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Sample records for athletic injuries

  1. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  2. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Orava, S.; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E.

    1981-01-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most ty...

  3. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  4. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

  5. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries

  6. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  7. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes. PMID:26359844

  8. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  9. Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aims to provide fundamental information on injuries in taekwondo by investigating the categories of injuries that occur in taekwondo and determining the locations of these injuries. [Subjects and Methods] The data of 512 taekwondo athletes were collected. The sampling method was convenience sampling along with non-probability sampling extraction methods. Questionnaire forms were used to obtain the data. [Results] The foot, knee, ankle, thigh, and head were most frequently injured while practicing taekwondo, and contusions, strains, and sprains were the main injuries diagnosed. [Conclusion] It is desirable to decrease the possibility of injuries to the lower extremities for extending participation in taekwondo. Other than the lower extremities, injuries of other specific body parts including the head or neck could be important factors limiting the duration of participation. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with these problems before practicing taekwondo.

  10. Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aims to provide fundamental information on injuries in taekwondo by investigating the categories of injuries that occur in taekwondo and determining the locations of these injuries. [Subjects and Methods] The data of 512 taekwondo athletes were collected. The sampling method was convenience sampling along with non-probability sampling extraction methods. Questionnaire forms were used to obtain the data. [Results] The foot, knee, ankle, thigh, and head were most frequently injured while practicing taekwondo, and contusions, strains, and sprains were the main injuries diagnosed. [Conclusion] It is desirable to decrease the possibility of injuries to the lower extremities for extending participation in taekwondo. Other than the lower extremities, injuries of other specific body parts including the head or neck could be important factors limiting the duration of participation. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with these problems before practicing taekwondo. PMID:26957764

  11. Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Taekwondo, as the most popular martial art among Iranian sportsmen, might lead to injury for the athletes of this sport during competitions. We decided to report the incidence rate of injuries sustained by the athletes of this sport during national competitions. Methods All competitions of Iran national championship taekwondo league in 2006-2007 with 204 athletes were observed prospectively to detect the occurrence of injuries. The severity of injuries was classified into four groups (mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the involvement of medical care team in the contest, ability of the athletes to resume and duration of probable absence of injured athletes from future competitions and training sessions. Athlete-Exposure (A-E was defined as the number of competitions multiplied by two. On this base, the rate of injury incidence per 1000 A-Es, the rate of injuries per time unit and the rate of injury occurred for each 100 athletes were considered as the major outcomes of this study. Results Of totally 1,338 A-Es, 93 injuries were recorded during the competitions. The rate of injury incidence was found to be 69.5 injuries per 1000 A-Es and the rate of injuries per minute of competitions was 0.023 which corresponded to 23.3 injuries per 1000 minutes of competitions. 45.6 injuries were occurred for each 100 athletes during the course of competitions. The most frequent injuries were mild (68.8% and critical injuries (24.7%, followed by moderate and severe injuries; 4.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The rate of injury we found was lower than that of western countries. In spite of finding the lower limbs as the most frequent place of injuries in other studies, we found the upper limbs as the most predisposed place of injuries which might be due to difference in the method of combat of Iranian athletes with other athletes.

  12. Posterior labral injury in contact athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, S D; Zarzour, R H; Speer, K P

    1998-01-01

    Nine athletes (seven football offensive linemen, one defensive lineman, and one lacrosse player) were found at arthroscopy to have posterior labral detachment from the glenoid. In our series, this lesion is specific to contact athletes who engage their opponents with arms in front of the body. All patients had pain with bench pressing and while participating in their sport, diminishing their ability to play effectively. Conservative measures were ineffective in relieving their symptoms. Examination under anesthesia revealed symmetric glenohumeral translation bilaterally, without evidence of posterior instability. Treatment consisted of glenoid rim abradement and posterior labral repair with a bioabsorbable tack. All patients returned to complete at least one full season of contact sports and weightlifting without pain (minimum follow-up, > or = 2 years). Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents. This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury. Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition.

  13. Injuries in 13 international Athletics championships between 2007-2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Junge, Astrid; Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The International Association of Athletics Federation has systematically surveyed all Athletics injuries in their competitions since 2007 in order to develop strategies for health protection of their athletes. AIMS Analysis of frequency and characteristics of injuries during 13 international Athletics championships from 2007 to 2012 regarding different types of championships and discipline categories. METHODS The team physicians and the Local Organizing Committee reported dail...

  14. Foot and ankle injuries in child and adolescent athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Yakup; Esemenli, Tanil

    2004-01-01

    Foot and ankle injuries are most commonly encountered in athletes. Of these, pediatric and adolescent injuries have unique characteristics because of the distinct growth potentials and their consequences specific to this age group. In this article, foot and ankle injuries in child and adolescent athletes are reviewed in the light of the literature.

  15. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

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    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities.

  16. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  17. Cervical spine injuries in the pediatric and adolescent athlete.

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    Herman, Martin J

    2006-01-01

    Injuries of the cervical spine in the pediatric and adolescent athlete are less common than other musculoskeletal injuries. Although many of these injuries are relatively minor, serious and potentially unstable or progressive spinal injury must be excluded. Important anatomic differences between the child younger than 10 years and older children and adolescents influence the types of injuries sustained and make assessment of the child's cervical spine sometimes difficult for practitioners accustomed to treating adolescent and adult athletes. Stable soft-tissue injuries of the cervical spine are the most common injuries that occur in all athletes. These injuries are responsive to symptomatic treatment and aggressive rehabilitation. Stingers are injuries of the brachial plexus and upper cervical roots that result from stretching or compressive forces associated with collision sports. Rapid return of sensory and motor dysfunction of a single upper extremity characterizes this entity; long-term disability is rare. Cervical cord neurapraxia (CCN) with transient quadriplegia is most commonly seen in football players. Most athletes fully recover. Cervical canal stenosis as defined by a Pavlov/Torg ratio of less than or equal to 0.8 is predictive of recurrent CCN. Young athletes sustain CCN secondary to hypermobility of the immature cervical spine. Return to play after these injuries is controversial. The athlete with Down syndrome and potential cervical hypermobility requires a careful cervical and neurologic evaluation prior to clearance for participation in sports. PMID:16958497

  18. Management of syndesmosis injuries in the elite athlete.

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    Mak, May Fong; Gartner, Louise; Pearce, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the basics and evidence base thus far on syndesmosis injuries, focusing on its management in the elite sporting population. A syndesmosis injury or "high ankle sprain" is a significant injury, especially in the elite athlete. Among all ankle sprains, the syndesmotic injury is most predictive of persistent symptoms in the athletic population. Late diagnosis of unstable syndesmosis injuries leads to a poor outcome and delayed return to sports. A high index of suspicion and an understanding of the mechanism of injury is required to ensure an early diagnosis. Incomplete/inaccurate reduction leads to a poor outcome. PMID:23707173

  19. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

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    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  20. Psychological effects of chronic injury in elite athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuer, M L; Dietrich, M S

    1997-01-01

    Many athletes train in a constant state of pain or injury while meeting the demands of an elite level program. It is hypothesized that the emotional distress experienced by athletes with chronic injuries is not inconsequential. A self-report battery, the Impact of Event Scale, was administered to 280 inter-collegiate athletes at a division I institution in an attempt to examine their response to chronic injury. Of the 280, 134 (48%) had been injured by study definition, with 117 (42%) meeting...

  1. Injuries Among Italian DanceSport Athletes: A Questionnaire Survey.

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    Pellicciari, Leonardo; Piscitelli, Daniele; De Vita, Marilena; D'Ingianna, Lucia; Bacciu, Serenella; Perno, Giacomo; Lunetta, Laura; Rosulescu, Eugenia; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Foti, Calogero

    2016-03-01

    During training and competition, athletic dancers perform complex artistic movements that can lead to stress on the musculoskeletal system, making them subject to high risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, location, and nature of musculoskeletal injuries among dancesport athletes and to identify potential risk factors for injury. This cross-sectional study was performed at several national dancesport meetings in Italy. All 168 dancesport athletes who participated at the meetings were invited to complete a questionnaire related to injuries they may have suffered during the previous year; other information collected included demographic data (age, sex, height, weight), dance participation (discipline, categories), training (training duration, years since starting to dance), and injury (location, etiology). Of the 168 dancers, 153 completed the questionnaire. Of the 102 injuries reported, 73 athletes (47.7%) reported at least 1 injury. The locations of the injuries were the lower limbs (n=75, 73.5%), upper limbs (8, 7.8%), and spine (19, 18.7%). Significant differences were found in the injury location (p0.05). The results indicate that about half of the dancers reported at least 1 injury, with these being located particularly in the lower limbs and predominantly strain and sprain injuries. To reduce the prevalence of injuries, a prevention program may be indicated, with future research needed to identify appropriate strategies to prevent injuries. PMID:26966959

  2. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  3. Relationships between injury and success in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and type of injury in elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes, before and during competition and to investigate the relationship between past injuries, injuries during competition and success. This retrospective case-series study incorporated Taekwondo injuries sustained by 75 male and female elite Canadian Taekwondo athletes over 10 years and its relationship to athletes' success by means of gaining medals during competition. A logistic regression model (using the Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) method) was used to investigate the relationship between injuries and success. Injury rate was associated with performance after holding variables constant (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.124, P = 0.039). Moreover, with each additional injury per match, competitors were 88% (1-0.124) less likely to win a medal. Although not statistically significant, additional injuries prior to competition were associated with a 30% increase in medal prevalence (OR = 1.299, P = 0.203). When comparing athletes (gender, tournament difficulty, injury variables), a competitor who is one year older is 10% less likely to medal (OR = 0.897, P = 0.068). When an additional injury occurred during competition, the athlete was 88% less likely to win a medal. Prevention, correct diagnosis, and immediate therapeutic intervention by qualified health care providers are important.

  4. Radiographic evaluation of foot and ankle injuries in the athlete.

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    Rettig, A C; Shelbourne, K D; Beltz, H F; Robertson, D W; Arfken, P

    1987-10-01

    Injuries of the ankle and foot in athletes are quite common. They range from the extremely simple sprain to the difficult stress fracture, and may result in long-term disability. In all cases, the athlete is best treated after an accurate diagnosis is achieved.

  5. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M.; Beck, Christopher A.; Maloney, Michael D.; Dehaven, Kenneth E.; Giordano, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. Purpose: To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Study Design: ...

  6. Survey of wheelchair athletic injuries: common patterns and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, K A; Dillon, D A

    1985-06-01

    Twelve hundred wheelchair athletes were surveyed to determine commonly experienced athletic injuries, sports participation and training patterns associated with injuries. Soft tissue trauma, blisters, lacerations, decubiti and joint disorders were the most commonly reported injuries of the 128 respondents. Over 70 per cent of all reported injuries occurred during wheelchair track, road racing and basketball. Common mechanisms of injury were also identified. A significantly higher number of reported injuries were associated with increased sports participation (p less than 001), with the 21-30 year-old age group (p less than .01), and with a high number of training hours per week (p less than .05). There was no significant relationship between number of reported injuries and disability type, National Wheelchair Athletic Association classification, or sex. Decubitus ulcers and temperature regulation disorders were identified as particular risks for the spinal cord injury population. Educating the athlete and coach in means to prevent injury is necessary to promote optimal performance and safe participation. PMID:4011292

  7. [Lumbar spine injuries in pediatric and adolescent athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, R Haluk

    2004-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in sports participation by pediatric athletes. Spinal injuries thus have become a great concern. The unique nature of the pediatric spine should be well-recognized and low back pain in a pediatric athlete should therefore be taken seriously and evaluated thoroughly. In this review article, sports-related lumbar spine problems will be covered including overuse injuries, spondylolysis, pars stress fractures, spondylolysthesis, and lumbar disc herniation. Early identification of these problems will eventually minimize these injuries. PMID:15187460

  8. Analysis of injury types for mixed martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, MinJoon

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the types of injuries associated with mixed martial arts and their location in order to provide substantial information to help reduce the risk of these injuries during mixed martial arts. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected from 455 mixed martial arts athletes who practiced mixed martial arts or who participated in mixed martial arts competitions in the Seoul Metropolitan City and Gyeongnam Province of Korea between June 3, 2015, and November 6, 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The convenience sampling method was used, based on the non-probability sampling extraction method. [Results] The arm, neck, and head were the most frequent locations of the injuries; and lacerations, concussions, and contusions were the most frequently diagnosed types of injuries in the mixed martial arts athletes in this study. [Conclusion] Reducing the risk of injury by establishing an alert system and preventing critical injuries by incorporating safety measures are important.

  9. Exercise and airway injury in athletes.

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    Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, André

    2013-01-01

    Olympic level athletes present an increased risk for asthma and allergy, especially those who take part in endurance sports, such as swimming or running, and in winter sports. Classical postulated mechanisms behind EIA include the osmotic, or airway-drying, hypothesis. Hyperventilation leads to evaporation of water and the airway surface liquid becomes hyperosmolar, providing a stimulus for water to move from any cell nearby, which results in the shrinkage of cells and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators that cause airway smooth muscle contraction. But the exercise-induced asthma/bronchoconstriction explanatory model in athletes probably comprises the interaction between environmental training factors, including allergens and ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity and air quality; and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic and neuroimmuneendocrine determinants. After the stress of training and competitions athletes experience higher rate of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), compared with lesser active individuals. Increasing physical activity in non-athletes is associated with a decreased risk of URTI. Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression which is multifactorial in origin. Prolonged, high intensity exercise temporarily impairs the immune competence while moderate activity may enhance immune function. The relationship between URTI and exercise is affected by poorly known individual determinants such genetic susceptibility, neurogenic mediated immune inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Further studies should better define the aetiologic factors and mechanisms involved in the development of asthma in athletes, and propose relevant preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:23697359

  10. Exercise and airway injury in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, André

    2013-01-01

    Olympic level athletes present an increased risk for asthma and allergy, especially those who take part in endurance sports, such as swimming or running, and in winter sports. Classical postulated mechanisms behind EIA include the osmotic, or airway-drying, hypothesis. Hyperventilation leads to evaporation of water and the airway surface liquid becomes hyperosmolar, providing a stimulus for water to move from any cell nearby, which results in the shrinkage of cells and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators that cause airway smooth muscle contraction. But the exercise-induced asthma/bronchoconstriction explanatory model in athletes probably comprises the interaction between environmental training factors, including allergens and ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity and air quality; and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic and neuroimmuneendocrine determinants. After the stress of training and competitions athletes experience higher rate of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), compared with lesser active individuals. Increasing physical activity in non-athletes is associated with a decreased risk of URTI. Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression which is multifactorial in origin. Prolonged, high intensity exercise temporarily impairs the immune competence while moderate activity may enhance immune function. The relationship between URTI and exercise is affected by poorly known individual determinants such genetic susceptibility, neurogenic mediated immune inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Further studies should better define the aetiologic factors and mechanisms involved in the development of asthma in athletes, and propose relevant preventive and therapeutic measures.

  11. Injuries about the hip in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, David; Mariscalco, Michael; Goodwin, Ryan C

    2011-03-01

    Athletic injuries in or around the hip in the adolescent athlete encompass possible causes such as a single, traumatic event to those of repetitive microtrauma. The injuries may involve the bone or the soft tissues, with former involving the epiphysis, apophysis, metaphysis, or diaphysis, whereas the latter includes muscles and tendons. With the improvements in surgical technique and instrumentation for hip arthroscopy and the development of magnetic resonance arthrography, clinicians have been able to diagnose and treat labral tears, hip instability, snapping hip, loose bodies, chondral injuries, and femoroacetabular impingement. The clinician needs to consider acquired conditions that may have coincidentally become apparent as a result of the adolescent's participation in an organized sports program. These include slipped capital femoral epiphysis, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, and pathologic lesions and fractures. This study reviews the more common acute and chronic overuse injuries in or around the hip in the adolescent athlete and discusses hip injury prevention in this active patient population. PMID:21293240

  12. Coping with the Stress of Athletic Injury: How Coaches Can Help

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    Gilbert, Jenelle N.; Lyon, Hayden; Wahl, Mary-tyler

    2015-01-01

    Sport participation can be a stressful experience for some high school athletes. Sustaining a sport injury can further increase athletes' stress levels. Coaches may feel uncomfortable interacting with injured athletes and can unconsciously or purposefully marginalize them. However, coaches have a responsibility toward all of their athletes,…

  13. Epidemiology of training injuries in amateur taekwondo athletes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystad, R P; Graham, P L; Poulos, R G

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.

  14. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  15. Nerve injuries about the elbow in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M

    2014-09-01

    The athlete's elbow is a remarkable example of motion, strength, and durability. The stress placed on the elbow during sport, including the throwing motion, may lead to soft-tissue ligamentous and nerve injury. The thrower's elbow illustrates one example of possible nerve injury about the elbow in sport, related to chronic repetitive tensile and compressive stresses to the ulnar nerve associated with elbow flexion and valgus position. Besides the throwing athlete, nerve injury from high-energy direct-impact forces may also damage nerves around the elbow in contact sports. Detailed history and physical examination can often make the diagnosis of most upper extremity neuropathies. The clinician must be aware of the possibility of isolated or combined nerve injury as far proximal as the cervical nerve roots, through the brachial plexus, to the peripheral nerve terminal branches. Electrodiagnostic studies are occasionally beneficial for diagnosis with certain nerves. Nonoperative management is often successful in most elbow and upper extremity neuropathies. If conservative treatment fails, then surgical treatment should address all potentially offending structures. In the presence of medial laxity and concurrent ulnar neuritis, the medial ulnar collateral ligament warrants surgical treatment, in addition to transposition of the ulnar nerve. The morbidity of open surgical decompression of nerves in and around the elbow is potentially career threatening in the throwing athlete. This mandates an assessment of the adequacy of the nonsurgical treatment and a thorough preoperative discussion of the risks and benefits of surgery. PMID:25077754

  16. Ankle Injuries Among United States High School Sports Athletes, 2005–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Alex J.; Collins, Christy L; Yard, Ellen E.; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Context: Ankle injuries are the most common sport-related injuries. To date, no studies have been published that use national data to present a cross-sport, cross-sex analysis of ankle injuries among US high school athletes.

  17. Psychology of Sport Injury: A Holistic Approach to Rehabilitating the Injured Athlete%Psychology of Sport Injury:A Holistic Approach to Rehabilitating the Injured Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Jordan Hamson-Utley

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sports medicine practitioners must consider both physical and mental aspects of injury to fully rehabilitate the injured athlete. The psychological distress that follows injury has been well documented and calls for a change in the rehabilitation of injured athletes~ ([1-3]).

  18. Rehabilitation of Ankle and Foot Injuries in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Chinn, Lisa; Hertel, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Foot and ankle injuries are extremely common among athletes and other physically active individuals. Rehabilitation programs that emphasize the use of therapeutic exercise to restore joint range of motion, muscle strength, neuromuscular coordination, and gait mechanics have been shown to have clinical success for patients suffering various foot and ankle pathologies. Rehabilitation programs are discussed for ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, and turf toe.

  19. Physiology of wheelchair racing in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, Yagesh

    2002-01-01

    Wheelchair racing is one of the most popular sporting activities of individuals with spinal cord injury. Athletes with this impairment have unique changes in metabolic, cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and thermoregulatory systems, which reduce their overall physiological capacity compared with able-bodied individuals or individuals with other types of impairments. This review on spinal cord injury: presents the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation classification of wheelchair athletes; describes methods commonly used to characterise anaerobic and aerobic fitness; presents the findings of physiological studies that have evaluated wheelchair racing performance; identifies the risks associated with temperature regulation when competing in wheelchair races; and discusses special conditions that can influence wheelchair racing performance. Currently there is limited research that has examined the relationship between sprint or distance wheelchair racing performance and the anaerobic and aerobic components of physical fitness. Although the descriptive evidence indicates that the profiles of these athletes reflect their training and participation in these specific events, the association between their physiological profiles and real or simulated racing performance is unclear. The generally accepted concept that high values of aerobic and anaerobic power are strongly correlated with endurance and sprint racing performance, respectively, are not necessarily true in this population. Athletes with spinal cord injury have an impaired thermoregulatory capacity, because the compromised autonomic and somatic nervous system functions disrupt control of skin blood flow and sweating below the level of the lesion. As a result, they may be more susceptible to hyperthermia during distance wheelchair racing performance. Wheelchair athletes should follow recommendations advocated for able-bodied individuals to minimise their risks of heat stress during competition. Many

  20. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete. PMID:26458108

  1. The impact of witnessing athletic injury: a qualitative examination of vicarious trauma in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Melissa C; Schubert, Nina

    2012-01-01

    We explored how athletes respond and cope after witnessing athletic injury in others participating in the same sport. Participants were eight competitive female artistic gymnasts aged 21-25 years. In the previous 3 years, participants had witnessed a serious athletic injury of another gymnast that had required hospital treatment. Participants took part in semi-structured interviews in which they were asked to discuss their experiences of witnessing injury, including descriptions of the injury's occurrence. Data were analysed using hierarchical content analysis. Following acute reactions to witnessing injury, participants reported experiencing intrusive cognitions and engaged in avoidance coping strategies. Participants reported gradually engaging in more approach coping strategies which served to lower their perceptions of vulnerability to injury. Despite the complex nature of trauma, suggestions may be made to assist applied sport psychologists working with athletes who have witnessed athletic injury. PMID:22439638

  2. The role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eEllis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic groin pain in athletes represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in sports medicine. Two recognized causes of inguinal pain in the young adult athlete are core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia (CMI/AP and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI. CMI/AP and FAI were previously considered to be two distinct entities, however recent studies have suggested both entities to frequently coincide in the athlete with groin pain. This article briefly discusses the role of femoroacetabular impingement in core muscle injury/athletic pubalgia, and the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.

  3. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  4. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  5. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Silfies, Sheri P.; David Ebaugh; Marisa Pontillo; Courtney M. Butowicz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered. OBJECTIVES: 1) Open a dialogue on the definition and comp...

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 2, a meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D

    2006-03-01

    Female athletes have a 4 to 6 times higher incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury than do male athletes participating in the same landing and pivoting sports. This greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury, coupled with a geometric increase in participation (doubling each decade), has led to a significant rise in anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. The gender gap in anterior cruciate ligament injury, combined with evidence that the underpinnings of this serious health problem are neuromuscular in nature, leads to the development of neuromuscular interventions designed to prevent injury. A systematic review of the published literature yielded 6 published interventions targeted toward anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention in female athletes. Four of 6 significantly reduced knee injury incidence, and 3 of 6 significantly reduced anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes. A meta-analysis of these 6 studies demonstrates a significant effect of neuromuscular training programs on anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes (test for overall effect, Z = 4.31, P performance benefits are discussed. This review summarizes conclusions based on evidence from the common components of the various interventions to discuss their potential to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury risk and assess their potential for combined use in more effective and efficient intervention protocols.

  7. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri P. Silfies

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programs designed to prevent or rehabilitate athletic injuries or improve athletic performance frequently focus on core stability. This approach is based upon the theory that poor core stability increases the risk of poor performance and/or injury. Despite the widespread use of core stability training amongst athletes, the question of whether or not sufficient evidence exists to support this practice remains to be answered.OBJECTIVES: 1 Open a dialogue on the definition and components of core stability. 2 Provide an overview of current science linking core stability to musculoskeletal injuries of the upper extremity. 3 Provide an overview of evidence for the association between core stability and athletic performance.DISCUSSION: Core stability is the ability to control the position and movement of the trunk for optimal production, transfer, and control of forces to and from the upper and lower extremities during functional activities. Muscle capacity and neuromuscular control are critical components of core stability. A limited body of evidence provides some support for a link between core stability and upper extremity injuries amongst athletes who participate in baseball, football, or swimming. Likewise, few studies exist to support a relationship between core stability and athletic performance.CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence exists to support the use of core stability training in injury prevention or performance enhancement programs for athletes. Clearly more research is needed to inform decision making when it comes to inclusion or emphasis of core training when designing injury prevention and rehabilitation programs for athletes.

  8. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. Objectives: This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million peop...

  9. Illness perceptions and mood states are associated with injury-related outcomes in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Kaptein, Ad A.; Brink, Michel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Athletes have to cope adequately with the consequences of their injury in order to return into sports as soon as possible. Besides the physical characteristics of the injury, illness perceptions and emotional responses impact the behavioural responses to the injury. Purpose. To apply Lev

  10. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Athletes' Postsurgical Pain and Rehabilitation after Orthopedic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael J.; Berger, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention (stress inoculation training; SIT) for postsurgical anxiety, pain and physical rehabilitation in injured athletes. Sixty male athletes who underwent arthroscopic surgery for miniscus injury in one knee were randomly assigned to either treatment (SIT and physical therapy) or control…

  11. The use of spinal manipulation to treat an acute on field athletic injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Sean A; Kazemi, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    This case describes the utilization of spinal manipulative therapy for an acute athletic injury during a Taekwondo competition. During the tournament, an athlete had a sudden, non-traumatic, ballistic movement of the cervical spine. This resulted in the patient having a locked cervical spine with limited active motion in all directions. The attending chiropractor assessed the athlete, and deemed manipulation was appropriate. After the manipulation, the athlete's range of motion was returned and was able to finish the match. Spinal manipulation has multiple positive outcomes for an athlete with an acute injury including the increase of range of motion, decrease in pain and the relaxation of hypertonic muscles. However, there should be some caution when utilizing manipulation during an event. In the article the authors propose four criteria that should be met before utilizing manipulation for an acute, in competition, athletic injury. These include the lack of red flags, limited time for the intervention, preexisting doctor-patient relationship and the athlete has experience receiving spinal manipulation. Clinicians should be aware that manipulation may be an effective tool to treat an acute in competition athletic injury. The criteria set out in the article may help a practitioner decide if manipulation is a good option for them. PMID:27385835

  12. Effect of abdominal binding on respiratory mechanics during exercise in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    West, CR; Goosey-Tolfrey, VL; Campbell, IG; Romer, LM

    2014-01-01

    West CR, Goosey-Tolfrey VL, Campbell IG, Romer LM. Effect of abdominal binding on respiratory mechanics during exercise in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. J Appl Physiol 117: 36–45, 2014. First published May 22, 2014; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00218.2014.—We asked whether elastic binding of the abdomen influences respiratory mechanics during wheelchair propulsion in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Paralympic wheelchair rugby players with m...

