nonlinear physiological effects such as saturation and over-training. This severely limits their practical applicability, especially for optimizing training strategies. This study describes, analyzes, and applies a new nonlinear model to account for these physiological effects. Material and methods: This study considers the equilibria and step response of the nonlinear differential equation model to show its characteristics and trends, optimizes training protocols using genetic algorithms to maximize performance by applying the model under various realistic constraints, and presents a case study fitting the model to human performance data. Results: The nonlinear model captures the saturation and over-training effects; produces realistic training protocols with training progression, a high-intensity phase, and a taper; and closely fits the experimental performance data. Fitting the model parameters to subsets of the data identifies which parameters have the largest variability but reveals that the performance predictions are relatively consistent. Conclusions: These findings provide a new mathematical foundation for modeling and optimizing athletic training routines subject to an individual’s personal physiology, constraints, and performance goals.

  20. Comparison of athlete-coach perceptions of internal and external load markers for elite junior tennis training.

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    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Reid, Machar

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the discrepancy between coach and athlete perceptions of internal load and notational analysis of external load in elite junior tennis. Fourteen elite junior tennis players and 6 international coaches were recruited. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded for individual drills and whole sessions, along with a rating of mental exertion, coach rating of intended session exertion, and athlete heart rate (HR). Furthermore, total stroke count and unforced-error count were notated using video coding after each session, alongside coach and athlete estimations of shots and errors made. Finally, regression analyses explained the variance in the criterion variables of athlete and coach RPE. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and interclass correlation coefficients revealed that coaches significantly (P internal-load monitoring may help coach-athlete relationships in individual sports like tennis avoid maladaptive training.

  1. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes.

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    Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Steib, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular training effects on functional, dynamic and static balance measures. Thirty youth (14.9 ± 3 years) field hockey athletes were randomised to an intervention or control group. The intervention included a 20-min neuromuscular warm-up program performed twice weekly for 10 weeks. Balance assessments were performed at baseline, week three, week six and post-intervention. They included the star excursion balance test (SEBT), balance error scoring system (BESS), jump-landing time to stabilization (TTS) and center of pressure (COP) sway velocity during single-leg standing. No baseline differences were found between groups in demographic data and balance measures. Adherence was at 86%. All balance measures except the medial-lateral TTS improved significantly over time (p controls (31.8 ± 22.1%). There were no significant group by time interactions in the SEBT, TTS and COP sway velocity. Neuromuscular training was effective in improving postural control in youth team athletes. However, this effect was not reflected in all balance measures suggesting that the neuromuscular training did not influence all dimensions of postural control. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of specific warm-up programs to improve postural control.

  2. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

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    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  3. The intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

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    Thomas Leonhard Stöggl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a pyramidal TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT. World-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called polarized TID (i.e. significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training, rather than a pyramidal or threshold (THR TID. In contrast to the pyramidal TID, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals. The aims of the present review are to: 1 summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; 2 provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; 3 address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and 4 highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies.

  4. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.

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    Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P performance (1%, P performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chronic effects of different resistance training exercise orders on flexibility in elite judo athletes.

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    Saraiva, Alam R; Reis, Victor M; Costa, Pablo B; Bentes, Claudio M; Costa E Silva, Gabriel V; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2014-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance training with different exercise orders (upper limbs and lower limbs vs. lower limbs and upper limbs) on flexibility levels in elite judo athletes. Thirty-nine male athletes were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 13), G2 (n = 13), and CG (n = 13). The flexibility was assessed on 8 joint movements: shoulder flexion and shoulder extension, shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction, trunk flexion and trunk extension, and hip flexion and hip extension. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time [pre-experimental vs. post-experimental] × group [G1 vs. G2 vs. CG]) were used to compare the differences between pre- and post-test situations and the differences among groups. The results from the within-group (pre vs. post) comparisons demonstrated significant increases (p training groups, respectively, in all joints. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed for the CG. The results from the between-group comparisons demonstrated no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the range of motion between G1post vs. G2post (1.15%). Although both exercise orders (from upper to lower limbs and from lower to upper limbs) increased flexibility, no significant variations were observed between the different exercise orders. Nevertheless, these findings demonstrate that flexibility gains could be obtained with a resistance training program, and thus, more time can be devoted to sports-specific judo training.

  6. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  7. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p VertiMax eliciting a greater treatment effect (effect size = 0.54) over conventional resistance and plyometric training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  8. Point rating system as the training monitoring basis of the athletes of the national pickedwrestling team of MGSU

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    Barkov Aleksandr Yur'evich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the point rating system for the students-athletes of the Department of Sport Development in Wrestling, which used various indicators of the wrestlers all-around training. The training is divided into a number of modules: speed qualities and endurance; speed-strength quality and flexibility; technical training; functional training; agility and coordination; theoretical training; personal characteristics, moral, strongwilled preparation and self-preparation.Each module corresponds to a certain number of points: from 0 to 20,from 0 to 15,from 0 to 10,from 0 to 5.Using the proposed point rating system evaluation for the students-athletes in wrestling, the training level of the athletes in each of the modules is determined. The range of point values, corresponding to the maximum form are 90—100 points ("excellent".Evaluation of the "good" range is 70—89 points, "satisfactory" — 50—69 points, disappointing — from 0 to 49 points.The authors offer the comparative analysis of the dynamics of high-speed performance and endurance, speed-strength qualities, functional training, agility and coordination, theoretical training and personal qualities of the academic team in wrestling during the summer and training camp of 2013.The objective information, obtained from the routine tests of physical, psychological and functional status of an athlete, the major indicators of his physical fitness, gives the opportunity to effectively manage the training process improvement of the athletes, ensures the steady increase of sportsmanship.The research results of the functional training and the physical qualities of studentsathletes during the preparatory stage of the training help to make the necessary adjustments in time and to bring the wrestlers to the top form till the main student competition.

  9. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

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    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Optimizing Heat Acclimation for Endurance Athletes: High- vs Low-Intensity Training.

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    Schmit, Cyril; Duffield, Rob; Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Le Meur, Yann

    2017-09-05

    We sought to determine the effect of high- vs. low-intensity training in the heat and ensuing taper period in the heat on endurance performance. Nineteen well-trained triathletes undertook 5 days of normal training and a 1-week taper, including either low- (HA-L, n=10) or high-intensity (HA-H, n=9) training sessions in the heat (30°C, 50% of relative humidity). A control group (n=10) reproduced their usual training in thermoneutral conditions. Indoor twenty-kilometre cycling time-trials (35°C, 50% RH) were performed before (Pre) and after the main heat exposure (Mid) and after the taper (Post). Power output remained stable in the control group from Pre to Mid (ES: -0.10 ± 0.26) and increased from Mid to Post (0.18 ± 0.22). The HA-L group demonstrated a progressive increase in performance from Pre to Mid (0.62 ± 0.33) and from Mid to Post (0.53 ± 0.30), alongside typical physiological signs of HA (reduced core temperature and heart rate, increased body mass loss). While the HA-H group presented similar adaptations, increased perceived fatigue and decreased performance at Mid (-0.35 ± 0.26) were evidenced and reversed at Post (0.50 ± 0.20). No difference in power output was reported at Post between the HA-H and the control groups. HA-H can quickly induce F-OR in non-acclimatized endurance athletes. Since it was associated with a weak subsequent performance supercompensation, coaches and athletes should pay particular attention to training monitoring during a final preparation in the heat and reduce training intensity when early signs of F-OR are identified.

  11. Olympic preparation in Brazilian judo athletes: description and perceived relevance of training practices.

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    Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the training routines used by judo athletes and their perception concerning the relevance, effort made, concentration needed, and pleasure obtained during the training sessions conducted 6 months before their Olympic participation and to compare with medal winners and other competitors in these aspects. Sixty-one Olympic Brazilian judo athletes (men = 39; women = 22), representing 66.3% of all Brazilian participants in this Olympic sport (from 1964 to 2008), including 10 medal winners (9 men and 1 woman) answered a questionnaire concerning their training routines. Mann-Whitney and Student's t-test for independent samples were used. Judo medalists and nonmedalists in the Olympic Games did not differ in: (a) the age when they started to practice and to compete in judo, (b) the age when they competed in the Olympic Games, (c) hours of training per week and per training session and the number of training sessions per day in their preparation for this event, (d) frequency and time spent for performing judo-specific and general exercises and their perceived relevance, effort, pleasure, and concentration for these activities performed during the preparation for the Olympic Games. The only differences found were the groundwork (ne-waza) randori practice, which was less frequently performed by medal winners, and perceived relevance attributed to this activity, which was considered less relevant by the medal winners compared with nonmedal winners. Thus, judo Olympic medal winners and nonmedalists did not differ in many training aspects in the final phase of their preparation to the Olympic Games.

  12. Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Millet

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2 or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2 over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1 period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT. Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO increased (p<0.05 after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively, but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively. No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.

  13. Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire; Bentley, David J; Roels, Belle; Mc Naughton, Lars R; Mercier, Jacques; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT) expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2) or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2) over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1)) period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT) was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT). Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO) increased (p<0.05) after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively), but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively). No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.

  14. Effectiveness of active physical training as treatment for long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, P; Uhrskou, P; Ulnits, L

    1999-01-01

    Groin pain is common among athletes. A major cause of long-standing problems is adductor-related groin pain. The purpose of this randomised clinical trial was to compare an active training programme (AT) with a physiotherapy treatment without active training (PT) in the treatment of adductor-rela...

  15. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted ...

  16. Nutrition. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Definitions, advantages, and functions of nutrition are the starting point for this food service training manual, which includes lessons on proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins. Energy foods for child nutrition programs are also identified, as are balanced diets and meal pattern guidelines. Class activities,…

  17. Contract Training Services Strategic Business Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir Sandford Fleming Coll., Peterborough (Ontario).

    Recommending organizational structures and strategies to achieve growth in contract training services (CTS) at Ontario's (Canada) Fleming College, this report reviews external conditions and proposes effective college responses. Following an overview of results and a recommended organizational chart, the planning process is reviewed and a…

  18. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  19. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued

    2016-12-01

    Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  20. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  1. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B.; Chéour, Foued

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility) in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes. PMID:28149427

  2. Spondyloptosis in athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu, Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent athletes are at greater risk of low back pain and structural spine injuries. Spondylolysis is responsible for the majority of back pain cases in young athletes, rarely occurring in adults. We report a case of a 13-year-old judo female athlete, who came to our service with 5 months of progressive low back pain during training which was initially attributed to mechanical causes, without any further investigation by imaging methods. At admission, the patient had lumbar deformity, antalgic posture and bilaterally positive unipodalic lumbar hyperextension maneuver. After a research which showed spondyloptosis, the patient underwent surgery. In this article, we discuss, based on this case report, the diagnostic approach to low back pain in young athletes, since the complaint of chronic back pain can be a marker of a structural lesion that may be permanent and bring irreversible functional loss.

  3. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    Full Text Available Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany. During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001, indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001 and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022. Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01. Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01. Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with

  4. Aggravation of pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes by 6 weeks of low-volume, low-intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Olivier; Maimoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Manetta, Jérôme; Boussana, Alain; Préfaut, Christian; Hue, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Postexercise alveolar-capillary membrane-diffusing capacity (DLco) often decreases in highly trained endurance athletes and seems linked to their training status. To test the hypothesis that training status influences postexercise DLco, 13 male and 2 female triathletes (20.2 ± 4.4 y old, 175.2 ± 6.7 cm tall; weight in a range of 66.6 ± 7.4 kg to 67.4 ± 7.8 kg during the 1-y study) were randomized into experimental (n = 7) and control (n = 8) groups and performed VO(2max) cycle tests and simulated cycle-run successions (CR) of 30 min + 20 min after 3 periods in the competitive season. Both groups were tested before (pre- HTP) and after a 30-wk high-training period (HTP) with high training volume, intensity, and frequency. The experimental group was then also tested after a 6-wk low-training period (LTP) with low training volume, intensity, and frequency, while the control group continued training according to the HTP schedule for these 6 wk. Ventilatory data were collected continuously. DLco testing was performed before and 30, 60, and 120 min after the CR trials. Whatever the period or group, DLco was significantly decreased 30 min after CR, with a significantly greater decrease in the experimental group than the control group in LTP (-15.7% and -9.3% of DLco, respectively). Six weeks of low training volume and intensity were sufficient to reverse the effects of high training volume and intensity on the alveolar-capillary membrane after a CR succession in competitive triathletes.

  5. Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, D; Morgan, G

    2010-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Accuracy and Reliability of Peer Assessment of Athletic Training Psychomotor Laboratory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Melissa C.; Henning, Jolene M.; Willse, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. Objective: To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Entry-level master's athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: First-year (n  =  5) and second-year (n  =  8) students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Results: Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the ϕ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (ϕ  =  0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (ϕ  =  0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (ϕ  =  0.72). Conclusions: Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was

  7. Resistance training to improve power and sports performance in adolescent athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin

    2012-11-01

    Resistance training in untrained adolescents can positively effect health-related fitness as well as improve muscular power and sports performance. The impact of resistance training on adolescent athletes is less clear. The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of resistance training programs on muscular power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies investigating resistance training in adolescent athlete populations. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases was conducted on 21st March 2011 to identify studies evaluating resistance training programs on power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Thirty-four studies were identified. All but two of the studies reported at least one statistically significant improvement in an alactic muscular power outcome. The most common indicators of alactic power were vertical jump (25 studies) and sprint running (13 studies) performance. Fourteen studies provided data to allow for pooling of results in a meta-analysis. A positive effect was detected for resistance training programs on vertical jump performance (mean difference 3.08 [95% CI 1.65, 4.51], Z=4.23 [Psports performance attributable to participation in resistance training was reported by almost half the included studies, however limited objective evidence to support these claims was found. Improvements in motor performance skills, such as jumping, are widely stated as indicators of improvements in sporting performance. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Body composition changes in an endurance athlete using two different training strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; McCORMACK, William; Caseley, Aaron; Copeman, June; Jones, Gareth

    2017-06-01

    Swimming, running and cycling are among the most popular and fastest growing sports in the world. Inherent in these sports is a desire to favorably alter body composition. Here we report a ~5.4 kg and ~5.3 kg fat tissue mass (FTM) loss in two separate interventions (12-16 weeks), in the same athlete, separated by 5 years. Whole body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary analysis for intervention 2 was completed using Mc Cance and Widdowson's composition of foods. In 2010, the male athlete (23 years, weight 85 kg, height 195 cm, 18.1% body fat) had a reduction of ~5.4 kg of FTM (15.4 vs. 10.0 kg) and an increase of ~5.1 kg of lean tissue mass (LTM) following 16 weeks of moderate intensity running (213±53 min/week) and circuit training (64±46 min/week). In 2015, the same athlete (28 years, 90.6 kg, 195 cm; 18.2%) had a ~5.3 kg loss of FTM and a ~0.8 kg increase in LTM after 12 weeks, predominately (75%) non-weight bearing exercise (49% cycling, 215±88 min/week; 25% running 110±47 min/week; 19% swimming, 83±27 min/week; 7% rowing machine, 29±26 min/week). Weekday and weekend dietary intake during intervention 2 were estimated as 2560 kcal and 3240 kcal per day, respectively. This report provides support for the hypothesis that an extended period of energy deficit is required to reduce body fat levels in amateur athletes independent of the mode of exercise.

  9. Measured maximal oxygen uptake in a multi-stage shuttle test and treadmill-run test in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A R; Chia, M Y H; Teh, K C

    2005-09-01

    The aims of the study were: i) to compare the measured maximal oxygen uptake (MVO2max) during the 20 m multi-stage shuttle test (MST) with MVO2max during an incremental treadmill-run test (TRT), and ii) to establish the reliability of MVO2max during MST, in trained athletes. 8 well-trained endurance-athletes (END) and 8 athletes involved in team games (GAM) performed the MST twice (i.e. MST1 and MST2) and the TRT once, in 3 separate sessions. MVO2maxx attained in the MST and TRT was measured using a portable respiratory analyser (model K4 RQ, Cosmed). MVO2max attained in the MST and TRT were significantly different for the END athletes (4.1+/-0.28 vs 4.45+/-0.31 Lxmin-1, P0.05). The 95% limits of agreement for MVO2max in the MST in Lxmin-1 were -0.67 to 0.27. MVO2max in MST1 and MST2 were not significantly different for END athletes (4.18+/-0.39 vs 4.1+/-0.28 Lxmin-1, P>0.05) and GAM athletes (4.01+/-0.55 vs 4.01+/-0.51 Lxmin-1, P>0.05). Reliability indicators for MVO2max in Lxmin-1 for MST test-retest were: typical error (TE)=0.14, coefficient of variation (CV)=3.5 and intra-class correlation (ICC)=0.90. MVO2max in the MST was lower than that measured in the TRT for the END athletes but not for the GAM athletes. Sport-specificity was an important consideration, especially when testing END athletes for VO2max. MVO2max in the MST showed acceptable levels of reproducibility.