  13. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

  14. The use of spinal manipulation to treat an acute on field athletic injury: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Sean A.; Kazemi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    This case describes the utilization of spinal manipulative therapy for an acute athletic injury during a Taekwondo competition. During the tournament, an athlete had a sudden, non-traumatic, ballistic movement of the cervical spine. This resulted in the patient having a locked cervical spine with limited active motion in all directions. The attending chiropractor assessed the athlete, and deemed manipulation was appropriate. After the manipulation, the athlete’s range of motion was returned and was able to finish the match. Spinal manipulation has multiple positive outcomes for an athlete with an acute injury including the increase of range of motion, decrease in pain and the relaxation of hypertonic muscles. However, there should be some caution when utilizing manipulation during an event. In the article the authors propose four criteria that should be met before utilizing manipulation for an acute, in competition, athletic injury. These include the lack of red flags, limited time for the intervention, preexisting doctor-patient relationship and the athlete has experience receiving spinal manipulation. Clinicians should be aware that manipulation may be an effective tool to treat an acute in competition athletic injury. The criteria set out in the article may help a practitioner decide if manipulation is a good option for them. PMID:27385835

  15. The use of spinal manipulation to treat an acute on field athletic injury: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Sean A.; Kazemi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    This case describes the utilization of spinal manipulative therapy for an acute athletic injury during a Taekwondo competition. During the tournament, an athlete had a sudden, non-traumatic, ballistic movement of the cervical spine. This resulted in the patient having a locked cervical spine with limited active motion in all directions. The attending chiropractor assessed the athlete, and deemed manipulation was appropriate. After the manipulation, the athlete’s range of motion was returned and was able to finish the match. Spinal manipulation has multiple positive outcomes for an athlete with an acute injury including the increase of range of motion, decrease in pain and the relaxation of hypertonic muscles. However, there should be some caution when utilizing manipulation during an event. In the article the authors propose four criteria that should be met before utilizing manipulation for an acute, in competition, athletic injury. These include the lack of red flags, limited time for the intervention, preexisting doctor-patient relationship and the athlete has experience receiving spinal manipulation. Clinicians should be aware that manipulation may be an effective tool to treat an acute in competition athletic injury. The criteria set out in the article may help a practitioner decide if manipulation is a good option for them.

  16. The Use of Biologic Agents in Athletes with Knee Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Michaela; Bradley, James P

    2016-07-01

    Biologic agents are gaining popularity in the management of bony and soft tissue conditions about the knee. They are becoming the mainstay of nonoperative therapy in the high-demand athletic population. The most well-studied agents include platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells-both of which have shown promise in the treatment of various conditions. Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated improved outcomes following PRP treatment in early osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as in chronic patellar tendinopathy. Early clinical evidence also lends support for PRP in the augmentation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Research investigating the role of biologic agents in collateral ligament and meniscal injuries is ongoing. Studies assessing the utility of stem cells have shown encouraging results in the setting of osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, strict regulations by the FDA continue to restrict their application in clinical practice. A major limitation in the interpretation of current data is the significant variability in the harvesting and preparation of both PRP and stem cells. As the volume and quality of evidence continue to grow, biologic agents are poised to become an integral component of comprehensive patient care throughout all orthopedic specialties. PMID:27206071

  17. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Study design Retrospective cohort study Methods Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. Results There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury

  18. Anatomic Factors that May Predispose Female Athletes to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edward C; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Joshi, Nirav B; Wang, Dean; McAllister, David R

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes are 2 to 10 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) than male athletes. There has been greater recognition of this gender discrepancy because female participation in competitive athletics has increased. Previous investigators have divided risk factors into hormonal, neuromuscular response, and anatomic subgroups. Gender variation within these groups may help explain the higher incidence of ACL injury in women. The purpose of this article is to review research examining female-specific anatomy that may predispose women to ACL injury. Specifically, we discuss how women may have increased tibial and meniscal slopes, narrower femoral notches, and smaller ACL, which may place the ACL at risk from injury. These anatomic factors, combined with other female-specific risk factors, may help physicians and researchers better understand why women appear to be more prone to ACL injury. PMID:26359837

  19. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. Objectives: This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients’ knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Conclusions: Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury. PMID:27218040

  20. Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of and Academic Preparation in the Use of Psychological Skills in Sport Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…

  1. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.

  2. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy.

  3. Effect of kinesio taping on the isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, SoonKwon; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Namkoong, Seung; Roh, HyoLyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in isokinetic muscle function in football athletes with a knee injury with and without kinesio taping. [Subjects] The subjects for this study were 10 football athletes (males) with a knee injury. [Methods] Measurements were performed by using Cybex dynamometer under uniform motion before and after the application of kinesio tape to the quadriceps and hamstring muscle. Maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60°/s, 120°/s, and 180°/s) were measured. [Results] A significant difference was found in peak torque and total work of the flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s, as well as in the average power of extension at 180°/s. [Conclusion] Though it is not the main therapy for muscle function in football athletes with injury, kinesio taping was an effective adjunct therapy. PMID:26957761

  4. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Gymnastics Injuries, 2009–2010 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross; Barr, Megan; Klossner, David A.; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent injury-surveillance data for collegiate-level women's gymnastics are limited. In addition, researchers have not captured non–time-loss injuries (ie, injuries resulting in restriction of participation <1 day). Objective To describe the epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women's gymnastics injuries during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 11 women's gymnastics programs providing 28 seasons of data. Patients or Other Participants Collegiate student-athletes participating in women's gymnastics during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Intervention(s) Women's gymnastics data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years were analyzed. Main Outcome Measure(s) Injury rates; injury rate ratios; injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and apparatus; and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The ISP captured 418 women's gymnastics injuries, a rate of 9.22/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs; 95% CI = 8.33, 10.10). The competition injury rate (14.49/1000 AEs) was 1.67 times the practice injury rate (8.69/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.19). When considering time-loss injuries only, the injury rate during this study period (3.62/1000 AEs) was lower than rates reported in earlier NCAA ISP surveillance data. Commonly injured body sites were the ankle (17.9%, n = 75), lower leg/Achilles tendon (13.6%, n = 57), trunk (13.4%, n = 56), and foot (12.4%, n = 52). Common diagnoses were ligament sprain (20.3%, n = 85) and muscle/tendon strain (18.7%, n = 78). Overall, 12.4% (n = 52) of injuries resulted in time loss of more than 3 weeks. Of the 291 injuries reported while a student-athlete used an apparatus (69.6%), most occurred during the floor exercise (41.9%, n = 122) and on the uneven bars (28.2%, n = 82

  5. Relationship between postural changes and injuries of the locomotor system in indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Zucareli Pinto Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the sport practice has been initiated precociously. These precocious beginning of competitive sports may result in changes on the young athletes' posture alignment, because the child's bone and muscle systems are still developing and these systems are more susceptible to stress and injuries. The purpose of this study was to verify the indoor soccer (Futsal injuries and the changes of posture alignment in players between 9 to 16 years old. We examined the posture of 50 volunteers young futsal male players, volunteers, from a first division club team. These athletes were divided in two different groups: the group one (G1 was formed by those players who have suffered injuries related to Futsal; and group two (G2 was composed by athletes who did not have injuries related to futsal. First, the athletes or their parents answered a questionnaire about anthropometric characteristics of the subjects, player position, how long they have been practicing Futsal, how often they practiced Futsal and previous injuries related to Futsal practice. Then, we evaluated the postural alignment using an specific protocol to check the postural alterations. Both groups showed changes on the body alignment. The most common changes seen were in ankle and knee in both groups. The changes of the alignment in lumbar spine was more common in group 1. Considering injuries in group 1, the most common injury was in ankle (45.2% of all injuries and the second most common injury was in knee (19% of all injuries. Considering the kind of injury, sprain and fracture/dislocate were the two most common (26.2% each one and muscle injury comes in second with 21.4% of all kinds of injuries. We could discuss the relationship between the changes of posture alignment and sports injuries, once the changes of posture alignment result in stress in muscle and ligaments and it may result in injuries. We couldn't find a relationship between the cause and the consequence of these factors.

  6. Effects of Aircast brace and elastic bandage on physical performance of athletes after ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Gunay, Sevtap; Karaduman, Ayse; Ozturk, Burcu Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using Aircast® orthosis and elastic bandage application on the physical performance of athletes with ankle injuries. Methods: The study included 60 elite male football players with ankle injuries. Ankle range of motion on the sagittal and frontal plane was measured. One maximum repetition test for the tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior and peroneal muscles; fingertip rise test, single- and double-feet vertical jump tests and...

  7. Frequency of Maxillofacial Injuries Among Athletes-Members of Various Sports Federations in Iranform 1998-2001

    OpenAIRE

    H Mahmoud Hasehmi

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, sport injuries constitute a major part of social accidents. The aim of the presentstudy, was to investigate the frequency of maxillofacial injuries among athletes-members of differentsports federations in Iran from 1998-2001. For this reason files which was related to sport injuries of men and women athletes-members of sports federations were studied in Medical Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran Sports Organization. The information were received through 26 medical organizati...

  8. Psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, S. C. M.; van der Sluis, A.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the psychosocial factors that affect recovery following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstructive surgery in athletes. A systematic search in literature with inclusion and exclusion criteria on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was performed. Articles used in this r

  9. Treatment of Low Energy Lisfranc Joint Injuries in a Young Athletic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Grant; Renninger, Christopher; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Acute Lisfranc joint injuries have historically been associated with high-energy trauma, and high quality data exists describing injury patterns and recommended treatment protocols. There is a lack of comparable data investigating injuries associated with low energy mechanisms. The objective of this study is to report low energy injury patterns and to retrospectively compare primary arthrodesis with open reduction and internal fixation in a young athletic population. Methods: All surgically managed low-energy (sustained during athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than three feet) Lisfranc injuries were identified at a single military tertiary referral center from July 2010 to June 2015. The injury pattern, time to diagnosis, and method of treatment (open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) or primary arthrodesis) were reviewed. Complication rates, secondary procedures, VAS pain score, and return to full military activity (defined as the ability to perform their primary job functions and participate in mandatory athletic activity) were reviewed. Results: Of the thirty-three injuries identified, twenty (60.6%) were primarily ligamentous. Only one patient had evidence of lateral column instability. Average patient age was twenty-eight. Eleven injuries (33%) were initially missed, delaying diagnosis an average of thirty-four days. Primary arthrodesis was performed in fifteen patients; most were secondary to subacute or chronic presentation. ORIF was performed on the remaining eighteen patients. All fixation constructs included solid screws, dorsal plates, or a combination of both. Minor complications occurred in twelve patients and included sensory changes, superficial infection treated with antibiotics, and symptomatic hardware. Complications requiring surgery other than hardware removal were seen in two patients including one ORIF patient who underwent secondary arthrodesis. VAS pain at final evaluation averaged 1.6. Thirty-one of

  10. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Cools

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  11. The child and adolescent athlete: a review of three potentially serious injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Purcell, Laura; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury - are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete's vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended

  12. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence.

  13. Amateur basketball injuries. A prospective study among male and female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APOSTOLOS STERGIOULAS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record injuries in amateur males and females basketaball players. These players participated in a domestic championship in Athens, during the 2000-2001 basketball season. An injury is considered the problem in musculoskeletal system that did not allow the player to continue the game or the training and might be outof the field for at least one day. Every injury was recordedby the coach of the team. From the start of the period until the end of the year 110 injuries in males and 86 in females were recorded. The rate was 0.72 injuries per male athlete per year, while for females the corresponding rate was 0.56. Males had more overuse injuries than females (p. 0.02, while females had more injuries in the lumbar spine(p. 0.001. Males had more knee sprains in the medial collateral ligament of (p. 0.05, while females had more sprains in the anterior cruciate ligament (p. 0.005. Both sexes sustained injuries during the games and in the second part. It is concluded that injuries in Greek amateur basketball players did not differ considerably from published studies. Further studies are needed in order that such injuries should be prevented.

  14. Disordered Eating, Menstrual Irregularity, and Musculoskeletal Injury in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Hetzel, Scott; Dennison, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: The female athlete triad is the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Currently, limited information about triad components and their relationship to musculoskeletal injury in the high school population exists. In addition, no study has specifically examined triad components and injury rate in high school oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users. Hypothesis: To compare the prevalence of disordered eating (DE), menstrual irregularity (MI), and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) among high school female athletes in OCP users and non-OCP users. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: The subject sample completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Healthy Wisconsin High School Female Athletes Survey (HWHSFAS). Athletes were classified by OCP use and sport type. Results: Of the participants, 14.8% reported OCP use. There was no difference in MI and INJ among groups. The prevalence of DE was significantly higher among OCP users as compared with non-OCP users; OCP users were twice as likely to meet the criteria for DE (odds ratio [OR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.09). OCP users were over 5 times more likely to have a global score that met criteria for DE as compared with non-OCP users (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 1.92-14.89). Conclusion: Although MI and INJ rates are similar among groups, there is a higher prevalence of DE among high school female athletes using OCPs as compared with non-OCP users. Clinical Relevance: Because OCP users may be menstruating, clinicians may fail to recognize the other triad components. However, DE exists in the menstruating OCP user. As such, clinicians should be vigilant when screening for triad components in high school OCP users, particularly DE. PMID:24982703

  15. Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes: a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that neuromuscular training not only decreases the potential biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, but also decreases knee and, specifically, ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Five of the six interventions in this systematic review demonstrated significant effects on overall knee or ACL injury rates. It appears that plyometric power, biomechanics and technique, strength, balance, and core stability training can induce neuromuscular changes and potential injury prevention effects in female athletes. However, it is unknown which of these components is most effective or whether the effects are combinatorial. Future research should assess the relative efficacy of these interventions alone and in combination to achieve the optimal effect in the most efficient manner possible. Selective combination of neuromuscular training components may provide additive effects, further reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes. Additional research directions include the assessment of relative injury risk using mass neuromuscular screening, the development of more specific injury prevention protocols targeted toward high-risk athletes, and the determination of when these interventions should be implemented. It may be that prepubertal or early pubertal female athletes may have the potential to achieve optimal biomechanical changes and the greatest chance of injury-free sports participation throughout their careers. PMID:15742602

  16. Frequency of Maxillofacial Injuries Among Athletes-Members of Various Sports Federations in Iranform 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mahmoud Hasehmi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sport injuries constitute a major part of social accidents. The aim of the presentstudy, was to investigate the frequency of maxillofacial injuries among athletes-members of differentsports federations in Iran from 1998-2001. For this reason files which was related to sport injuries of men and women athletes-members of sports federations were studied in Medical Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran Sports Organization. The information were received through 26 medical organizations,located in different states of the country. The results showed that maxillofacial injuries constitute the major part of the sports injuries. In male athletes, football was the most important cause for maxillofacial injuries. However, mountain climbing and skiing play the least role in this field. Among female athletes,karate was the cause of the highest rate of maxillofacial sport injuries. Diving, mountain climbing and skiing cause the least number of maxillofacial accidents. Nasal fracture was the most common sport injury among Iraninan male and female athletes.

  17. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in High School and College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Woodford-Rogers, Becky; Cyphert, Lynne; Denegar, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    The anterior cruciate (ACL) is the most frequently ruptured ligament of the knee. Some authors have suggested that excessive internal tibial rotation concomitant with hyperpronation of the subtalar joint during stance and inherent knee joint laxity may predispose an athlete to knee injury. Over a period of 2 years, we identified 14 ACL-injured football players and eight ACL-injured female basketball players and gymnasts. We matched them by sport, team, position, and level of competition with ...

  18. Real-time assessment and neuromuscular training feedback techniques to prevent ACL injury in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; BRENT, JENSEN L.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Some athletes may be more susceptible to at-risk knee positions during sports activities, but the underlying causes are not clearly defined. This manuscripts synthesizes in vivo, in vitro and in-silica (computer simulated) data to delineate likely risk factors to the mechanism(s) of non-contact ACL injuries. From these identified risk factors, we will discuss newly developed real-time screening techniques that can be used in training sessions to identify modifiable risk factors. Techniques pr...

  19. Comparison of athletic training professional preparation to the prevalence of injury occurrence in the collegiate setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Beverly Jean

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the frequency of injuries that occur to certain body areas in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and the percentage of time teaching about the same subject areas in Athletic Training Education Programs (ATEP). Directors of Commission of Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accredited and National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) approved programs were surveyed. Randomly selected ATEP directors were interviewed by telephone to collect information on estimated teaching time, the strengths and weaknesses of their programs, and preferred teaching methods. Data were collected from the NCAA Injury Surveillance System to calculate the frequency of injury. Chi-square 'goodness-of-fit' tests were used to determine if a 'good fit' existed between injury frequency and teaching time in two categories: general body areas (head and face, upper extremity, lower extremity, spine, and abdomen and thorax) and specific body areas (head, face, upper arm and shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, hip and pelvis, thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, abdomen, and thorax). Standardized residuals were used to assist in determining the location of statistical significance within the same two categories. The chi-square values calculated for both the general and specific body areas were greater than the critical value set at a significance level of .05 with 4 and 14 degrees of freedom respectively. Therefore, it was found that a 'good fit' does not exist between injury frequency and teaching time. The standardized residuals were calculated for each variable within the categories. One out of five general body areas and 10 out of 15 specific body areas were less than 2.00 in absolute value and were found not to contribute to the high chi-square value. Although the chi-square values showed a lack of fit between injury frequency and teaching time

  20. Review on Knee Injury of Wushu Athletes%武术运动员膝关节损伤综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐诚堂

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic of Wushu movement is easy to cause the movement of sports injury;the survey found out that Wushu athlete's knee injury is more serious.In this paper,through the analysis of Wushu athlete injury of knee injuries,so as to provide preventive measures for the knee joint injury of Wushu athletes.%武术运动的特点决定了它是较容易造成运动损伤的体育项目,经调查发现,武术运动员的膝关节损伤较为严重。本文通过对武术运动员膝关节损伤伤种的分析,以期为武术运动员的膝关节损伤提供预防措施。

  1. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  2. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  3. Injuries to the shoulder in the throwing athlete. Part two: evaluation/treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, K

    2000-01-01

    In part one of this three-part series (March/April 2000), I concentrated on summarizing the biomechanics of the normal throwing shoulder and the pathophysiology of injury. A classification of injury was presented that was based on the principles contained in that article. Part two of this series will focus on the evaluation and treatment of injuries, expanded from an understanding of the principles learned in part one. The ability to perform a skillful examination, and thus develop an accurate diagnosis, is the foundation for treatment. Fortunately, many difficulties encountered in a thrower's shoulder can be treated with a nonoperative approach. However, in instances where conservative measures fail, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of injury and the development of improved surgical techniques are leading to more accurate diagnoses and more successful rates of return of the athlete to a premorbid level of activity. PMID:10921657

  4. Sonography and MRI of latissimus dorsi strain injury in four elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedret, Carles [Unitat Medicina Esportiva Consorci Sanitari del Garraf, Barcelona (Spain); Centre Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Balius, Ramon [Generalitat of Catalonia, Sports Catalan Council, Catalonia (Spain); Idoate, Fernando [Clinica San Miguel, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the MR and sonographic findings in latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle strain in athletes, and to review the most common injuries described in the literature, most of which are humeral avulsions. Four injuries and two reinjuries of the myotendinous junction of the LD were followed from the day of injury until the return to play. Sonography (US) and MR imaging were performed in each case to confirm the diagnosis and to monitor the healing process. All cases had acute and isolated pain in the back of the shoulder while performing an eccentric maneuver of the arm and the shoulder. US and MR images demonstrated that injuries were located in the middle and cranial portion of the latissimus dorsi surrounding the myotendinous junction. After rehabilitation, all players played at high level again. Isolated lesions of LD are very rare. They can be demonstrated by US and MR images. (orig.)

  5. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Saragiotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives: To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method: This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1 "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2 "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results: We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions: The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance.

  6. A one year prospective study on ankle stability and landing technique: The occurrence of ankle and knee injuries in elite ball team athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Does, Henrike van der; Brink, M.S.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In team sports lower extremity injuries account for more than 50% of all injuries, indicating the importance of early detection of athletes at risk. Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ankle stability and landing technique at baseline for ankle and knee injury occurrence during the consecutive season in indoor team sport athletes. Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting: (Sub-)elite level basketball, korfball or volleyball athletes participated. Part...

  7. Osteitis pubis in athletes. Infection, inflammation or injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, P A; Taunton, J E; Ammann, W

    1991-10-01

    Medical records of 59 patients (9 females and 50 males), who presented to sports medicine clinics at the Australian Institute of Sport and the University of British Columbia between 1985 and 1990 and who were diagnosed as suffering osteitis pubis, were reviewed and comparison of data obtained was made with the literature. Women average 35.5 years of age (30 to 59 years) and men 30.3 years (13 to 61 years). Sports most frequently involved were running, soccer, ice hockey and tennis. Clinical presentations of osteitis pubis fell into 4 main groups. 'Mechanical' (sport-related) was the largest group (n = 48), followed by 'obstetric' (n = 5), 'inflammatory' (n = 4) and 'other' (n = 2). Period of follow-up averaged 10.3 months (1 to 20 months) in women and 17.5 months (2 to 96 months) in men. Full recovery, when documented, averaged 9.5 months in men and 7.0 months in women. Osteitis pubis recurred in 25% of these men and none of these women at follow-up. The most frequent symptoms were pubic pain and adductor pain. Men also presented with lower abdominal, hip and perineal or scrotal pain; women with hip pain. Most common signs were tenderness of the pubic symphysis and tenderness of adductor longus muscle origin. Men also revealed tenderness of one or both the superior pubic rami and evidence of decreased hip rotation (unilateral or bilateral). Evidence of pelvic malalignment and/or sacroiliac dysfunction was frequently seen in both men and women. There was poor correlation between radiographic and isotope bone scan findings and the site and duration of symptoms and signs. Femoral head ratios were estimated on 30 hips in the series and 2 were judged to be at the upper limit of normal, perhaps indicating a form of epiphysiolysis producing tilt deformity of the head of the femur. It is clear that osteitis pubis in athletes is not uncommon and that factors such as loss of rotation of hips and previous obstetric history are important in the aetiology and management of this

  8. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S. emergency departments (ED from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers.Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for male patients ages 7-17 years old (subdivided into 7-11 years old [youth group] and 12-17 years old [scholastic group].Results: During the study period, there were an estimated 167,606 ED visits for wrestling injuries in 7-17 years old U.S. males, with 152,710 (91.1% occurring in the older (12-17 years old group. The annual injury incidence was 6.49 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the youth group and 29.57 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the scholastic group. The distribution of diagnoses was similar in both age groups, with sprain/strain as the most common diagnosis, followed by fracture and contusion/abrasion. Distributions of injury by location were significantly different between groups (p=0.02, although both groups exhibited approximately 75% of all injuries from the waist up. Overexertion and struck by/against were the most common precipitating and direct mechanisms in both groups, respectively. Over 97% of all injured wrestlers were treated and released.Conclusion: The types of injury in youth (7-11 years old wrestlers are similar to those of scholastic (12-17 years old wrestlers, although the distribution of body parts injured differs between the age groups. The majority of injuries occurs above the waist and may be a target for prevention strategies. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:442-449.

  9. MEDICAL SPORTS INJURIES IN THE YOUTH ATHLETE: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Donna L; Molony Jr, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these...

  10. The Financial and Professional Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Dodson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. Purpose: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search. A database of NFL player salaries was used to conduct a matched cohort analysis comparing ACL-injured players with the rest of the NFL. The main outcomes were the percentage of players remaining in the NFL and mean salary at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after injury. Cohorts were subdivided based on initial salary: group A, $2,000,000. Mean cumulative earnings were calculated by multiplying the percentage of players remaining in the league by their mean salaries and compounding this each season. Results: NFL athletes suffered 219 ACL injuries from 2010 to 2013. The 7504 other player seasons in the NFL during this time were used as controls. Significantly fewer ACL-injured players than controls remained in the NFL at each time point (P < .05). In group A, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 to 3 seasons after injury (P < .05), and in group B, significantly less ACL-injured players remained in the NFL at 1 and 2 seasons after injury (P < .05). There was no significant decrease in group C. Players in groups A and B remaining in the NFL also had a lower mean salary than controls (P < .05 in season 1). The mean cumulative earnings over 4 years for ACL-injured players was $2,070,521 less per player than uninjured controls. Conclusion: On average, ACL-injured players earned $2,070,521 less than salary-matched controls over the 4 years after injury. Players initially earning less than $2 million per year have lower mean salaries and are less likely to remain

  11. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  12. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  13. Tissue mass ratios and the reporting of distal lower extremity injuries in varsity athletes at a Canadian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Andrews, David M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine the relative role of the distal lower extremity tissue masses of varsity athletes in predicting distal lower extremity injury sustained during a competitive season. One hundred male and female varsity athletes (basketball, volleyball, soccer, cross country) completed a questionnaire on general health, physiological, and psychosocial variables, during each sport's respective training camp. A series of anthropometric measurements were used as inputs to distal lower extremity tissue mass prediction equations to calculate lean mass, fat mass, bone mineral content and wobbling mass (lean mass + fat mass) and tissue mass ratios. Athletes were monitored throughout their respective seasons and were instructed to report any distal lower extremity injuries to a certified athletic therapist who was responsible for assessing and confirming the reports. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which variables significantly predicted distal lower extremity injury. Mean leg fat mass:bone mass (OR = 1.6, CI = 1.0 - 2.5), and competition surface (rubber OR = 8.5, CI = 1.5 - 47.7; artificial turf OR = 4.0, CI = 0.77 - 22.9) were identified as significant predictors of injury. Overall, tibia bone injuries were significantly associated with the ratio of fat mass:bone mineral content and the surface on which the athletes compete. PMID:23215824

  14. Psychology and socioculture affect injury risk, response, and recovery in high-intensity athletes: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese-Bjornstal, D M

    2010-10-01

    This consensus statement summarizes key contemporary research themes relevant to understanding the psychology and socioculture of sport injury. Special consideration is given toward high-intensity sport in which elite athlete training and performance efforts are characterized by explosive physical speed and strength, mental fortitude to push physical limits, and maximum effort and commitment to highly challenging goals associated with achieving exceptional performance. Sport injury occurrence in high-intensity sport is an adverse and stressful health event associated with a complex multitude of risks, consequences and outcomes. A biopsychosocial (Engel, 1980) view is advocated which contextualizes an understanding of the psychological aspects of sport injury in light of influential sociocultural, ethical, and biomedical issues. Outcomes related to athlete health and performance excellence are of equal importance in considering how psychological scholarship, expertise and services can be used to improve efforts focused on the prevention and management of sport injury among high-intensity athletes. The consensus view is that psychology and socioculture do affect sport injury risk, response and recovery in high-intensity athletes, and that continued efforts in psychological research and professional practice are needed to protect athlete physical and mental health and contribute toward performance excellence and career longevity.

  15. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  16. Lumbar Spine Injury/Pathology as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Schroeder, Greg; Gibbs, Daniel; Chow, Ian; LaBelle, Mark; Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh; Hsu, Wellington; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine if a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis such as spondylosis, a herniated lumbar disc, or spondylolysis affects a football player’s draft status or his performance and longevity in the NFL. Methods: The written medical evaluations and imaging reports of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 from one NFL franchise during the NFL combine (annual college football player evaluation prior to the NFL draft) were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for a pre-existing lumbar diagnosis which were compiled from previous injury/medical records including radiographic imaging reports. Those players with a lumbar spine diagnosis and with appropriate radiograph, MRI and CT imaging were included in this study. These athletes were then matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without a lumbar spine diagnosis. Career statistics were compiled including length of play and number of games started. Additionally, a previously established “Performance Score” was calculated for all players excluding offensive linemen. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a two-sided (tailed) Student’s t-test for normally distributed data. A chi-squared analysis was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p < 0.05. Results: Out of a total of 2,965 athletes evaluated from the NFL combine, 414 players were identified with a pre-existing lumbar spine diagnosis. Athletes who attended the NFL combine without a lumbar spine diagnosis were significantly more likely to be drafted than those with one (74% vs. 61% respectively, p < 0.01). There was no difference between the investigational and control group with regard to round drafted, age, year drafted, or position. Overall, athletes with a lumbar spine injury compared to the control group had no difference in the number of years played (4.0 vs. 4.3 years, respectively

  17. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E;

    2008-01-01

    ) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular...... and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus...... on the "knee over toe position" when cutting....

  18. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling. PMID:16012484

  19. Lesão muscular nos atletas Muscle injuries in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Campos Barroso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo demonstrar a fisiologia, o diagnóstico e o tratamento das lesões musculares com foque nos atletas, suas demandas e expectativas. As lesões musculares estão entre as queixas mais comuns no atendimento ortopédico, ocorrendo tanto em atletas como em não atletas. Estas lesões caracterizam um desafio para os especialistas, haja vista a lenta recuperação que afasta o atleta dos treinamentos e competições, as frequentes sequelas e a recorrência das lesões. A maior parte das lesões musculares ocorre durante atividade desportiva, correspondendo de 10 a 55% de todas as lesões. Os músculos mais comumente afetados são os isquiotibiais, quadríceps e gastrocnêmios. Músculos estes biarticulares que estão mais sujeitos a forças de aceleração e desaceleração. O tratamento da lesão muscular varia desde o tratamento conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. Novos procedimentos estão sendo utilizados, como a câmara hiperbárica e o uso de fatores de crescimento. No entanto, ainda é grande o número de recidivas de lesões. A lesão muscular continua sendo um tema com várias controvérsias. Novos tratamentos estão sendo pesquisados e desenvolvidos. A prevenção com fortalecimento muscular, o alongamento e o equilíbrio muscular continuam sendo o melhor "tratamento".This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the

  20. Dynamic trunk stabilization: a conceptual back injury prevention program for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad E; Nyland, John; Caudill, Paul; Brosky, Joseph; Caborn, David N M

    2008-11-01

    The sport of volleyball creates considerable dynamic trunk stability demands. Back injury occurs all too frequently in volleyball, particularly among female athletes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review functional anatomy, muscle coactivation strategies, assessment of trunk muscle performance, and the characteristics of effective exercises for the trunk or core. From this information, a conceptual progressive 3-phase volleyball-specific training program is presented to improve dynamic trunk stability and to potentially reduce the incidence of back injury among volleyball athletes. Phase 1 addresses low-velocity motor control, kinesthetic awareness, and endurance, with the clinician providing cues to teach achievement of biomechanically neutral spine alignment. Phase 2 focuses on progressively higher velocity dynamic multiplanar endurance, coordination, and strength-power challenges integrating upper and lower extremity movements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Phase 3 integrates volleyball-specific skill simulations by breaking down composite movement patterns into their component parts, with differing dynamic trunk stability requirements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Prospective research is needed to validate the efficacy of this program. PMID:18978452

  1. Differential neuromuscular training effects onACL injury risk factors in"high-risk" versus "low-risk" athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Kevin R

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromuscular training may reduce risk factors that contribute to ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Multi-component, ACL injury prevention training programs can be time and labor intensive, which may ultimately limit training program utilization or compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of neuromuscular training on those classified as "high-risk" compared to those classified as "low-risk." The hypothesis was that high-risk athletes would decrease knee abduction moments while low-risk and control athletes would not show measurable changes. Methods Eighteen high school female athletes participated in neuromuscular training 3×/week over a 7-week period. Knee kinematics and kinetics were measured during a drop vertical jump (DVJ test at pre/post training. External knee abduction moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. Logistic regression indicated maximal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of ACL injury risk using external knee abduction (25.25 Nm cutoff during a DVJ. Based on these data, 12 study subjects (and 4 controls were grouped into the high-risk (knee abduction moment >25.25 Nm and 6 subjects (and 7 controls were grouped into the low-risk (knee abduction Results Athletes classified as high-risk decreased their knee abduction moments by 13% following training (Dominant pre: 39.9 ± 15.8 Nm to 34.6 ± 9.6 Nm; Non-dominant pre: 37.1 ± 9.2 to 32.4 ± 10.7 Nm; p = 0.033 training X risk factor interaction. Athletes grouped into the low-risk category did not change their abduction moments following training (p > 0.05. Control subjects classified as either high or low-risk also did not significantly change from pre to post-testing. Conclusion These results indicate that "high-risk" female athletes decreased the magnitude of the previously identified risk factor to ACL injury following neuromuscular training. However, the mean values for the high-risk subjects were not reduced to

  2. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains.

  3. Groin injuries in athletes--development of clinical entities, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölmich, Per

    2015-12-01

    The doctoral thesis is based on eight papers published in peer-reviewed journals and a review of the literature. The papers are published between 1997 and 2013 in cooperation with Sankt Elisabeth Hospital, Herlev Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre Hospital, Amager Hospital, Copenhagen Trial Unit, and Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen. Groin injuries in sport are very common and in football they are among the most common and most time-consuming injuries. These injuries are treated very differently around the world. There is no consensus in the literature regarding definitions, examination methods, diagnosis or treatment and in general the level of evidence is very low. There is a need for identification of the painful anatomical structures, how to examine them and how to define clinical entities to develop effective treatment and prevention. The aim of these studies were: - To review the literature to create an overview of the ideas and the knowledge in order to plan future studies in this field. - Develop and test clinical examination techniques of the relevant tendons and muscles in the region. - Since no evidence-based diagnosis exist; to develop a set of clinical entities to identify the different groups of patients. - To test the effect of a dedicated exercise program developed for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes in a randomised clinical trial comparing it to the treatment modalities used at that time. - To examine the long-term effect of the above mentioned training program for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain. - To develop a training program for prevention of groin injuries in soccer and test it in a randomised clinical trial. - To describe the occurrence and presentation in clinical entities of groin injuries in male football and to examine the characteristics of these injuries. - Evaluate if radiological signs of femuro-acetabular impingement (FAI) or dysplasia affect the

  4. "Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Santamaria, Stefania; Iavarone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called "boosting"), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the relationship between doping and AD. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (from 1994 onwards). The key search terms "autonomic dysreflexia" and "boosting" were crossreferenced with "sport performance". The official Paralympic website was also viewed. AD is a potent sympathetic reflex, due to a massive release of noradrenaline, that results in marked vasoconstriction distal to the level of the lesion. Athletes with SCI often self-inflict physical suffering in order to induce this phenomenon, which carries high health risks (i.e., hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, stroke and sudden death). Boosting is a practice that can be compared to doping methods and the IPC expressly prohibits it. Any deliberate attempt to induce AD, if detected, will lead to disqualification from the sporting event and subsequent investigation by the IPC Legal and Ethics Committee.

  5. “Boosting” in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Santamaria, Stefania; Iavarone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called “boosting”), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the relationship between doping and AD. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (from 1994 onwards). The key search terms “autonomic dysreflexia” and “boosting” were cross-referenced with “sport performance”. The official Paralympic website was also viewed. AD is a potent sympathetic reflex, due to a massive release of noradrenaline, that results in marked vasoconstriction distal to the level of the lesion. Athletes with SCI often self-inflict physical suffering in order to induce this phenomenon, which carries high health risks (i.e., hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, stroke and sudden death). Boosting is a practice that can be compared to doping methods and the IPC expressly prohibits it. Any deliberate attempt to induce AD, if detected, will lead to disqualification from the sporting event and subsequent investigation by the IPC Legal and Ethics Committee. PMID:26415788

  6. "Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Santamaria, Stefania; Iavarone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called "boosting"), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the relationship between doping and AD. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (from 1994 onwards). The key search terms "autonomic dysreflexia" and "boosting" were crossreferenced with "sport performance". The official Paralympic website was also viewed. AD is a potent sympathetic reflex, due to a massive release of noradrenaline, that results in marked vasoconstriction distal to the level of the lesion. Athletes with SCI often self-inflict physical suffering in order to induce this phenomenon, which carries high health risks (i.e., hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, stroke and sudden death). Boosting is a practice that can be compared to doping methods and the IPC expressly prohibits it. Any deliberate attempt to induce AD, if detected, will lead to disqualification from the sporting event and subsequent investigation by the IPC Legal and Ethics Committee. PMID:26415788

  7. A one year prospective study on ankle stability and landing technique : The occurrence of ankle and knee injuries in elite ball team athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, Henrike van der; Brink, M.S.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In team sports lower extremity injuries account for more than 50% of all injuries, indicating the importance of early detection of athletes at risk. Objective: To investigate the predictive value of ankle stability and landing technique at baseline for ankle and knee injury occurrence du

  8. CORRELATION OF MRI GRADING OF BONE STRESS INJURIES WITH CLINICAL RISK FACTORS AND RETURN TO PLAY: A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN COLLEGIATE TRACK AND FIELD ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Nattiv, A; Kennedy, G; Barrack, MT; Abdelkerim, A; Goolsby, MA; Arends, JC; Seeger, LL

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone stress injuries are common in track and field athletes. Knowledge of risk factors and correlation of these to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading could be helpful in determining recovery time. Purpose: To examine the relationships between MRI grading of bone stress injuries with clinical risk factors and time to return to sport in collegiate track and field athletes. Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 211 male and female col...

  9. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  10. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Gymnastics Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen W; Covassin, Tracey; Dick, Randall; Nassar, Lawrence G; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's gymnastics and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: In the 1988–1989 academic year, 112 schools were sponsoring varsity women's gymnastics teams, with approximately 1550 participants. By 2003–2004, the number of varsity teams had decreased 23% to 86, involving 1380 participants. Significant participation reductions during this time were particularly apparent in Divisions II and III. Main Results: A significant annual average decrease was noted in competition (−4.0%, P < .01) but not in practice (−1.0%, P = .35) injury rates during the sample period. Over the 16 years, the rate of injury in competition was more than 2 times higher than in practice (15.19 versus 6.07 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures; rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 2.8). A total of 53% of all competition and 69% of all practice injuries were to the lower extremity. A participant was almost 6 times more likely to sustain a knee internal derangement injury in competition than in practice (rate ratio = 5.7, 95% CI = 4.5, 7.3) and almost 3 times more likely to sustain an ankle ligament sprain (rate ratio = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1, 3.4). The majority of competition injuries (approximately 70%) resulted from either landings in floor exercises or dismounts. Recommendations: Gymnasts with a previous history of ankle sprain should either wear an ankle brace or use prophylactic tape on their ankles to decrease the risk of recurrent injury. Preventive efforts may incorporate more neuromuscular training and core stability programs in the off-season and preseason conditioning to enhance proper landing and skill mechanics. Equipment manufacturers are encouraged to reevaluate the design of the landing mats to allow for better absorption of forces. PMID:17710171

  11. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?☆

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho; Carina Cohen; Paulo Santoro Belangero; Eduardo Antônio Figueiredo; Gustavo Cará Monteiro; Alberto de Castro Pochini; Carlos Vicente Andreoli; Benno Ejnisman

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%). It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator...

  12. Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009 in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoeye Oluwatoyosi BA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009. It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4% followed by ligament sprains (22.9%. The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment

  13. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes Atención segura a lesiones de rodilla en atletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated. Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.Fundamento: la garantía del éxito deportivo descansa en el buen funcionamiento del sistema músculo-esquelético, debido a que su vulnerabilidad entorpece el rendimiento de cada atleta. El elemento temporal es vital para una atención segura a las afecciones de rodilla, un diagnóstico tardío en este sistema puede favorecer la aparición de complicaciones y obstaculizar la práctica deportiva. Objetivo: caracterizar las lesiones de rodilla en atletas

  14. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-12-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics. PMID:26617383

  15. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-12-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics.

  16. Assessment and follow-up of muscle injuries in athletes by bioimpedance: Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Yanguas Leyes, Javier; Medina Leal, Daniel; Rodas Font, Gil; Rosell Ferrer, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Mono-frequency (50 kHz) whole-body and segmental bioimpedance is measured before sport training in 14 high performance athletes. The athletes are classified in two groups according to the team sport: football and basketball. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) method is used to obtain the individual whole-body impedance and 6 segmental impedance vectors in the main muscular groups in the lower- limbs. The whole-body vector is...

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents recommendations from the National Athletic Trainers Association for optimizing the fluid replacement practices of athletes, explaining that dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes must be educated about the risks of dehydration and overhydration. They must learn fluid…

  18. Lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de luta olímpica Musculoskeletal injuries in wrestling athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Garcia Barroso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite da luta olímpica. MÉTODOS: Avaliação retrospectiva de 95 atletas por meio de um questionário estruturado contendo informações sobre lesões prévias e dados clínicos e epidemiológicos. RESULTADOS: Foram relatadas 145 lesões em 81 (85,3% atletas. As regiões anatômicas mais freqüentemente acometidas foram o joelho (25,5%, o ombro (20%, a coxa (15,2% e o tornozelo (14,5%. As entorses e as lesões musculares foram as lesões mais comumente relatadas com 34,5% e 30,4%, respectivamente. O tratamento cirúrgico foi necessário em 9% das lesões e a maioria destas lesões (61,5% localizavam-se nos membros.inferiores. CONCLUSÕES: Lesões do aparelho locomotor são frequentes nos praticantes de luta olímpica e os membros inferiores são o segmento mais acometido.OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to retrospectively evaluate musculoskeletal injuries in elite Brazilian wrestlers. METHODS: Ninety-five wrestlers completed a structured questionnaire to asses wrestling injury history and clinical and demographic data. RESULTS: Eighty one athletes (85,3% informed 145 lesions. The most commonly injured body regions were knee (25,5%, shoulder (20%, thigh (15,2% and ankle (14,5%. Sprains (34,5% and muscle lesions (30,4% were the most common injuries. Surgical treatment was performed in 9% of the lesions and the majority of these lesions (61,5% were located in the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal lesions are common in wrestling athletes and the lower limbs are the most frequently injured site.

  19. A Web System based on a Sports injuries model towards global athletes monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Patrícia; Madeira, Rui Neves; Correia, André; Jardim, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the project iReport SportsInjuries, which is a system with a focus on a Web application directed to sport health professionals, supporting the acquisition, analysis and dissemination of sports injuries information. This software will allow health professionals register and analyze sports injuries among sports populations. The application provides a reporting module that includes tables and charts to individually analyze injuries of a specific sports or...

  20. Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-02-01

    As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

  1. Athletic injuries of the extensor carpi ulnaris subsheath: MRI findings and utility of gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeantroux, Jeremy; Guerini, Henri; Drape, Jean-Luc [Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Radiology B, Hopital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris (France); Becce, Fabio [Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Radiology B, Hopital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris (France); University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Montalvan, Bernard [French Tennis Federation, Paris (France); Viet, Dominique Le [Hand Institute, Clinique Jouvenet, Paris (France)

    2011-01-15

    To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in athletic injuries of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) subsheath, assessing the utility of gadolinium-enhanced (Gd) fat-saturated (FS) T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination. Sixteen patients (13 male, three female; mean age 30.3 years) with athletic injuries of the ECU subsheath sustained between January 2003 and June 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Initial and follow-up 1.5-T wrist MRIs were performed with transverse T1-weighted and STIR sequences in pronation, and Gd FS T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination. Two radiologists assessed the type of injury (A to C), ECU tendon stability, associated lesions and rated pulse sequences using a three-point scale: 1 = poor, 2 = good and 3 = excellent. Gd-enhanced FS T1-weighted transverse sequences in supination (2.63) and pronation (2.56) were most valuable, compared with STIR (2.19) and T1-weighted (1.94). Nine type A, one type B and six type C injuries were found. There were trends towards diminution in size, signal intensity and enhancement of associated pouches on follow-up MRI and tendon stabilisation within the ulnar groove. Gd-enhanced FS T1-weighted sequences with wrist pronation and supination are most valuable in assessing and follow-up athletic injuries of the ECU subsheath on 1.5-T MRI. (orig.)

  2. Neuromuscular adaptations in football athletes with prior history of hamstring strain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Areia, Carlos Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring strain injuries (HSI) are one of the most common injuries in a wide variety of running-sports, resulting in a considerable loss of competition and training time. One of the most problematic consequences regarding HSI is the recurrence rate and its non-decrease over the past decades, despite increasing evidence. Recent studies also found several maladaptations post-HSI probably due to neuromuscular inhibition and it has been proposed that these adaptations post-injury may...

  3. Differences in left ventricular global function and mechanics in Paralympic athletes with cervical and thoracic spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Dianne Currie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a spinal cord injury, there are changes in resting stroke volume (SV and its response to exercise. The purpose of the following study was to characterize resting left ventricular structure, function and mechanics in Paralympic athletes with tetraplegia (TETRA and paraplegia (PARA in an attempt to understand whether the alterations in SV are attributable to inherent dysfunction in the left ventricle. This retrospective study compared Paralympic athletes with a traumatic, chronic (>1 year post-injury, motor-complete spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A-B. Eight male TETRA wheelchair rugby players (34±5 years, C5-C7 and eight male PARA alpine skiers (35±5 years, T4-L3 were included in the study. Echocardiography was performed in the left lateral decubitus position and indices of left ventricular structure, global diastolic and systolic function, and mechanics were derived from the average across three cardiac cycles. Blood pressure was measured in the supine and seated positions. All results are presented as TETRA vs. PARA. There was no difference in left ventricular dimensions between TETRA and PARA. Additionally, indices of global diastolic function were similar between groups including isovolumetric relaxation time, early (E and late (A transmitral filling velocities and their ratio (E/A. While ejection fraction was similar between TETRA and PARA (59±4 % vs. 61±7 %, p=0.394, there was evidence of reduced global systolic function in TETRA including lower SV (62±9 ml vs. 71±6 ml, p=0.016 and cardiac output (3.5±0.6 L/min vs. 5.0±0.9 L/min, p=0.002. Despite this observation, both systolic and diastolic mechanics were maintained in TETRA, while several indices were lower in PARA including circumferential strain at the level of the papillary muscle (-23±4% vs. -15±6%, p=0.010 and apex (-36±10% vs. -23±5%, p=0.010 and their corresponding diastolic strain rates (papillary: 1.90±0.63 s-1 vs. 1

  4. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  5. Education and Training of Athletes' Self-Prevention Ability of Sports Injury%运动员自我运动损伤防范及教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香仙; 崇玉萍; 赵芳; 王运良; 何章明

    2012-01-01

    体育运动中运动员的自我损伤防范能力与损伤发生密切相关.对运动员开展自我损伤防范意识的教育与培养,可以有效降低运动损伤的发生风险,为损伤愈合创造了良好的条件.运动损伤防范能力的教育和培养内容包括运动人体科学基本知识、体育道德与行为、竞赛规则、训练原则、科学的训练方法与专项技术、运动损伤发生规律和营养对机体损伤与康复的影响.%Sport athletes' injury prevention capability is closely related to the injury occurred. To carry out the education and training of the athletes self-injury awareness can reduce the risk of sports injuries effectively, and it' s also creating good conditions for wound healing. The education and training of sports injury prevention ability including: Basic knowledge of human movement science, sports ethics and behavior, competition principles, training principles, scientific training method and special technology, sports injury occurrence and nutrition on body injury and influence for rehabilitation.

  6. Incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sabbag da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O basquetebol é esporte competitivo, com alta incidência de lesões de contato e movimentação. OBJETIVO: determinar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas prospectivamente 66 atletas adultas, 18 a 37 anos (média: 23, de 5 equipes durante o Campeonato Paulista da Divisão A1 (setembro de 99 a janeiro de 2000. Os dados referentes a atleta e as lesões que ocorreram no período, foram registradas por fisioterapeuta. RESULTADOS: foram computadas 78 lesões, em 47 das atletas (71,2%. A incidência de lesão foi de 2,6 lesões/ atleta/ 1000 jogos/treinos, com maior incidência nos jogos. A entorse, com 33%, foi o diagnóstico mais comum especialmente na região do tornozelo, seguida da contusão (24%. O joelho com 21% das lesões, mão/dedos, com 17%, perna/coxa e tornozelo com 14% cada, foram as regiões mais lesadas. O contato com outro atleta foi o principal mecanismo de lesão. Não encontramos relação entre diagnóstico, idade, posição e região anatômica lesada, mas atletas mais novas foram menos afetadas. A maioria das lesões foram leves (88,5% e a região do joelho foi a de maior morbidade. As sobrecargas deste esporte foram mais visíveis na região lombar e joelho, exigindo programas intensivos de prevenção e acompanhamento de atletas de elite no basquetebol feminino.Basketball is a competitive sport, presenting a high incidence of contact and movement injuries. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 adult athletes, with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (average: 23, from 5 teams playing A1-class São Paulo State Championship were prospectively assessed in the period of September 1999 - January 2000. Data concerning each individual athlete and the injuries occurred within that period were recorded by a physical therapist. RESULTS: 78 injuries were

  7. Injured Athletes' Perceived Loss of Identity: Educational Implications for Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…

  8. An Addendum to Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the Iranian taekwondo-in statistically in terms of total injury rates to international counterparts as gleaned from the extant literature. Methods The Iranian sample consisted of 204 male taekwondo-in participating in the national championship. The international sample included the participants in national and international tournaments. Validated standard questionnaires were employed at all tournaments to collect injury data that were always diagnosed by the respective tournament physicians. An injury was defined as any circumstance for which assistance was sought from the medical personnel. In addition to injury rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs around the rates were computed. To assess which group was at higher risk, odds ratios were calculated, including the 95%CIs. Results Compared to Greek counterparts, the injury rate for the Iranian taekwondo-in was statistically significantly higher. The Iranians were also at a higher risk to incur an injury: OR = 11.2 (95%CI: 6.60–18.88, P<0.001, CLR = 2.86. When comparing the Iranian taekwondo-in to their colleagues competing at the 1999 World Championships, the former recorded a statistically significantly lower injury rate but the latter were not at a higher risk (OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41–0.91, P=0.014, CLR = 2.20. Conclusion A statistical comparison of total injury rates in Iranian and international taekwondo-in revealed no difference between the two groups. However, what is of concern is that the total injury rate across taekwondo studies is significantly higher than those reported for American football.

  9. Different distributions of operative diagnoses for Achilles tendon overuse injuries in Italian and Finnish athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the origin of chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is currently unclear and epidemiological factors, such as ethnicity, may be associated. Methods intraoperative findings from the treatment of 865 Finnish and 156 Italian athletic patients with chronic Achilles tendon related pain were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 34 years (range, 18 to 65 years) in the Finnish and 29 years (range, 17–63 years) in the Italian patients. In total, 786 patients were males and 226 females of which 84 and 87% Finnish, respectively. Data were collected, retrospectively from patient records. The differences in the frequencies of operative findings were assessed for statistical significance. Results retrocalcaneal bursitis, partial tear and chronic paratenonitis were the most prevalent findings in patients with chronic AT undergoing surgery. Tendinosis and chronic paratenonitis were significantly (p=0.011) more common in Finnish athletes. Italian patients exhibited significantly (ptendinopathy (heel spurs) and prominent posterosuperior calcaneal corners (Haglund’s heel). Conclusion ethnicity appears to be associated with specific characteristics of overuse-related Achilles tendon pathology. This is an issue that should be considered in the planning of genetic research on AT. PMID:27331038

  10. Analysis on theory of treatment from abdomen for athletic injury%运动损伤病症从腹部论治的理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓亭; 董宝强; 张文静; 王树东

    2013-01-01

    从中医学和现代运动解剖学两方面对循行于腹部的经络及与腹部相关的功能解剖、生物力学进行研究,探讨运动损伤与腹部经络、脏腑、气血及现代解剖生理、病理之间的关系,为运动损伤病症从腹部论治提供理论依据,从而为运动损伤病症的治疗开辟新的思路.%The purpose of this thesis is to work over the abdominal meridian,functional anatomy and biological force line in term of traditional Chinese medicine theory and modern sport anatomy,to discuss the relations of athletic injury with abdominal meridian,Zang-Fu,Qi and blood,and with modern anatomical physiology and pathology.In this way,it provides basis for treating athletic injury from abdomen,thus develops new ways for athletic injury treatment.

  11. Perspective: Does laboratory-based maximal incremental exercise testing elicit maximum physiological responses in highly-trained athletes with cervical spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R West

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push. In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardised exercise intensities.

  12. Study quality on groin injury management remains low: A systematic review on treatment of groin pain in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Serner (Andreas); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); B.R. Beumer (Berend); P. Hölmich (Per); A. Weir (Adam); R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Groin pain in athletes is frequent and many different treatment options have been proposed. The current level of evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is unknown. Objective: Systematically review the literature on the efficacy of treatments for groin pain in athletes.

  13. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  14. The effects of performing the YMCA Bike protocol on general brain function in athletes with and without mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Michael

    Research into concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has increased significantly within the past decade. In the literature some researchers are reporting 1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occurring in sports (Langlois, 2006), mTBI accounts for 80% of all reported traumatic brain injuries (Ruff, 2011). With these alarming statistics and an increasing number of athletes suffering a concussion there has been an increased emphasis for sports medicine practitioners to properly diagnose and treat those recovering from brain injury so that they may return safely to school, sports or work. Current clinical tools available to practitioners give them the ability to assess functional recovery in clinical measures of personality change; patient self reported symptom scales; functional cognitive domains (computer based neuropsychological batteries) and clinical balance measures. These current methods of clinical measurement, diagnosis and return to play protocols have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years. In addition, there is some controversy into the application of these clinical measures within repeated measure testing as improvement does not necessarily reflect post-traumatic recovery but may instead reflect practice or "ceiling effects" of measurement. Therefore, diagnostic platforms that measure structural physiologic recovery must be implemented to assist the clinician in the 'Return to Play' process for athletic participation. In this study quantitative EEG (qEEG) analysis using a 128-lead dense array system during the first aerobic challenge in a 'Return to Play' protocol was performed. Subjects recovering from concussion and normal volunteers with no history of concussion were included and their neuroelectric activity recorded before, during, after and 24 hours post light aerobic exercise on a stationary bike. Subjects recovering from concussion demonstrated altered spectral absolute power across relevant regions of interest in the frontal, central

  15. 青少年篮球运动员踝关节防治措施%The Biological Characteristics Analysis of Young Basketball Athletes Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永娟

    2012-01-01

      本文将青少年篮球运动员在运动训练的过程中,容易发生的扭伤情况,尤其是踝关节损伤情况进行分析,并针对篮球技术的动作特点以及踝关节自身的结构特点,提出了一些预防性的措施,希望青少年篮球运动员树立起一种科学的篮球训练和预防方法,以健康的体魄来提高篮球运动的成绩。%  As a set of athletic and entertainment in one of the sports, basketball has the history of a century, and with the continuous improvement of its charm, it gradually becomes a worldwide sport, and has more and more participants. This article presents a youth basketbal athletes in the sports training process, prone to sprain, especial y the ankle injury characteristics of biology, and summed up the mechanism and causes of ankle injury for basketbal skil s action, based on the characteristics and ankle structural characteristics, present some preventive measures to ensure that young basketbal players to establish a scientific basketball training and methods, so as to improve the results of the basketball with a good health.