  10. Sex and Weight Category Differences in Time-Motion Analysis of Elite Judo Athletes: Implications for Assessment and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Miarka, Bianca; Fukuda, David H

    2017-03-01

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Miarka, B, and Fukuda, DH. Sex and weight category differences in time-motion analysis of elite judo athletes: implications for assessment and training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 817-825, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to support training program development through the comparison of combat and pause phases during elite male and female judo competition in athletes of varying weight categories. A total of 1,411 video recorded judo matches between athletes who qualified for the 2012 Olympic Games were analyzed. Within the matches, 111,203 competitive situations were categorized as combat (with subphases of approach, gripping, attack, defense, and groundwork) or pause phases. Time-motion analysis data were compared between extra light, light, middle, and heavyweight categories for men and women. Median times varied between sex and weight category groups for individual combat (23.9-28.5 seconds), pause (4.0-8.8 seconds), and combat subphases (p ≤ 0.05). Sex-based differences in accumulated combat and combat subphase times were primarily found in the middleweight athletes. Heavyweight female athletes had longer accumulated groundwork and pause times, extra lightweight women had greater groundwork time, and both extra light and lightweight women had shorter accumulated attack times compared with their male counterparts. No differences between men and women were found for the time to complete an individual combat action; however, the pause phase and most of the combat subphases displayed differences. The lightest and heaviest judo athletes displayed unique characteristics compared with athletes in the other weight categories, particularly in the attack, defense, groundwork, and pause phases. These results have important implications related to training program design and support the need for the development of normative data for male and female judo athletes of varying weight categories.

  11. Plasma volume reduction and hematological fluctuations in high-level athletes after an increased training load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejder, J; Andersen, A B; Goetze, J P; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Nordsborg, N B

    2017-12-01

    The time course of plasma volume (PV) reduction following an increased training load period is unknown and was investigated. The accompanying fluctuations in [Hb] and OFF-hr score were analyzed in the Athlete Biological Passport. Further, whether fluctuations in plasma albumin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) concentrations correlate with PV fluctuations was investigated. Eleven high-level competitive cyclists were investigated for 3 weeks. After initial measurements in week 1, training load was increased ~250% in week 2 followed by a reversion to baseline training load in week 3. PV and hematological variables were determined frequently during all weeks. The higher training load in week 2 increased (Ptraining load period were reverted within 2 and 4 days after returning to baseline training load, respectively, while OFF-hr remained altered for 6 days. Furthermore, some atypical blood profiles were induced during and subsequent to the increased training load, demonstrating the importance of knowledge on naturally occurring hematological fluctuations. Finally, concentrations of albumin, sTfR, and proANP could not explain PV fluctuations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Feasibility of training athletes for high-pressure situations using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Cheryl; Bowman, Doug A

    2014-04-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains; however, to date there is little research investigating its benefits for sport psychology training. We hypothesized that using high-fidelity VR systems to display realistic 3D sport environments could trigger anxiety, allowing resilience-training systems to prepare athletes for real-world, highpressure situations. In this work we investigated the feasibility and usefulness of using VR for sport psychology training. We developed a virtual soccer goalkeeping application for the Virginia Tech Visionarium VisCube (a CAVE-like display system), in which users defend against simulated penalty kicks using their own bodies. Using the application, we ran a controlled, within-subjects experiment with three independent variables: known anxiety triggers, field of regard, and simulation fidelity. The results demonstrate that a VR sport-oriented system can induce increased anxiety (physiological and subjective measures) compared to a baseline condition. There were a number of main effects and interaction effects for all three independent variables in terms of the subjective measures of anxiety. Both known anxiety triggers and simulation fidelity had a direct relationship to anxiety, while field of regard had an inverse relationship. Overall, the results demonstrate great potential for VR sport psychology training systems; however, further research is needed to determine if training in a VR environment can lead to long-term reduction in sport-induced anxiety.

  13. Neuromuscular adaptations to 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Meyland, Jacob; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    the soleus V-wave increased significantly at 45 msec after touchdown. This may indicate an increased drive to the α-motor neuron pool following training. Muscle strength parameters were unaffected by the training. The results demonstrate that 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training can improve jumping...... participated in the study. The training was supervised and augmented feedback on performance was used to ensure maximal training intensity. The drop jumps were performed with minimal contact time and maximal jumping height. Assessment of performance during training showed effects of motor learning. Before...

  14. Methodic of coordination’s perfection of junior taekwondo athletes at stage of pre-basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashkov I.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of effectiveness of coordination training methodic of junior taekwondo athletes at stage of pre-basic training. Material: in the research 30 taekwondo athletes of 12-14 yrs age, who composed control and experimental groups, participated. Results: we determined means and methods of training of taekwondo athletes coordination abilities. Correlation of exercises for sense of space, muscular sense, sense of time took from 15 to 25% of total time of training. During 5 seconds’ work quantity of repetitions was from 8 to 12-15 times. Rest pauses between exercises were from 1 to 1-2 minutes. The offered methodic facilitated improvement of coordination fitness indicators of taekwondo athletes: keeping of static balance with open eyes - by 5.08 % and with closed eyes - by 5.63 %; Romberg’s test on left foot - by 11,4% and on tight - by 8.22%; response of choice - by 15.9%; high jump from the spot - by 11.39%; shuttle run - by 5.8%. Conclusions: in the process of perfection of taekwondo athletes coordination it is necessary to solve the following tasks: master more and more complex coordination structures of motor tasks; master quick re-switching of motor functioning, depending on change of situation; improve accuracy of required motor actions; develop stability of space orientation.

  15. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  16. Preferences for and barriers to formal and informal athletic training continuing education activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J; Weidner, Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Our previous research determined the frequency of participation and perceived effect of formal and informal continuing education (CE) activities. However, actual preferences for and barriers to CE must be characterized. To determine the types of formal and informal CE activities preferred by athletic trainers (ATs) and barriers to their participation in these activities. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training practice settings. Of a geographically stratified random sample of 1000 ATs, 427 ATs (42.7%) completed the survey. As part of a larger study, the Survey of Formal and Informal Athletic Training Continuing Education Activities (FIATCEA) was developed and administered electronically. The FIATCEA consists of demographic characteristics and Likert scale items (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) about preferred CE activities and barriers to these activities. Internal consistency of survey items, as determined by Cronbach α, was 0.638 for preferred CE activities and 0.860 for barriers to these activities. Descriptive statistics were computed for all items. Differences between respondent demographic characteristics and preferred CE activities and barriers to these activities were determined via analysis of variance and dependent t tests. The α level was set at .05. Hands-on clinical workshops and professional networking were the preferred formal and informal CE activities, respectively. The most frequently reported barriers to formal CE were the cost of attending and travel distance, whereas the most frequently reported barriers to informal CE were personal and job-specific factors. Differences were noted between both the cost of CE and travel distance to CE and all other barriers to CE participation (F(1,411) = 233.54, P Informal CE was highly valued by ATs because it could be individualized.

  17. Contemporary Issues in Protein Requirements and Consumption for Resistance Trained Athletes

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    Wilson Jacob

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years an explosion of research papers concerning protein consumption has been published. The need to consolidate this information has become critical from both practical and future research standpoints. For this reason, the following paper presents an in depth analysis of contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes. Specifically, the paper covers: 1. protein requirements for resistance trained athletes; 2. the effect of the digestion rate of protein on muscular protein balance; 3. the optimal timing of protein intake relative to exercise; 4. the optimal pattern of protein ingestion, relative to how an individual should consume their protein throughout a 24 hour period, and what sources are utilized during this time frame; 5. protein composition and its interaction with measures of protein balance and strength performance; 6. the combination of protein and carbohydrates on plasma insulin levels and protein balance; 7. the efficacy of protein supplements and whole food protein sources. Our goal is to provide the reader with practical information in optimizing protein intake as well as for provision of sound advice to their clients. Finally, special care was taken to provide future research implications.

  18. Theoretical training bases for young athletes in aquatic sports on the natural environment: Bodyboard.

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    Marcos Mecías Calvo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The bodyboard is a surfing discipline whose growth has been considerably since the 60s, so it is considered one of the fastest growing aquatic sport in the world. Despite this, scientific research of this discipline has been reflected poorly compared to other sports. As in any other sport, the bodyboarder requires of specific physical and physiological conditions to help it to practice the sport effectively as it does not follow a specific training or develop conditioning programs. Therefore, this article comes up with the idea of providing a basis for determining the most appropriate training based on study objectives and bodyboard actions to improve physical, technical and psychological condition of the bodyboarders based on the particularities of their own sport and the athlete, taking into account scientific studies in the field at hand: the Bodyboard.

  19. Technical training of qualified athletes , specializing in the high jump with a running start, with additional funds

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    Gusarevich A.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To improve the process of technical training of qualified athletes, specializing in the high jump with a running start on the basis of additional funds. Material : The study involved 12 athletes qualified I sports category and candidate masters age 18-20 years. Number of attempts varied from 12-15, depending on the degree of fatigue study. Determined the effect of electrical stimulation on muscle groups leading the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the runway and repulsion, as well as athletic performance. Results : It was established that the integrated use of electrical stimulation affects more effectively to improve the biomechanical characteristics of high jump and effectiveness than using electrical stimulation during takeoff and repulsion separately. Conclusions : On the basis of the experimental data we can recommend the use of complex electrical, as an additional means for improving technical skills and improve performance athletes qualified.

  20. Technical training of qualified athletes , specializing in the high jump with a running start, with additional funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Gusarevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To improve the process of technical training of qualified athletes, specializing in the high jump with a running start on the basis of additional funds. Material : The study involved 12 athletes qualified I sports category and candidate masters age 18-20 years. Number of attempts varied from 12-15, depending on the degree of fatigue study. Determined the effect of electrical stimulation on muscle groups leading the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the runway and repulsion, as well as athletic performance. Results : It was established that the integrated use of electrical stimulation affects more effectively to improve the biomechanical characteristics of high jump and effectiveness than using electrical stimulation during takeoff and repulsion separately. Conclusions : On the basis of the experimental data we can recommend the use of complex electrical, as an additional means for improving technical skills and improve performance athletes qualified.

  1. Characteristics of the inspiratory muscle strength in the well-trained male and female athletes

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    A Klusiewicz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax is a simple, reproducible, and non-invasive method frequently used for estimation of the inspiratory muscle strength. The aim of the study was to assess the PImax values in well-trained representatives of the endurance sports and to determine the basic relationships between these values and age, training experience, somatic indices and aerobic capacity of the tested subjects. Overall, thirty female and thirty-five male elite junior and senior representatives of the endurance sports were included in the investigation. PImax and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max were estimated in all the subjects. In the female athletes the obtained mean PImax values (118±24 cm H2O were significantly lower than the respective values estimated in their male counterparts (143±25 cm H2O. Of all the tested relationships significant correlation was detected only between PImax and VO2max in the females (r=0.475 and only between PImax and the body mass index (BMI in the males (r=0.501. Since the published values of PImax vary greatly depending, among other factors, on the studied population, methods and techniques of the measurement and motivation of the tested subjects it is suggested that each laboratory elaborate its own reference values. The results indicate that in the female and in the male athletes the inspiratory muscle strength is not related to the body size. On the other hand, the detected correlation between PImax and BMI in the males may suggest a possible relationship between the inspiratory muscle strength and the total muscle mass. Presumably, endurance training in the well-trained individuals can not enhance any more the inspiratory muscle strength or the described relationships are indirect and depend on the intersexual differences.

  2. Educating the Educator: Use of Advanced Bleeding Control Mechanisms in Athletic Training: A Shift in the Thought Process of Prehospital Care. Part 2: Hemostatic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of this series [see: EJ1044392], the concepts of hemorrhaging, shock, and controlling bleeding as they relate to athletic training and prehospital emergency care along with the use of tourniquets were presented for athletic training educators (ATEs) to teach the skill in the classroom. This article, Part 2 of advanced bleeding control,…

  3. Effects of oral sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation in trained, endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V

    2015-03-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  4. Validity of the Online Athlete Management System to Assess Training Load.

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    Menaspà, Miranda J; Menaspà, Paolo; Clark, Sally A; Fanchini, Maurizio

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the quantification of training load (s-RPE) in an Australian Olympic squad (women's water polo), assessed with the use of a modified RPE scale collected via a newly developed online system (Athlete Management System, AMS). Sixteen elite women water polo players (age 26 ± 3 y, height 1.78 ± 0.05 m, body mass 75.5 ± 7.1 kg) participated in the study. Thirty training sessions were monitored, for a total of 303 individual sessions. Heart rate was recorded during training sessions using continuous heart-rate telemetry. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of the training sessions on the AMS-RPE scale, using an online application within 30 min of the completion of the sessions. Individual relationships between s-RPE and both Banister TRIMP and Edward's Method were analysed. Individual correlations with s-RPE ranged between r=0.51 to 0.79 (Banister TRIMP), and r=0.54 to 0.83 (Edward's Method), respectively. The percentages of moderate and large correlation were 81% and 19% between s-RPE method and Banister TRIMP, and 56% and 44% between s-RPE and Edward's Method. The use of the online AMS application for assessing s-RPE was shown to be a valid indicator of internal training load and can be used in elite sport.

  5. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes

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    Zwierko Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual’s oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball. After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes, and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ²=14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ²=14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye and fusional convergence (χ²=8.522, p=0.014. The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training

  6. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.

  7. Immune parameters, symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, and training-load indicators in volleyball athletes

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    Dias R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Dias1, Anelena Bueno Frollini1, Diego Trevisan Brunelli1, André Katayama Yamada1, Richard Diego Leite4, Ricardo Adamoli Simões1, Guilherme Souza Lobo Salles1, Débora Trevisan1, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti1, Marcelo de Castro César1, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Rozangela Verlengia1, João Paulo Borin2, Jonato Prestes2,3, Claudia Regina Cavaglieri21Núcleo de Performance Humana, Mestrado em Educação Física, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil; 2Faculdade de Educação Física (FEF Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, Brasil; 3Programa de Mestrado e Doutorado em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, Brasil; 4Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica e Experimental em Biologia Vascular (BioVasc, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrasilBackground: The control of immunological alterations becomes important during in-season training, as a result of increased incidence of infectious diseases, and may assist in avoiding interruptions to training due to illness.Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate 28 weeks of chronic immune modulations in female volleyball athletes.Methods: The sample was composed of twelve athletes aged 19.47 ± 2.49 years, height 1.78 ± 0.08 cm, and body mass 66.77 ± 7.8 kg. Leukocytes, individual immune cell count, interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α plasma cytokines were measured during the competitive period.Results: Results revealed that immune variables were correlated with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections and training-load indicators, indicating a possible marker of immune status. There was a statistically significant increase in total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocyte count, a decrease in lymphocytes, and an increase in upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, with no change

  8. Motivation and well-being among elite junior athletes : the role of challenge during training

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    Tyssen, Oddvar Jordheim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivation, positive emotions and challenge in groups of elite junior athletes. Results are discussed in terms of self-determination theory and the functional well-being approach. Men and female elite junior athletes (N=211) aged 15-19 years completed a series of online questionnaires. Results revealed that a) older athletes reported higher levels of extrinsic motivation than younger athletes, b) younger athletes reported higher levels of both eudai...

  9. Unusual cause of exercise-induced ventricular fibrillation in a well-trained adult endurance athlete: a case report

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    Vogt Stefan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diseases responsible for sudden deaths in athletes differ considerably with regard to age. In young athletes, congenital malformations of the heart and/or vascular system cause the majority of deaths and can only be detected noninvasively by complex diagnostics. In contrast, in older athletes who die suddenly, atherosclerotic disease of the coronary arteries is mostly found. Reports of congenital coronary anomalies as a cause of sudden death in older athletes are rare. Case presentation A 48-year-old man who was a well-trained, long-distance runner collapsed at the finish of a half marathon because of a myocardial infarction with ventricular fibrillation. Coronary angiography showed an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva with minimal wall alterations. Multislice computed tomography of the coronary arteries confirmed these findings. Cardiomagnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mild hypokinesia of the basal right- and left-ventricular posterior wall. An electrophysiological study showed an inducible temporary polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and an inducible ventricular fibrillation. The athlete was subsequently treated by acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg (0-1-0, bisoprolol 2.5 mg (1-0-0 and atorvastatin 10 mg (0-0-1 and was instructed to keep his training intensity under the 'individual anaerobic threshold'. Intense and long-lasting exercise under extreme environmental conditions, particularly heat, should also be avoided. Conclusion This case report presents a coronary anomaly as the most likely reason for an exercise-induced myocardial infarction with ventricular fibrillation in a well-trained 48-year-old endurance athlete. Therefore, coronary anomalies have also to be considered as a possible cause of cardiac problems in older athletes.