  16. Epidemic Characteristics and Causation for Sport Injury of Chinese Youthful Athletes of Ice and Snow Sports%我国冰雪项目青年运动员运动损伤流行病特点及致因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚茹; 徐金庆; 刘志良; 高洪杰; 杨淑媛

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent, reduce or avoid sports injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports, using the method of epidemiological research in the field of sports medicine, study on the characteristics and causation for sport injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports. The results showed that the incidence rate of sport injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports is higher, the rate of male athlets is higher than female, sports injury has the characteristics of repeatability and multiple. The rate of teenage ice hockey players and freestyle skiers is relatively higher. The knees, waists and ankles are greatest occurrence of sports injury. Diversified types of sports injuries, sprain, abrasions, contusions and fallings are common. The injuries of youthful athletes of ice and snow sports are based on acute injury and medium injury, minor injury. The mistakes of movements technique is the main causation for sport injury of Chinese youthful athletes of ice and snow sports.%为预防、减少或避免我国冰雪项目青年运动员的运动损伤,运用运动医学领域中研究流行病的方法,对我国冰雪项目青年运动员的运动损伤特点及致因进行研究.研究结果表明,我国冰雪项目青年运动员运动损伤发生率较高,男性运动员运动损伤的发病率高于女性,运动损伤具有重复性和多发性的特点;青年冰球运动员和自由式滑雪运动员运动损伤发生率相对较高;膝关节、腰背部和踝关节是运动损伤的高发部位;运动损伤的类型呈现多样化,扭伤、擦伤、挫伤及摔伤较为常见;冰雪项目青年运动员的伤病以急性损伤和中、轻度损伤为主;动作技术失误是导致我国冰雪项目青年运动员运动损伤的主要致因.

  17. 辽宁省青少年田径运动员运动损伤调查研究%Liaoning Province young athletes in track and field sports injury investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张屹

    2014-01-01

    Investigation the reasons on the part of young athletes athletic injury, summary of the common, and put forward the prevention measures. In order to provide reference for coaches and athletes about preventing and reducing the sports injury in the future training and competitions.%对部分青少年运动员运动损伤原因进行调查,总结其共性,提出预防措施,以期为教练员和运动员在今后的训练和比赛中预防和减少运动损伤的发生提供参考。

  18. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck

    2010-01-01

    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  19. 武术套路运动中运动损伤之研究述评%The Research and Summary of Athletic Injury in Wushu Routine Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧君; 齐家玉; 左国雄

    2014-01-01

    武术套路运动是一项对速度、爆发力和协调性要求特别高的全身性运动,尤其是2003年武术套路新规则实施以后,竞技武术套路进一步向着“高、难、美、新”方向发展,运动员运动损伤现象更是屡见不鲜。研究从武术套路运动中运动损伤的种类、部位、原因和预防等方面对运动员运动损伤的研究现状进行分析和评述,提出武术套路运动损伤的研究不仅仅要注重对膝、踝、腰等常见损伤部位的研究,也要兼顾并深化对腕、肘、肩等低危损伤部位的研究,同时开展运动损伤的预防和治疗的干预效果的实验研究。%Wushu routine sport is a kind of generally movements with high quality of speed, explosive power and harmony .Wushu routine Sport developed towards“the higher, more difficult, more beautiful and newer” direction especially after new rules was launched and implemented in 2003,which leaded more athletic injuries. The article makes analysis and summary of research status of athletes’ injuries in Wushu routine sport particularly in the aspects of type, position, reason and prevention of injuries. Accordingly, put forward several suggestions: the study of athletic injury in Wushu routine sport should focus on the knee, ankle, waist and other commonly injury position as well as on the wrist, elbow, shoulder such lower risk position; the experimental research of intervention effects of sport prevention and cure should be carried out at the same time .

  20. Relationship between hip and knee kinematics in athletic women during cutting maneuvers: a possible link to noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imwalle, Lauren E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare lower-extremity kinematics during a 45 degrees and 90 degrees cutting maneuver and to examine the relationships between lower-extremity rotations during these maneuvers. The hypotheses tested were that greater internal hip and knee rotation angles would be observed during the cutting maneuver at a 90 degrees angle (90 degrees cut) compared with the maneuver performed at a 45 degrees angle (45 degrees cut) and that the increased internal hip and knee rotation would be related to increased knee abduction measures. Nineteen athletes from women's soccer teams (17.6 +/- 2.1 yr, 165.6 +/- 8.2 cm, 60.2 +/- 5.6 kg) were instructed to jump across a line and cut at the appropriate angle (either 45 degrees or 90 degrees side-step cut) and in the appropriate direction. Lower-extremity kinematic measures were taken at peak force during the stance phase. Hip internal rotation and knee internal rotation (p = 0.008) were increased during the 90 degrees cut compared with the 45 degrees cut. Mean hip flexion (p knee abduction during both tasks was hip adduction (R = 0.49). The findings indicate that the mechanisms underlying increased knee abduction measures in athletic women during cutting tasks were primarily coronal plane motions at the hip. Trunk and hip focused strength neuromuscular training may improve the ability of athletic women to increase control of lower-extremity alignment. Therefore, these women may decrease dangerous knee loads that result from increased hip adduction during dynamic tasks, thus decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. PMID:19826304

  1. On Epidemiology and Etiology of Sports Injury in China's Ice Sports Athletes%中国冰上项目运动员运动损伤流行病学及病因学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚茹; 徐金庆; 吴菲; 刘志良; 高洪杰

    2015-01-01

    Taking 128 ice sports athletes as the objects , the features and causes of sports injury epidemiology are studied .The results show that China's ice sports athletes have a higher incidence of sports injury , which has the characteristics of repetition and multiple .The sports injury occurrence rates of the ice hockey ,speed skating and figure skating are relatively high ,the injury rate of curling is relatively low .The waist ,knee joint and ankle are the high incidence areas of sports injury .The main types of injury are muscle damage ,joint damage and ligament damage .Athletes'sports injuries are mainly manifested as moderate injury and mild injury ,severe injury is less .Acute injury is more than chronic injury .Technical factors are the main reasons causing the ice athletes sports injury .%以128名冰上项目运动员为对象,对其运动损伤流行病特点及病因进行研究。结果表明:中国冰上项目运动员运动损伤发生率较高,具有重复性和多发性的特点;冰球、速度滑冰和花样滑冰运动损伤发生率均较高,冰壶项目相对较低;腰背部、膝关节和踝关节是运动损伤的高发部位;运动损伤的类型主要是肌肉伤、关节伤和韧带伤;损伤程度以中、轻度较多,重度损伤较少;急性损伤较多,慢性损伤较少。技术因素是造成冰上项目运动员运动损伤的主要原因。

  2. Lesões traumato-ortopédicas nos atletas paraolímpicos Orthopaedic trauma injuries in paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vital

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o desenvolvimento do esporte paraolímpico nacional e internacional tem estimulado maior participação dos portadores de deficiência em atividades desportivas, exigindo dos atletas incremento na intensidade e freqüência nos treinamentos e competições, o que impulsiona, ainda mais, os índices de lesões traumato-ortopédicas. Objetivou-se neste estudo de caráter descritivo-analítico verificar a prevalência de lesões traumato-ortopédicas em 82 atletas paraolímpicos selecionados de forma não probabilística intencional pertencentes às modalidades: natação = 37; tênis de mesa = 19; atletismo = 19; halterofilismo = 7, sendo 60 do sexo masculino e 22 do feminino, na faixa etária de 15 a 51 anos, participantes dos campeonatos mundiais nas referidas modalidades esportivas no ano de 2002. Utilizando-se como instrumento o prontuário médico do Departamento Médico do Comitê Paraolímpico Brasileiro preenchidos nesses eventos (técnica da observação através da história clínica - esportiva do atleta/anamnese (entrevistas com os atletas e exame físico, os resultados revelaram prevalência de lesões nos atletas de atletismo (MMII = 64,9%, coluna = 19,3% e MMSS = 15,8%; halterofilismo (coluna = 54,5%, MMSS = 36,4% e MMII = 9,1%; natação (MMSS = 44,4%, coluna = 38,9 e MMII = 16,7% e tênis de mesa (MMSS = 56%, coluna = 36% e MMII = 8%. Tais resultados nos permitem concluir que a prática esportiva de atletas paraolímpicos, pela intensidade de esforços na tentativa de superação, provoca lesões dessa natureza, o que recomenda diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, além de fortalecer as medidas preventivas dos atletas.In the last few years, the development of national and international games for the physically challenged has encouraged greater participation of athletes with physical disabilities. This resulted in an increase in intensity and frequency of the training routines and competitions and higher levels of

  3. Exploração de fatores de risco para lesões no atletismo de alta performance Finding of risk factors for injuries in high performance athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre

    2007-06-01

    events of athletics, the documents that approach the theme are scarce. Thus, with the possibility to collect information about the described condition, this study aimed the exploration of risk factors for sport injuries in athletics, by inquiring world elite athletes of the modality. The population was composed by 60 men and 60 women allocated in groups according to the specific modality (speed, resistance, throws and jumps. The interviews were made using a morbidity referred inquiry, approaching subjects on anthropometrics and training variables, as well as injuries. The technique of the analysis of parametric variance was used for the anthropometrics variables (age, weight, stature and of the technique of the no parametric variance analysis in relation to the training variables (years of training and weekly hours. The Goodman's test was used in level of 5% of significance for the association between injury moment and specialties. The results showed an elevated frequency of injuries in the modality for both genders. The injury taxes for interviewed athlete were 0,92 (speed, 1,08 (resistance, 1,22 (jumps and 1,20 (throws. There was not significant statistical difference for the anthropometrics variables and of training in relation to the proofs, except to the jumpers, that presented differences for stature and time of training; in that case, injured are the taller or those that practice athletics for less time (P < 0.05. In conclusion, for studied population, the risk of injury is accentuated, but without relationship between variables and presence of injuries, except for specialists in jumps, that presented stature and time of training as risk factors to the injury.

  4. Spondyloptosis in athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu, Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent athletes are at greater risk of low back pain and structural spine injuries. Spondylolysis is responsible for the majority of back pain cases in young athletes, rarely occurring in adults. We report a case of a 13-year-old judo female athlete, who came to our service with 5 months of progressive low back pain during training which was initially attributed to mechanical causes, without any further investigation by imaging methods. At admission, the patient had lumbar deformity, antalgic posture and bilaterally positive unipodalic lumbar hyperextension maneuver. After a research which showed spondyloptosis, the patient underwent surgery. In this article, we discuss, based on this case report, the diagnostic approach to low back pain in young athletes, since the complaint of chronic back pain can be a marker of a structural lesion that may be permanent and bring irreversible functional loss. PMID:25054602

  5. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  6. Incidência de lesão musculoesquelética sem trauma em atletas de handebol Incidence of nontraumatic musculoskeletal injuries in handball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cavalcante de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O atleta competitivo muitas vezes apresenta lesões musculoesqueléticas, algumas de natureza não traumática. Habitualmente, tais lesões são atribuídas a fatores mecânicos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estudar um grupo de atletas de handebol e verificar uma possível ação de fatores imune-inflamatórios e hormonais na gênese destas lesões. Procedeu-se à avaliação dos parâmetros laboratoriais, dosando-se a concentração plasmática de hormônios e neurotransmissores e a produção in vitro de citocinas e prostaglandina E2. Os resultados permitem afirmar que em 29% dos atletas estudados foi possível constatar a ocorrência de lesões musculoesqueléticas não traumáticas, que puderam ser relacionadas com o aumento da produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, com elevação das concentrações de IL-1, IL-2, TNF-α e IFN-α. Nesta mesma cultura foi possível demonstrar aumento da concentração de prostaglandina E2.Competitive athletes often present musculoskeletal injuries, some of these nontraumatic. Usually these injuries are attributed to mechanical factors. The present study aimed to investigate a group of handball players and check a possible action of immune-inflammatory and hormonal factors in the genesis of these lesions. Laboratory parameters were studied measuring in the plasma the concentration of plasma hormones and neurotransmitters, and production "in vitro" of cytokines and prostaglandin E2. The results indicate that in 29% of the athletes included in the study the occurrence of nontraumatic musculoskeletal injuries was observed. In this group there was an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines assayed in the supernatant of culture of peripheral blood cells with increased concentrations of IL-1, IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-α, as well of prostaglandin E2.

  7. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  8. Analysis of College Badminton Athlete Rotator Cuff Injury from the Anatomical Point%从解剖学角度分析高校羽毛球运动员肩袖损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Analysis college badminton athletes rotator cuff injury reasons from the point of anatomy view. Methods:Literature, questionnaire, expert interviews. Results: The reasons of the college badminton athletes rotator cuff injury is too much training, the local overburdened lack of knowledge of sports injuries physiological, psychological unsatisfactory level of training. Conclusion: To improve awareness of sports injuries, to promote science and practice, to avoid the dangers caused by injury, to strengthen strength training and medical supervision can effectively avoid rotator cuff injury occurred.%  目的:从解剖学的角度分析高校羽毛球运动员肩袖损伤的原因。方法:采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法。结果:高校羽毛球运动员肩袖损伤的原因是运动量过大、局部负担过重、缺乏运动损伤知识、生理及心理水平欠佳、训练水平不足。结论:提高运动损伤意识、提倡科学练习,避免损伤带来的危害性,加强力量训练和医务监督能有效避免肩袖损伤的发生。

  9. Accuracy of Athletic Trainer and Physician Diagnoses in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Nicholas J; Tucker, Bradford; Freedman, Kevin B; Austin, Luke S; Eck, Brandon; Pepe, Matthew; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P

    2016-09-01

    It is standard practice in high school athletic programs for certified athletic trainers to evaluate and treat injured student athletes. In some cases, a trainer refers an athlete to a physician for definitive medical management. This study was conducted to determine the rate of agreement between athletic trainers and physicians regarding assessment of injuries in student athletes. All high school athletes who were injured between 2010 and 2012 at 5 regional high schools were included in a research database. All patients who were referred for physician evaluation and treatment were identified and included in this analysis. A total of 286 incidents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 263 (92%) of the athletic trainer assessments and physician diagnoses were in agreement. In the 23 cases of disagreement, fractures and sprains were the most common injuries. Kappa analysis showed the highest interrater agreement in injuries classified as dislocations and concussions and the lowest interrater agreement in meniscal/labral injuries and fractures. In the absence of a confirmed diagnosis, agreement among health care providers can be used to infer accuracy. According to this principle, as agreement between athletic trainers and physicians improves, there is a greater likelihood of arriving at the correct assessment and treatment plan. Athletic trainers are highly skilled professionals who are well trained in the evaluation of athletic injuries. The current study showed that additional training in identifying fractures may be beneficial to athletic trainers and the athletes they treat. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e944-e949.]. PMID:27398784

  10. 青少年田径运动损伤的调查研究%Investigation on Sports Injury of Junior Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓青; 颜彬

    2012-01-01

    体育教学与运动训练的主要任务是增强学生的体质,促进学生身心协调发展,培养学生的体育运动能力和良好的思想品质,使学生能够德、智、体全面发展。但是在运动训练过程中,常会有不同程度的运动损伤,机体一旦受到运动损伤,常要休息很长时间,并重新参加训练,才能达到以前的运动水平,所以可以根据损伤部位的规律和特点,及时地采取各种预防措施,合理安排损伤后的恢复性训练的强度和负荷,以及运用一些辅助的恢复性练习方法加速机体功能的恢复。怎样使得运动损伤在青少年田径运动中最大限度地避免,使得青少年一生健康幸福,便是本论文所要研究的内容。%The main task of physical education and sports training is to strengthen the students' physique,promote students' physical and mental coordinated development,cultivate the students' sports ability and the good thought quality,and enable the student to develop morally,intellectually and physically.However,in sports training,some different degrees of sports injury often occurs.Once injury,body often need to rest for a long time,and participate in training can reach the previous movement level,so according to injury parts rules and characteristics,timely adopted various prevention measures,reasonable arrangement after injury resumed training intensity and load,and using a few auxiliary of restorative practice method quicken airframe function recovery.How to make sports injury in youth athletics,of utmost avoid,making life is health and happiness of teenagers is the content of this article to study.

  11. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  12. Archetypal Athletes

    CERN Document Server

    Eugster, Manuel J A

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on outstanding---positively and/or negatively---athletes are common practice. The rapidly grown amount of collected sports data now allow to support such discussions with state of the art statistical methodology. Given a (multivariate) data set with collected data of athletes within a specific sport, outstanding athletes are values on the data set boundary. In the present paper we propose archetypal analysis to compute these extreme values. The so-called archetypes, i.e., archetypal athletes, approximate the observations as convex combinations. We interpret the archetypal athletes and their characteristics, and, furthermore, the composition of all athletes based on the archetypal athletes. The application of archetypal analysis is demonstrated on basketball statistics and soccer skill ratings.

  13. Sports after Busy Work: Work-Related Cognitive Failure Corresponds to Risk Bearing Behaviors and Athletic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although employees are encouraged to take exercise after work to keep physically fit, they should not suffer injury. Some sports injuries that occur after work appear to be work-related and preventable. This study investigated whether cognitive failure mediates the influence of mental work demands and conscientiousness on risk-taking and risky and unaware behaviour during after-work sports activities. Participants were 129 employees (36% female who regularly took part in team sports after work. A structural equation model showed that work-related cognitive failure significantly mediated the influence of mental work demands on risky behaviour during sports (p < .05 and also mediated the directional link between conscientiousness and risky behaviour during sports (p < .05. A path from risky behaviour during sports to sports injuries in the last four weeks was also significant (p < .05. Performance constraints, time pressure, and task uncertainty are likely to increase cognitive load and thereby boost cognitive failures both during work and sports activities after work. Some sports injuries after work could be prevented by addressing the issue of work redesign.

  14. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  15. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  16. Drug abuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  17. 体操训练中的运动损伤调查及预防研究%INVESTIGATION ON THE ACUTE SPORTS INJURIES AMONG ATHLETES AND ITS PREVENTION METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究运动员中急性运动损伤发生情况,并研究其影响因素.[方法]采用自制调查表调查200名运动员中急性运动损伤发生情况.并用SPSS13.0分析急性运动损伤的原因.[结果]共发生急性运动损伤166例,运动损伤发生中男性多于女性,并且多发生于年龄小,运动年限低的运动员.运动损伤时间发生时间主要集中在1~3月和10~12月,在损伤类型中,受伤最多的是拉伤和扭伤,受伤项目最多的是单杠.[结论]在体操运动训练过程中,应该加强易伤部位肌肉群力量和韧带柔韧性的训练,做好充分的热身运动,从而有效地预防急性运动损伤.%[Objective] To investigate the acute sports injuries among athletes, and its influencing factors. [Methods] By self-designed questionnaires, a total of 200 athletes with acute sports injuries were investigated, and SPSS 13.0 were performed to analysis. [Results] There were 166 athletes with acute sports injuries, and the males with acute sports injuries were significantly more than females, and often occurred in young age and few sports years. The acute sports injuries were mainly occurred in October and March, and most of the injuries were strain and cramp, and the easier injury item was horizontal bar. [Conclusion] We should strengthen the training during gymnastics disciplines, and strengthen the training for muscles and ligament, and prevent the occurrence of acute sports injuries.

  18. Syndesmotic ankle sprains in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn N; Jones, Morgan H; Amendola, Annunziato

    2007-07-01

    Ankle sprains are among the most common athletic injuries and represent a significant source of persistent pain and disability. Despite the high incidence of ankle sprains in athletes, syndesmosis injuries have historically been underdiagnosed, and assessment in terms of severity and optimal treatment has not been determined. More recently, a heightened awareness in sports medicine has resulted in more frequent diagnoses of syndesmosis injuries. However, there is a low level of evidence and a paucity of literature on this topic compared with lateral ankle sprains. As a result, no clear guidelines are available to help the clinician assess the severity of injury, choose an imaging modality to visualize the injury, make a decision in terms of operative versus nonoperative treatment, or decide when the athlete may return to play. Increased knowledge and understanding of these injuries by clinicians and researchers are essential to improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this significant condition. This review will discuss the anatomy, mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and treatment of syndesmosis sprains of the ankle while identifying controversies in management and topics for future research. PMID:17519439

  19. The research of sport injury for land training of Chinese U-shaped veneer skiing athlete%我国单板滑雪U型场地运动员陆训运动损伤调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢贵胜; 卢贵林

    2014-01-01

    Using interview method, literature method, questionnaire survey, field observation to investigate U-shaped veneer skiing athletes injuries during the land training period. Research reveals that the injured areas are more focus on waist, knees and ankles. Sports injury is closely related to daily special training. Inadequate prepara⁃tion, insufficient knowledge of sports injury and facilities condition are the main three reasons for sports injury. Sports injury is mainly because of sprain, contusion and accidental injury.%运用访谈法、文献资料法、问卷调查法、实地观察法,对国家单板U型场地滑雪运动员陆训期间的伤病情况进行调查,结果显示:运动损伤受伤部位主要集中在腰、膝、踝关节;准备活动不充分、缺乏运动损伤知识和场地设施原因是造成运动损伤的三大因素;损伤多以扭伤、挫伤和突发性损伤为主。

  20. 优秀女子跆拳道运动员踝关节损伤预防与治疗的应用研究%The Applied Research of Ankle Injury Prevention and Treatment of Women Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜; 鲍捷

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the diagnosis and treatment process of elite taekwondo athlete's ankle injuries, the paper does the statistics and analysis of the reason caused ankle injuries and prescribes treatment and rehabilitation methods. The research provides theoretical and practical support for reducing the incidence of ankle injuries of elite athletes and making them healthy.%  文章从日常对跆拳道高水平运动员诊治过程出发,对跆拳道运动员踝关节损伤进行统计,并对踝关节主要损伤原因进行分析,提出治疗方案与康复训练方法,为减少优秀运动员踝关节损伤发生率,保持健康及竞技水平提供理论与实践支撑。

  1. Rehabilitation of the athlete with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Christopher J; Herring, Stanley A; Pratt, Todd W

    2004-02-01

    The rehabilitation of athletes with low back pain should be considered an essential component of their care. Comprehensive rehabilitation begins at the time of acute injury and encompasses the period of acute care through sport-specific training and return to competition. Rehabilitation of athletes with spinal pain should include a thorough psychosocial evaluation to identify potential barriers to clinical improvement. For athletes with low back pain, establishing effective core stability is central to optimizing the functional performance of the athlete. PMID:14728912

  2. Drug abuse in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  3. Medical aspects of sports injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, I D

    1981-01-01

    The aims of medicine in sport--treatment and prevention of injury of high-performance athletes, rehabilitation--and its beneficial effects are considered. The types of sporting injuries are described. Collision and contact sports tend to be characterised by injuries caused by direct or indirect trauma, while athletic injuries tend to result from a variety of factors that, instead of producing excellence as intended, produce injury. The physiological changes in a top-class sportsman may also b...

  4. 高校羽毛球运动员膝关节损伤的调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Knee Joint Injury of College Badminton Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芸佩

    2014-01-01

    通过文献资料法,问卷调查法,数理统计法等对江苏省18届运动会高校组羽毛球运动员膝关节损伤现状及原因进行深入调查分析,为同类研究提供理论依据。%Through using the method of literature review,questionnaire and mathematical statistics,this paper makes deeply analysis on badminton athlete's knee joint injury in 18th Games of Jiangsu province and provide a theoretical basis for the similar research.

  5. Low Back Pain in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Laura; Micheli, Lyle

    2009-01-01

    Context Low back pain in young athletes is a common complaint and should be taken seriously. It frequently results from a structural injury that requires a high degree of suspicion to diagnose and treat appropriately. Evidence Acquisition A Medline search was conducted from 1996 to May 2008 using the search terms “low back pain in children” and “low back pain in athletes.” Known texts on injuries in young athletes were also reviewed. References in retrieved articles were additionally searched...

  6. Concussion and the Student-Athlete: Considerations for the Secondary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Andrea; Ploeg, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The number of high school students who participate in athletics has increased over the past decade. There has also been an increased emphasis placed on athletic involvement and physical strength and ability. This has led to increased awareness of athletic injuries such as concussions. While concussions are not a new injury, the medical community…

  7. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  8. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Kulig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPatellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.

  9. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M; Reischl, Stephen F; Landel, Rob F

    2015-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels. PMID:26537811

  10. Use of prescription drugs in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, Antti; Alaranta, Hannu; Helenius, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Although athletes are young and generally healthy, they use a variety of non-doping classified medicines to treat injuries, cure illnesses and obtain a competitive edge. Athletes and sports medicine physicians try to optimize the treatment of symptoms related to extreme training during an elite athlete's active career. According to several studies, the use of antiasthmatic medication is more frequent among elite athletes than in the general population. The type of training and the kind of sport influence the prevalence of asthma. Asthma is most common among those competing in endurance events, such as cycling, swimming, cross-country skiing and long-distance running. Recent studies show that athletes use also NSAIDs and oral antibacterials more commonly than age-matched controls, especially athletes competing in speed and power sports. Inappropriately high doses and concomitant use of several different NSAIDs has been observed. All medicines have adverse effects that may have deleterious effects on elite athletes' performance. Thus, any unnecessary medication use should be minimized in elite athletes. Inhaled beta(2)-agonists may cause tachycardia and muscle tremor, which are especially harmful in events requiring accuracy and a steady hand. In experimental animal models of acute injury, especially selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors have been shown to be detrimental to tissue-level repair. They have been shown to impair mechanical strength return following acute injury to bone, ligament and tendon. This may have clinical implications for future injury susceptibility. However, it should be noted that the current animal studies have limited translation to the clinical setting. Adverse effects related to the CNS and gastrointestinal adverse reactions are commonly reported in connection with NSAID use also in elite athletes. In addition to the potential for adverse effects, recent studies have shown that NSAID use may negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting

  11. Epidemiological considerations of concussions among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Swanik, C Buz; Sachs, Michael L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine epidemiological trends of concussions among 15 different intercollegiate sports during the 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000 seasons. Data were collected using the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS). For the 15 sports studied during the 3 academic years, the NCAA ISS documented 3,535 team-seasons, 40,547 reportable injuries, 5,566,924 practice athlete exposures (AEs), and 1,090,298 game AEs. Concussions accounted for 6.2% of all reported injuries during this 3-year study. Of all the reported injuries, women lacrosse players (13.9%) reported the highest percentage of suffering a concussion during a game followed by women's soccer (11.4%), men's ice hockey (10.3%), men's lacrosse (10.1%), football (8.8%), women's basketball, (8.5%), field hockey (7.2%), men's soccer (7.0%), wrestling (6.6%), men's basketball (5.0%), baseball (4.2%), and women's volleyball (4.1%). Female athletes from all 7 sports were found to be at a lower risk for suffering concussions during practice sessions than the 8 male sports. However, female athletes were found to be at a greater risk for suffering concussions during games compared to male athletes. Injury trends over the 3- year period indicate concussions continue to be on the rise for athletes participating in collegiate football, men's soccer, and women's and men's basketball. PMID:12734071

  12. Wrestling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  13. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  14. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  15. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  16. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  17. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Leonie Flueck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2 Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3 Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4 Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are

  18. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  19. Expected Time to Return to Athletic Participation Following Stress Fracture in Division I Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Marissa; Everson, Sonsecharae; Siegel, Courtney; Miller, Timothy Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate and determine the expected time to return to athletic participation in Division I collegiate Track and Field athletes. Methods: All stress fractures diagnosed in athletes on a single Division I collegiate men’s and women’s track and field/ cross-country team were recorded over a 4-year period. Site and severity of the injury were recorded and graded based on the Kaeding-Miller Classification System for stress fractures. Time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation was recorded for each athlete and correlated with the site and severity grade of the injury. Time to return to athletic participation was also analyzed for gender differences. Results: Fifty-seven stress fractures were diagnosed in 38 athletes over a 4-year period. Thirty-seven of these injuries occurred in women; twenty in men. Mean time to return to participation in women was 13.9 weeks and 11.2 weeks in men. There were 10 athletes who sustained recurrent or multiple stress fractures. Thirty-three stress fractures occurred in the tibia, and 10 occurred in the 2nd through 4th metatarsals. Three occurred in the 5th metatarsal, 6 in the tarsal bones (2 navicular), and 5 in the pelvis. Mean times to return to athletic activity based on site of injury and with extreme outliers removed were as follows: tibia- 13.3 weeks, 2nd through 4th metatarsals- 11.7 weeks, 5th metatarsal- 11.7 weeks, tarsals- 12.1 weeks, and pelvis- 13.0 weeks. There were 31 grade 2 stress fractures, 11 grade 3 stress fractures, and two grade 5 stress fractures that occurred bilaterally in the same patient. Mean times to return to athletic participation again with extreme outliers excluded were as follows: Grade 2- 12.3 weeks, Grade 3- 14.1 weeks, and Grade 5- 17 weeks. There were no Grade 4 (displaced) stress fractures diagnosed in this cohort of patients. Conclusion: Stress injuries to bone occur frequently in track and field athletes. Based on data collected

  20. Profile of injures prevalence in athletes who participated in SESC Triathlon Caiobá-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Izabela Pichinin; Sartori, Renato Pineda; Corrêa, Daniela Gallon; Zotz, Talita Gianello Gnoato; Gomes, Anna Raquel Silveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of injuries occurred during training and/or competition in triathlon athletes at SESC Triathlon Caiobá-2011. METHODS: One hundred and ninety athletes participated in the study (153 males and 37 females). RESULTS: Athletes reported time of practice between 3 to 6 years (20%), training frequency of 5 days per week (48%), at least one injury during trainings (76%). The prevalence of injuries according to the sports category was: running (79%), cycling (16%) ...

  1. Hypermobility and Knee Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research on the effect of hypermobility on knee injury indicates that greater than normal joint flexibility may be necessary for some athletic endeavors and that it may be possible to change one's underlying flexibility through training. However, for most athletes, inherited flexibility probably plays only a small role, if any, in…

  2. On the Causes for Athletes ’Ankle Injury and Methods for Quick Rehabilitation%踝关节运动损伤成因与快速康复方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓彬

    2014-01-01

    Since the ankle joint is a weight-bearing jiont of human body,its stability is the basis to ensure the functions of weight-bearing and movement of human body. Ankle injury is a common injury for athletes and it will easily result in arthritis if it is treated improperly. This paper, from the perspective of sports medicine, makes an analysis of the causes for athletes’ankle injury and methods for quick rehabilitation.%踝关节属于人体负重关节,其稳定性是保证人体负重以及运动功能的重要基础,踝关节损伤是较为常见的运动损伤,如果处理不当则极易引发创伤性的关节炎。该文从运动医学的角度出发,对踝关节运动损伤成因与快速康复方法进行探讨。

  3. Use of plyometric trainings in physical rehabilitation of athletes in playing sports with injuries of the capsule-ligament apparatus of knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd Khalil Moh'd Abdel Kader.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of possibility of application is considered in the programs of physical rehabilitation of the special physical exercises for the athletes in playing sports with the damage of knee-joint. An analysis and generalization of scientific-methodical information on questions of mechanisms and features of origin of sporting traumas, and also modern facilities and methods of renewal at the traumas of the capsule-ligament apparatus of knee is conducted. It is set that in the modern methods of physical rehabilitation of sportsmen with the traumas of locomotorium the complex programs do not meet with the use of plyometric exercises. Their application is instrumental in the prophylaxis of origin of recurrent sporting traumas, renewal of the special capacity and speed-power qualities of athletes.

  4. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers). PMID:18548363

  5. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  6. Resultant linear acceleration of an instrumented head form does not differ between junior and collegiate taekwondo athletes' kicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O'Sullivan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: It is of concern that RLA did not significantly differ between school levels, implying that young taekwondo athletes generate similar forces to their adult counterparts, possibly exposing young athletes to an increased risk for head injuries.

  7. To Explore the Clinical Effect of MR Imaging Diagnosis in Athletic Injury of the Gastrocnemius Muscle%腓肠肌运动性损伤的MR影像诊断及临床作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建保

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analyze the clinical effect of MR imaging diagnosis in athletic injury of the gastrocnemius muscle.Methods Selected 33 patients with calf injuries from June 2012 to May 2015 in our hospital as research object, the patients with the X-ray plane spread not prompt tibioifbula fracture, Application of MR revealed sports injury of the gastrocnemius muscle. Injury in patients within 1 to 10 days after application of phased-array coil surface of the body, regular check sequence and fat suppression sequence, implementation of short time inversion recovery in patients with partial sequence check.Results 33 patients with gastrocnemius, I degree damage in 13 patients, II degree of 14 patients with sports injury and 6 patients with III degree damage, neither MR results tibioifbula fracture or contusion.Conclusion By MR inspection on patients with sports injury of the gastrocnemius muscle has a more typical imaging ifndings, can intuitive, comprehensive real tissue injury situation, offer scientific basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease.%目的:分析腓肠肌运动性损伤的MR影像诊断结果及价值。方法选择2012年6月~2015年5月来我院接受治疗的33例腓肠肌运动性损伤患者作为观察对象,经X线平面价差未提示胫腓骨骨折;应用MR检查提示存在腓肠肌运动型损伤。在患者伤后1~10 d应用相控阵表面体线圈,常规序列和脂肪抑制序列进行检查,对部分患者实施短时间反转恢复序列的检查。结果33例患者中,腓肠肌I度损伤13例、腓肠肌II度损伤14例、III度损伤6例,MR结果均未提示存在胫腓骨骨折或者挫伤。结论通过MR对腓肠肌运动型损伤患者进行检查具有较为典型的影像学表现,能够直观、全面的现实出组织损伤情况,为疾病的临床诊治提供科学的依据。

  8. Fracturas por estrés en deportistas: Valor de la resonancia magnética en la predicción de la morbilidad Stress fractures in athletes: Role of magnetic resonance imaging in predicting injury morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Maquirriain

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La resonancia magnética ha mostrado ser una herramienta eficaz para el diagnóstico precoz de las fracturas por estrés y para la determinación de la gravedad de estas lesiones. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la relación entre la gravedad de las fracturas por estrés en deportistas, determinada por resonancia magnética y la morbilidad, estimada por el tiempo de retorno al deporte. Se estudiaron 34 casos de fracturas por estrés, correspondientes a 29 deportistas (12 mujeres; 17 varones; edad 26.3 ± 12.5 años, mediante radiografías y resonancia magnética. Las lesiones fueron clasificadas en cuatro grados según la escala de Arendt. Se determinaron la localización anatómica, el nivel de actividad, el tiempo de diagnóstico y el tiempo de retorno a la actividad deportiva. Los huesos más afectados fueron la tibia (n=12; 35.2%, el escafoides tarsiano (n=5; 14.7% y los metatarsianos (n=4; 11.7. La gravedad de las lesiones fue: grado 1: 14.7%; grado 2: 14.7%; grado 3: 38.2%; grado 4: 32.4%. La correlación entre la gravedad de la lesión y el tiempo de recuperación fue de r=0.66 (p=0.0002. Como conclusión, existe una correlación positiva significativa entre la gravedad de la fractura por estrés, determinada por resonancia magnética, y el tiempo de recuperación. La utilización sistemática de esta clasificación puede ayudar a definir con mayor precisión el cuadro clínico, controlar la rehabilitación y estimar el retorno a la actividad deportiva.Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool for stress fractures (SF diagnosis, allowing the estimation of injury severity. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the severity of SF in athletes determined by magnetic resonance imaging and the morbidity estimated as the time to return to sport. Thirty-four cases of stress fractures, (29 athletes; 12 female, 17 male; age 26.3 ± 12.5, were studied by radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Injuries were

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament tear prevention in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Holly J; Giza, Eric R; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of implementing neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs in female athletes and their ability to decrease the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The relationship of sex, age, and training on the incidence of ACL injury is pivotal in developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program to decrease ACL injuries occurring in female athletes. Based on the 2-year results, ACL incidence has remained consistently lower in the intervention group versus the control group. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program may have a direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries incurred by female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiologic and biomechanic studies to determine the exact mechanism of ACL injury and the most effective intervention that will effectively decrease ACL injuries in this high-risk population. PMID:16282037

  10. Athletic Apparel Industry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE; TAN; NAFISUL; ISLAM; MILAN; MITRASINOVIC

    2015-01-01

    Industry Overview The athletic apparel industry is the fastest growing segment of global clothing industry differentiated by offering high quality athletic apparel made of technically advanced fabrics.The athletic apparel is made for a variety of sports and physical activities for children,men and women and enhances comfort and performance of athletes.The industry consists of companies that design and market

  11. Hip Imaging in Athletes: Sports Imaging Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Christoph A; Sutter, Reto; Buck, Florian M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2016-08-01

    Hip or groin pain in athletes is common and clinical presentation is often nonspecific. Imaging is a very important diagnostic step in the work-up of athletes with hip pain. This review article provides an overview on hip biomechanics and discusses strategies for hip imaging modalities such as radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MR arthrography and traction MR arthrography). The authors explain current concepts of femoroacetabular impingement and the problem of high prevalence of cam- and pincer-type morphology in asymptomatic persons. With the main focus on MR imaging, the authors present abnormalities of the hip joint and the surrounding soft tissues that can occur in athletes: intraarticular and extraarticular hip impingement syndromes, labral and cartilage disease, microinstability of the hip, myotendinous injuries, and athletic pubalgia. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27429142

  12. The Skeletally Immature and Newly Mature Throwing Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Kiery A; Marshall, Kelley W

    2016-09-01

    Injuries to the shoulder and elbow in the pediatric and adolescent throwing athlete are common. Both knowledge of throwing mechanics and understanding of normal bone development in the immature skeleton are key to the diagnosis, treatment, and potential prevention of these common injuries. Pathologic changes from chronic repetitive trauma to the developing shoulder and elbow manifest as distinctly different injuries that can be predicted by the skeletal maturation of the patient. Sites of vulnerability and resulting patterns of injury change as the child evolves from the skeletally immature little league player to the skeletally mature high school/college athlete. PMID:27545423

  13. Health protection of the olympic athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Kathrin; Soligard, Torbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Protection of the athletes' health is a clearly articulated objective of the International Olympic Committee. Longitudinal surveillance of injuries and illnesses can provide valuable data that may identify high-risk sports and disciplines. This is a foundation for introducing tailored preventive measures. During the XXIX Summer and XXI Winter Games, comprehensive injury and illness recording through the medical staff of the participating National Olympic Committees and the sports medicine cli...

  14. The Acute Management of Sport Concussion in Pediatric Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2015-10-01

    During the past two decades the focus on sport concussion has increased significantly. Young athletes represent the most vulnerable population to sustain a sport concussion yet receive the least amount of attention. Specifically, young athletes who sustain a sport concussion can go unrecognized and continue to participate in sport putting them at an increased risk for a more significant injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinical framework for the evaluation and management of sport concussion. In addition, this review provides considerations for health care professionals in regard to clinical measures and follow-up strategies during the acute phase following concussion in young concussed athletes following injury.

  15. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and sw...

  16. Monitoring endurance athletes : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Tina Ardi

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of Gron

  17. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stretch their limits and learn sportsmanship and discipline. But any sport also carries the potential for injury. By knowing the causes of sports injuries and how to prevent them, you can help make athletics a positive experience for your child. Kids can be particularly ...

  18. Fatal Injuries in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Aleksei L. Khodasevich; Sergei G. Kuzin

    2013-01-01

    The literary review, related to fatal injuries in sports, contains epidemiology, their mechanisms, causes of death in sports. Injuries in different sports have their own features, concerned with sports equipment, performed exercises, sports facilities equipment and protective equipment, used by the athletes.

  19. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  20. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  1. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  2. Hip and groin pain in the professional athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Sean E; Naraghi, Ali; Salonen, David; Theodoropoulos, John; White, Lawrence M

    2012-05-01

    Hip and groin pain is a common condition in professional athletes and may result from an acute injury or from chronic, repetitive trauma. It is responsible for significant morbidity, which leads to time away from training and competition, and may result in a career-ending injury. The anatomic and biomechanical causes for hip and groin injuries are among the most complex and controversial in the musculoskeletal system. This makes clinical differentiation and subsequent management difficult because of the considerable overlap of symptoms and signs. This review article will evaluate several pathologic conditions of the hip and groin in athletes, divided into acute (secondary to single event) and chronic (secondary to altered biomechanical load or repetitive microtrauma) injuries, with an emphasis on imaging in the diagnosis of these injuries. Appropriate use of imaging along with clinical findings can allow accurate diagnosis and subsequent appropriate management of these patients to ultimately allow return to athletic activity.

  3. Imaging of plantar fascia and Achilles injuries undertaken at the London 2012 Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, David A.; Carne, Andrew; Bethapudi, Sarath; Engebretsen, Lars; Budgett, Richard; O'Conor, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Plantar fascia and distal Achilles injuries are common in elite athletes. Acute athletic injuries of the plantar fascia include acute plantar fasciopathy and partial or complete tears. Underlying most acute injuries is a background of underlying chronic plantar fasciopathy. Injuries may affect the central or less commonly lateral portions of the fascia and acute tears are generally proximal. Athletic Achilles injuries may occur at the mid tendon or the distal insertion, and there may be an un...

  4. Dental trauma and mouthguard awareness and use among contact and noncontact athletes in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vidhatri; Saxena, Vrinda; Tiwari, Utkarsh; Singh, Aishwarya; Jain, Manish; Goud, Siddana

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the associations of mouthguard awareness and use with the rate and type of orofacial trauma during sports activities among professional athletes. In this cross-sectional study of athletes aged 12 to 22 years who trained for participation in national and international competitions, data were collected by using a questionnaire and a clinical examination that included an index of dental injury. There were significant differences in mouthguard awareness and use and injury rates, i.e., athletes who did not wear mouthguards had more injuries. Traumatic injuries to teeth were significantly more frequent among contact athletes (15; 9%) than among noncontact athletes (4; 2.5%). Limited mouthguard awareness could be due to lack of information and education on dental injuries and their prevention. PMID:25500920

  5. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L; Jomaah, Nabil;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute groin injuries are common in high-intensity sports, but there are insufficient data on injury characteristics such as injury mechanisms and clinical and radiological findings. PURPOSE: To describe these characteristics in a cohort of athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...

  6. Auscultation of the Chest and Abdomen by Athletic Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, John A.; McChesney, John W.

    2001-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical overview of the methods and techniques of auscultation of the chest and abdomen for use during the physical examination of athletes. Our intent is to provide information on this clinical technique to assist athletic trainers in recognizing and referring athletes presenting with potentially serious internal organ conditions. BACKGROUND: Use of the stethoscope is a clinical skill increasingly necessary for athletic trainers. Given the expanding breadth of both the assessment techniques used by athletic trainers and the populations they care for and the fact that clinical instruction guidelines have changed in the newly adopted National Athletic Trainers' Association Educational Competencies, our goal is to provide a framework upon which future instruction can be based. DESCRIPTION: This review covers the use of a stethoscope for auscultation of the chest and abdomen. Auscultation of the heart is covered first, followed by techniques for auscultating the breath sounds. Lastly, auscultation of the abdomen describes techniques for listening for bowel sounds and arterial bruits. CLINICAL ADVANTAGES: During the assessment of injuries to and illnesses of athletes, knowledge of auscultatory techniques is valuable and of increasing importance to athletic trainers. Athletic trainers who do not know how to perform auscultation may fail to recognize, and therefore fail to refer for further evaluation, athletes with potentially serious pathologic conditions.

  7. Evaluation and management of arrhythmia in the athletic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Athletes may present with palpitations, syncope, or arrest resulting in the diagnosis of arrhythmia, or screening may result in diagnosis of conditions with predisposition to arrhythmia. This chapter focuses on 3 common arrhythmic conditions in athletes-atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and the athlete with an implanted device. (1) Atrial fibrillation: most studies show that atrial fibrillation is more common in competitive athletes, particularly those participating in long-term endurance sports. Postulated mechanisms include morphologic changes such as atrial dilatation, autonomic changes such as increased vagal tone, or inflammatory changes due to sports participation. Treatment options include long-term antiarrhythmic agents, "pill in the pocket" medications, or radiofrequency ablation, a highly successful procedure in athletes. (2) Premature ventricular contractions: data conflict on whether the incidence of PVCs is increased in highly trained individuals. Very frequent PVCs in athletes, however, can be a manifestation of underlying heart disease, and athletes presenting with PVCs should undergo evaluation. In the absence of underlying heart disease, PVCs do not carry a poor prognosis, and US guidelines do not recommend restriction from sports. (3) Implanted devices: the safety of sports for the athlete with an implanted device is unknown, and current guidelines recommend against participation in vigorous competitive sports, based on postulated risks including failure to defibrillate and risk of injury. Many athletes with defibrillators and pacemakers do participate in sports. Ongoing research will better delineate the risks of sports for the athlete with an implanted device. PMID:22386293

  8. Lisfranc injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeOrio, Matthew; Erickson, Melissa; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Easley, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex have traditionally been associated with high energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions and industrial accidents. Recently, there has been a greater appreciation of mid-foot sprains that represent a spectrum of injury to the Lisfranc ligament complex. As a result, there has been an increased incidence of such injury resulting from low-energy trauma in activities ranging from recreational activity to elite athletic activity. This article discusses issues related to anatomy, clinical presentation, mechanism of injury, and diagnosis that are necessary to provide appropriate treatment for these injuries. There should be a high index of suspicion of this injury, and prompt diagnosis is important to allow athletes to return to sport with the best possible outcome. PMID:19501801

  9. Sport Opportunities for Athletes with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This series outlines sport opportunities for athletes with disabilities. Included are articles discussing sports for athletes with cerebral palsy, deaf athletes, blind athletes, wheelchair bound athletes, amputee athletes, as well as a discussion of the Special Olympics. (JMK)

  10. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  11. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  12. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  13. An epidemiological study of injuries in elite athletes of Olympic aquatic sports%奥运水上项目优秀运动员伤病的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金树; 李君; 徐成峰; 王宁; 石秀秀; 田宇; 杨全胜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate characteristics of injury sites and analyze causes of injuries in elite athletes of national training teams of Olympic aquatic sports. Methods From November 2013 to February 2014, medical screening and epidemiological analysis were conducted in elite athletes of canoeing, rowing, sailing and windsurfing. Injury site and difference of aquatic sports were analyzed. Results Each aquatic sport had its own characteristics in the distribution of injury sites. Top three injury sites of canoeing were wrist, shoulder and elbow, accounting for 37.9%, 20.7% and 17.2% respectively. Top three sites of rowing were wrist, knee, and buttock, accounting for 42.1%, 31.6%, and 10.5% respectively. Top three sites of sailing and windsurfing were knee, wrist, and shoulder, accounting for 37.0%, 29.6% and 11.1% respectively. Actual sites of back pain showed differences in aquatic sports above. Shoulder and elbow injuries mainly occurred in canoeing. Unilateral knee injury tended to be in rowing, while bilateral knee injury tended to be in sailing and windsurfing. Conclusions All Olympic aquatic sports have their own characteristics, and occurrence are related with sport modes. Features of injuries should be analyzed individually to facilitate prevention and treatment at the view of anatomy, biology and sports biomechanics.%目的:探讨奥运水上项目优秀运动员的伤病分布特点并对伤病原因进行分析。方法2013年11月至2014年2月,对皮划艇、赛艇和帆船帆板项目国家冬季集训的优秀运动员进行伤病的医学筛查,对伤病分布部位以及不同运动项目之间的伤病差别进行统计和分析。结果奥运水上项目优秀运动员的伤病部位在不同项目之间有各自的特点。皮划艇项目伤病前3位分别是腰部、肩部和肘部,分别占全部伤病的37.9%、20.7%和17.2%;赛艇项目伤病前3位分别是腰部、膝部和臀部,分别占全部伤病的42.1%、31.6%和10.5%

  14. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  15. The Student Athlete Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayles, Joy Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…

  16. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...

  17. Women in Athletic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sandra L.; Gilmour, Suzanne L.; Kinsella, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant increased participation opportunities for girls and women in sport following the passage of Title IX, women remain underrepresented in athletic leadership roles. Thirty eight female and 158 male high school athletic directors responded to a 19-item Athletic Director Survey (ADS) designed to elicit information on the following:…

  18. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

  19. Incidence of injury in Texas girls' high school basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, E; DeLee, J C; Farney, W C

    1996-01-01

    We studied the incidence of injury in girl's varsity basketball to characterize injury demographics in high school athletics. We defined a reportable injury as one that occurred during organized practice or competition, resulted in either missed practice or game time, required physician consultation, or involved the head or face. We prospectively evaluated the athletes on team rosters during the 1993 to 1994 season from 100 randomly selected Class 4A and 5A Texas public high schools that employed full-time certified athletic trainers. The 890 student athletes from 80 schools ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Four hundred thirty-six injuries were reported for a rate of 0.49 per athlete per season. Injury risk, calculated on the basis of exposure time, was 0.4% per hour per athlete. Although game time accounted for only 12.5% of exposure time, it represented one half of the total injuries. Sprains and strains (56%) were the most common injuries, followed by contusions (15%) and dental injuries (14%). Injuries to the ankle (31%) and knee (19%) were by far the most common. There were 34 severe injuries defined as requiring surgery or hospitalization, for a rate of 0.038 per athlete per season. Knee injuries were by far the most likely to require surgeries, and ACL injuries accounted for 69% of the severe knee injuries. PMID:8883693

  20. Fifth metatarsal fractures in the athlete: evidence for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevendran, Gowreeson; Deol, Rupinderbir Singh; Calder, James D F

    2013-06-01

    Shortest time to union, and to return to sporting activity, are the goals of management of fifth metatarsal fractures in the athlete. Whereas zone 1 injuries are largely treated conservatively, zone 2 and 3 injuries are best treated with surgical fixation in athletes, most commonly with intramedullary screw fixation. Fixation with the addition of bone graft has also yielded good results. In the chronic setting, good results have been shown with intramedullary screw fixation, surgical debridement and bone grafting alone, and tension band wiring. Shock wave therapy and pulsed electromagnetic fields may have a place in chronic and acute injury. PMID:23707176

  1. Prevalence of Scapular Dyskinesis in Overhead and Nonoverhead Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Matthew B.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Liberman, Shari R.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scapular dyskinesis, or abnormal dynamic scapular control, is a condition that is commonly associated with shoulder pathology but is also present in asymptomatic individuals. Literature varies on whether it represents a cause or symptom of shoulder pathology, but it is believed to be a risk factor for further injury. Clinical identification focuses on visual observation and examination maneuvers. Treatment of altered scapular motion has been shown to improve shoulder symptoms. It is thought to be more common in overhead athletes due to their reliance on unilateral upper extremity function but the incidence within nonoverhead athletes is unknown. Hypothesis: Overhead athletes will have a greater prevalence of scapular dyskinesis when compared with nonoverhead athletes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: After PROSPERO registration, a systematic review was performed using PRISMA guidelines through the PubMed database looking for studies published before October 2014. All studies containing the search terms scapular, scapulothoracic, dyskinesis, dyskinesia, shoulder athlete, or overhead athlete were included. Studies that did not include prevalence data for scapular dyskinesis were excluded. Study methodological quality was evaluated using the modified Coleman methodology score. Descriptive statistics and 2-proportion 2-tailed z-tests were used to compare the reported prevalence of scapular dyskinesis between overhead and nonoverhead athletes. Results: Twelve studies were analyzed including 1401 athletes (1257 overhead and 144 nonoverhead; mean age, 24.4 ± 7.1 years; 78% men). All the studies were evidence level 2 (33%) or level 3 (67%). The reported prevalence of scapular dyskinesis was significantly (P Scapular dyskinesis was found to have a greater reported prevalence (61%) in overhead athletes compared with nonoverhead athletes (33%). Clinical Relevance: Prevalence data for scapular dyskinesis are scarce within the

  2. On The Treatment And Recovery Of Knee Joint Injury For The Athletes%运动员膝关节损伤的治疗与康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许斌

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: explore the impact of players' knee injury treatment and rehabilitation of functional recovery.Method: 29 cases of patients with knee injurytreatment and rehabilitation training with conventionalphysical therapy and rehabilitation training.Normal 87% functional recovery of patients,10 percent of patients function recovered,and 3% of the functional recovery of patients is not obvious.Results Theory;after a knee injury treatment and rehabilitation to restore knee function and have a good effect.%采用常规物理治疗和康复训练对29例膝关节损伤患者进行治疗和康复训练。结果显示:87%患者功能恢复正常,10%患者功能基本恢复,3%患者功能恢复不明显。同时指出膝关节损伤后的治疗和康复,对膝关节的功能恢复有很好的效果,损伤后的功能恢复与膝关节损伤部位、损伤程度、治疗手段及康复训练的时机有关。

  3. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  4. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS, participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5. Seventy one (9.0% individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5% had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85, weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82, endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84, late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51, and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69. Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature

  5. 高校健美操运动损伤的特点及预防%The Characteristics and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in College and University Aerobics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何克关

    2012-01-01

    健美操是一项新兴的体育运动项目,在大学生体育锻炼和高校体育教学中占有重要地位。健美操运动损伤有其显著特点,研究这些特点并探讨其发生的原因及预防措施,对促进大学生身心健康具有重要意义。%Aerobics is an emerging sport in China which plays an important role in the physical exercise of college students and college physical education course.Aerobics injuries have their distinct characteristics;research on the characteristics and discussion on the causes and preventive measures is of particular significance in promoting college students' mental and physical health.