  10. Critical components of neuromuscular training to reduce ACL injury risk in female athletes: meta-regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Barber Foss, Kim D; Pepin, Michael J; Micheli, Lyle J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine key components in neuromuscular training that optimise ACL injury reduction in female athletes using meta-regression analyses. Design Systematic review and meta-regression. Data sources The literature search was performed in PubMed and EBSCO. Eligibility criteria Inclusion criteria for the current analysis were: (1) documented the number of ACL injuries, (2) employed a neuromuscular training intervention that aimed to reduce ACL injuries, (3) had a comparison group, (4) used a prospective control study design and (5) recruited female athletes as participants. Two independent reviewers extracted studies which met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of included study and strength of recommendation were evaluated. Number of ACL injuries and participants in control and intervention groups, age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and status of verbal feedback were extracted. Results The meta-regression analyses identified age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback as significant predictors of ACL injury reduction (p=0.01 in fixed-effects model, p=0.03 in random-effects model). Inclusion of 1 of the 4 components in neuromuscular training could reduce ACL injury risk by 17.2–17.7% in female athletes. No significant heterogeneity and publication bias effects were detected. Strength of recommendation was rated as A (recommendation based on consistent and good-quality patient-oriented study evidence). Conclusions Age of participants, dosage of neuromuscular training, exercise variations within neuromuscular training and utilisation of verbal feedback are predictors that influence the optimisation of prophylactic effects of neuromuscular training and the resultant ACL injury reduction in female athletes. PMID:27251898

  11. Exercise-induced circulating microRNA changes in athletes in various training scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Martin; Zlamal, Filip; Iliev, Robert; Kucera, Jan; Cacek, Jan; Svobodova, Lenka; Hlavonova, Zuzana; Kalina, Tomas; Slaby, Ondrej; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare selected extracellular miRNA levels (miR-16, miR-21, miR-93 and miR-222 with the response to 8-week-long explosive strength training (EXPL), hypertrophic strength training (HYP) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). 30 young male athletes of white European origin (mean age: 22.5 ± 4.06 years) recruited at the Faculty of Sports Studies of Masaryk University were enrolled in this study. The study participants were randomly assigned to three possible training scenarios: EXPL, HYP or HITT and participated in 8-week-long program in given arm. Blood plasma samples were collected at the baseline and at week 5 and 8 and anthropometric and physical activity parameters were measured. Pre- and post-intervention characteristics were compared and participants were further evaluated as responders (RES) or non-responders (NRES). RES/NRES status was established for the following characteristics: 300°/s right leg extension (t300), 60°/s right leg extension (t60), isometric extension (IE), vertical jump, isometric extension of the right leg and body fat percentage (BFP). No differences in miRNA levels were apparent between the intervention groups at baseline. No statistically significant prediction role was observed using crude univariate stepwise regression model analysis where RES/NRES status for t300, t60, IE, vertical jump and pFM was used as a dependent variable and miR-21, miR-222, miR-16 and miR-93 levels at baseline were used as independent variables. The baseline levels of miR-93 expressed an independent prediction role for responder status based on isometric extension of the right leg (beta estimate 0.76, 95% CI: -0.01; 1.53, p = 0.052). The results of the study indicate that 8-week-long explosive strength training, hypertrophic strength training and high-intensity interval training regimens are associated with significant changes in miR-16, mir-21, miR-222 and miR-93 levels compared to a baseline in athletic young men.

  12. Exercise-induced circulating microRNA changes in athletes in various training scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Horak

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare selected extracellular miRNA levels (miR-16, miR-21, miR-93 and miR-222 with the response to 8-week-long explosive strength training (EXPL, hypertrophic strength training (HYP and high-intensity interval training (HIIT.30 young male athletes of white European origin (mean age: 22.5 ± 4.06 years recruited at the Faculty of Sports Studies of Masaryk University were enrolled in this study. The study participants were randomly assigned to three possible training scenarios: EXPL, HYP or HITT and participated in 8-week-long program in given arm. Blood plasma samples were collected at the baseline and at week 5 and 8 and anthropometric and physical activity parameters were measured. Pre- and post-intervention characteristics were compared and participants were further evaluated as responders (RES or non-responders (NRES. RES/NRES status was established for the following characteristics: 300°/s right leg extension (t300, 60°/s right leg extension (t60, isometric extension (IE, vertical jump, isometric extension of the right leg and body fat percentage (BFP.No differences in miRNA levels were apparent between the intervention groups at baseline. No statistically significant prediction role was observed using crude univariate stepwise regression model analysis where RES/NRES status for t300, t60, IE, vertical jump and pFM was used as a dependent variable and miR-21, miR-222, miR-16 and miR-93 levels at baseline were used as independent variables. The baseline levels of miR-93 expressed an independent prediction role for responder status based on isometric extension of the right leg (beta estimate 0.76, 95% CI: -0.01; 1.53, p = 0.052.The results of the study indicate that 8-week-long explosive strength training, hypertrophic strength training and high-intensity interval training regimens are associated with significant changes in miR-16, mir-21, miR-222 and miR-93 levels compared to a baseline in athletic young men.

  13. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only.

  14. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  15. Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function estimated by HOMA2 model in sprint-trained athletes aged 20-90 years vs endurance runners and untrained participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Jacek; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Lucja

    2013-01-01

    There are no studies available that portray insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in ageing sprint-trained athletes. We compared male young and master sprint-trained athletes to endurance-trained and untrained individuals. We hypothesised that ageing sprint-trained athletes would preserve insulin sensitivity and β-cell function at a level similar to that of endurance-trained peers and better than in untrained individuals. We showed the associations between age and parameters derived from the updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2 model) in 52 sprint-trained track and field athletes (aged 20-90 years), 85 endurance runners (20-80 years) and 55 untrained individuals (20-70 years). Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were not associated with age in sprint-trained athletes. These variables remained relatively stable across a wide range of age and comparable to those observed in endurance-trained athletes. In contrast, the untrained group showed considerable age-related increase in fasting insulin and β-cell activity and a strong decrease in insulin sensitivity compared to both athletic groups. HOMA2 parameters were significantly related to maximal oxygen in the combined group of participants. In summary, chronic training based on a "sprint model" of physical activity, that contains mixed exercise, seems to be effective in maintaining normal insulin sensitivity with ageing.

  16. Sport-Specific Training Targeting the Proximal Segments and Throwing Velocity in Collegiate Throwing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Thomas; Uhl, Timothy L; Howell, Dana; Hewett, Timothy E; Viele, Kert; Mattacola, Carl G

    2015-06-01

    The ability to generate, absorb, and transmit forces through the proximal segments of the pelvis, spine, and trunk has been proposed to influence sport performance, yet traditional training techniques targeting the proximal segments have had limited success improving sport-specific performance. To investigate the effects of a traditional endurance-training program and a sport-specific power-training program targeting the muscles that support the proximal segments and throwing velocity. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University research laboratory and gymnasium. A total of 46 (age = 20 ± 1.3 years, height = 175.7 ± 8.7 cm) healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female softball (n = 17) and male baseball (n = 29) players. Blocked stratification for sex and position was used to randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 training groups for 7 weeks: a traditional endurance-training group (ET group; n = 21) or a power-stability-training group (PS group; n = 25). Mean Outcome Measure(s) : The change score in peak throwing velocity (km/h) normalized for body weight (BW; kilograms) and change score in tests that challenge the muscles of the proximal segments normalized for BW (kilograms). We used 2-tailed independent-samples t tests to compare differences between the change scores. The peak throwing velocity (ET group = 0.01 ± 0.1 km/h/kg of BW, PS group = 0.08 ± 0.03 km/h/kg of BW; P sport-specific training regimen targeting the proximal segments.

  17. A group-enhanced sprint interval training program for amateur athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J; Anderson, Scott H; Schmale, Matthew S; Hallworth, Jillian R; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-08-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) can elicit improvements in aerobic and anaerobic capacity. While variations in SIT protocols have been investigated, the influence of social processes cannot be overlooked. As research supports the use of groups to influence individual cognitions and behaviours, the current project assessed the effectiveness of a group-based intervention with participants conducting SIT. Specifically, 53 amateur athletes (age, 21.9 ± 2.9 years; 53% females) took part in a 4-week training program (3 sessions per week, 30-s "all-out" efforts with 4 min active recovery, repeated 4-6 times per session), and were assigned to "true group", aggregate, or individual conditions. Results indicated no significant differences between groups for the physiological measures. With regards to training improvements from baseline for all participants- regardless of condition - significant main effects for time were identified for maximal oxygen uptake (2.5-2.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p motivation (p = 0.033, η(2) = 0.13), task self-efficacy (p = 0.018, η(2) = 0.15), and scheduling self-efficacy (p = 0.003, η(2) = 0.22). The true group experienced greater improvements in motivation than the individual condition, but the aggregate and individual conditions demonstrated greater increases in task and scheduling self-efficacy. Though the SIT paradigm employed induced training improvements similar to previous work, the group intervention was not able to further these improvements.

  18. The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Post-Training Recovery in Jiu-Jitsu Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of using hyperbaric oxygen therapy during post-training recovery in jiu-jitsu athletes.Eleven experienced Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes were investigated during and following two training sessions of 1h30min. Using a cross-over design, the athletes were randomly assigned to passive recovery for 2 hours or to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (OHB for the same duration. After a 7-day period, the interventions were reversed. Before, immediately after, post 2 hours and post 24 hours, blood samples were collected to examine hormone concentrations (cortisol and total testosterone and cellular damage markers [creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH]. Moreover, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and recovery (RPR scales were applied.Final lactate [La] values (control: 11.9 ± 1.4 mmol/L, OHB: 10.2 ± 1.4 mmol/L and RPE [control: 14 (13-17 a.u., OHB: 18 (17-20 a.u.] were not significantly different following the training sessions. Furthermore, there was no difference between any time points for blood lactate and RPE in the two experimental conditions (P>0.05. There was no effect of experimental conditions on cortisol (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.793, η2 = 0.00, small, total testosterone (F1,20 = 0.03, P = 0.877, η2 = 0.00, small, CK (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.759, η2 = 0.01, small, AST (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.761, η2 = 0.01, small, ALT (F1,20 = 0.0, P = 0.845, η2 = 0.00, small or LDH (F1,20 = 0.7, P = 0.413, η2 = 0.03, small. However, there was a difference between the two experimental conditions in RPR with higher values at post 2 h and 24 h in OHB when compared to the control condition (P<0.05.Thus, it can be concluded that OHB exerts no influence on the recovery of hormonal status or cellular damage markers. Nonetheless, greater perceived recovery, potentially due to the placebo effect, was evident following the OHB condition.

  19. Psychosocial aspects of athletic injuries as perceived by athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Mixed-methods study. Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding of these strategies while caring for injured athletes.

  20. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (Pmusic during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221

  1. Preferred teaching and testing methods of athletic training students and program directors and the relationship to styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E; Caswell, Shane V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate differences between athletic training students' and program directors' preferences for teaching and testing methods and (2) to investigate the relationship between style and preferred teaching and testing methods using the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and the Preferred Teaching and Testing Method Inventory (PTTMI). We cluster sampled 200 undergraduate students (100% return; 68 men, 132 women; mean age, 20.12 +/- 2.02 yrs) and simple random sampled 100 program directors (43% return; 22 men, 21 women; mean age, 40.05 +/- 9.30 yrs) from Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs. We used a correlational research design to compare the preferred teaching and testing methods of undergraduate students and program directors. All subjects completed a demographic survey, the GSD, and the PTTMI. Our analyses included two separate 2 (role: student and program director) x 8 (method: teaching or testing techniques) and two separate 4 (style: concrete sequential, abstract sequential, abstract random, concrete random) x 8 (method: teaching and testing techniques) mixed-model analyses of variance. We found that athletic training students and program directors had significantly different preferences for teaching (p teaching or testing method. We recommend that athletic training and allied health educators consider implementing pedagogy that accentuates students' styles and consider self and students' preferences for preferred teaching and testing methods as time and topic permit.

  2. Athletic Identity, Vocational Identity, and Occupational Engagement in College Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lacole L.

    2012-01-01

    Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…

  3. Redistributing load using wearable resistance during power clean training improves athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, Caleb R; Cronin, John B; Macadam, Paul; Storey, Adam

    2017-10-01

    A popular method to improve athletic performance and lower body power is to train with wearable resistance (WR), for example, weighted vests. However, it is currently unknown what training effect this loading method has on full-body explosive movements such as the power clean. The purpose of this study was to determine what effects WR equivalent to 12% body mass (BM) had on the power clean and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Sixteen male subjects (age: 23.2 ± 2.7 years; BM: 90.5 ± 10.3 kg) were randomly assigned to five weeks of traditional (TR) power clean training or training with 12% BM redistributed from the bar to the body using WR. Variables of interest included pre and post CMJ height, power clean one repetition maximum (1RM), peak ground reaction force, power output (PO), and several bar path kinematic variables across loads at 50%, 70%, and 90% of 1RM. The main findings were that WR training: (1) increased CMJ height (8.7%; ES = 0.53) and 1RM power clean (4.2%; ES = 0.2) as compared to the TR group (CMJ height = -1.4%; 1RM power clean = 1.8%); (2) increased PO across all 1RM loads (ES = 0.33-0.62); (3) increased barbell velocity at 90% 1RM (3.5%; ES = 0.74) as compared to the TR group (-4.3%); and (4) several bar path kinematic variables improved at 70% and 90% 1RM loads. WR power clean training with 12% BM can positively influence power clean ability and CMJ performance, as well as improve technique factors.

  4. Prevalence of undiagnosed testosterone deficiency in aging athletes: does exercise training influence the symptoms of male hypogonadism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Fierro, Valentina; Bianchini, Serena; Battistini, Giancarlo; Magini, Valter; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lenzi, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Worldwide many aging males practice sports. A high prevalence of late-onset male hypogonadism has been observed in general population. Sport-participation influences the neuroendocrine system and may decrease serum testosterone. This preliminary study was designed to estimate the prevalence and the symptoms of undiagnosed testosterone deficiency in aging athletes. This observational survey was performed in 183 caucasian male athletes >50 years, in the setting of pre-participation screening. Pituitary-gonadal hormones and symptoms of hypogonadism were investigated. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), free-T4, and thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) were assayed, and free T, bioactive T, and the LH/TT ratio were calculated. The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-15) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were administered. Hypogonadal athletes were compared with eugonadal athletes as controls. Prevalence and clinical symptoms of severe (TT 70 years (27.5% and 25.0%, respectively). TT did not correlate with age, training duration, or questionnaire scores. No differences were observed for nonspecific symptoms of hypogonadism, IIEF-15 and CES-D scores between eugonadal and severe hypogonadal athletes. Independently of its etiology, a significant percentage of aging athletes had undiagnosed testosterone deficiency. In a relevant number of these cases, testosterone deficiency was not overtly symptomatic. Our results suggest that sport-participation per se can influence the symptoms of hypogonadism. The history of clinical symptoms may be inaccurate to diagnose testosterone deficiency in aging athletes. Future research should address the clinical relevance and the specific risks of testosterone deficiency in aging athletes, and the need of a systematic pre-participation serum testosterone evaluation.

  5. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level...... into the beneficial effects of SET have been conducted in untrained and recreationally active individuals, making extrapolation towards athletes' performance difficult. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that only few weeks of SET enhances intense exercise performance in highly-trained individuals...

  6. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes - Results from Simulated Training Camps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hecksteden

    Full Text Available Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1, after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8 and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11. Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery. With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l, urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl, free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml. For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling

  7. TRANSFORMED MOTORIC CHARACTERISTICS AFTER RECEIVED PROGRAMMED TRAINING PROCESS ON SUPERIOR KARATE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is made on intentional sample of participants, members of Macedonian Karate Representation, in the period of preparing to qualify for the world championship in Tokyo 2008. Within the research, were used 19 (nineteen variables for evaluation the following motorics areas: tests for evaluate muscles strength, explosive strength, movement frequency of lower extremity, rhythmic and coordination. Basic purpose of the research was to establish difference within the variables to evaluate motorics abilities between male karate athletes on the age of 18 to 28 (seniors, after a nine-day programmed training in the period of preparing. Using comparative method the results from the both measures, whereby there were evident numerical improvement in the whole motorist abilities, but no difference in the levels of statistic significances.