  6. Orthopaedic Injuries in Equestrian Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Jason David; Gelbs, Jared Craig; Zhu, David Shiyu; Gallacher, Stacey Elisa; Sutton, Karen Michelle; Blaine, Theodore Alton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the common nature of orthopaedic injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published review to specifically characterize orthopaedic injuries in equestrian athletes. Purpose: To characterize orthopaedic injury patterns in equine sports–related injuries and their treatment. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This review was performed through a PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus query (from 1978 to June 2014) in the English literature using search terms...

  7. Personality and Injury Risk Among ‎Professional Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Schwebel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although much is known about risk for athletic injury, research on the roles of individual differences in personality and temperament on athletic injury has lagged. We hypothesized that professional athletes with high sensation-seeking and extraversion scores, and with low effortful control scores, would experience more injuries over the course of a season, would have more severe injuries, and would miss more total days of play. Methods: Prospective design with questionnaire report at time one and injury tracking throughout an 18-week athletic season. Setting: Professional hockey team in the United States. Participants: Eighteen professional hockey players (ages 21-33. Measurements: Players completed self-report personality (Sensation-Seeking Scale, Form V and temperament (the Adult Temperament Questionnaire measures. Quantity and severity of injury, as well as playing time missed, were tracked for 18 weeks. Results: On average, players experienced almost 6 injuries causing a loss of 10 playing days through the season. Those players scoring high on Boredom Susceptibility and Total Sensation-Seeking incurred more total injuries. Those scoring high on temperamental neutral perceptual sensitivity suffered more severe injuries. Conclusions: Athletes who suffered more injuries reported a preference for stimulating environments and boredom with non-stimulating environments. Injury severity was not correlated with sensation-seeking but was related to temperamental perceptual sensitivity. Implications for identification of injury-prone athletes, pre-injury training, and post-injury treatment are discussed.

  8. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for acl injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, A.; Meijer, M.; Cortes, N.; Gokeler, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. OBJECTIVE: Assess differences between male and female athletes in jump-landing technique in relation to their neuropsychological capabilities. DESIGN: Experim

  9. Lisfranc Injuries: When to Observe, Fix, or Fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Jeffrey D; Coetzee, J Chris

    2015-10-01

    Injuries to the foot are common in the athletic population, accounting for approximately 16% of sporting injuries. The bony and ligamentous structures around the first and second tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints, or Lisfranc joint complex, are the most commonly involved in injuries to the midfoot because of the limited static and dynamic stability of this region. The appropriate management of Lisfranc or TMT joint injuries in athletes is controversial, with multiple classification schemes and treatment methods and little evidence-based guidelines to deliver appropriate care. This article reviews the current diagnosis and management principles for TMT injuries in the athletic population. PMID:26409591

  10. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ongan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …, eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids, vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.

  11. Occupational biomechanics of athletes and dancers: a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjani, F J

    1987-07-01

    Muscle strains represent more than a third of all injuries in both dancers and athletes. Although often overlooked, anatomic variations play an important role in the etiology of these injuries, as does strength imbalance between agonists and antagonists. The incidence of spondylolysis is unusually high in ballet dancers and certain athletic groups, such as gymnasts, javelin throwers, and weight-lifters. Mechanical factors play a major role and can be exacerbated by congenital abnormalities. Various permanent adaptive musculoskeletal changes have been described both in dancers and athletes, especially those that start at a very young age. Task-related adaptive changes can also be seen in isokinetic strength measurements of various muscle groups, such as the spine muscles of Flamenco dancers. Shoes and floor surfaces can be directly responsible in part or in whole for many sports and dance injuries. "Vibration-pressure" diagrams are suggested as an objective way to document their effect on biomechanical behavior. PMID:2886209

  12. A relação entre o acompanhamento médico e a incidência de lesões esportivas em atletas jovens de São Paulo Relation between medical clinical monitoring and the incidence of sports injuries in young athletes of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sagres Arena

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a estrutura médica de atendimento de 20 clubes de São Paulo com a incidência de lesões esportivas de atletas jovens praticantes do basquetebol, futsal e voleibol. Para isso, foi utilizado um questionário de lesão com 323 atletas e uma entrevista estruturada com os médicos responsáveis. Foram identificadas 343 lesões esportivas ou 1,7 lesão/atleta/ano. Dos 20 clubes avaliados, apenas oito possuem atendimento médico especializado dentro da instituição. No basquetebol, não houve relação estatística entre a presença ou não do médico dentro do clube com as ocorrências de lesão. No futsal e no voleibol, o número de lesões foi maior com a presença do médico dentro do clube; isso porque nos clubes que não possuem médico, as lesões de menor gravidade não são detectadas. O estudo sugeriu reestruturação no atendimento médico oferecido aos atletas jovens.The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between medical clinical monitoring and the incidence of the main sports injuries found in young athletes in sports modalities such basketball, indoor soccer and volleyball from 20 clubs located in São Paulo (Brazil. To obtain those data, a questionnaire was applied to 323 athletes and surveys were performed among eight physicians. The results of the study showed a total of 343 injuries or 1,7 injury/athlete/year. In basketball, there was not statistic relation between rates of injury and clinical monitoring in the club. In indoor soccer and volleyball, the rate of injury was bigger with clinical monitoring, because the injuries of less gravity do not are detected in clubs without physician. This study suggest specialized clinical care for young in sports clubs.

  13. Athletes and the arts--the role of sports medicine in the performing arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Randall W; Berning, Jacqueline R; Dawson, William; Ginsburg, Richard D; Miller, Clay; Shybut, George T

    2013-01-01

    Performing artists are athletes. Like athletes, performing artists practice and/or perform most days with little off season, play through pain, "compete" in challenging environments, and risk career-threatening injury. Athletes and the Arts is a multiorganizational initiative linking the sport athlete and musician/performing artist communities. Performing artists of all ages and genre are an underserved population related to medical coverage, care, injury prevention, performance enhancement, and wellness. Sports medicine professionals are a valuable resource for filling this gap by applying existing knowledge of treating sport athletes (nutrition, injury prevention) while gaining a better understanding of performers' unique needs (hearing loss, focal dystonia) and environment. These applications can occur in the clinical setting and through developing organizational policies. By better understanding the needs of the performing arts population and applying existing concepts and knowledge, sports medicine professionals can expand their impact to a new patient base that desperately needs support.

  14. Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo Simone; Cohen Daniel; Hayes Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training...

  15. Overuse lower extremity injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullem, Brian W

    2015-04-01

    When athletes train harder the risk of injury increases, and there are several common overuse injuries to the lower extremity. Three of the most common lower extremity overuse injuries in sports are discussed including the diagnosis and treatments: medial tibal stress syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome, and stress fractures. The charge of sports medicine professionals is to identify and treat the cause of the injuries and not just treat the symptoms. Symptomatology is an excellent guide to healing and often the patient leads the physician to the proper diagnosis through an investigation of the athlete's training program, past injury history, dietary habits, choice of footwear, and training surface. PMID:25804713

  16. Concussion associated with head trauma in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Murguía Cánovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers a head injury, whether or not it is associated to loss of consciousness. These athletes should not return to their sports activities immediately, and a few days of mental and physical leave are recommended in order to ensure full recovery. Repeat head injuries should be avoided, since there is evidence that in some athletes they can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The present review focuses on the different definitions of concussion, management and long-term consequences. It also contains the Spanish version of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2.

  17. Coping with the Trauma of Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovzhik L. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation considers sports injuries as a psychological phenomenon, reveals the personality traits of athletes in terms of their vulnerability and resource to overcome injuries. Authors suggest the specificity of athletes’ coping strategies composition, as well as differences in their emotional state depending on the psychological well-being level. We consider gender-specific study links. In the survey, 124 participants were interviewed (M age = 22.1, SD age = 4; 80 male, 44 female. Authors has found significant differences in the ways of overcoming ordinary and sports stress among athletes having high or low level of well-being, gender-specific coping with the situation of injury have been shown. In the male group, athletes with high level of well-being use Problem-solving strategies, as well as Sport coping skills significantly more often. In the female group, in addition to coping peculiar to men, there is an appeal to Goal Setting and Mental Preparation, besides that they use Coach ability coping strategy. The study also identified coping strategies that contributed to the experience of well-being. Authors propose the practical aspects and perspectives of research.

  18. Sideline Neurological Evaluation: a Detailed Approach to the Sideline, In-Game Neurological Assessment of Contact Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott; Schnebel, Brock

    2016-07-01

    Contact sport holds inherent risk of traumatic injury to participant athletes. Neurologic injury, from trauma, portends significant potential for morbidity and mortality. The in-game sideline presents a challenging setting for injury evaluation. Athletic trainers and team physicians should understand general principles of the neurologic evaluation and apply a systematic approach that allows an organized evaluation of and differential diagnosis of neurologic injury. Athlete welfare demands an immediate, accurate diagnosis followed by targeted management. Management provides appropriate referral, timely treatment, and appropriate return-to-play decision. Management begins with recognition. PMID:27215629

  19. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physi...

  20. Five Year Overview of Sport Injuries: The NAIRS Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a survey of institutional members of the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) are presented and discussed. Included are tables showing injuries reported in high schools and colleges and universities for male and female athletes in baseball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, wrestling, field hockey, track and…

  1. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani Gholamreza; Motamedi Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri Alireza; Eshkevari Pooyan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  2. Shoulder Problems in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, William G., Jr.

    A description is given of typical sport-related injuries to the shoulder area. These include: (1) brachial plexus injuries; (2) peripheral nerve injuries about the shoulder; (3) acromioclavicular injuries; (4) sternoclavicular injuries; (5) shoulder dislocations; (6) recurrent traumatic subluxation/dislocations; and (7) overuse injuries.…

  3. Longitudinal Study Evaluating Postural Balance of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-02-01

    Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries. PMID:27420320

  4. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  5. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  6. Hydration Assessment of Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Although there is no scientific consensus for 1 ) howbest to assess the hydration status of athletes, 2)what criteria to use as acceptable outcome measurements, or 3) the best time to apply practical assessment methods, there are methods that can be used toprovide athletes with useful feedback about their hydration status

  7. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Athletic activity may be associated with alterations in various neuroendocrine axes depending on the state of energy availability. In addition, genetic factors and an underlying predilection for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may predispose some athletes to develop functional hypothalamic amenorrhea earlier than other athletes. In conditions of low energy availability associated with athletic activity, changes that occur in various neuroendocrine axes are primarily adaptive, and aim to either conserve energy for the most essential functions, or allow the body to draw on its reserves to meet energy needs. These hormonal changes, however, then lead to changes in body composition and bone metabolism. Impaired bone accrual in younger athletes and low bone density in older athletes constitutes the major pathologic consequence of neuroendocrine changes associated with low energy availability. The female athlete triad of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone density is prevalent in certain kinds of sports and activities, particularly endurance sports, gymnastics, and ballet. It is essential to screen for this condition in athletes at every preparticipation physical and during office visits, and to put in place an effective treatment team to manage the triad early, in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:25248600

  8. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  9. Panhellenic athletics at Olympia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...

  10. Low level laser therapy for sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Yusuke; Saito, Akiyoshi; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Our hospital has used LLLT in the treatment of athletes since 1990. We had a good result about LLLT for sports injuries. However, few articles have attempted to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT for sports injuries. The aims of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT for sports injuries.

  11. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  12. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  13. Genetics of athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Huson, Heather J; Ostrander, Gary K

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancing polymorphisms (PEPs) are examples of natural genetic variation that affect the outcome of athletic challenges. Elite athletes, and what separates them from the average competitor, have been the subjects of discussion and debate for decades. While training, diet, and mental fitness are all clearly important contributors to achieving athletic success, the fact that individuals reaching the pinnacle of their chosen sports often share both physical and physiological attributes suggests a role for genetics. That multiple members of a family often participate in highly competitive events, such as the Olympics, further supports this argument. In this review, we discuss what is known regarding the genes and gene families, including the mitochondrial genome, that are believed to play a role in human athletic performance. Where possible, we describe the physiological impact of the critical gene variants and consider predictions about other potentially important genes. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings on the future for competitive athletics. PMID:19630564

  14. Do Balance Board Training Programs Reduce the Risk of Ankle Sprains in Athletes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy A.McGuine

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction Ankle sprains are the most common musculoskeletal injury that occurs in athletes,particularly in sports that require jumping and landing on one foot such as soccer,and basketball(1-4).

  15. Electrocardiographic specificities in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of electrocardiogram in athletes as a routine screening method for diagnosing potentially dangerous cardiovascular diseases is still an issue of debate. According to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology, the recording of electrocardiogram is necessary in all athletes as a screening method, whereas the guidelines of the American Heart Association do not necessitate an electrocardiogram as a screening method and they insist on detailed personal and family history and clinical examination. Classification of electrocardiogram changes in athletes. According to the classification of the European Society of Cardiology, electrocardiogram changes in athletes are divided into two groups: a usual (physiological that are connected with training; b unusual (potentially clinically relevant that are not connected with training. Sudden cardiac death in athletes. The most frequent causes include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and congenital coronary artery anomalies, while others may be found only sporadically at autopsy. Physiological electrocardiogram changes are frequent in asymptomatic athletes and they do not require further assessment. They include sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular blocks of I and II degree - Wenkebach, isolated increased QRS voltage, incomplete right bundle branch block and early repolarization. Potentially pathological electrocardiogram changes in athletes are not frequent but they are alarming and they urge further assessment to diagnose the underlying cardiovascular disease as well as the prevention of sudden cardiac death. They include: T wave inversion, ST segment depression, complete right or left bundle branch block, atrial pre-excitation syndrome-WPW, long QT interval, short QT interval, Brugada like electrocardiogram finding. Conclusion. Introduction of electrocardiogram recording into the screening protocol in athletes increases the sensitivity of evaluation and may help to discover

  16. The deaf athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Trish; Weber, Kathleen M

    2006-12-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing athletes have few documented related medical problems. Hearing loss has multiple causes. A portion of those with a hearing loss consider themselves part of the Deaf community, a community with a unique language and culture. Athletes may have assistive devices to enhance their ability to perceive auditory cues, whereas in deaf sport competitions, common auditory cues may be made visible. There are athletic organizations whose missions are to provide a sport and social venue specific to the deaf population. Having a better understanding and appreciation of the Deaf community will help sports medicine physicians to work more effectively with this population.

  17. Update on the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Michelle T; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Gibbs, Jenna C

    2013-06-01

    Updated prevalence estimates of all 3 components of the Female Athlete Triad, a syndrome characterized by low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is low (0 %-16 %), however, estimates of 1 or 2 concurrent components approach 50 %-60 % among certain athlete groups. Recent research identifies components of the Triad among female adolescent athletes, particularly those participating in leanness sports, such as endurance running. This is alarming, as adolescents require adequate nutrition and normal hormone function to optimize bone mineral gains during this critical developmental period. Current literature highlights new assessments, such as measurements of bone microarchitecture and hormone levels to better evaluate bone strength and the hormonal and metabolic profile of athletes with and at risk for the Triad. Recent data also provides support for additional potential consequences of the Triad, such as endothelial dysfunction and related cardiovascular effects, stress fractures, and musculoskeletal injuries. Additional prospective research is needed to evaluate long-term indicators and consequences of the Triad and identify effective behavioral treatment strategies. PMID:23613226

  18. The problem of search safe and effective method in reducing injuries in bodybuilding stage of specialized basic training

    OpenAIRE

    Slavityak O.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the most frequently used coaches and athletes in bodybuilding principles that can help to reduce the injuries of athletes while maintaining the progressivity results. Material : a survey participated 86 coaches and 120 athletes, bodybuilders from 5 to 8 years. Results : It was found that most of the coaches used in the course of employment principles generally accepted system of training. In such circumstances, the risk of injury to athletes is large enough. When using pr...

  19. Post-Traumatic Headache Therapy in the Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tad

    2016-06-01

    Post-traumatic headache can occur after any traumatic brain injury, regardless of severity. Headache is consistently the most common symptom following concussion and occurs in over 90% of athletes with sports-related concussion. Despite this prevalence, the complaint of headache after a possible concussive injury is often dismissed. Even when sports-related concussion is accurately diagnosed, many athletes fall victim to mismanagement of this associated symptom by clinicians who are not well-versed in headache treatment. Furthermore, benign headaches may also occur incidentally in the context of head trauma. This complex, and often non-specific, nature of headaches provides a significant challenge in return to play decision-making. Post-traumatic headaches are generally categorized according to primary headache disorders in an attempt to guide treatment; however, there is minimal medical literature on headache management in the concussed athlete. There is clearly a continued need for prospective studies of existing treatments and new approaches. PMID:27184059

  20. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprey, Jan W.C.; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V.; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B.; Santili, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. Purpose: To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire administered to CrossFit athletes from various specialized fitness centers in Brazil. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2015 through an electronic questionnaire that included demographic data, level of sedentary lifestyle at work, sports training history prior to starting CrossFit, current sports activities, professional monitoring, and whether the participants experienced any injuries while practicing CrossFit. Results: A total of 622 questionnaires were received, including 566 (243 women [42.9%] and 323 men [57.1%]) that were completely filled out and met the inclusion criteria and 9% that were incompletely filled out. Overall, 176 individuals (31.0%) mentioned having experienced some type of injury while practicing CrossFit. We found no significant difference in injury incidence rates regarding demographic data. There was no significant difference regarding previous sports activities because individuals who did not practice prior physical activity showed very similar injury rates to those who practiced at any level. Conclusion: CrossFit injury rates are comparable to those of other recreational or competitive sports, and the injuries show a profile similar to weight lifting, power lifting, weight training, Olympic gymnastics, and running, which have an injury incidence rate nearly half that of soccer. PMID:27631016

  1. Rehabilitation from sports injuries: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Anna; Lavallee, David

    2009-05-01

    A great number of injuries occur in the context of recreational physical activities and competitive athletics. Adherence to sport injury rehabilitation means an injured athlete's compliance (or not) to a sports medicine/injury personnel's instructions of participating in a rehabilitation programme in a clinic, and/or doing rehabilitation exercises at home. It has emerged as an area of interest among physiotherapists and other allied professionals (i.e. sport trainers, physicians). This article reviews compliance among injured athletes in the recovery process by presenting the protection motivation theory, personal investment theory and models of cognitive appraisal. Also it reviews key research findings about these three theoretical models. In addition practical guidelines and specific strategies are offered to sport injury rehabilitation personnel to enhance an athlete's adherence to injury rehabilitation. Sports medicine/injury personnel should educate athletes about their injuries and rehabilitation and increase effective communication and active listening. Also sports medicine/injury personnel should provide social support and encourage positive beliefs of injured athletes. In addition, coping with pain and setting short-term goals help athletes to increase their compliance to programmes of rehabilitation.

  2. Control of dynamic foot-ground interactions in male and female soccer athletes: Females exhibit reduced dexterity and higher limb stiffness during landing

    OpenAIRE

    Lyle, Mark A.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Gregor, Robert J.; Powers, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Controlling dynamic interactions between the lower limb and ground is important for skilled locomotion and may influence injury risk in athletes. It is well known that female athletes sustain anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears at higher rates than male athletes, and exhibit lower extremity biomechanics thought to increase injury risk during sport maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower extremity dexterity (LED) – the ability to dynamically control endpoint force ...

  3. Preparticipation Evaluation of the Young Athlete: What an Orthopaedic Surgeon Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J; Blum, Alexander B; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S; Popkin, Charles A

    2016-06-01

    The preparticipation evaluation (PPE) is a widely used tool for detecting health conditions that may delay or disqualify athletic participation. The medical interview is the most valuable tool for identifying athletes who may be at increased risk for injury. Physical examination is tailored to identifying cardiac abnormalities or factors that may place an athlete at increased risk for injury. Although practiced in Europe, universal cardiac screening with electrocardiography is not currently recommended in the United States largely due to the high rate of false-positive results. Neuropsychological testing for management of concussion and laboratory testing for sickle cell trait may be indicated in select groups of athletes. Health care providers should view the PPE as a chance for anticipatory guidance and athlete-directed health counseling. Despite widespread acceptance of the PPE, the quality of such examinations varies significantly, which is an area for possible improvement and further research. PMID:26330569

  4. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pediatricians and adolescent medicine specialists, sports medicine doctors, nutritionists and dietitians, and mental health specialists can all ... granola bars, and fruit. Visit a dietitian or nutritionist who works with teen athletes. He or she ...

  5. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... manipulate salary data through various categories... AT Halloween Costume Idea Last year we conducted a contest to ... Privacy Policy About Contact NATA Careers Feedback © 2016 National Athletic Trainers' Association. All Rights Reserved, Worldwide. DO ...

  7. The Athlete Within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Olympians to be memorialized as works of art in oil painting exhibition 0lympic medallists, having already reached the pinnacle of popular acclaim through their athletic feats as seen on TV screens world wide, are

  8. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro; Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-01-01

    Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6....

  9. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ongan, Dilek; ERSOY, Gülgün

    2012-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathl...

  10. Asthma in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  11. Stress fractures in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1987-06-01

    During the 14-year period of 1971-1985, 368 stress fractures in 324 athletes were treated. The series contained 268 fractures in males and 100 fractures in females; 32 fractures occurred in children (less than 16 years), 117 in adolescents (16-19 years), and 219 in adults. Forty-six fractures were incurred by athletes at an international level, 274 by athletes at a national or district level and 48 by recreational athletes. Of the total cases, 72% occurred to runners and a further 12% to athletes in other sports after running exercises. The distribution of the stress fractures by site was: tibia 182, metatarsal bones 73, fibula 44, big toe sesamoid bones 15, femoral shaft 14, femoral neck 9, tarsal navicular 9, pelvis 7, olecranon 5 and other bones 10. Of the total fractures, 342 were treated conservatively and 26 fractures required surgical treatment. The operative indication was dislocation in 5 cases and delayed union/nonunion in 21 cases. The sites most often affected by delayed union were: anterior midtibia, sesamoid bones of the big toe, base of the fifth metatarsal, olecranon, and tarsal navicular. The athletes at an international level experienced the greatest risk of multiple separate fractures, protracted healing, or fractures requiring surgery. PMID:3623785

  12. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation.

  13. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. PMID:27031318

  14. Jump-landing differences between varsity, club, and intramural athletes: the Jump-ACL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Justin L; Gerber, J Parry; Cameron, Kenneth L; Beutler, Anthony I; Marshall, Stephen W; Distefano, Lindsay J; Padua, Darin A; de la Motte, Sarah J; Miller, Joseph M; Yunker, Craig A

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal movement patterns have been identified as important prospective risk factors for lower extremity injury, including anterior cruciate ligament injury. Specifically, poor neuromuscular control during the early landing phase has been associated with increased injury risk. Although it is commonly assumed that higher division collegiate athletes generally exhibit better movement patterns than lower division athletes, few studies compare the biomechanical differences on basic tasks such as jump landing between various levels of athletic groups. The objective of this study was to evaluate jump-landing and fitness differences among college-aged Intramural, Competitive Club, and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I level athletes. Two hundred seventy-seven student-athletes (222 men, 55 women; age 19.3 ± 0.8 years) categorized as NCAA Division I, Competitive Club, or Intramural level athletes were evaluated during a jump-landing task using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), a validated qualitative movement assessment. Fitness was measured using the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). Results showed no significant differences in landing errors between the levels of athletic group (F(2,267) = 0.36, p = 0.70). There was a significant difference in landing errors between genders (F(1,268) = 3.99, p = 0.05). Significant differences in APFT scores were observed between level of athletic group (F(2,267) = 11.14, p scores (p = 0.26). In conclusion, higher level athletes had better physical fitness as measured by the APFT but did not as a group exhibit better landing technique. The implications of this research suggest that "high-risk" movement patterns are prevalent in all levels of athletes. PMID:23820560

  15. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato TM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Todd M Sabato, Tanis J Walch, Dennis J Caine Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. Keywords: elite, young athlete, athletic injury, psychological, risk factors, injury prevention

  16. Optimal management of ankle syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Porter DA; Jaggers RR; Barnes AF; Rund AM

    2014-01-01

    David A Porter, Ryan R Jaggers, Adam Fitzgerald Barnes, Angela M Rund Methodist Sports Medicine/The Orthopedic Specialists, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Syndesmosis injuries occur when there is a disruption of the distal attachment of the tibia and fibula. These injuries occur commonly (up to 18% of ankle sprains), and the incidence increases in the setting of athletic activity. Recognition of these injuries is key to preventing long-term morbidity. Diagnosis and treatment of these injuri...

  17. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  18. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p Mediation hypothesis was supported by a significant indirect effect (β = 0.07; p mediated the relationship between individual sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  19. Self-reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in norwegian female elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, Jannike; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self- reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in female elite athletes and non-athletic controls. A random sample of Norwegian elite athletes from the national teams, aged 13-39 years (n = 186) and a random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 145) in the same age group participated in the study. The athletes represented a junior- or senior team, or a recruiting squad for one of these teams, in one of 46 different sports/events. A higher percentage of athletes self-reported stress fractures (14.0%) compared to those diagnosed with stress fractures (8.1%) (p stress fractures, but none of them were diagnosed with stress fractures. These results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity. This finding has important implications for further research on stress fractures in athletes. Key pointsThis study is the first to compare self-reported and diagnosed stress fractures in the total population of elite athletes representing all kinds of sports.The results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity in both athletes and non-athletic controls, and other measurement methods should be considered when evaluating possible stress fractures.Based on our results, stress fractures seem to be a sport-related injury.

  20. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  1. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than ...

  2. Lesões desportivas na elite do atletismo brasileiro: estudo a partir de morbidade referida Lesiones deportivas en la elite del atletismo brasileño: estudio a partir de morbilidad informada Sports injuries in Brazilian elite of the athletics: study based on referred morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre

    2005-02-01

    brasileña del atletismo, associandolas a los mecanismos propios de instalación y características de la modalidad. Fueron entrevistados 86 atletas (47 hombres y 39 mujeres convocados para representar al Brasil durante el año de 2003. Se utilizó un interrogatorio de morbilidad referida, validado anteriormente, para obtención de los datos referentes a los atletas y sus lesiones. Para el análisis de los resultados se adaptó el test Goodman para contrastes entre y dentro de proporciones binomiales, siendo todas las conclusiones discutidas para 5% de significancia estadística. Los resultados mostraron que a mayor tasa de lesión por atleta (l/a, en las pruebas combinadas (3,5 l/a, seguidas por eventos de velocidad (2,6 l/a, resistencia (1,9 l/a y saltos (1,9 l/a respectivamente. El principal mecanismo causal es la alta intensidad interesando preferencialmente velocistas y fondistas. Otra fuerte asociación fué observada para la ocurrencia de lesiones musculares y la prueba de velocidad que tambien presenta preferencia para ocurrencia de lesión en la región de la cadera. Las actividades con elevada intensidad fué el principal responsáble por la ocurrencia de lesiones musculares en cuanto las osteoarticulares y tendinopatias ocurren con exceso de repeticiones. Se concluye así, a partir de los hallazgos, que existen asociaciones entre lesiones y factores causales, como entre pruebas y lesiones, mecanismos de lesión y zona anatómica.The sports injuries (SI quantification and association processes to their possible causal factors are important for a better understanding on the subject. The objective of the present study was the observation of SI in athletes of the Brazilian elite of the athletics, associating them to their installation mechanisms and characteristics of the modality. Eighty-six athletes were interviewed (47 men and 39 women summoned to represent Brazil during the season of 2003. A previously validated inquiry of referred morbidity was used for the

  3. Functional movement screen differences between male and female secondary school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton E; Neumann, Matthew L; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2015-04-01

    The functional movement screen (FMS) is commonly used to assess movement capacity and determine injury risk. Evidence suggests that athletes who score 14 points or less on the FMS are at increased risk for injury, but differences between males and females have been minimally studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in FMS scores of secondary school athletes. Using a cross-sectional study design, 60 healthy secondary school athletes performed the FMS, which is composed of 7 functional movement tasks (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability) and 3 clearance screens. Dependent variables were FMS total composite score and individual task scores; secondary analyses were performed using total research score and individual task research scores when indicated. Lower scores indicated functional movement deficits and increased injury risk. Healthy secondary school female athletes scored lower on the total composite (p = 0.004) than healthy secondary school male athletes. Females also scored lower on the following individual FMS tasks: inline lunge (p stability push-up (p = 0.001). Healthy secondary school female athletes scored 14 or less on the FMS total composite score and significantly lower in general compared with healthy secondary school male athletes, which suggests these female athletes may be at higher risk for injury. Factors that may contribute to increased injury risk include deficits in mobility, core stabilization, and coordinated movement patterns. Clinicians should be aware of possible sex differences when using the FMS and developing injury prevention programs. PMID:25330082

  4. Basketball injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  5. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  6. Causes of Death in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Khodasevich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature survey, concerning the causes of death in athletes, contains traumas, doping and cardiac pathology. The article presents clinicopathologic characteristics of different forms of cardiac pathologies, causing sudden death in athletes.

  7. Asthma in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hem, Erlend; Stensrud, Trine

    2011-12-01

    Athletes active in endurance sports are at an increased risk of acquiring asthma through their sports activities, especially so for cross-country skiers, biathlon skiers, swimmers and athletes of other endurance sports. Asthma may be present from early childhood or develop while in active sports. This article focuses on the physical activity and sports activities in children and adolescents. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is found in 8-10% of a normal child population of school age and in about 35% of children with current asthma. EIA is caused by the markedly increased ventilation during exercise, with increased heat and water loss through respiration, leading to bronchial constriction. The risk of developing asthma in the young athlete is related to the repeated daily training activity with increased epithelial damage of the airways, delayed repair due to the daily repetition of the training and increased airway mucosal inflammation. The increased environmental exposure through the sports activity to environmental agents, such as cold, dry air in skiers and chlorine compounds in swimmers, increases symptoms and signs of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, either worsening an existing asthma or leading to a novel disease in a previously healthy athlete. Several specific aspects of daily training life, environmental exposure, diagnostic procedures and aspects of treatment related to the regulations of medication use in sports need particular attention when addressing the adolescent athlete with respiratory symptoms.

  8. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.

  9. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Håvard Østerås,1 Kirsti Krohn Garnæs,2 Liv Berit Augestad3 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Education and Social Work, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16, both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1% responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors (77.6%, and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors (20.3%, and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries, calf (12.2%, ankle/foot (10.8%, lower back (10.8%, and thigh (10.1%. The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. Keywords: injuries, cross-country skiing, skating

  10. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education.

  11. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education. PMID:20601743

  12. Imaging the infrapatellar tendon in the elite athlete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, K.A.L. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: kalpeace@hotmail.com; Lee, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Healy, J. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Extensor mechanism injuries constitute a major cause of anterior knee pain in the elite athlete. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the imaging methods of choice when assessing the infrapatellar tendon. A comprehensive imaging review of infrapatellar tendon normal anatomy, tendinopathy, and partial/full-thickness tendon tears is provided. The value of imaging the infrapatellar tendon in clinical practice, including whether sonography can predict symptoms in asymptomatic athletes, is discussed. Acute avulsion fractures, including periosteal sleeve avulsion, and chronic avulsion injuries, including Sinding-Larsen-Johansson and Osgood-Schlatter syndromes, are shown. Mimics of infrapatellar tendon pathology, including infrapatellar plica injury, patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome, and Hoffa's syndrome, are illustrated.

  13. Imaging the infrapatellar tendon in the elite athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensor mechanism injuries constitute a major cause of anterior knee pain in the elite athlete. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the imaging methods of choice when assessing the infrapatellar tendon. A comprehensive imaging review of infrapatellar tendon normal anatomy, tendinopathy, and partial/full-thickness tendon tears is provided. The value of imaging the infrapatellar tendon in clinical practice, including whether sonography can predict symptoms in asymptomatic athletes, is discussed. Acute avulsion fractures, including periosteal sleeve avulsion, and chronic avulsion injuries, including Sinding-Larsen-Johansson and Osgood-Schlatter syndromes, are shown. Mimics of infrapatellar tendon pathology, including infrapatellar plica injury, patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome, and Hoffa's syndrome, are illustrated

  14. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  15. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  16. Statement on student athlete sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    I remain deeply concerned by the situation involving our three student-athletes. I remain concerned with the known behavior regardless of the judicial disposition. All of us in the Athletics Department believe behavior above reproach should be the norm for Virginia Tech student-athletes.

  17. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. PMID:26898963

  18. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  19. Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. PMID:22882839

  20. Injuries in Youth and National Combined Events Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, P; Samozino, P; Escudier, G; Baldini, A; Morin, J-B

    2012-10-01

    In major track and field competitions, the most risky discipline is the combined event. Therefore, we aimed to record and analyze the incidence and characteristics of sports injuries incurred during the Youth and National Combined Events Championships. During the French Athletics Combined Events Championships in 2010, all newly occurred injuries were prospectively recorded by the local organising committee of physicians and physiotherapists working in the medical centres at the stadium, in order to determine incidence and characteristics of newly occurred injuries. In total, 51 injuries and 9 time-loss injuries were reported among 107 registered athletes, resulting in an incidence of 477 injuries and 84 time-loss injuries per 1,000 registered athletes. Approximately 72% of injuries affected lower limbs and 60% were caused by overuse. Thigh strain (17.6%) was the most common diagnosis. 14 dropouts were recorded, 8 were caused by an injury (57.1%). During the National and Youth Combined Events Championships, over one third of the registered athletes incurred an injury, with an injury incidence higher than in international elite track and field competitions. Interestingly, this higher injury risk concerned the younger population affecting immature musculoskeletal structures. In combined events, preventive interventions should mainly focus on overuse and thigh injuries. PMID:22562740

  1. Development of the Nutritional Diet Information System for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjiang Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of diet for a sportsman will impact directly on the training effectiveness and playing condition. Based on now information technologies the nutritional diet information system would design the planning of nutritional implementation and diet recipes for the athletes according to the different sporting events. The system will manage, balance and rationalize the diet and nutrition for the athletes so as to improve training effect and reduce the physical injury. It will also helpful to manage sports training and improve the quality of sports training.

  2. Energy availability in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...

  3. Groin pain in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Groin pain in athletes is a common problem in sport medicine, and remains a diagnostic challenge. It is more common with sports that involve kicking, rapid accelerations and decelerations, and sudden direction changes. There is an extensive differential diagnosis and overlap in signs between possible diagnoses. It is important to appreciate the anatomy of the groin and undertake a careful history and examination. Adductor strain, groin disruption and osteitis pubis are among the common causes. The aim of this article is to briefly review the most common causes of groin pain in athletes. The diagnosis and management of these conditions are briefly discussed. PMID:20533693

  4. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  5. Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, M; Bouget, M; Pannafieux, C; Champely, S; Filaire, E

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, musculoskeletal injuries and psychological characteristics in 24 judo athletes (12 females and 12 males) and 31 controls (14 females and 17 males). All these parameters were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional perfectionism scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem, the Body esteem scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Body mass index (BMI) was also computed. Twenty-five percent of female athletes would be "at risk" of EDs (EAT-26 > 20) and 0 % in the other sample groups. Bone injuries sustained over the judo athlete career were reported by 25 % of females and 33.3 % of males, while 35.7 % of the female controls reported bone injuries. The total frequency of menstrual dysfunction among judo athletes was 58.3 %, while 7.1 % of female controls reported oligoamenorrhea. Regression analyses showed that BE-Weight Satisfaction and BMI contributed to 54.6 % and 17 % of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT scores among female judo athletes. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in judo athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating disorder, which places them at an increased risk for menstrual irregularity and bone injuries. This study also highlights the relevance of body esteem to eating disorder symptoms. PMID:17024652

  6. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Apostolaki, Eleni [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece)]. E-mail: apolsen@yahoo.com

    2007-04-15

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes.

  7. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes

  8. High Injury Incidence in Adolescent Female Soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff, w...

  9. Groin Injuries in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Timothy F.; Silvers, Holly J.; Gerhardt, Michael B.; Nicholas, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is ...

  10. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and minerals. Calcium and iron are two important minerals for athletes: Calcium helps build strong bones to resist breaking and stress fractures. Calcium-rich foods include low-fat dairy products like milk, yogurt, and cheese, as well as leafy green ...

  11. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  12. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  13. Injury surveillance in the World Football Tournaments 1998–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Background International sports bodies should protect the health of their athletes, and injury surveillance is an important pre-requisite for injury prevention. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) has systematically surveyed all football injuries in their tournaments since 1998. Aims Analysis of the incidence, characteristics and changes of football injury during international top-level tournaments 1998–2012. Methods All newly incurred football injuries during the FIFA...

  14. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  15. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27) were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries). Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage. PMID:27458972

  16. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    Full Text Available The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27 were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries. Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage.

  17. Diaphyseal tibiofibular synostosis in professional athletes: Report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnery-Cottet, B; Alessio-Mazzola, M; Luz, B F; Barbosa, N C; Tuteja, S; Kajetanek, C; Dellal, A; Thaunat, M

    2016-02-01

    Anterior leg pain is common in professional athletes and tibiofibular synostosis is reported to be a rare cause of anterior compartment pain or ankle pain related to sports activities. The management and appropriate treatment of this condition in professional athletes is controversial and the literature on the topic is sparse. Distal synostosis is usually related to ankle sprain and syndesmotic ligament injury, and proximal synostosis has been linked to leg length discrepancy and exostosis. Mid-shaft synostosis is even less common than proximal and distal forms. We present the treatment of mid-shaft tibiofibular synostosis in 2 cases of professional athletes (soccer and basketball player), along with a review of the literature. When diaphyseal synostosis is diagnosed, first-line conservative treatment, including ultrasound-guided steroid injection is recommended. However, if it does not respond to conservative management, surgical resection may be indicated to relieve symptoms. PMID:26615768

  18. HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION AND ADOLESCENT SUICIDE: A Nationwide US Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Don; Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Barnes, Grace M

    2005-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents aged 15-24, with males incurring higher rates of completion than females. This study used hierarchical logistic regression analysis to test whether athletic participation was associated with lower rates of suicidal ideation and behavior among a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 US public and private high school students. Net of the effects of age, race/ethnicity, parental educational attainment, and urbanicity, high school athletic participation was significantly associated with reduced odds of considering suicide among both females and males, and reduced odds of planning a suicide attempt among females only. Though the results point to favorable health outcomes for athletes, athletic participation was also associated with higher rates of injury to male athletes who actually attempted suicide. PMID:18846245

  19. Minimum reporting standards for clinical research on groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Thorborg, Kristian; Khan, Karim M;

    2015-01-01

    Groin pain in athletes is a priority area for sports physiotherapy and sports medicine research. Heterogeneous studies with low methodological quality dominate research related to groin pain in athletes. Low-quality studies undermine the external validity of research findings and limit the ability...... to generalise findings to the target patient population. Minimum reporting standards for research on groin pain in athletes are overdue. We propose a set of minimum reporting standards based on best available evidence to be utilised in future research on groin pain in athletes. Minimum reporting standards...... are provided in relation to: (1) study methodology, (2) study participants and injury history, (3) clinical examination, (4) clinical assessment and (5) radiology. Adherence to these minimum reporting standards will strengthen the quality and transparency of research conducted on groin pain in athletes...

  20. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed. PMID:22925166

  1. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Abnormal bone metabolism in female elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Recently, female athletes are particularly well, the other hand, many athletes suffer from amenorrhea due to excessive training. Especially, in sports with weight restrictions, they suffer from "Female athlete triad" , eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Amenorrhea is nothing else than a lack of estrogen, action on bone resorption and promote bone formation, by neglect this, it lead to osteoporosis and a stress fracture, and they would often give up their career as elite athletes. So we should consider it as serious sports injury. The problems of amenorrhea is should be recognized as a deficiency of estrogen. A Case of amenorrhea in female athletes, it is necessary to consider the hormone replacement therapy based on the appropriate diagnosis. However, it is important to start the management of body fat and body weight and strength of exercises since adolescent for the prevention the amenorrhea. PMID:20354328

  2. The Role of the Faculty Athletics Representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Arthur W.

    1992-01-01

    The faculty athletics representative plays an important role in the athletic-academic relationship. This responsibility includes certifying student-athlete eligibility, reporting academic data as required, evaluating athlete-applicant qualifications and abilities, regular evaluation of athlete performance, and participation in evaluation of…

  3. Injuries in racket sports among Slovenian players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin

    2011-06-01

    On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.

  4. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  5. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Marc S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  6. Application of three dimensional MR reconstruction for anterior cruciate ligament injury in college soccer athlete%MR三维成像技术在大学生足球运动员前交叉韧带损伤诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永刚; 杨进军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of three dimensional reconstruction at 1. 5 T MR in evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament( ACL). Methods 8 normal college football athletes volunteers ( 16 ACL) and 22 college football athletes ( 24 ACL) who had ACL injury, underwent MR imaging of the knee joint including sagittal scanning of T1 WI, fat suppressedfast spin echo-T2 weighted image ( FS-FSET-T2 WI) , coronal fat suppressed PDWI and M3D/cube T2 WI. All images were reconstructed using ADW4. 4 workstation. MR imaging findings of ACLs were comparativcly analysed on both MRI and M3D/cube T2 WI. Results The injury of ACL included degree Ⅰ in 15, Ⅱ in 20 and Ⅲ in 5 showed by routine MR imaging, degree Ⅰ in 35 and Ⅲ in 5 showed by M3D/cube T2 WI. The sensitivity and specificity of were 82. 8%/76. 2% with routine MR imaging,92. 3%/88. 9% with M3D/cube T2 WI, respectively. Conclusion M3D/cube T2 WI can improve the diagnostic rate of ACL injury, it will be valuable in diagnosis of college football athletes' ACL injuries.%目的 探讨MR三维成像技术(M3D/cube T2WI)对大学生足球运动员前交叉韧带(anterior cruciate ligament,ACL)正常显示和损伤诊断的价值.方法 对确诊为前交叉韧带损伤的22名足球运动员及8名健康运动员志愿者的MR资料进行回顾性分析,在GE 1.5T磁共振分别行MR常规膝关节矢状面T1WI、FSE压脂T2WI(fs-T2WI)、冠状位压脂PDWI和M3D/cube T2WI序列扫描,运用ADW4.4工作站行ACL重建.采用双盲法判断MRI常规图像和M3D/cube T2WI图像ACL正常和异常显示情况.结果 40例膝关节常规MR扫描显示ACL结果分别为:Ⅰ级15例,Ⅱ级20例,Ⅲ级5例;FSE-cube T2WI三维后重建矢状位对ACL显示结果分别为:Ⅰ级35例,Ⅲ级5例.2种方法显示ACL损伤的灵敏度及特异度分别为82.8%/76.2%,92.3%/88.9%.结论 M3D/cube T2WI技术可以提高ACL的显示率,对大学生足球运动员ACL损伤有较大诊断价值.

  7. Sports causing most injuries in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, K. M.; Yuan, Y; C. K. Li; Chien, P; Tsang, G

    1993-01-01

    A prospective survey was carried out on 2293 patients attending the Sports Injury Clinic in the Prince of Wales Hospital between May 1984 and December 1990. A Sports Injury Report Form was completed for each patient. Subjects in this study represent a group of nonprofessional and non-élite athletes in a metropolitan area. Soccer, basketball, volleyball, long-distance running and cycling in descending order were the five most common sports causing injury. Different sports produced different in...

  8. The problem of search safe and effective method in reducing injuries in bodybuilding stage of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavityak O.S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the most frequently used coaches and athletes in bodybuilding principles that can help to reduce the injuries of athletes while maintaining the progressivity results. Material : a survey participated 86 coaches and 120 athletes, bodybuilders from 5 to 8 years. Results : It was found that most of the coaches used in the course of employment principles generally accepted system of training. In such circumstances, the risk of injury to athletes is large enough. When using pre-exhaustion principle to increase the intensity of the training process increases the risk of overloading the body athletes. Conclusions : Athletes with a longer training experience (about 8 years, more likely to use the principle of prior exhaustion. In this case athletes try using this principle to reduce the operating parameters of volume load. This helps to reduce the level of injury and maintain positive dynamics performance.

  9. The Latarjet-Patte procedure for recurrent anterior shoulder instability in contact athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mithun A; Young, Allan A; Balestro, Jean-Christian; Walch, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability is common in contact athletes and the high-energy injuries seen in this group make them more prone to bone loss. Athletes with recurrent instability and associated bone loss have high failure rates when treated with a soft tissue reconstruction procedure. Therefore it is preferred to manage recurrent instability in contact athletes with the Latarjet-Patte procedure. In this article, the authors describe their technique. They have found this procedure to be safe and effective, with very low recurrence and early return to sport. A meticulous surgical technique is important to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  10. Dentofacial injuries in contact sports in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Agbor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentofacial injuries constitute serious problems among competitive and recreational athletes, worldwide. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentofacial injuries and related factors among individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study among individuals participating in karate, judo, basketball, handball, football and wrestling in Yaoundé, Cameroon was conducted between January and April, 2012. Results: Of the 240 athletes interviewed, 115 and 89 of them reported bodily and dentofacial injuries giving 47.9% and 37.1% prevalence, respectively. The bodily injuries were limbs-(60.0%, chest-(23.5%, abdomen-(11.3% and neck- (5.2%. Mouth and face accounted for 52.8% and 37.1% of the dentofacial injuries, respectively. Other dentofacial injuries were teeth-(6.7% and mandible-(3.4%. Older athletes and years of participation were more likely to experience dentofacial injuries. Karate was the most common cause of dentofacial injuries followed by wrestling. The prevalence of the dentofacial injuries was similar among both genders and was equally prevalent during training and competition. The personal protective equipment use reduced the likelihood of dentofacial injuries among the athletes. Conclusion: The prevalence of dentofacial injuries were high while the personal protective equipment use was low among the individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

  11. A comparison of Gaelic football injuries in males and females in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowley, J

    2011-10-01

    The Ladies Gaelic Football Association has a playing population of 150,000 of which 33% are adults. A number of studies have been published on rates of injury among male athletes but none on female athletes in Gaelic football. A retrospective review of insurance claims, submitted under the Gaelic Athletic Association Player Insurance Injury Scheme. 405 injuries were recorded, 248 [107 (70%) male, 141 (58%) female] to the lower limb, 91 [33 (21%) male, 58 (23%) female] to the upper limb. The majority of lower limb injuries [56 (52%) male, 56 (40%) female] were to muscle. Almost a third of upper limb injuries were fractures [10 (30.3%) male, 33 (57%) female]. injuries\\/1000 hours playing was 8.25 for men and 2.4 for women. The injury rate in ladies Gaelic football was found to be significantly lower than in men\\'s Gaelic football. Lower limb injuries accounted for the majority of injuries in both sports.

  12. Dynamic Loading Assessment at the Fifth Metatarsal in Elite Athletes with a history of Jones Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth; Goeb, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fractures of the proximal metaphysis of the fifth metatarsal (i.e., Jones fractures) are common in the athletic population and frequently require surgical fixation to optimize healing rates and return to sport. Subtle hindfoot varus alignment, which likely results in greater forces at the fifth metatarsal, has been associated with increased risk of Jones fractures due to presumed increase in forces on the lateral foot. The goal of the present study was to dynamically assess plantar pressure loads at the fifth metatarsal in elite athletes with a history of Jones fracture. We hypothesize that athletes who have suffered Jones fractures will apply significantly higher loads at the fifth metatarsal base during athletic activities compared to matched uninjured athletes. Methods: Sixteen elite, competitive athletes were recruited to participate. Eight athletes had a history of Jones fracture and eight age, gender and position-matched athletes without a history of foot injury were recruited as controls. While wearing calibrated, wireless pressure mapping insoles, all athletes performed a standardized series of athletic movements including walking, running and cutting. Tests were repeated with the patient’s standard corrective insole. Peak pressure, mean pressure, maximum force, and force-time integral (i.e., impulse) were recorded for each activity. Comparison between groups was performed using a paired Wilcoxon Sign Rank test. Results: Athletes with a history of Jones fracture showed a significantly increased peak pressure (183 ±23 kPA vs. 138±7 kPA), mean pressure (124±14 kPA vs. 95±4 kPA), and maximum force (15±1.2%BW vs. 12±1.2%BW) at the fifth metatarsal base during walking and running compared to uninjured matched controls (all Pinsole did not significantly reduce peak or mean pressure, maximum force, or impulse at the fifth metatarsal base during running or cutting. Conclusion: Athletes with a history of Jones fracture exert significantly

  13. Nutrition for the pediatric athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Viswanath B; Goulopoulou, Styliani

    2004-08-01

    A paucity of literature exists with regard to research on nutrition for the pediatric athlete. This lack of research makes the development of specific nutritional recommendations for young athletes problematic. This issue is made difficult by the macro- and micronutrient intake required for growth and development in conjunction with that required for sports. Exogenous carbohydrate drinks could be considered for the young athlete engaged in both endurance exercise and high-intensity exercise. Monitoring of the energy intake during resistance training in the pediatric athlete needs to be considered, as there is evidence to suggest that energy deficits may occur. If decrements in exercise performance are noted, then serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations should be monitored, as nonanemic iron deficiency is prevalent in the pediatric athlete. The pediatric athlete exercising in the heat is susceptible to voluntary dehydration and evidence exists to suggest that a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink will abolish this phenomenon.

  14. MRSA Prevention Information and Advice for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to do If You Think You Have MRSA Tell your parent, coach, athletic trainer, school nurse, ... MRSA in athletic facilities... Top of Page Why MRSA is Spread among Athletes MRSA might spread easily ...

  15. Injury Patterns in Selected High School Sports: A Review of the 1995-1997 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John W.; Barber-Foss, Kim D.

    1999-01-01

    Described injury patterns in 10 high school sports, identifying risk as measured by observed injury patterns. Certified athletic trainers recorded data daily on observed injuries over two academic years. Results indicated an inherent risk of injury associated with participation in certain sports and activities of the players. Therefore,…

  16. Groin pain in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Jim; Johson, Chris; Schroeder, Erik L

    2006-12-01

    Groin pain is a common and often frustrating problem in athletes who engage in sports involving kicking, rapid accelerations and decelerations, and sudden direction changes. The most common problems are adductor strain, osteitis pubis, and sports hernia. Other causes must be considered, including nerve pain, stress fractures, and intrinsic hip pathology. There is significant overlap and multiple problems frequently coexist. Accurate diagnosis leads to directed treatment, with rehabilitation focused on functional closed-chain strengthening and core stability. PMID:17067496

  17. Osteochondroses in athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Orava, S.; Virtanen, K.

    1982-01-01

    Osteochondroses are disorders of primary and secondary growth centres, or lesions at the apophyseal or epiphyseal growth areas of bones. Although there are many types of osteochondroses, the history, clinical symptoms and findings as well as radiological findings are typical. Physical exercise is one of the factors that provokes symptoms. In a series of 185 osteochondroses in active young athletes, there were 18 different disorders. The commonest were Osgood-Schlatter's disease, Sever's disea...

  18. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention a...

  19. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  20. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  1. The Female Athlete Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  2. Venous thrombosis in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Gregory; Whiteside, William K; Kanwisher, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Because deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can occur following orthopaedic procedures, knowledge of hereditary and acquired risk factors for DVT is essential. Hereditary forms of thrombophilia include factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations, and deficiencies of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S. Acquired risk factors include but are not limited to trauma, immobilization, and surgical procedures. In general, athletes have a low risk of venous thrombosis; however, this population is exposed to many acquired thrombogenic risk factors, including hemoconcentration, trauma, immobilization, long-distance travel, and the use of oral contraceptives. Thus, orthopaedic surgeons should consider screening athletes for thrombogenic risk factors, including history of venous thrombosis, hypercoagulable disorders, or high altitude exercise, during preparticipation physicals and preoperative examinations. If a patient is determined to be at high risk of DVT, preventive measures such as physical antithrombotic measures and/or low-molecular-weight heparin should be instituted. If an athlete develops a DVT, a risk factor assessment should be conducted along with anticoagulation treatment in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines. PMID:23378374

  3. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  4. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality. PMID:27544991

  5. Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Stephanie W.; Joyner, Patrick W.; Almekinders, Louis C.; Parekh, Selene G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a common problem encountered by athletes of all levels and ages. These injuries can be difficult to diagnose and may be initially evaluated by all levels of medical personnel. Clinical suspicion should be raised with certain history and physical examination findings. Evidence Acquisition: Scientific and review articles were searched through PubMed (1930-2012) with search terms including stress fractures and 1 of the following: foot ankle, me...