  8. Sports-specialized intensive training and the risk of injury in young athletes: a clinical case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R

    2015-04-01

    Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. An Investigation of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Learning Styles and Program Admission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmans, Catherine L.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Langley, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The phrase learning style refers to the method one uses to obtain and use information to learn. Personal learning styles can be assessed by specifically designed inventories. We conducted this study to determine if undergraduate athletic training students possess a dominant learning style, according to the Kolb Learning Style Inventory IIA (KLSI IIA), the newest version of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (KLSI), and whether this style is related to education program admission success. Design and Setting: A 1 × 4 factorial design was used. The independent variable was learning style type with 4 levels (converger, diverger, assimilator, or accommodator). The dependent variable was successful versus unsuccessful admission into selected programs. Subjects: Forty undergraduate students (21 men, 19 women) from 3 institutions (mean ± SD age, 20.7 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SD grade point average, 3.26 ± 0.43) participated in this study. No subjects had previously taken the KLSI IIA, and none had a diagnosed learning disability. Measurements: The KLSI IIA was administered to the participants at their respective institutions. We used 2 separate χ2 analyses to determine if the observed distribution of learning styles differed from the expected distribution. Additionally, a Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine if the learning style distributions of those subjects who were successfully admitted to the selected programs differed from those who were not. Results: No significant differences existed between the observed distribution and the expected distribution for those admitted and those not admitted (χ23 = 3.8, P = .28; and χ23 = 3.1, P = .4, respectively). Also, no significant differences existed between the learning style distributions of the groups when compared with each other (Mann-Whitney U = 158, P = .5). Conclusions: Learning styles can be easily identified through the use of the KLSI IIA. We found no dominant learning style among undergraduate

  10. Performance changes during a weeklong high-altitude alpine ski-racing training camp in lowlander young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    Thousands of youth athletes travel to high altitude to participate in lift-access alpine sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-altitude exposure on balance, choice reaction time, power, quickness, flexibility, strength endurance, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in youth lowlander athletes during a weeklong preseason training camp in Summit County, CO, USA. Eleven youth ski racers (4 boys and 7 girls; age, 13.7 ± 0.5 years; height, 157.2 ± 12.6 cm; weight, 52.4 ± 6.8 kg) with 7.7 ± 2.2 skiing years of experience participated in baseline testing at 160 m one week before the camp and a set of daily tests in the morning and afternoon at 2,828 m and skied between 3,328 and 3,802 m during a 6-day camp. Balance and choice reaction time tests were stagnant or improved slightly during the first 3 days and then improved on days 4 and 6. Vertical jump, flexibility, T-agility test, and push-ups in 1 minute improved on day 6. The number of sit-ups in 1 minute did not improve, and scores on the multistage fitness test decreased 20.34%. There was no effect of Lake Louise acute mountain sickness (AMS) questionnaire scores on performance variables measured. Athletes sojourning to high altitude for ski camps can train on immediate ascent but should slowly increase training volume over the first 3 days. Athletes should expect improvements in balance and reaction time 3-6 days into acclimatization. Coaches and athletes should expect about 20% of youth lowlander athletes to have signs and symptoms of AMS during the first 3 days of altitude exposure for alpine lift access sports at altitudes of up to 3,800 m.

  11. Use of evidence-based practice among athletic training educators, clinicians, and students, part 1: perceived importance, knowledge, and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankemeier, Dorice A; Walter, Jessica M; McCarty, Cailee W; Newton, Eric J; Walker, Stacy E; Pribesh, Shana L; Jamali, Beth E; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has become more prevalent, athletic trainers' perceptions of importance and knowledge of these concepts and their confidence in EBP are largely unknown. To assess perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in EBP concepts in athletic trainers in various roles and with different degree levels. Cross-sectional study. Online survey instrument. The survey was sent to 6702 athletic training educators, clinicians, and postprofessional students. A total of 1209 completed the survey, for a response rate of 18.04%. Demographic information and perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in the steps of EBP were obtained. One-way analysis of variance, a Kruskal-Wallis test, and an independent-samples t test were used to determine differences in scores among the demographic variables. Athletic trainers demonstrated low knowledge scores (64.2% ± 1.29%) and mild to moderate confidence (2.71 ± 0.55 out of 4.0). They valued EBP as moderately to extremely important (3.49 ± 0.41 out of 4.0). Perceived importance scores differed among roles (clinicians unaffiliated with an education program scored lower than postprofessional educators, P = .001) and highest educational degree attained (athletic trainers with terminal degrees scored higher than those with bachelor's or master's degrees, P training students demonstrated the highest total EBP knowledge scores (4.65 ± 0.91), whereas clinicians demonstrated the lowest scores (3.62 ± 1.35). Individuals with terminal degrees had higher (P training roles (P importance indicated that athletic trainers valued EBP, but this value was not reflected in the knowledge of EBP concepts. Individuals with a terminal degree possessed higher knowledge scores than those with other educational preparations; however, EBP knowledge needs to increase across all demographics of the profession.

  12. Ramadan fasting does not adversely affect neuromuscular performances and reaction times in trained karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Nidhal; Hammouda, Omar; Latiri, Imed; Adala, Hela; Bouhlel, Ezzedine; Rebai, Haithem; Dogui, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the concomitant effects of Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) and muscle fatigue on neuromuscular performances and reaction times in young trained athletes. Eight karate players (17.2 ± 0.5 years) were tested on three sessions: during a control period (S1: one week before Ramadan), and during the first (S2) and the fourth week of RIF (S3). Dietary intake and anthropometric measurements were assessed before each session. During each test session, participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) and a submaximal contraction at 75 % MVC until exhaustion (T lim ) of the right elbow flexors. Surface electromyography was recorded from biceps brachii muscle during MVC and T lim . Simple (SRT) and choice (CRT) reaction times were evaluated at rest and just after T lim in a random order. The total daily energy (S2: +19.5 %, p < 0.05; S3: +27.4 %, p < 0.01) and water (S2: +26.8 %, p < 0.01; S3: +23.2 %, p < 0.05) intake were significantly increased during RIF. However, neither body mass nor body mass index was altered by RIF (F (2,14) = 0.80, p = 0.47 and F (2,14) = 0.78, p = 0.48, respectively). In addition, T lim (F (2,14) = 2.53, p = 0.12), MVC (F (2,14) = 0.51, p = 0.61) and associated electrical activity (F (2,14) = 0.13, p = 0.88) as well as neuromuscular efficiency (F (2,14) = 0.27, p = 0.76) were maintained during RIF. Moreover, neither SRT nor CRT was affected by RIF (F (2,14) = 1.82, p = 0.19 and F (2,14) = 0.26, p = 0.78, respectively) or neuromuscular fatigue (F (1,7) = 0.0002, p = 0.98 and F (1,7) = 3.78, p = 0.09, respectively). The present results showed that RIF did not adversely affect the neuromuscular performances and anthropometric parameters of elite karate athletes who were undertaking their usual training schedule. In addition, neither RIF nor neuromuscular fatigue poorly affects reaction

  13. Sex and Employment-Setting Differences in Work-Family Conflict in Athletic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Pitney, William A; Mueller, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) has received much attention in athletic training, yet several factors related to this phenomenon have not been examined, specifically a practitioner's sex, occupational setting, willingness to leave the profession, and willingness to use work-leave benefits. To examine how sex and occupational differences in athletic training affect WFC and to examine willingness to leave the profession and use work-leave benefits. Cross-sectional study. Multiple occupational settings, including clinic/outreach, education, collegiate, industrial, professional sports, secondary school, and sales. A total of 246 athletic trainers (ATs) (men = 110, women = 136) participated. Of these, 61.4% (n = 151) were between 20 and 39 years old. Participants responded to a previously validated and reliable WFC instrument. We created and validated a 3-item instrument that assessed willingness to use work-leave benefits, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.88), as well as a single question about willingness to leave the profession. The mean (± SD) WFC score was 16.88 ± 4.4 (range = 5 [least amount of conflict] to 25 [highest amount of conflict]). Men scored 17.01 ± 4.5, and women scored 16.76 ± 4.36, indicating above-average WFC. We observed no difference between men and women based on conflict scores (t244 = 0.492, P = .95) or their willingness to leave the profession (t244 = -1.27, P = .21). We noted differences among ATs in different practice settings (F8,245 = 5.015, P school settings had higher reported WFC scores. A negative relationship existed between WFC score and comfort using work-leave benefits (2-tailed r = -0.533, P < .001). Comfort with using work-leave benefits was different among practice settings (F8,245 = 3.01, P = .003). The ATs employed in traditional practice settings reported higher levels of WFC. Male and female ATs had comparable experiences of WFC and willingness to leave the profession.

  14. Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in highly trained athletes: relevance to pre-participation screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basavarajaiah, Sandeep; Wilson, Matthew; Whyte, Gregory; Shah, Ajay; McKenna, William; Sharma, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in elite athletes. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is considered to be the most common cause of exercise-related sudden death in young athletes...

  15. Comprehensive assessment of biventricular function and aortic stiffness in athletes with different forms of training by three-dimensional echocardiography and strain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitarelli, Antonio; Capotosto, Lidia; Placanica, Giuseppe; Caranci, Fiorella; Pergolini, Mario; Zardo, Francesco; Martino, Francesco; De Chiara, Stefania; Vitarelli, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown distinct models of cardiac adaptations to the training in master athletes and different effects of endurance and strength-training on cardiovascular function. We attempted to assess left-ventricular (LV) function, aortic (Ao) function, and right-ventricular (RV) function in athletes with different forms of training by using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle-tracking imaging (STI). We examined 35 male marathon runners (endurance-trained athletes, ETA), 35 powerlifting athletes (strength-trained athletes, STA), 35 martial arts athletes (mixed-trained athletes, MTA), and 35 sedentary untrained healthy men (controls, CTR). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography were performed for the assessment of LV and RV systolic/diastolic function. LV and RV longitudinal strain (LS) and LV torsion (LVtor) were determined using STI (EchoPAC BT11, GE-Ultrasound). Maximum velocity of systolic wall expansion peaks (AoSvel) was determined using TDI. ETA experienced LV eccentric hypertrophy with increased 3D LV end-diastolic volume and mass and significant increase in peak systolic apical rotation and LVtor. In all groups of athletes, RV-LS was reduced at rest and improved after exercise. AoSvel was significantly increased in ETA and MTA and significantly decreased in STA compared with CTR. There were good correlations between LV remodelling and aortic stiffness values. Multivariate analysis showed aortic wall velocities to be independently related to LV mass index. In strength-trained, endurance-trained, and mixed-trained athletes, ventricular and vascular response assessed by 3DE, TDI, and STI underlies different adaptations of LV, RV, and aortic indexes.

  16. How Do World-Class Nordic Combined Athletes Differ From Specialized Cross-Country Skiers and Ski Jumpers in Sport-Specific Capacity and Training Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Rasdal, Vegard; Bråten, Steinar; Moen, Frode; Ettema, Gertjan

    2016-10-01

    To compare sport-specific laboratory capacities and the annual training of world-class Nordic combined (NC) athletes with specialized ski jumpers (SJ) and cross-country (XC) skiers. Five world-class athletes from each sports discipline were compared. Ski jump imitations were performed on a 3-dimensional force plate in NC athletes and SJ, whereas XC skiing characteristics were obtained from submaximal and maximal roller ski skating on a treadmill in NC athletes and XC skiers. In addition, anthropometrics and annual training characteristics were determined. NC athletes demonstrated 9% higher body mass and showed 17% lower vertical speed in the ski jump imitation than SJ (all P training, mainly caused by lower amounts of low- and moderate-intensity training in the classical technique, whereas high-intensity strength and speed training and endurance training in the skating technique did not differ substantially from XC skiers. To simultaneously optimize endurance, explosive, and technical capacities in 2 different disciplines, world-class NC athletes train approximately two-thirds of the XC skier's endurance training volume and perform one-half of the ski-jump-specific training compared with SJ. Still, the various laboratory capacities differed only 10-17% compared with SJ and XC skiers.

  17. Monitoring Athletic Training Status Through Autonomic Heart Rate Regulation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Clint R; Fuller, Joel T; Thomson, Rebecca L; Davison, Kade; Robertson, Eileen Y; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-10-01

    Autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR) as an indicator of the body's ability to adapt to an exercise stimulus has been evaluated in many studies through HR variability (HRV) and post-exercise HR recovery (HRR). Recently, HR acceleration has also been investigated. The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of negative adaptations to endurance training (i.e., a period of overreaching leading to attenuated performance) and positive adaptations (i.e., training leading to improved performance) on autonomic HR regulation in endurance-trained athletes. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Academic Search Premier databases from inception until April 2015. Included articles examined the effects of endurance training leading to increased or decreased exercise performance on four measures of autonomic HR regulation: resting and post-exercise HRV [vagal-related indices of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal R-R intervals (RMSSD), high frequency power (HFP) and the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) only], and post-exercise HRR and HR acceleration. Of the 5377 records retrieved, 27 studies were included in the systematic review and 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies inducing increases in performance showed small increases in resting RMSSD [standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.58; P performance showed a small increase in resting RMSSD (SMD = 0.26; P = 0.01), but trivial changes in resting HFP (SMD = 0.04; P = 0.77) and SD1 (SMD = 0.04; P = 0.82). Post-exercise RMSSD (SMD = 0.64; P = 0.04) and HFP (SMD = 0.49; P = 0.18) were increased, as was HRR (SMD = 0.46; P performance. However, increases in post-exercise HRV and HRR also occur in response to overreaching, demonstrating that additional measures of training tolerance may be required to determine whether training-induced changes in these

  18. Game method application efficiency for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia Deineko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.

  19. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  20. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  1. Culinary Arts Food Service Training Program. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bo; And Others

    Special Vocational Services in Salt Lake City has provided food service training, using the facilities of a local high school and the University of Utah, to special needs youth meeting Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) guidelines. The use of industry-based equipment, a formal dining room, and a qualified staff have assured relevant training to…

  2. Dynamics of the level of choreographic preparedness of athletes at the stage of preliminary basic training (on the basis of sports aerobics

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    Valentina Todorova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the change in the level of choreographic preparedness of young athletes at the stage of preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: an expert evaluation of 61 athletes, gymnasts, sports aerobics. Following research methods were used: theoretical analysis of literary sources, method of expert evaluation, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: a methodology for assessing the choreographic preparedness of athletes at the stage of preliminary basic training was introduced. Based on the data obtained, it was found that in the group of gymnasts there was a significant increase in the choreographic skill, which was recorded according to the group indices of the formation of the choreographic preparedness, as well as all the criteria for choreographic readiness. Conclusion: experimentally proved the effectiveness of the introduction of the author's program of choreographic training in the training process of gymnasts at all stages of training athletes in order to improve their choreographic skills.

  3. Comparison of muscle buffer capacity and repeated-sprint ability of untrained, endurance-trained and team-sport athletes.

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    Edg E, Johann; Bishop, David; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel

    2006-02-01

    We measured the muscle buffer capacity (betam) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport athletes (n = 7), endurance trained (n = 6) or untrained but physically active (n = 8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine VO(2peak) followed 2 days later by a cycle test of RSA (5 x 6 s, every 30 s). Resting muscle samples (Vastus lateralis) were taken to determine betam. The team-sport group had a significantly higher betam than either the endurance-trained or the untrained groups (181+/- 27 vs. 148 +/- 11 vs. 122 +/- 32 micromol H(+) g dm(-1) pH(-1) respectively; P < 0.05). The team-sport group also completed significantly more relative total work (299 +/- 27 vs. 263 +/- 31 vs. 223 +/- 21 J kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and absolute total work (18.2 +/- 1.6 vs. 14.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 13.0 +/- 1.9 kJ, respectively; P < 0.05) than the endurance-trained or untrained groups during the RSA test. The team-sport group also had a greater post-exercise blood lactate concentration, but not blood pH. There was a significant correlation between betam and RSA (r = 0.67; P < 0.05). Our findings show that young females competing in team sports have a larger betam than either endurance-trained or untrained females. This may be the result of the intermittent, high-intensity activity during training and the match play of team-sport athletes. The team-sport athletes also had a greater RSA than either the endurance-trained or untrained subjects. The greater total work by team-sport athletes was predominantly due to a better performance during the early sprints of the repeated-sprint bout.

  4. Athletes' and coaches' perceptions of sport psychology services offered by graduate students at one NCAA Division I university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Noah B; Fisher, Leslee A; Wrisberg, Craig A

    2004-02-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls for graduate programs in sport psychology to include supervised practicum experiences. While supervision and applied experience is vital to the professional growth of graduate students, periodic evaluations are also needed to determine students' effectiveness in providing sport psychology services. This study represented an initial attempt to assess athletes' and coaches' perceptions of services provided by graduate students at one NCAA Division I university. Analyses showed 118 participants' ratings of consultants' effectiveness were comparable to those provided by U.S. Olympic athletes for professional consultants in earlier research by Gould, Murphy, Tammen, and May.

  5. The oxygen uptake-heart rate relationship in trained female wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria Louise; Tolfrey, Keith

    2004-05-01

    We examined the relationship between the percentage of peak heart rate (HR) and the percentage of peak oxygen uptake VO2 during steady-rate incremental wheelchair propulsion in 10 trained female wheelchair athletes (WAs) to determine the appropriateness of using American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) target HRs for training prescription. Oxygen uptake was calculated during each submaximal exercise stage, and HR was monitored continuously. Peak VO2 was determined with the use of a separate protocol. Linear regression equations of percentage of peak HR versus percentage of peak VO2 were measured for each participant. Subsequently, we calculated the percentage of peak HR values corresponding with 40%, 60%, 80%, and 85% peak VO2. The linear regression formula (derived as the group mean of the slope and intercept terms determined from each individual participant) was % peak HR = 0.652 x % peak VO2 + 35.2 (standard error of the estimate [SEE] 3.41). The group mean of the individual correlation coefficients for the VO2-HR relationship was r = 0.973. The percentage peaks of HRs for the WAs were slightly, though not significantly, greater than those suggested by the ACSM across the exercise intensity continuum. These findings suggest that training programs prescribed on the basis of ACSM target HR guidelines need not be altered for trained female WAs with lesions of T6 and below. Notably, the discrepancy between the WA values and the population norm (ACSM) decreased from 6% at 40% peak VO2 (i.e., 61% vs. 55%) to <1% at 85% peak VO2 (i.e., 90.6% vs. 90.0%). This discrepancy indicates a tendency for the use of percentage of HR peak at the lower exercise intensities to slightly underestimate the relative exercise intensity (i.e., percentage of peak VO2) in the WA population.

  6. Application of "living high-training low" enhances cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2017-03-31

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of the application of living high-training low (LHTL) on cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises compared with that of living low-training low (LLTL) in athletes. Male middle- and long-distance runners (n = 20) were randomly assigned into the LLTL group (n = 10, living at 1000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude) and the LHTL group (n = 10, living at simulated 3000-m altitude and training at 700-1330-m altitude). Their cardiac function and skeletal muscle oxygenation during submaximal exercises at sea level before and after training at each environmental condition were evaluated. There was a significant interaction only in the stroke volume (SV); however, the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) showed significant main effects within time; HR and SV significantly increased during training in the LHTL group compared with those in the LLTL group. EDV also significantly increased during training in both groups; however, the LHTL group had a higher increase than the LLTL group. ESV significantly increased during training in the LLTL group. There was no significant difference in the ejection fraction and cardiac output. The skeletal muscle oxygen profiles had no significant differences but improved in the LHTL group compared with those in the LLTL group. LHTL can yield favorable effects on cardiac function by improving the HR, SV, EDV, and ESV during submaximal exercises compared with LLTL in athletes.

  7. Effects of 2-week intermittent training in hypobaric hypoxia on the aerobic energy metabolism and performance of cycling athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; An, Ho-Jung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Youn

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment. [Subjects and Methods] We also aimed at using the findings to propose an efficient training program in hypobaric hypoxia for endurance athletes with disabilities. The study participants were three cycling athletes with physical disabilities from the Korean national team (A, B, and C athletes). They underwent complex (repetition, interval, and continued) training with a roller-type cycle in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment (simulated altitude, 4,000 m above sea level). The training was conducted in twelve 60-min sessions for 2 weeks and it was based on the ventilatory threshold intensity, measured in an exercise stress test, conducted prior to training, at constant temperature (23 °C ± 2 °C) and humidity conditions (50% ± 5%). [Results] B and C athletes showed no noticeable changes in relative VO 2 max and HRmax values after training. A, B, and C athletes all showed increases in all-out time, 2'09″ (13.1%), 2'43″ (18.7%), and 1'22″ (7.4%), respectively after training. Although the relative VO 2 max and HRmax values were not improved, submaximal exercise performance ability was improved. [Conclusion] Therefore, 2 weeks of intermittent training in a hypobaric hypoxia environment positively affected aerobic energy metabolism and performance.

  8. Effects of Oral Sodium Supplementation on Indices of Thermoregulation in Trained, Endurance Athletes

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    Elizabeth L. Earhart, Edward P. Weiss, Rabia Rahman, Patrick V. Kelly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS during one trial and placebo (PL during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials. Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr-1 during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459. Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress (“warm/hot” ratings but were not different between trials (p = 0.825. Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919. Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05. High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse

  9. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori eHaase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1 elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2 greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3 increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; (4 increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS identifying feelings subscale; (5 decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the

  10. Sperm DNA fragmentation as a result of ultra-endurance exercise training in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaamonde, D; Algar-Santacruz, C; Abbasi, A; García-Manso, J M

    2018-02-01

    Intensive sports practice seems to exert negative effects on semen parameters; in order to assess these effects, the objective of this study was to assess semen, including DNA fragmentation, and hormone parameters in elite triathletes. Twelve high-level triathletes preparing for a National Triathlon Championship participated in the study. The qualitative sperm parameters analysed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation; when needed, additional testing was performed. Assessed hormones were testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and testosterone-cortisol ratio (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption and training characteristics were also assessed. Hormonal values and physical semen parameters were within normal ranges. DNA fragmentation showed high values (20.4 ± 6.1%). Round cells in semen were higher than normal (2.8 ± 1.5 million/ml), with the presence of macrophages. Correlations were found for several parameters: concentration of round cells positively correlated with progressive sperm motility (p = .01) and sperm morphology (p = .02); contrarily, the correlation found with DNA fragmentation was negative (p = .04). Sperm DNA fragmentation and the T/C ratio, however, were correlated in a positive manner (p = .03). As evidenced by the observed results, sperm DNA fragmentation is affected by high-level sports practice; therefore, high loads of endurance training could potentially interfere with the athlete's fertility potential. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  13. Athlete's heart patterns in elite rugby players: effects of training specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Laurent; Kervio, Gaëlle; Corneloup, Luc; Vincent, Marie-Pierre; Baudot, Christophe; Rebeyrol, Jean-Louis; Merle, Francis; Gencel, Laurent; Carré, François

    2013-02-01

    Athlete's heart patterns have been widely described. However, to our knowledge, few studies have focused on professional rugby players, who train differently according to their field position. To describe electrocardiographic and echocardiographic patterns observed in elite rugby players according to their field position. One hundred and thirty-five professional rugby players at the end of the competitive season were included. According to a modified Pelliccia's classification, 68.1% of electrocardiograms were normal or had minor abnormalities, 27.2% were mildly abnormal and 3.7% were distinctly abnormal. Heart rate was higher in scrum first-row players (P<0.05). Absolute and indexed left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameters (LVIDd; absolute value 59.3±4.7 mm) exceeded 65 mm and 32 mm/m2 in 13% and 1.5% of players, respectively. Indexed LVIDd values were higher in back players (P<0.001). Left ventricular interventricular septum and posterior wall thicknesses (absolute values 9.4±1.7 mm and 9.2±1.6 mm, respectively) exceeded 13 mm in 3.7% of players. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was noted in 3.7% of players. Except for one Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, players with significant ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities showed no cardiovascular event or disease during follow-up. Thus, elite rugby players present similar heart patterns to elite athletes in other sports. Major electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities are quite rare. Eccentric cardiac remodelling is more frequent in back players. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Effect of Plyometric Training on Vertical Jump Performance in Female Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Emilija; Ristić, Vladimir; McMaster, Daniel Travis; Milanović, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    Plyometric training is an effective method to prevent knee injuries in female athletes; however, the effects of plyometric training on jump performance in female athletes is unclear. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) performance of amateur, collegiate and elite female athletes. Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, SCIndex and ScienceDirect). The included studies were coded for the following criteria: training status, training modality and type of outcome measures. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. The effects of plyometric training on VJ performance were based on the following standardised pre-post testing effect size (ES) thresholds: trivial (4.00). A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed that plyometric training had a most likely moderate effect on countermovement jump (CMJ) height performance (ES = 1.09; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.57-1.61; I 2 = 75.60 %). Plyometric training interventions of less than 10 weeks in duration had a most likely small effect on CMJ height performance (ES = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.25-0.91). In contrast, plyometric training durations greater than 10 weeks had a most likely large effect on CMJ height (ES = 1.87; 95 % CI 0.73-3.01). The effect of plyometric training on concentric-only squat jump (SJ) height was likely small (ES = 0.44; 95 % CI -0.09 to 0.97). Similar effects were observed on SJ height after 6 weeks of plyometric training in amateur (ES = 0.35) and young (ES = 0.49) athletes, respectively. The effect of plyometric training on CMJ height with the arm swing was likely large (ES = 1.31; 95 % CI -0.04 to 2.65). The largest plyometric training effects were observed in drop jump (DJ) height performance (ES = 3.59; 95 % CI -3.04 to 10.23). Most likely

  15. The Effect of HMB Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors after Four Weeks of Resistance Training in Amateur Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional supplements have been widely used in order to enhance athletic performance and improve health. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors after 4 weeks of resistance training in athletes. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind study, 20 male athletes were selected through simple random sampling, were assigned to supplement and control groups, and participated in resistance training 3 sessions a week for 4 weeks. The supplement group consumed 3 g HMB supplement per day and the control group consumed the placebo (rice flour in this period. Before and after the test period, blood pressure was measured and fasting blood samples were obtained to determine blood lipids and hematological parameters. After all, paired and unpaired t-test were used to examine within and between group differences, respectively. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After the training period, no significant differences were found between HMB and placebo groups regarding blood lipids, blood pressure, and hematological parameters. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that HMB supplementation was safe and did not result in any adverse effects. Thus, HMB can be used safely by human as an ergogenic aid for exercise training.

  16. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

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    Adam W. Kiefer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance.

  17. The augmenting role of biofeedback: effects of autogenic, imagery and music training on physiological indices and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, B; Bar-Eli, M; Tenenbaum, G

    1995-08-01

    In this study, three psychoregulative procedures of relaxation and excitation were provided in combination with biofeedback to examine their role on physiological and athletic performance variables. Thirty-nine college students were randomly assigned to three groups of psychoregulatory treatment (autogenic and imagery training, AT+IT; music and imagery training, M+IT; autogenic, music and imagery training, AT+M+IT), one placebo group and the control group. Imagery was related to a 100-m run. The treatment and control conditions lasted 13 sessions of 20 min each. During the first seven sessions, the subjects in the treatment groups underwent 10 min of relaxation followed by 10 min of excitation. During the last six sessions, similar treatment was provided accompanied by frontalis EMG biofeedback. Heart rate, the galvanic skin response, EMG and breathing frequency (fb) were recorded three times during each session. In addition, an athletic task (100-m run) was examined at the outset, after seven sessions (no biofeedback) and after an additional six sessions (with biofeedback). Biofeedback was found to have a significant augmenting effect on physiological components and athletic performance when accompanied by autogenic, imagery and music training. Soft music was found to be as beneficial as other relaxation techniques. The results are compared with similar studies applying mental techniques with biofeedback, and new directions of investigation in the psychophysiological domain are suggested.

  18. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  19. Student-Retention and Career-Placement Rates Between Bachelor's and Master's Degree Professional Athletic Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Dodge, Thomas M; Hertel, Jay

    2015-09-01

    The debate over what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training has heightened. A comparison of retention and career-placement rates between bachelor's and master's degree professional athletic training programs may inform the debate. To compare the retention rates and career-placement rates of students in bachelor's and master's degree professional programs. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 192 program directors (PDs) from bachelor's degree (n = 177) and master's degree (n = 15) professional programs. The PDs completed a Web-based survey. We instructed the PDs to provide a retention rate and career-placement rate for the students in the programs they lead for each of the past 5 years. We also asked the PDs if they thought retention of students was a problem currently facing athletic training education. We used independent t tests to compare the responses between bachelor's and master's degree professional programs. We found a higher retention rate for professional master's degree students (88.70% ± 9.02%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.71, 93.69) than bachelor's degree students (80.98% ± 17.86%, 95% CI = 78.30, 83.66) (t25 = -2.86, P = .008, d = 0.55). Similarly, PDs from professional master's degree programs reported higher career-placement percentages (88.50% ± 10.68%, 95% CI = 82.33, 94.67) than bachelor's degree professional PDs (71.32% ± 18.47%, 95% CI = 68.54, 74.10) (t20 = -5.40, P training (χ(2)1 = 0.720, P = .40, Φ = .061). Professional master's degree education appears to facilitate higher retention rates and greater career-placement rates in athletic training than bachelor's degree education. Professional socialization, program selectivity, and student commitment and motivation levels may help to explain the differences noted.

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more by reviewing the NATA Media Kit. NATA Marketing Opportunities Join or Renew Joining NATA offers athletic ... looking for more information about athletic training, youth sports safety or specific health issues, we encourage you ...

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in high trained compared to low trained athletes and untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, M; Mencarelli, M; Fedele, V; Ceccarelli, I; Pecorelli, A; Grasso, G; Aloisi, A M; Muscettola, M

    2009-11-01

    Physiological needs during prolonged exercise are a potent stimulus for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hence, athletes undergoing daily endurance training sessions may have frequent and prolonged phases of endogenous hypercortisolism. Since chronic glucocorticoids treatment leads to down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GR-alpha) mRNA expression, endurance training could lead to modulation of GR expression. The aim of the study was to evaluate GR-alpha and GR-beta mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma cortisol, ACTH and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) concentrations at rest in subjects undergoing different training regimes. Nine high trained (HT) swimmers (training volume: 21.6+/-1.7 hours/week in 10-12 sessions) were compared with two age-matched control groups represented by 8 low trained (LT) runners (training volume: 6.4+/-2.6 h/week in 3-5 sessions) and 9 untrained subjects. Expression of GR was determined by RT-PCR of total RNA. Hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay methods. HT athletes showed 10 times less GR-alpha mRNA expression than the untrained subjects, while LT athletes exhibited values about twofold less than the untrained subjects. GR-beta mRNA expression was undetectable in all subjects. No differences were observed among the three groups in hormone levels. GR- alpha mRNA expression is repressed in proportion to the amount and frequency of the stressful stimuli due to training. Hence, this down-regulation may be a consequence of the frequent and prolonged exposure to cortisol acute elevations induced by training. GR-beta did not play an important role in inducing the down-regulation of GR-alpha mRNA expression observed.

  2. Dynamics of athletes choreographic preparedness levelat the stage of specialized basic training (on the basis of sports aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentуna Todorova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article shows the effectiveness of the author's program of choreographic training at the stage of specialized basic training in sports aerobics. Purpose: revealing changes in the level of choreographic preparedness of young athletes at the stage of specialized basic training. Material & Methods: method of expert evaluation, statistical methods of research. Results: a methodology for assessing the choreographic preparedness of athletes at the stage of specialized basic training was introduced. Objectivity of the methods consisted in counting the indices of choreographic readiness. On the basis of the data obtained, it was established that in the experimental group of gymnasts a significant increase in the choreographic skill took place, which was recorded by the group indicator of the formation of the choreographic readiness, and also by all the criteria for choreographic readiness. Conclusion: experimentally proved the effectiveness of the introduction of the author's program of choreographic training in the training process of gymnastics at the stage of specialized basic training to improve their choreographic skills.

  3. The Effect of a Period of Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Agility, and Speed in Disabled Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghaali Ghasemnian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the increased rate of cardiovascular diseases as well as muscle weakness in disabled women, the present study was performed with the aim of investigating the effect of a period of resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors, agility, and speed in disabled female athletes. Methods: Eighteen disabled female athletes (age, 29.5±2.6 years; weight, 66.3±14.5kg voluntarily participated in this quasi-experimental study. The subjects were randomly divided into two identical control groups (n=9 and experimental group (n=9. The control group performed regular training (3 sessions per week, but the experimental group, in addition to regular training, participated in resistance training (3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The serum levels of LDL, HDL, and functional tests (zig-zag agility and speed tests, were assessed before and after 8 weeks of training. Data were analyzed using independent t-, paired t-, and covariance tests. The significance level was considered to be p0.05. but after 8 weeks of resistance training, diameter speed function significantly improved in the experimental group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that 8 weeks of resistance training, without changes in serum levels of LDL and HDL and agility, improved diameter speed function in disabled women.

  4. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Vikmoen

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors.Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8 or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11. The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4-10 repetition maximum (RM], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention.E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15% and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6% and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05. This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7% and fiber type II (31 ± 20% in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05, with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups.Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only.

  5. Size and blood flow of central and peripheral arteries in highly trained able-bodied and disabled athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huonker, M; Schmid, A; Schmidt-Trucksass, A; Grathwohl, D; Keul, J

    2003-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, central and peripheral arteries were investigated noninvasively in high-performance athletes and in untrained subjects. The diastolic inner vessel diameter (D) of the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the subclavian artery (Sub), and common femoral artery (Fem) were determined by duplex sonography in 18 able-bodied professional tennis players, 34 able-bodied elite road cyclist athletes, 26 athletes with paraplegia, 17 below-knee amputated athletes, and 30 able-bodied, untrained subjects. The vessel cross-sectional areas (CSA) were set in relation to body surface area (BSA), and the cross-section index (CS-index = CSA/BSA) was calculated. Volumetric blood flow was determined in Sub and Fem via a pulsed-wave Doppler system and was set in relation to heart rate to calculate the stroke flow. A significantly increased D of Sub was found in the racket arm of able-bodied tennis players compared with the opposite arm (19%). Fem of able-bodied road cyclist athletes and of the intact limb in below-knee amputated athletes showed similar increases. D of Fem was lower in athletes with paraplegia (37%) and in below-knee amputated athletes proximal to the lesion (21%) compared with able-bodied, untrained subjects; CS-indexes were reduced 57 and 31%, respectively. Athletes with paraplegia demonstrated a larger D (19%) and a larger CS-index in Sub (54%) than able-bodied, untrained subjects. No significant differences in D and CS-indexes of the thoracic and abdominal aorta were found between any of the groups. The changes measured in Sub and Fem were associated with corresponding alterations in blood flow and stroke flow in all groups. The study suggests that the size and blood flow volume of the proximal limb arteries are adjusted to the metabolic needs of the corresponding extremity musculature and underscore the impact of exercise training or disuse on the structure and the function of the arterial system.

  6. Effects of Sport-Specific Training during the Early Stages of Long-Term Athlete Development on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, Cognitive, and Academic Performances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urs Granacher; Ron Borde

    2017-01-01

    ...) because peak performances are achieved at a relatively young age (e.g., gymnastics). However, the challenging combination of high training volumes and academic demands may impede youth athletes' cognitive and academic performances...

  7. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation downregulates the increase of monocytes expressing toll-like receptor 4 in response to 6-day intensive training in kendo athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akama, Takao; Kon, Michihiro; Tanimura, Yuko; Kimura, Fuminori; Hanaoka, Yukichi; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Kono, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study examined changes in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-expressing monocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in response to continuous intensive exercise training in athletes, as well as the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10...

  8. Effects of 2-week intermittent training in hypobaric hypoxia on the aerobic energy metabolism and performance of cycling athletes with disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; An, Ho-Jung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Youn

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment...

  9. Effects of macro- and micronutrients on exercise-induced hepcidin response in highly trained endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Stellingwerff, Trent; Dieter, Brad P; McKenzie, Donald C; Koehle, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    Iron deficiency has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise-induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by upregulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micronutrients on blunting exercise-induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postexercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the postexercise hepcidin response. Ten highly trained male cyclists (age: 26.9 ± 6.4 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 67.4 ± 4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1 completed 4 cycling sessions in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, triple-crossover study. Experimental days consisted of an 8-min warm-up at 50% power output at maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 8 × 3-min intervals at 85% power output at maximal oxygen uptake with 1.5 min at 60% power output at maximal oxygen uptake between each interval. Blood samples were collected pre- and postexercise, and at 3 h postexercise. Three different drinks consisting of CHO (75 g) and protein (25 g) with (VPRO) or without (PRO) vitamins D3 (5000 IU) and K2 (1000 μg), or a zero-calorie control drink (PLA) were consumed immediately after the postexercise blood sample. Results showed that the postexercise drinks had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on any biomarker measured. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in hepcidin and interleukin-6 following intense cycling intervals in the participants. Hepcidin increased significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline (nmol·L-1: 9.94 ± 8.93, 14.18 ± 14.90, 10.44 ± 14.62) to 3 h postexercise (nmol·L-1: 22.27 ± 13.41, 25.44 ± 11.91, 22.57 ± 15.57) in VPRO, PRO, and PLA, respectively. Contrary to our hypothesis, the drink compositions used did not blunt the postexercise hepcidin response in highly trained athletes.

  10. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Among Athletic Training Educators, Clinicians, and Students, Part 1: Perceived Importance, Knowledge, and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Walter, Jessica M.; McCarty, Cailee W.; Newton, Eric J.; Walker, Stacy E.; Pribesh, Shana L.; Jamali, Beth E.; Manspeaker, Sarah A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has become more prevalent, athletic trainers' perceptions of importance and knowledge of these concepts and their confidence in EBP are largely unknown. Objective: To assess perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in EBP concepts in athletic trainers in various roles and with different degree levels. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey instrument. Patients or Other Participants: The survey was sent to 6702 athletic training educators, clinicians, and postprofessional students. A total of 1209 completed the survey, for a response rate of 18.04%. Main Outcome Measure(s): Demographic information and perceived importance and knowledge of and confidence in the steps of EBP were obtained. One-way analysis of variance, a Kruskal-Wallis test, and an independent-samples t test were used to determine differences in scores among the demographic variables. Results: Athletic trainers demonstrated low knowledge scores (64.2% ± 1.29%) and mild to moderate confidence (2.71 ± 0.55 out of 4.0). They valued EBP as moderately to extremely important (3.49 ± 0.41 out of 4.0). Perceived importance scores differed among roles (clinicians unaffiliated with an education program scored lower than postprofessional educators, P = .001) and highest educational degree attained (athletic trainers with terminal degrees scored higher than those with bachelor's or master's degrees, P training students demonstrated the highest total EBP knowledge scores (4.65 ± 0.91), whereas clinicians demonstrated the lowest scores (3.62 ± 1.35). Individuals with terminal degrees had higher (P training roles (P < .001). Conclusions: Overall knowledge of the basic EBP steps remained low across the various athletic trainers' roles. The higher level of importance indicated that athletic trainers valued EBP, but this value was not reflected in the knowledge of EBP concepts. Individuals with a terminal degree possessed higher knowledge

  11. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Adam W; Kushner, Adam M; Groene, John; Williams, Christopher; Riley, Michael A; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT) is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline) objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance. Key pointsSpecific, targeted interventions that isolate injury risk factors and can help correct modifiable neuromuscular deficits are essential.Current training interventions for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention have only demonstrated limited effectiveness and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption to reduce ACL injury rates.The paper provides an overview of innovative strategies and technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement neuromuscular training (NMT) including

  12. The effects of different speed training protocols on sprint acceleration kinematics and muscle strength and power in field sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-06-01

    A variety of resistance training interventions are used to improve field sport acceleration (e.g., free sprinting, weights, plyometrics, resisted sprinting). The effects these protocols have on acceleration performance and components of sprint technique have not been clearly defined in the literature. This study assessed 4 common protocols (free sprint training [FST], weight training [WT], plyometric training [PT], and resisted sprint training [RST]) for changes in acceleration kinematics, power, and strength in field sport athletes. Thirty-five men were divided into 4 groups (FST: n = 9; WT: n = 8; PT: n = 9; RST: n = 9) matched for 10-m velocity. Training involved two 60-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks. After the interventions, paired-sample t-tests identified significant (p ≤ 0.05) within-group changes. All the groups increased the 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m velocity by 9-10%. The WT and PT groups increased the 5- to 10-m velocity by approximately 10%. All the groups increased step length for all distance intervals. The FST group decreased 0- to 5-m flight time and step frequency in all intervals and increased 0- to 5-m and 0- to 10-m contact time. Power and strength adaptations were protocol specific. The FST group improved horizontal power as measured by a 5-bound test. The FST, PT, and RST groups all improved reactive strength index derived from a 40-cm drop jump, indicating enhanced muscle stretch-shortening capacity during rebound from impacts. The WT group increased absolute and relative strength measured by a 3-repetition maximum squat by approximately 15%. Step length was the major limiting sprint performance factor for the athletes in this study. Correctly administered, each training protocol can be effective in improving acceleration. To increase step length and improve acceleration, field sport athletes should develop specific horizontal and reactive power.

  13. Exercise Training in Athletes with Bicuspid Aortic Valve Does Not Result in Increased Dimensions and Impaired Performance of the Left Ventricle

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    Laura Stefani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is one of the most common congenital heart disease (0.9%–2% and is frequently found in the athletes and in the general population. BAV can lead to aortic valve dysfunction and to a progressive aortic dilatation. Trained BAV athletes exhibit a progressive enlargement of the left ventricle (LV compared to athletes with normal aortic valve morphology. The present study investigates the possible relationship between different aortic valve morphology and LV dimensions. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2011, we investigated a total of 292 BAV subjects, divided into three different groups (210 athletes, 59 sedentaries, and 23 ex-athletes. A 2D echocardiogram exam to classify BAV morphology and measure the standard LV systo-diastolic parameters was performed. The study was conducted as a 5-year follow-up echocardiographic longitudinal and as cross-sectional study. Results. Typical BAV was more frequent in all three groups (68% athletes, 67% sedentaries, and 63% ex-athletes than atypical. In BAV athletes, the typical form was found in 51% (107/210 of soccer players, 10% (21/210 of basketball players, 10% track and field athletics (20/210, 8% (17/210 of cyclists, 6% (13/210 swimmers, and 15% (32/210 of rugby players and others sport. Despite a progressive enlargement of the LV (P<0.001 observed during the follow-up study, no statistical differences of the LV morphology and function were evident among the diverse BAV patterns either in sedentary subjects or in athletes. Conclusion. In a large population of trained BAV athletes, with different prevalence of typical and atypical BAV type, there is a progressive nonstatistically significant enlargement of the LV. In any case, the dimensions of the LV remained within normal range. The metabolic requirements of the diverse sport examined in the present investigations do not seem to produce any negative impact in BAV athletes

  14. Reasons for Youth Sport Dropout from Organized Sport: The Case Of Ethiopian Youth Sport Academy Athlete Tirunesh Dibaba Sport Training Center

    OpenAIRE

    Petros, Leulseged

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Athlete Tirunesh Dibaba Sports Training Centre was established in 2009 at Asela (Arsi) under Ethiopian Sports Commission's Sports Academy, establishing programs intending to supply young competitive athletes to the national federations. But trainees with promising performance have been observed leaving from the training centre before they have reached their top performance. From the personal experience of the author, who has been working in this institution as a coach ...

  15. Effects of Sport-Specific Training during the Early Stages of Long-Term Athlete Development on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, Cognitive, and Academic Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Urs Granacher; Ron Borde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Several sports demand an early start into long-term athlete development (LTAD) because peak performances are achieved at a relatively young age (e.g., gymnastics). However, the challenging combination of high training volumes and academic demands may impede youth athletes' cognitive and academic performances. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine the effects of a 1-year sport-specific training and/or physical education on physical fitness, body composition, cognitive and ...

  16. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-01-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence. Key points The combination of balance and plyometric exercises can induce significant and substantial training improvements in muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance with adolescent youth athletes The within training session

  17. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS PERFORMED AT GIVEN INTENSITIES IS DIFFERENT IN ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH TRAINED ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Richens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prescribing training intensity and volume is a key problem when designing resistance training programmes. One approach is to base training prescription on the number of repetitions performed at a given percentage of repetition maximum due to the correlation found between these two measures. However, previous research has raised questions as to the accuracy of this method, as the repetitions completed at different percentages of 1RM can differ based upon the characteristics of the athlete. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of an athlete’s training background on the relationship between the load lifted (as a percentage of one repetition maximum and the number of repetitions achieved. Eight weightlifters and eight endurance runners each completed a one repetition maximum test on the leg press and completed repetitions to fatigue at 90, 80 and 70% of their one repetition maximum. The endurance runners completed significantly more repetitions than the weightlifters at 70% (39.9 ± 17.6 versus 17.9 ± 2.8; p < 0.05 and 80% (19.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.8 ± 2.7; p 0.05 of one repetition maximum. These differences could be explained by the contrasting training adaptations demanded by each sport. This study suggests that traditional guidelines may underestimate the potential number of repetitions that can be completed at a given percentage of 1RM, particularly for endurance trained athletes.

  19. Absence of resting cardiovascular dysfunction in middle-aged endurance-trained athletes with exaggerated exercise blood pressure responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Sless, Ryan T; Notarius, Catherine F; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M

    2017-08-01

    Untrained individuals with exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses to graded exercise testing are characterized as having resting dysfunction of the sympathetic and cardiovascular systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the resting cardiovascular state of endurance-trained individuals with EBP through a comparison of normotensive athletes with and without EBP. EBP was defined as a maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 190 mmHg and at least 210 mmHg for women and men respectively, in response to a graded exercise test. Twenty-two life-long endurance-trained athletes (56 ± 5 years, 16 men) with EBP (EBP+) and 11 age and sex-matched athletes (55 ± 5 years, eight men) without EBP (EBP-) participated in the study. Sympathetic reactivity was assessed using BP responses to a cold pressor test, isometric handgrip exercise, and postexercise muscle ischemia. Resting left ventricular structure and function was assessed using two-dimensional echocardiography, whereas central arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity. Calf vascular conductance was measured at rest and peak postexercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. All sympathetic reactivity, left ventricular, and arterial stiffness indices were similar between groups. There was no between-group difference in resting vascular conductance, whereas peak vascular conductance was higher in EBP+ relative to EBP- (1.81 ± 0.65 vs. 1.45 ± 0.32 ml/100 ml/min/mmHg, P < 0.05). Findings from this study suggest that athletes with EBP do not display the resting cardiovascular state typically observed in untrained individuals with EBP. This response in athletes, therefore, is likely a compensatory mechanism to satisfy peripheral blood-flow demands rather than indicative of latent dysfunction.

  20. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal but not saggital plane motion during jump landing in highly trained women athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Joseph1, Craig R Denegar1, Elaine Horn1, Bradley MacDougall1, Michael Rahl1, Jessica Sheehan1, Thomas Trojian2, Jeffery M Anderson1, James E Clark1, William J Kraemer11Department of Kinesiology, 2Department of Sports Medicine, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: Lower extremity mechanics during landing have been linked to traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries, particularly in women’s athletics. The effects of efforts to mitigate these risks have not been fully elucidated. We previously reported that a 5° medial wedge reduced ankle eversion and knee valgus. In the present report we further investigated the effect of a 5° medial wedge inserted in the shoes of female athletes on frontal plane hip motion, as well as ankle, knee, hip, and trunk saggital plane motion during a jump landing task. Kinematic data were obtained from 10 intercollegiate female athletes during jump landings from a 31 cm platform with and without a 5° medial wedge. Hip adduction was reduced 1.98° (95% CI 0.97–2.99° by the medial wedge but saggital plane motions were unaffected. A 5° medial wedge reduces frontal plane motion and takes the knee away from a position associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although frontal plane motion was not captured it is unlikely to have increased in a bilateral landing task. Thus, it is likely that greater muscle forces were generated in these highly trained athletes to dissipate ground reaction forces when a medial wedge was in place. Additional investigation in younger and lesser trained athletes is warranted to assess the impact of orthotic devices on knee joint mechanics.Keywords: jump landing, foot orthotic, lower extremity kinematics, knee biomechanics, knee injury

  1. The effect of extensive interval training at altitude on the physiological, aerobic, anaerobic and various blood parameters of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to compare the physiological performances of athletes at sea level, at high altitude and 8 days after returning back to sea level on the basis of certain blood parameters, pulse and blood pressure. 12 male athletes between the ages of 19 and 23 voluntarily participated in the research. The subjects were exposed to endurance training at high altitude and at sea level between 09.00 and 11.00 in the morning. The subjects’ erythrocyte (RBC, leucocyte (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (HCT, systolic blood pressure at rest (SBPR and diastolic blood pressure at rest (DBPR, heart rate at rest (HRR, aerobic (20m shuttle run test and anaerobic capacity (vertical jump levels were tested at sea level, on the 15th day at high altitude (3120m and 8 days after returning back to sea level. Statistical analysis comprised of t-test and the significance level of the results was accepted at (P<0.05. As a result of the research the following were determined: It can be said that high altitude trainings for fifteen days included in the annual training program of athletes can improve their performance.

  2. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student's t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs' muscles in the 30 meters sprint.

  3. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Pinillos Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05 in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity.

  4. Effects of anabolic steroids on the muscle cells of strength-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, F; Eriksson, A; Holmner, S; Thornell, L E

    1999-11-01

    Athletes who use anabolic steroids get larger and stronger muscles. How this is reflected at the level of the muscle fibers has not yet been established and was the topic of this investigation. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the trapezius muscles of high-level power lifters who have reported the use of anabolic steroids in high doses for several years and from high-level power lifters who have never used these drugs. Enzyme-immunohistochemical investigation was performed to assess muscle fiber types, fiber area, myonuclear number, frequency of satellite cells, and fibers expressing developmental protein isoforms. The overall muscle fiber composition was the same in both groups. The mean area for each fiber type in the reported steroid users was larger than that in the nonsteroid users (P steroid users (P steroid users group (P anabolic steroids and strength-training induce an increase in muscle size by both hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers. We propose that activation of satellite cells is a key process and is enhanced by the steroid use. The incorporation of the satellite cells into preexisting fibers to maintain a constant nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio seems to be a fundamental mechanism for muscle fiber growth. Although all the subjects in this study have the same level of performance, the possibility of genetic differences between the two groups cannot be completely excluded.

  5. Effect of compensatory acceleration training in combination with accommodating resistance on upper body strength in collegiate athletes

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    Jones MT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Margaret T Jones Sports Medicine Assessment, Rehabilitation, and Testing Laboratory, School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Purpose: To determine the impact of inclusion of a band or chain compensatory acceleration training (CAT, in a 5-week training phase, on maximal upper body strength during a 14-week off-season strength and conditioning program for collegiate male athletes. Patients and methods: Twenty-four National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA collegiate baseball players, who were familiar with the current strength and conditioning program and had a minimum of 1 year of formal collegiate strength and conditioning experience, participated in this off-season training study. None of the men had participated in CAT before. Subjects were matched following a maximal effort (1-repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press test in week 1, then were randomly assigned into a band-based CAT group or a chain-based CAT group and participated in a 5-week training phase that included bench pressing twice per week. Upper body strength was measured by 1-RM bench press again at week 6. A 2 × 2 mixed factorial (method × time analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences across groups. The alpha level was set at P<0.05. Results: No difference (F1,22=0.04, P=0.84 existed between the band-based CAT and chain-based CAT groups. A significant difference was observed between pre- and posttests of 1-RM bench (F1,22=88.46, P=0.001. Conclusion: A 5-week band CAT or chain CAT training program used in conjunction with an off-season strength and conditioning program can increase maximal upper body strength in collegiate baseball athletes. Using band CAT and/or chain CAT as a training modality in the off-season will vary the training stimulus from the traditional and likely help to maintain the athlete's interest. Keywords: variable resistance, band, baseball, chain, resistance training

  6. The benefit of a supplement with the antioxidant melatonin on redox status and muscle damage in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Javier; de Haro, Tomás; de Teresa-Galván, Carlos; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Rusanova, Iryna; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Sayed, Ramy K A; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-07-01

    Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg·day(-1) of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during 4 weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment, and plasma was used for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) determinations. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GRd) activities, were measured in erythrocytes. Melatonin intake increased ORAC, reduced LPO and NOx levels, and prevented the increase of AOPP, compared to placebo group. Melatonin was also more efficient than placebo in reducing GSSG·GSH(-1) and GPx·GRd(-1) ratios. Melatonin, but not placebo, reduced creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and total cholesterol levels. Overall, the data reflect a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment in resistance-training athletes, preventing extra- and intracellular oxidative stress induced by exercise, and yielding further skeletal muscle protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage.

  7. Improving the level of physical development and functional preparedness athletes in sports dancing on the stage of specialized basic training means step aerobics

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    Galyna Artemyeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: make analyze the impact of the step aerobics on the indicators of physical development and functional preparedness of athletes in Dance Sport on the stage of specialized basic training. Material & Methods: 20 athletes (10 sport duets aged 14–15 years were divided into two groups: control (CG and experimental (EG. To achieve the objectives we used methods: theoretical - analysis and synthesis data of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical methods: pedagogical observation; pedagogical testing; medical and biological methods: anthropometry, functional methods of research; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: after the implementation of a training process means step aerobics significantly improved indicators of cardio-respiratory system of athletes in Dance Sport. Conclusions: materials research to assess allow us to estimate the extent of influence of step aerobics on indicators of physical development and functional preparedness athletes in Dance Sport on the stage of specialized basic training.

  8. 38 CFR 21.8120 - Vocational training, services, and assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... placement in employment. The educational and training services to be provided include: (1) Remedial... the training, services and other supportive assistance the child's individualized written plan of... U.S.C. 1804(b), (c), 1814) Evaluation and Improvement of Vocational Potential ...

  9. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  10. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

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    Cem Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm. During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm. Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2] repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018 of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61 after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes.

  11. Biochemical and functional modifications in biathlon athletes at medium altitude training / Modificările biochimice și funcționale ale atleților biatloniști după antrenament la altitudine medie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dana Bădău; Anca Bacârea; Ramona Natalia Ungur; Adela Bădău; Alina Mirela Martoma

    2016-01-01

    ...: Ten biathlon athletes underwent 28-day training camp at medium altitude in order to improve their aerobic effort, following the living high-base train high-interval train low (Hi-Hi-Lo) protocol...

  12. [Pre-Service and In-Service Training of Junior College Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrook, W.L.

    This document combines two papers--one on pre-service, one on in-service training of junior college teachers. Literature on pre-service training shows general agreement on the need for knowledge of the history, philosophy, and unique features of the junior college, of adolescent psychology, of curriculum, and of subject matter. Of the 20…

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching after Concurrent Service-Learning Training and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Trae

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study on the impact of concurrent service-learning pedagogical training and service-learning engagement on pre-service teachers' perceptions of teaching and inclination toward using service-learning. Findings reveal that experiential activities in which pre-service teachers can engage in real classrooms in…

  14. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Vellapandian Ponnusamy, J. Robert Grove

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regular...

  15. The Effects of Supplementary Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training on Morphological and Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Goods, Paul S R

    2017-08-01

    Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes. Twenty-one semiprofessional Australian football athletes were assessed for 3-repetition maximum (3RM) and muscular endurance in the back squat, vastus lateralis muscle architecture, and performance in sprint and vertical jump tasks. Participants then undertook a 5-week training program, consisting of normal high-load resistance training supplemented by low-load squats with (LLBFR) or without (LL) BFR. Participants also performed regular conditioning and football training during this period. After the training intervention, participants again completed the pretraining testing battery. Squat 3RM and endurance increased from pretraining levels in both LL (3RM = 12.5% increase; endurance = 24.1% increase; p ≤ 0.007) and LLBFR (3RM = 12.3% increase; endurance = 21.2% increase; p = 0.007) groups, though there were no between-group differences. No post-training changes were observed for muscle architecture, or performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Although squat 3RM and endurance performance increased in both groups, adding BFR during supplemental exercise did not enhance these responses. Similarly, there were no large differences in the assessments of sprint, acceleration, and jumping performance between the groups after training. These findings suggest that although LLBFR did not negatively affect adaptive responses to resistance training, this training strategy may not provide added benefit for healthy Australian football athletes

  16. Global-Service Learning and Student-Athletes: A Model for Enhanced Academic Inclusion at the University of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Holly M

    The University of Washington (UW) continues to create opportunities to engage all students in transformational undergraduate educational opportunities, such as study abroad. This article describes specific efforts to increase inclusion for student-athletes in study abroad, particularly for first-generation students, including low-income students of color. Given the overrepresentation of students of color in sports vis-à-vis the larger student body at predominantly white institutions (PWIs), like UW, service-learning in communities beyond campus boundaries provides opportunities to apply international learning to a local context and to create a continuum of learning. By coupling educational theories from the classroom-particularly theories related to power and privilege-with community-based leadership in local communities, students are better prepared to actively engage in improving their own institutions. During the summers of 2013, 2014, and 2015, the author was the instructor for study abroad courses to French Polynesia with student-athletes. The courses were for 12 days (10 days on the ground and 2 days of flying), the maximum time that football players could be away from required summer workouts. This paper examines student evaluations from the French Polynesia trip in 2015. Student-athlete evaluations of a study abroad experience underscored: the transformative impact of study abroad to their academic, social, and athletic lives; the benefit of creating family-like relationships outside the confines of their sport; an appreciation for the many forms where indigenous knowledge resides, such as in navigation, dance, fishing, weaving, and cooking; intense feelings of culture shock upon return to the US, even when the trip is short in duration; a desire to engage with the diverse communities in Seattle beyond the scope of the program's structure, and; frustration, particularly for the male student-athletes, about the ways coaches, family, and friends wanted to

  17. Impaired Sleep Mediates the Negative Effects of Training Load on Subjective Well-Being in Female Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey

    2018-02-01

    Although increased training load (TL) and impaired sleep are associated with decreases in subjective well-being in adult athletes, these relationships among female youth athletes are unclear. It is unknown whether the effects of sleep and TL on well-being are independent or whether alterations in sleep mediate the effects of TL on subjective well-being. Sleep and TL exert independent effects on subjective well-being among youth athletes, although alterations in sleep mediate a significant portion of the effect of TL on well-being in female youth athletes. Prospective cohort study. Level 4. A total of 65 female soccer athletes (age range, 13-18 years) were monitored for 1 year. Daily TL was determined by session rating of perceived exertion and converted to z-scores. Every morning, participants recorded sleep duration in hours and rated stress, mood, fatigue, and soreness on a scale from -3 to +3 (worst to best). Linear mixed-effects models and mediation analysis were used to evaluate the independent effects of TL and sleep on well-being. Average sleep duration was 7.9 ± 1.4 hours during the study period. In the multivariable model, TL and sleep duration were independently associated with fatigue (TL: β = -0.19, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.15, P < 0.001), mood (TL: β = -0.030, P = 0.014; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), stress (TL: β = -0.055, P = 0.001; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), and soreness (TL: β = -0.31, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.022, P = 0.042). Sleep duration mediated a significant portion of the effect of TL on mood (26.8%, P < 0.001), fatigue (12.6%, P < 0.001), and stress (24.5%, P < 0.001). Among female youth athletes, decreased sleep duration and increased TL are independently associated with impairments of subjective well-being. In addition, decreased sleep mediates a significant portion of the negative effect of increases in TL on subjective well-being. Monitoring and promoting sleep among female adolescent athletes may significantly improve

  18. Athletic training in badminton players modulates the early C1 component of visual evoked potentials: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Xu, Guiping; Zhang, John X; Ye, Zuoer; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Lun; Lin, Chong-De; Mo, Lei

    2010-12-01

    One basic question in brain plasticity research is whether individual life experience in the normal population can affect very early sensory-perceptual processing. Athletes provide a possible model to explore plasticity of the visual cortex as athletic training in confrontational ball games is quite often accompanied by training of the visual system. We asked professional badminton players to watch video clips related to their training experience and predict where the ball would land and examined whether they differed from non-player controls in the elicited C1, a visual evoked potential indexing V1 activity. Compared with controls, the players made judgments significantly more accurately, albeit not faster. An early ERP component peaking around 65 ms post-stimulus with a scalp topography centering at the occipital pole (electrode Oz) was observed in both groups and interpreted as the C1 component. With comparable latency, amplitudes of this component were significantly enhanced for the players than for the non-players, suggesting that it can be modulated by long-term physical training. The results present a clear case of experience-induced brain plasticity in primary visual cortex for very early sensory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intermittent But Not Continuous Static Stretching Improves Subsequent Vertical Jump Performance In Flexibility-Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Smilios, Ilias; Bishop, David J

    2017-02-23

    This study examined changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) height after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Sixteen male, elite-level gymnasts performed 90 s of intermittent (3 x 30 s with 30 s rest) or continuous stretching (90 s) of the quadriceps muscle. A single-leg stretching and jumping design was used, with the contra-lateral limb serving as a control. The same individuals performed both conditions with alternate legs in a randomized, counterbalanced order. One leg CMJ height was measured for the stretched and the control leg after warm-up, immediately after stretching, and at regular intervals for 10 min after stretching. Range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints was measured before, after, and 10 min post-stretching. Compared to the control leg, intermittent stretching increased CMJ height by 8.1±2.0%, 4 min into recovery (+2.2±2.0 cm, 95%CI: 1.0-3.4 cm, p=0.001), while continuous stretching decreased CMJ height by 17.5±3.3% immediately after (-2.9±1.7 cm, 95%CI: -2.0 to -3.7 cm, p=0.001) and by 12.0±2.7% one min after stretching (-2.2±2.1 cm, 95%CI: -1.2 to -3.2 cm, p=0.001). The increases in hip (2.9 and 3.6, p=0.001. d=2.4) and knee joint ROM (5.1 and 6.1, p=0.001. d=0.85) after the intermittent and continuous stretching protocols were not different. The opposite effects of intermittent vs. continuous stretching on subsequent CMJ performance suggests that stretching mode is an important variable when examining the acute effects of static stretching on performance in flexibility-trained athletes.

  20. Structure and content of competitive programs for trained athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the structure of competitive programs of qualified "B" class athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll. Material & Methods: pedagogical, sociological and methods of mathematical statistics were used. In the experimental part of the study, specialists of various categories and qualifications participated, an analysis of the video materials of the competitions of qualified athletes performing in the "B" class. Results: the content and the structure of the competitive compositions of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll have been studied, the components of the competitive program indicators are compiled. Conclusion: main structural components characterizing the competitive program of qualified athletes in acrobatic rock'n'roll are highlighted. Their components, number and time of execution are determined. It is established that a variety of acrobatic elements, competitive moves, dance figures, design tools and the consistency of the construction of the entire competitive composition with high quality of performance characterizes the winning couple.

  1. Influence of a preventive training program on lower limb kinematics and vertical jump height of male volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporace, Gustavo; Praxedes, Jomilto; Pereira, Glauber Ribeiro; Pinto, Sérgio Medeiros; Chagas, Daniel; Metsavaht, Leonardo; Chame, Flávio; Batista, Luiz Alberto

    2013-02-01

    To examine the influence of a preventative training program (PTP) on sagittal plane kinematics during different landing tasks and vertical jump height (VJH) in males. Six weeks prospective exercise intervention. Fifteen male volleyball athletes (13 ± 0.7 years, 1.70 ± 0.12 m, 60 ± 12 kg). PTP consisting of plyometric, balance and core stability exercises three times per week for six weeks. Bilateral vertical jumps with double leg (DL) and single leg (SL) landings were performed to measure the effects of training. Kinematics of the knee and hip before and after training and VJH attained during both tasks after training. The hypothesis was that the PTP would produce improvements in VJH, but would not generate great changes in biomechanical behavior. The only change identified for the SL was the longest duration of landing, which represents the time spent from initial ground contact to maximum knee flexion, after training, while increased angular displacement of the knee was observed during DL. The training did not significantly alter the VJH in either the SL (difference: 2.7 cm) or the DL conditions (difference: 3.5 cm). Despite the PTP's effectiveness in inducing some changes in kinematics, the changes were specific for each task, which highlights the importance of the specificity and individuality in selecting prevention injury exercises. Despite the absence of significant increases in the VJH, the absolute differences after training showed increases corroborating with the findings of statistically powerful studies that compared the results with control groups. The results suggest that short-term PTPs in low risk young male volleyball athletes may enhance performance and induce changes in some kinematic parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O 2max : 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p < 0.05) despite an increase in time in bed (456 ± 50 to 509 ± 48 min; p = 0.02). Sleep efficiency decreased during intensified training (83.1 ± 5.3 to 77.8 ± 8.6%; p < 0.05). Actual sleep time was significantly higher in CON than HCHO throughout intensified training. Mood disturbance increased during intensified training and was higher in CON than HCHO (p < 0.05). Performance in the [Formula: see text] exercise protocol fell significantly with intensified training. The main findings of this study were that 9-days of intensified training in highly-trained cyclists resulted in significant and progressive declines in sleep quality, mood state and maximal exercise performance.

  3. Student-Retention and Career-Placement Rates Between Bachelor's and Master's Degree Professional Athletic Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Hertel, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Context  The debate over what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training has heightened. A comparison of retention and career-placement rates between bachelor's and master's degree professional athletic training programs may inform the debate. Objective  To compare the retention rates and career-placement rates of students in bachelor's and master's degree professional programs. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 192 program directors (PDs) from bachelor's degree (n = 177) and master's degree (n = 15) professional programs. Intervention(s)  The PDs completed a Web-based survey. Main Outcome Measure(s)  We instructed the PDs to provide a retention rate and career-placement rate for the students in the programs they lead for each of the past 5 years. We also asked the PDs if they thought retention of students was a problem currently facing athletic training education. We used independent t tests to compare the responses between bachelor's and master's degree professional programs. Results  We found a higher retention rate for professional master's degree students (88.70% ± 9.02%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.71, 93.69) than bachelor's degree students (80.98% ± 17.86%, 95% CI = 78.30, 83.66) (t25 = −2.86, P = .008, d = 0.55). Similarly, PDs from professional master's degree programs reported higher career-placement percentages (88.50% ± 10.68%, 95% CI = 82.33, 94.67) than bachelor's degree professional PDs (71.32% ± 18.47%, 95% CI = 68.54, 74.10) (t20 = −5.40, P training (χ21 = 0.720, P = .40, Φ = .061). Conclusions  Professional master's degree education appears to facilitate higher retention rates and greater career-placement rates in athletic training than bachelor's degree education. Professional socialization, program selectivity, and student commitment and motivation levels may help to explain the differences noted. PMID:26308497

  4. Supervisor, Library & Training Services | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Supervisor investigates new services to enhance the value of library and corporate software support services, and new tools to increase the efficiency of service delivery. S/he provides recommendations to the Manager, Information Resource Centre and the other members of the management group with respect to the ...

  5. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  6. Resistance trained athletes using or not using anabolic steroids compared to runners: effects on cardiorespiratory variables, body composition, and plasma lipids.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeater, R; Reed, C; Ullrich, I; Morise, A; Borsch, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether there is a difference in cardiac size and function as well as in body composition, aerobic capacity, and blood lipids between resistance trained athletes who use anabolic steroids and those who do not, and to compare them to university cross country athletes. METHODS--Four groups of men were evaluated: recreational lifters, n = 11, lifting 10 h.week-1; steroid users, n = 8, same as heavy lifters and used steroids;...

  7. Relationship Between Adaptive Morphological and Electrophysiological Remodeling of the Left Ventricle in Young Athletes After an 8-Month Period of Sports Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenc, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of an 8-month physical training period on left ventricular voltages identified by resting ECG in relation to changes in left ventricle mass in adolescent athletes. The study encompassed 28 adolescents aged 13 years (14 boys and 14 girls) from a sports secondary school. Clinical assessment was performed on all athletes before and after 8 months of physical training. Sokolov-Lyon voltage index, Cornell voltage index, and maximum spatial QRS vector magnitude demonstrated statistically significant decline during the study period. The specific potential of the myocardium also significantly decreased during 8 months of training. The Sokolov-Lyon voltage criterion for left ventricular hypertrophy was fulfilled in 9 athletes (32.1%) at the beginning of the observation and only in 3 athletes (10.7%) at the end of the study. On the other hand, mean left ventricular mass and mean left ventricular mass index significantly increased after long-term training. No statistically significant correlations were identified between relative changes in left ventricular mass and QRS voltages. An early period of intensive physical training in young athletes is associated with a decrease in QRS amplitude and a relative voltage deficit over the left ventricle.

  8. New approaches to determine fatigue in elite athletes during intensified training: Resting metabolic rate and pacing profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Elite rowers complete a high volume of training across a number of modalities to prepare for competition, including periods of intensified load, which may lead to fatigue and short-term performance decrements. As yet, the influence of substantial fatigue on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and exercise regulation (pacing), and their subsequent utility as monitoring parameters, has not been explicitly investigated in elite endurance athletes. Method Ten National-level rowers completed a four-week period of intensified training. RMR, body composition and energy intake were assessed PRE and POST the four-week period using indirect calorimetry, Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometry (DXA), and three-day food diary, respectively. On-water rowing performance and pacing strategy was evaluated from 5 km time trials. Wellness was assessed weekly using the Multicomponent Training Distress Scale (MTDS). Results Significant decreases in absolute (mean ± SD of difference, p-value: -466 ± 488 kJ.day-1, p = 0.01) and relative RMR (-8.0 ± 8.1 kJ.kg.FFM-1, p = 0.01) were observed. Significant reductions in body mass (-1.6 ± 1.3 kg, p = 0.003) and fat mass (-2.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.0001) were detected, while energy intake was unchanged. On-water 5 km rowing performance worsened (p training decreased RMR and body composition variables in elite rowers and induced substantial fatigue, likely related to an imbalance between energy intake and output. This study demonstrates that highly experienced athletes do not necessarily select the correct energy intake during periods of intensified training, and this can be assessed by reductions in RMR and body composition. The shortfall in energy availability likely affected recovery from training and altered 5 km time trial pacing strategy, resulting in reduced performance. PMID:28296943

  9. Magnitude and duration of the impact generated on the athletes' body during training in Ippon-Seoi-Nage judo technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Piucco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study aimed to analyse the magnitude and duration of the impact generated on the athletes' body during training in Ippon-Seoi-Nage judo technique. Two black belt judo athletes were studied, the tori (the thrower weighting 75 kg and having 19 years of practice, and the uke (the thrown weighting 72 kg and having 15 years of practice. A Bruel & Kjaer 4321 Accelerometer Triaxial, fastened to the fist, hip and ankle of the uke, was used. Data were collected in the laboratory. Ten falls were performed for each of the three articulations investigated. The largest impact values were observed for the fist in the vertical axis (351.95 g and the smallest values were for the hip anterior posterior axis (5.18g. Impact duration times were greater in the hip vertical axis (.58 s with no differences for the impact on fist and ankle. Considering these high impact values as well as the high frequency of falls during judo training, it is suggested a reevaluation of this training pattern and the sort of tatami adopted, in order to decrease the resulting harmful effects over the time.

  10. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Drinkwater, Eric J; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Cowley, Patrick M

    2010-02-01

    The use of instability devices and exercises to train the core musculature is an essential feature of many training centres and programs. It was the intent of this position stand to provide recommendations regarding the role of instability in resistance training programs designed to train the core musculature. The core is defined as the axial skeleton and all soft tissues with a proximal attachment originating on the axial skeleton, regardless of whether the soft tissue terminates on the axial or appendicular skeleton. Core stability can be achieved with a combination of muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure. Abdominal bracing has been shown to be more effective than abdominal hollowing in optimizing spinal stability. When similar exercises are performed, core and limb muscle activation are reported to be higher under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. However, core muscle activation that is similar to or higher than that achieved in unstable conditions can also be achieved with ground-based free-weight exercises, such as Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts. Since the addition of unstable bases to resistance exercises can decrease force, power, velocity, and range of motion, they are not recommended as the primary training mode for athletic conditioning. However, the high muscle activation with the use of lower loads associated with instability resistance training suggests they can play an important role within a periodized training schedule, in rehabilitation programs, and for nonathletic individuals who prefer not to use ground-based free weights to achieve musculoskeletal health benefits.

  11. Customer Service Training for Public Services Staff at Temple University's Central Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Gwen

    Arguing that good interpersonal interactions between library staff and their patrons is a major determinant of overall patron satisfaction, this paper describes Temple University's customer service training program for its public services staff. Dubbed the "A+ Service" program, the program focuses on six aspects of library service: (1)…

  12. The effect of training load on neuromuscular performance, muscle soreness and wellness during an in-season non-competitive week in elite rugby athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Francisco; Healey, Phil; Smith, Tiaki B; Driller, Matthew

    2017-06-08

    In the elite Rugby setting, it is critical to understand the effects of training load on the levels of fatigue, soreness and readiness of the athletes. The training load, wellness, neuromuscular markers of fatigue and various perceptual measures of soreness of 16 elite Rugby athletes were monitored during a training week. Training load was obtained for field training sessions, extra conditioning and gym-based sessions. Perceptual fatigue was obtained every morning from a 5-item wellness questionnaire and a questionnaire on the muscle soreness of 9 different muscle sites from each side of the body. Neuromuscular performance was obtained from a countermovement jump. Although the training performed on day 4 had a significantly (pload in comparison to training days 1 and 2, muscle soreness and neuromuscular performance were more adversely effected after the cumulative workloads of days 1 and 2. Moreover, the effect of training load on muscle soreness was only evident in the lower body muscles. Data from the present study also suggest that two days off training are adequate for complete recovery from a high load training week in elite Rugby athletes. There were no significant differences in soreness ratings between left and right sides for any of the 9 muscles sites. There was a clear effect of training load on soreness and neuromuscular fatigue, with greater fatigue following two training days in a row when compared to a single training day. Monitoring soreness from different lower body muscle sites may provide important information that relates to the fatigue levels of Rugby athletes and therefore it is recommended to be included as part of the training load monitoring protocol.

  13. Young athletes with ventricular premature beats: Continuing or not intense training and competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Tranchita, E; Minganti, C; Sperandii, F; Guerra, E; Calò, L; Borrione, P; Pigozzi, F

    2018-02-01

    Isolated ventricular premature beats (VPBs) are commonly found during pre-participation screening in athletes. Currently, the debate about the role of detraining in reducing the number of VPBs is still open. This study evaluated the arrhythmic risk in a population of young competitive athletes who showed VPBs during eligibility evaluation and that did not undergo detraining but continued practicing competitive sports. 3746 consecutive subjects underwent pre-participation screening. Athletes who showed VPBs were selected and underwent second level evaluation (Echocardiogram, 24 hour Holter ECG and Exercise test). Athletes were re-evaluated after a follow-up period (6-48 months) while they continued practicing competitive sports. 5.3% of the whole population showed ventricular arrhythmias. 73% of the subjects showed isolated VPBs. 88% of the subjects showed monomorphic VPBs, and 12% of athletes showed polymorphic VPBs. At echocardiogram, there was not any pathology which contraindicated competitive sport activity. At 24 hour Holter ECG recording, mean number of daily VPBs was 1592±3217 (range 0-16678). At holter ECG follow-up (16±12 months), the median number of VPBs decreased from 93 (IQR 20-3065) to a new value of 72 (IQR 2-1299). Continuing competitive sport in subjects with ventricular arrhythmias even though frequent but with a low grade of complexity and without structural cardiomyopathy does not increase sudden death risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The mechanics of jumping over an obstacle during running: a comparison between athletes trained to hurdling and recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauroy, G; Schepens, B; Willems, P A

    2014-04-01

    This study compares the mechanism of running in trained athletes (TA) experienced in hurdling and in recreational runners (RR), as they approach and jump over an obstacle. The movements of the centre of mass of the body (COM), the external muscular work (W ext) and the leg-spring stiffness (k leg) were evaluated in athletes approaching an obstacle at 18 km h(-1), from the ground reaction forces (measured by force-platforms) and the orientation of the lower-limb segments (measured by camera). These results were compared to those obtained in RR. Two steps before the obstacle, k leg is reduced by 10-20 %; so, the COM is lowered and accelerated forward. During the step preceding the obstacle, k leg is increased by 40-60 %; so the COM is raised and accelerated upwards, whereas its forward velocity is reduced. This change in the running pattern is similar to the one observed in RR while leaping an obstacle. However, in TA, the change in stiffness is less pronounced. As a result, the orientation of the velocity vector at the beginning of the aerial phase over the obstacle is more horizontal than in RR, which involves a 10-20 % greater horizontal velocity and a 40-60 % smaller vertical excursion of the COM when crossing the obstacle; subsequently, W ext during contact before the obstacle is 10-20 % less. Athletes use the same mechanisms as non-specialists to cross an obstacle. However, athletes adapt the mechanism of jumping to reduce the loss in the velocity of progression when crossing an obstacle.

  15. The role of haemoglobin mass on VO(2)max following normobaric 'live high-train low' in endurance-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, Paul; Siebenmann, Christoph; Jacobs, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear by which mechanism 'live high-train low' (LHTL) altitude training increases exercise performance. Haematological and skeletal muscle adaptations have both been proposed. To test the hypotheses that (i) LHTL improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and (ii) this improvement...... abolished by isovolumic haemodilution. We obtained skeletal muscle biopsies to quantify mitochondrial oxidative capacity and efficiency. Sixteen endurance-trained athletes were assigned (double-blinded, placebo controlled) to =16 h/day over 4 weeks to normoxia (placebo, n=6) or normobaric hypoxia equivalent...... to 3000 m altitude (LHTL, n=10). Four-week LHTL did not increase VO(2)max, irrespective of treatment (LHTL: 1.5%; placebo: 2.0%). Hb(mass) was slightly increased (4.6%) in 5 (of 10) LHTL subjects but this was not accompanied by a concurrent increase in VO(2)max. In the subjects demonstrating an increase...

  16. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty

  17. Employees Training in the Federal Service, Fiscal Year 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Training.

    This is the fifth annual report of Employee Training in the Federal Service. The report contains five sections. Section I discusses developments in several major areas of interest during 1971, including the increased emphasis on improved training management, the continuation of executive development and upward mobility, and labor relations…

  18. Nutrition Education. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    Inservice training should motivate school food workers to participate in children's nutrition education. The training lesson includes a series of service manager/director guidelines, information sheets, and an audiovisual aids list. Food staff nutrition lessons for classroom presentation to grades 4 to 6 cover the daily food guide, snacks,…

  19. Food Service Supervisor. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials for use in training future food service supervisors. The first unit provides an overview of the field of dietetics. Addressed next are various aspects of nutrition and diet therapy as well as the functions and sources of nutrients,…

  20. Collaborations and partnerships for public service training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noluthando S Matsiliza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article notes significant collaborations and partnerships adopted as training strategies applied for improving national skill development. The discourse followed here critically different roles and functions of structures such as public agencies, academic institutions, private sector and non-governmental training providers regulated by law. Scholars in various fields noted benefits and challenges of collaborative management and partnerships in training and skills development that enhance effective resources management, facilitation and participation of stakeholders in various organisations. Using a qualitative approach, this theoretical article argues that academics played a significant role in collaborating with policy-makers to up-skill the civil force. Even though, there are numerous actors at multi-level governance with diverse training needs and interests, there are still gabs in the model adopted by government to provide training of public officials in South Africa. Therefore it is recommended that the Government through the National School of Government should monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of these collaborations and partnerships to provide continuous improvement

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of Athletic Injuries as Perceived by Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D.; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. Objective: The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Design:  Mixed-methods study. Setting: Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. Patients or Other Participants:   A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Results: Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. Conclusions:  These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding

  2. Effects of Coach and Parent Training on Performance Anxiety in Young Athletes: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Smoll

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Coaches and parents play a major role in determining the consequences of sport participation in young athletes. This study focuses on the assessment of a systemic, empirically inspired intervention directed at coaches and parents. Parallel workshops derived in part from achievement goal theory were presented to the coaches and parents of 9 to 15 year old boys and girls participating in community-based basketball programs, and their effects were compared with a matched control condition. Multilevel analyses revealed significant Time x Condition interactions on all three subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 and on a total anxiety score. Athletes in the intervention condition decreased in cognitive and somatic anxiety scores on the SAS-2, whereas athletes in the control condition exhibited increases in cognitive and somatic anxiety. Results suggest the potential efficacy of brief, economical interventions in enhancing the psychosocial impact of the youth sport environment.

  3. EUROPRACTICE Training and Best Practice Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    .Among those should be mentioned intelligent use of internet, multimedia training and RF high speed low power training.TBPS is primarily a course broker negotiating with more than 45 course vendors to get highly qualified courses at different levels and at moderate prices in the 5 key microelectronics areas.......The start of TBPS was based on a public call, and the courses which you can see on our Web and in our course catalogues distributed in 1.000 copies all over Europe, they have been selected among the best available. TBPS is the largest course organizer in Europe and intend to be the best.Now new courses have...... been organized to fill the gap, and information about the courses is distributed in different ways.Intelligent use of internet and multimedia technology promotes micro-electronics training in a very effective way.This is the most effective way to promote the large number of courses...

  4. Features of blood pressure in student-athletes from different directions of the training process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenichenko Aleksej Vladimirovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Performed blood pressure (BP and hemodynamics of 85 students: 30 non-athletes (group I, 27 athletes power enforcement types (group II and 28 - endurance sports (group III. It was found that the second and third groups had higher systolic and mean arterial pressure than in the I group. There are differences in blood pressure reactivity to changes in body position, mental and physical activity among the various groups studied. It is shown that the formation of moderate hypertension in group III is carried out by increasing peripheral vascular resistance, and II - at the expense of increased cardiac output.

  5. Effects of a strength-training program for shoulder complaint prevention in female team handball athletes. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, H; Sommervold, M; Skjølberg, A

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential for preventing the prevalence of shoulder complaints in handball players, particularly younger players. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate shoulder-strengthening program on shoulder complaints during a season of team handball. Seven teams, consisting of 15 to 20 players each, were randomized into two groups throughout their competition seasons. Three teams (N.=53) participated in a six-month, three-times-a-week shoulder-muscle strength-training program while four teams (N.=56) participated in a comparable handball training program but did not conduct any specific upper-body strength training. Effects of this strength-training program were evaluated by comparing pre- and post-training data from a survey on shoulder complaints based on a self-report questionnaire, and from maximal strength test data. Overall, the shoulder strength-training showed positive effects on shoulder complaints prevalence; in the exercise group, the prevalence of players with shoulder pain decreased from 34 to 11%, while the control group increased the prevalence from 23 to 36%. The exercise group increased the shoulder-muscle strength significantly, compared to the control group. By increasing shoulder-muscle strength, this pilot program potentially decreases the risk for shoulder complaints in handball athletes.

  6. Quantifying session ratings of perceived exertion for field-based speed training methods in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2012-10-01

    Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p perceived exertion. Nonetheless, the progressive overlo