  6. Return to Play After Medial Collateral Ligament Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Chasse, Patrick M; Taylor, Dean C

    2016-10-01

    Medial collateral ligament injuries are common in the athletic population. Partial injuries are treated nonoperatively with excellent outcomes. Complete ruptures may be treated nonoperatively, although some will require surgery. A comprehensive rehabilitation program is critical to outcome, but a standardized program for all injuries does not exist. Most of the literature regarding nonoperative and postoperative rehabilitation include observational reports and case studies. Level I studies comparing rehabilitation protocols have not been published. The goal of the injured athlete is to not only return to play with no functional limitations, but to also address risk factors and prevent future injuries. PMID:27543407

  7. Vascular adaptation in athletes: is there an 'athlete's artery'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Spence, A.; Rowley, N.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Naylor, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed. To do so in this symposium, studies which have assessed the size, wall thicknes

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Silvers, Holly J; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2010-03-01

    The relatively high risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture among female athletes has been a major impetus for investigation into the etiology of this injury. A number of risk factors have been identified, both internal and external to the athlete, including neuromuscular, anatomical, hormonal, shoe-surface interaction, and environmental, such as weather. The anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors, often gender related, are the focus of most ACL injury prevention programs. Although studies have shown that biomechanic- centered prevention programs can reduce the risk of ACL injury, many questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to increase our understanding of the risk factors for ACL injury; how injury prevention programs work and can the clinical application of such programs be optimized. PMID:20160623

  9. The World Anti-Doping Code: can you have asthma and still be an elite athlete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Key points The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) does place some restrictions on prescribing inhaled β2-agonists, but these can be overcome without jeopardising the treatment of elite athletes with asthma. While the Code permits the use of inhaled glucocorticoids without restriction, oral and intravenous glucocorticoids are prohibited, although a mechanism exists that allows them to be administered for acute severe asthma. Although asthmatic athletes achieved outstanding sporting success during the 1950s and 1960s before any anti-doping rules existed, since introduction of the Code’s policies on some drugs to manage asthma results at the Olympic Games have revealed that athletes with confirmed asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) have outperformed their non-asthmatic rivals. It appears that years of intensive endurance training can provoke airway injury, AHR and asthma in athletes without any past history of asthma. Although further research is needed, it appears that these consequences of airway injury may abate in some athletes after they have ceased intensive training. The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) has not prevented asthmatic individuals from becoming elite athletes. This review examines those sections of the Code that are relevant to respiratory physicians who manage elite and sub-elite athletes with asthma. The restrictions that the Code places or may place on the prescription of drugs to prevent and treat asthma in athletes are discussed. In addition, the means by which respiratory physicians are able to treat their elite asthmatic athlete patients with drugs that are prohibited in sport are outlined, along with some of the pitfalls in such management and how best to prevent or minimise them. PMID:27408633

  10. Athletics Reform and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Hendricks, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Since their inception, intercollegiate athletics have engendered controversy and stimulated debate. Supporters assert that "college sports are significant in defining the essence of the American college and university", suggesting that benefits associated with athletics include more increased fundraising, positive public perceptions of graduates,…

  11. SURVEY OF SHORT-TERM ORAL CORTICOSTEROID ADMINISTRATION BY ORTHOPAEDIC PHYSICIANS IN COLLEGE AND HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Pearsall IV

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oral corticosteroid (OCS drugs is advocated because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. They also possess many potential adverse effects. No study has assessed physician prescribing practices of OCS therapy in high school (HS or college (COL athletes. This paper reports the prescribing patterns of sports medicine physicians who used short-term OCS therapy and to describe associated complications in HS and COL athletes within a 24- month period. An internet link to a descriptive epidemiology survey was included in an e-mail to all members of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to examine responses. Total response rate was 32% (615/1,928. Sixty-six percent of the physicians indicated prescribing OCS to both groups of athletes, while 29% reported prescribing OCS to COL athletes and 5% to HS athletes for musculoskeletal injuries. Physicians who prescribed multiple OCS regimens to the same athlete within the same season (P = 0.01 and physicians who prescribed OCS to the skeletally immature athlete (P = 0.009 reported more complications than other physicians. Among the 412 physicians who did not prescribe OCS in the treatment of athletic induced musculoskeletal injury, 251 (61% cited a risk of developing medical complications as the primary reason for avoiding use. The reported number of medical complications was low with no cases of avascular necrosis reported for the 2-year recall period. Orthopaedic surgeons who treated athletic induced musculoskeletal injuries with a short-term course of oral corticosteroids reported that high school and college athletes benefited with few medical complications

  12. Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    LingLing- Lai; M. Nahar A. M.; Lim, B. H.; Hamid. M. S. A; S Khoo; Yusof, A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The impact of musculoskeletal injuries often caused loss time in sport participation. Athletes who suffered from these injuries experienced a decrease in performance and physical disability. Although a variety of treatments have been implemented to the muscle injuries, the administration of autologous blood injection is replacing the conventional rehabilitation to expedite the process of muscle recovery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is relatively new in muscle injury treatment and...

  13. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Reeser, J C; E. VERHAGEN; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuri...

  14. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  15. Which factors differentiate athletes with hip/groin pain from those without? A systematic review with meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosler, A.B. (Andrea B.); R. Agricola (Rintje); A. Weir (Adam); Hölmich, P. (Per); K.M. Crossley (Kay)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hip and groin injuries are common in many sports. Understanding the factors differentiating athletes with hip/groin pain from those without these injuries could facilitate management and prevention. Objective: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on

  16. Sports idols of senior athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify idols of senior athletes. And based on the identification of idols some conclusions can be made with respect to the system of values some person. The sample included 318 Serbian professional senior athletes (183 male and 135 female, 18 to 40 years old. Respondents were engaged in 28 different sports, mostly volleyball, water polo, basketball, karate, bocca, savate, handball, kyokushin. The independent variables were gender and selected idol and dependent variables were sport, gender, actuality and origin of idol. Senior athletes for their sports idols, in most cases elect Roger Federer, Michael Jordan, Milorad Čavić. It turns out that the majority of male and female athletes are selected for their idol person that comes out of their sport, but also that there are some differences in the choice of idols and characteristics of idols in male and female athletes.

  17. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet. PMID:20622542

  18. [Groin pain in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziltener, J-L; Leal, S

    2007-08-01

    Groin pain is a common problem in athletes who engage in sports involving accelerations, decelerations and sudden direction changes. It is still a frustrating pathology which has significant overlap and multiple problems coexist frequently. The pathogeny remains unclear, but the hypothesis that imbalances between abdominal muscles and adductors exist, has a certain success. Some anatomic and biomechanic factors may play a role in this pathology. A good clinical examination is an important part of the diagnosis and imaging may be helpful to eliminate other causes of groin pain that wouldn't be mechanic. The conservative treatment is long and difficult and must be focused on functional strengthening and core stabilisation. PMID:17850006

  19. Fundamentals of sports training athlete-athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Bykova, M. S.; I.V. Gerasimov; Быкова, М. С.; ГЕРАСИМОВ И.В.

    2014-01-01

    Sport training currently is an important component of the system of preparation of the sportsman. It is a pedagogical process, which is based on application of physical exercises to improve functional capabilities of the athlete Спортивная тренировка в настоящее время является важной составной частью системы подготовки спортсмена. Она представляет собой педагогический процесс, который основан на использовании физических упражнений с целью совершенствования функциональных возможностей спорт...

  20. Grip strength measurements at two different wrist extension positions in chronic lateral epicondylitis-comparison of involved vs. uninvolved side in athletes and non athletes: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Arti S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common sports injury of the elbow caused due to altered muscle activation during repetitive wrist extension in many athletic and non-athletic endeavours. The amount of muscle activity and timing of contraction eventually is directly dependent upon joint position during the activity. The purpose of our study was to compare the grip strength in athletes with lateral epicondylalgia in two different wrist extension positions and compare them between involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes. Methods An assessor-blinded case-control study of eight athletes and twenty-two non-athletes was done. The grip strength was measured using JAMAR® hand dynamometer in kilograms-force at 15 degrees (slightly extended and 35 degrees (moderately extended wrist extension positions (maintained by wrist splints on both involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes with unilateral lateral epicondylitis of atleast 3 months duration. Their pain was to be elicited with local tenderness and two of three tests being positive- Cozen's, Mill's manoeuvre, resisted middle finger extension tests. For comparisons of grip strength, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for within-group comparison (between 15 and 35 degrees wrist extension positions and Mann-Whitney U test was used for between-group (athletes vs. non-athletes comparisons at 95% confidence interval and were done using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results Statistically significant greater grip strength was found in 15 degrees (27.75 ± 4.2 kgms in athletes; 16.45 ± 4.2 kgms in non-athletes wrist extension than at 35 degrees (25.25 ± 3.53 kgm in athletes and 14.18 ± 3.53 kgm in non-athletes. The athletes had greater grip strength than non-athletes in each of test positions (11.3 kgm at 15 degrees and 11.07 kgm at 35 degrees measured. There was also a significant difference between involved and uninvolved sides' grip strength at both wrist

  1. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  2. The modern view of the physical rehabilitation of damaged medial meniscus in the knee joint in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd Khalil Moh'd Abdel Kader

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern methods of rehabilitation for the knee injury. It is shown the directions of problem solving nosology of sports injuries, the frequency of injuries of the musculoskeletal system, treatment and recovery technologies athletes. Found that the development of minimally invasive endoscopic treatment can minimize the negative impact of postoperative complications. Also, as much as possible to retain the structure and function of the damaged meniscus, reduce recovery times. Focuses on the need to develop a system of rehabilitation measures for restoring specific motor skills and the quality of the athlete.

  3. Athletic Participation and Wellness: Implications for Counseling College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a holistic wellness paradigm to explore the adjustment of student-athletes and non-athletes at a Division I institution. Results were that non-athletes reported higher levels of wellness than did student-athletes. The authors discuss the ways in which wellness may affect student-athletes' physical and mental health at different…

  4. Evaluation of Men’s and Women’s Gymnastics Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Robert W.; Giblin, Molly; Vaske, Ashley; Grosso, Kylie; Wolf, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injuries are common in collegiate gymnasts. Most descriptive studies of injury patterns in collegiate gymnasts are limited in duration or are only inclusive of women. Hypothesis: Injury patterns in men and women differ significantly; women sustain a higher rate of injuries than men. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Musculoskeletal and head injuries reported in the Sports Injury Monitoring System at a single National Collegiate Athletic Association institution for Division 1 men’s and women’s gymnastics teams between 2001 and 2011 were identified. The variables assessed included sex, injured body part, year of eligibility, injury severity, surgical procedures, missed time, and team activity at the onset of injury. Results: From 2001 to 2011, 64 male gymnasts sustained 240 injuries, while 55 female gymnasts sustained 201 injuries. The injury incidence was 8.78 per 1000 athlete-exposures for men and 9.37 per 1000 athlete-exposures for women. Female gymnasts more commonly suffered major injuries compared with men, and more commonly underwent surgery after injury (24.4% of female injuries required surgery vs 9.2% in males). The anatomic region most often injured in men was the hand and wrist (24%). The anatomic region most often injured in women was the foot and ankle (39%). Overall, injury rates were highest in freshman-eligible athletes. Conclusion: Injury rates, overall, were similar in men and women gymnasts. Female gymnasts more commonly underwent surgical procedures after injury. Injury rates were higher in freshman-eligible athletes and decreased with increasing year of experience. Clinical Relevance: Specific attention should be given to gymnasts transitioning into collegiate-level gymnastics; injury prevention strategies should focus on the ankle and foot, as well as the elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:25984262

  5. Improving the Academic Performance of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rosemary

    1986-01-01

    The new higher standards required of entering collegiate athletes will not immediately create change in the performance and attitudes of student athletes. Academic performance of student athletes can be enhanced through the development of a comprehensive program fusing the relationship between athletics and academics. (MD)

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF INJURIES AMONG SENIOR SOCCER PLAYERS. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ivarsson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that between 65-91% of elite soccer players in Sweden have at least one injury per year. Several studies define different physiological and psychological factors affecting athletic injury-risk. A number of models contain proposals that specify relationships between psychological factors and an increased athletic injury-risk. Examples include Williams and Andersen's stress-injury model and Johnson and Ivarsson's empirical model of injury risk factors which proposes that factors such as trait anxiety and ineffective coping skills are influential. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between (a personality factors, b coping variables, and (c stress and injury risk. Participants were 48 male soccer players from 3 Swedish teams ranging in age from 16 to 36 years (M = 22 years. Participants completed 5 questionnaires: Football Worry Scale, Swedish universities Scales of Personality, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Daily Hassle Scale and Brief COPE. Information on injuries was collected by athletic trainers of the teams over 3-months. Results suggest injury was significantly predicted by 4 personality trait predictors: somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, and trait irritability. Collectively, the predictors self-blame and acceptance could explain 14.6% of injury occurrence. More injuries were reported among players who score high in daily hassles. These results support previous findings. Recommendations are given for both the athletes and the trainers on working to prevent sport injuries

  7. Osteochondral lesions of the humeral trochlea in the young athlete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Kelley W. [Pediatric Radiology of America, Roanoke, VA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States); Marshall, David L.; Busch, Michael T. [Children' s Orthopaedics of Atlanta, P.C., Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Williams, Joseph P. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variety of osteochondral abnormalities of the humeral trochlea in the pediatric athlete. Patients with trochlear abnormalities were identified through keyword search of radiology dictations from 1999 to 2007. The patient's medical record, imaging studies, and surgical reports were reviewed. The osteochondral lesions were categorized based on the imaging appearance. Surgical results were reviewed in conjunction with the imaging findings. Eighteen patients were identified. Trochlear lesions were stratified into two imaging groups: Osteochondral injury/osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) vs. avascular necrosis (AVN). The osteochondral injury group was stratified into medial and lateral trochlear abnormalities. The medial lesions (n=3) were small (<6 mm) and were located on the posterior articular surface of the medial trochlea. The lateral lesions (n=10) were larger (10-14 mm), circumscribed, and were located on the posterior inferior aspect of the lateral trochlea. Trochlear AVN (n=5) affected development of the lateral trochlea (type A) or both the medial and lateral aspects of the trochlea (type B). AVN occurred exclusively in athletes with history of remote distal humeral fracture. Seven of the 18 patients underwent elbow arthroscopy. Surgical findings and treatment regimens are summarized. Trochlear lesions should be considered in throwing athletes presenting with medial elbow pain and flexion contracture/extension block. Medial trochlear osteochondral injuries may result from posteromedial olecranon abutment. Lateral OCD lesions occur in a characteristic vascular watershed zone resulting from the unique blood supply of the trochlea. Trochlear AVN may be unmasked years following treated distal humeral fracture when the athletic demands upon the adolescent elbow increase, revealing the altered growth and biomechanics. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of right atrial function and dimension in top-level athletes: a speckle tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Cameli, Matteo; Padeletti, Margherita; Lisi, Matteo; Zacà, Valerio; Natali, Benedetta; Malandrino, Angela; Alvino, Federico; Morelli, Massimo; Vassallo, Gian Maria; Meniconi, Cosetta; Bonifazi, Marco; Causarano, Andrea; Mondillo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Although many echocardiographic studies are available about the adaptation of left ventricle to intensive training, right heart function has been poorly investigated and no data are available about the right atrial (RA) function in top-level athletes. The aim of the study was to investigate RA function and dimension by standard echocardiography and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). One hundred top-levels athletes were recruited from professional sports team and were compared with 78 normal subjects. Athletes during an off-training period or during prolonged forced rest resulting from injuries were excluded. Top-level athletes had higher BSA as compared with controls and, as expected, a lower resting heart rate (p ≤ 0.001). RA area, volume, and volume index were significantly greater in athletes than in controls (p ≤ 0.001). This increase was associated with greater right ventricular and inferior vena cava diameters (p ≤ 0.001). Peak atrial longitudinal strain and peak atrial contraction strain values were significantly lower in athletes in comparison with controls (40.92 ± 9.86% vs. 48.00 ± 12.68%, p ≤ 0.001; 13.05 ± 4.84% vs. 15.99 ± 5.74%, p ≤ 0.001, respectively). Interestingly, while athletes presented a higher E/A ratio (p ≤ 0.001) and a lower peak A velocity (p ≤ 0.001), the E/e' ratio did not differ between the two groups. In top-level athletes the RA presents a physiological adaptation to intensive exercise conditioning which determines not only a morphological but also a functional remodeling. We reported for the first time reference values of RA strain in elite athletes, demonstrating that 2D STE is a useful tool to investigate RA longitudinal myocardial deformation dynamics in athlete's heart. PMID:22588713

  9. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  10. Acromioclavicular joint injuries: anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimon, S Clifton; Gaskill, Trevor R; Millett, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common in athletic populations and account for 40% to 50% of shoulder injuries in many contact sports, including lacrosse, hockey, rugby and football. The AC joint is stabilized by static and dynamic restraints, including the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments. Knowledge of these supporting structures is important when identifying injury and directing treatment. Management of AC injuries should be guided by severity of injury, duration of injury and symptoms, and individual patient factors. These help determine how best to guide management, and whether patients should be treated surgically or nonsurgically. Treatment options for AC injuries continue to expand, and include arthroscopic-assisted anatomic reconstruction of the CC ligaments. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for AC joint injuries. In addition, the authors' preferred reconstruction technique and outcomes are presented.

  11. Acute traumatic tear of latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mesut Çelebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively.

  12. Management of Syndesmotic Ankle Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Kramer, Dennis E

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric ankle injuries are common, especially in athletes; however, the incidence of syndesmosis injuries in children has been scarcely reported. Injuries to the ankle syndesmosis, termed "high ankle sprains," can affect high-level and recreational athletes and have been related to delayed return to play, persistent pain, and adult injuries have been associated with long-term disability. Syndesmotic injuries do occur in children, especially those who participate in sports that involve cutting and pivoting (football, soccer) or sports with rigid immobilization of the ankle (skiing, hockey). Unstable pediatric syndesmosis injuries requiring surgical fixation are often associated with concomitant fibular fracture in skeletally mature children. Physician vigilance and careful clinical examination coupled with appropriate radiographs can determine the extent of the injury in the majority of circumstances. PMID:27100034

  13. Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2016-03-01

    Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. PMID:27031317

  14. Protein and Overtraining: Potential Applications for Free-Living Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe Cassandra E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite a more than adequate protein intake in the general population, athletes have special needs and situations that bring it to the forefront. Overtraining is one example. Hard-training athletes are different from sedentary persons from the sub-cellular to whole-organism level. Moreover, competitive, "free-living" (less-monitored athletes often encounter negative energy balance, sub-optimal dietary variety, injuries, endocrine exacerbations and immune depression. These factors, coupled with "two-a-day" practices and in-season demands require that protein not be dismissed as automatically adequate or worse, deleterious to health. When applying research to practice settings, one should consider methodological aspects such as population specificity and control variables such as energy balance. This review will address data pertinent to the topic of athletic protein needs, particularly from a standpoint of overtraining and soft tissue recovery. Research-driven strategies for adjusting nutrition and exercise assessments will be offered for consideration. Potentially helpful nutrition interventions for preventing and treating training complications will also be presented.

  15. 手法配合常规理疗早期干预专业运动员股内收肌急性损伤的临床疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Manual Therapy Early Intervention on Professional Athletes Thigh Adductor Acute Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼; 朱国苗; 王爱斌; 张鲁申

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察手法配合常规理疗早期干预专业运动员股内收肌急性损伤的临床效果。[方法]采取前瞻性临床随机对照研究方法,将134名符合纳入标准的专业运动员随机分成观察组和对照组,观察组采用手法和常规理疗干预,对照组采用单纯常规理疗干预。采用简化McGil 疼痛量表(short-form McGil pain questionnaire,SF-MPQ)评估运动员治疗前、第1次治疗后及疗程结束后疼痛改善情况。[结果]第1次手法干预后,观察组SF-MPQ指数显著降低,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),疗程结束后观察组SF-MPQ 中疼痛分级量表(pain rating index,PRI)和疼痛视觉模拟评分量表(visual analogue scale,VAS)指数显著降低,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),但疼痛强度PPI指数(present pain index, PPI)与对照组相比无显著性差异(P=0.26)。[结论]手法配合常规理疗早期专业运动员股内收肌急性损伤具有显著的即刻镇痛效果,与常规理疗相比,手法配合常规理疗早期干预急性软组织损伤具有一定的优势。%[Objective]To observe the clinical effect of manual therapy early intervention on professional athletes thigh adductor acute injury. [Methods]A prospective randomized control ed clinical 134 cases met the inclusion criteria, at the same time did not meet the exclusion criteria of profession athletes, who were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and control groups, the manipulation group receiving manual therapy plus rountine physiotherapy intervention while the control one just routine physiotherapy intervention. Short-form McGil pain questionnaire(SF-MPQ) is used to evaluate pain be-fore and after the first treatment and the last treatment. [Results] After first intervention, the treatment group could statistical y significantly reduce the pain index(P<0.01). At the end of the treatment, compared with the control group

  16. PHYSICAL THERAPY TREATMENT ON ATHLETES WITH MUSCLE RUPTURE (CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balteanu Veronica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the means and possibilities of recovery and reintegration in sport trauma preceding the muscle, muscle rupture. Theoretical concepts are presented on the topic, therapeutic conduit - physical recovery -specific trauma, applied in individual treatment and the results obtained from assessments and of the case study analysis. Hypothesis - "Early kinetic treatment applied through use, specific and nonspecific, and appropriate methodology leads to full recovery of athletes subjected to a muscular injury". The purpose of this paper is to present a program of early physical therapy and the application using appropriate means of diagnosis, stage and individual particularitiesof sport, for full recovery of athletes who suffered a muscle injury, without risk of relapse. Results and discussion. Following the hypothesis, by having performed the therapy program; significant differences were found between the initial and final results of the evaluation, to all interested parameters. Conclusions. The recovery allowed the reintegration in sport performance of the athlete and readaptation for competitive requirements without reducing sports performance. The period of immobilization, being short and segmentary, in this case helped to reduce the time needed for recovery.

  17. Magnesium and the Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation in the body. It is a required mineral that is involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Magnesium helps maintain normal nerve and muscle function, heart rhythm (cardiac excitability), vasomotor tone, blood pressure, immune system, bone integrity, and blood glucose levels and promotes calcium absorption. Because of magnesium's role in energy production and storage, normal muscle function, and maintenance of blood glucose levels, it has been studied as an ergogenic aid for athletes. This article will cover the general roles of magnesium, magnesium requirements, and assessment of magnesium status as well as the dietary intake of magnesium and its effects on exercise performance. The research articles cited were limited from those published in 2003 through 2014.

  18. Which factors differentiate athletes with hip/groin pain from those without?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B; Agricola, Rintje; Weir, Adam;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hip and groin injuries are common in many sports. Understanding the factors differentiating athletes with hip/groin pain from those without these injuries could facilitate management and prevention. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on factors...... differentiating athletes with and without hip/groin pain. Two authors independently screened search results, assessed study quality, and performed data extraction. Methodological heterogeneity was determined and data pooled for meta-analysis when appropriate. A best evidence synthesis was performed...... on the remaining outcome measures. RESULTS: Of 2251 titles identified, 17 articles were included of which 10 were high quality. Sixty two different outcome measures were examined, 8 underwent meta-analysis. Pooled data showed strong evidence that athletes with hip/groin pain demonstrated: pain and lower strength...

  19. Quality of Movement for Athletes Six Months Post ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMille, Polly; Nguyen, Joseph; Brown, Allison; Do, Huong; Selvaggio, Elizabeth; Chiaia, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs evaluate quality of movement (QM) to identify and correct high-risk movement patterns. However, return to play (RTP) decisions post-ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are often based on non-sport relatedquantitative measures such as isokinetic tests and/or time from surgery, with six months post-ACLR being a common expectation for RTP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether athletes are ready to RTP 6 months post ACLR using a QM assessment (QMA). Methods: A QMA including nine dynamic tasks (squat, single leg [SL] stance, step down, SL squat, jump in place, side to side jump, broad jump, hop to opposite, SL hop) progressing from double- to single-limb vertical and horizontal movements was administered to 136 athletes at five to seven months post-ACLR. Tasks were viewed from the frontal and sagittal planes by a physical therapist and performance specialist. Movements were evaluated live for risk factors associated with ACL injury (strategy, depth, control, symmetry, and alignment). The proportion of patients exhibiting risky movement patterns for each task was calculated. Fisher’s Exact test was used to determine if there were differences in movement patterns between males and females. Results: The proportion of patients demonstrating risky movement patterns for a task ranged from 48% to 100%. All 136 patients exhibited risky movement patterns for at least one task and 60% of patients displayed risky movement patterns in five or more of the nine tasks. Rates of risky movement patterns were not different between males and females for all tasks (P>0.1 for all tasks). Conclusion: Six months has been cited as a probable time for RTP post-ACLR; thus this is the expectation of the athlete. Our data show that athletes demonstrate multiple QM patterns associated with initial ACL injury, as well as 2nd injury at five to seven months post-operatively. Altered movement patterns evident in tasks as

  20. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)

  1. Effect of heavy training in contact sports on MRI findings in the pubic region of asymptomatic competitive athletes compared with non-athlete controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paajanen, Hannu [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kuopio (Finland); Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari [Central Hospital of Mikkeli, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)

  2. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  3. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training. PMID:24937101

  4. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  5. Academics vs. Athletics: Two Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    College and University Business, 1973

    1973-01-01

    John Fuzak, associate dean of the college of education at Michigan State University and former St. Louis Cardinal's player, and Maurice Mitchell, University of Denver Chancellor, discuss the relationship between academics and athletics. (PG)

  6. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  7. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  8. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Hutter, Adolph M; Weiner, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There are clear health benefits to exercise; even so, patients with cardiac conditions who engage in exercise and athletic competition may on rare occasion experience sudden cardiac death (SCD). This article reviews the epidemiology and common causes of SCD in specific athlete populations. There is ongoing debate about the optimal mechanism for SCD prevention, specifically regarding the inclusion of the ECG and/or cardiac imaging in routine preparticipation sports evaluation. This controversy and contemporary screening recommendations are also reviewed. PMID:27486488

  9. Scaling in Athletic World Records

    OpenAIRE

    Savaglio, Sandra; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2000-01-01

    World records in athletics provide a measure of physical as well as physiological human performance. Here we analyse running records and show that the mean speed as a function of race time can be described by two scaling laws that have a breakpoint at about 150-170 seconds (corresponding to the ~1,000 m race). We interpret this as being the transition time between anaerobic and aerobic energy expenditure by athletes.

  10. Searching for Meanings in Finnish Athletes Career Experiences: An Existential-Narrative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkainen, Noora; Ryba, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    into how athletes bring meaning to critical situations in sports, such as injuries, overtraining, burnout, aging and retirement. Moreover, it acknowledges that spirituality can be a major source of meaning in some athletes’ lives (Nesti 2011). For this study, life story interviews were conducted with 10...

  11. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  12. Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ezechieli; Stephan Berger; Christian-Heige Siebert; Oliver Miltner

    2012-01-01

    American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fract...

  13. Osteochondral Fractures of the Lateral Femoral Trochlea in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Method: Between May 2012 and September 2014 cluster of five patients with large osteochondral fractures of the lateral femoral trochlea were treated at our institution. These all occurred in high level male athletes, one at a decathlete and the other four soccer players. The MRI scan showed a characteristic appearance of a large subchondral fracture involving most of the lateral femoral trochlea. All patients were symptomatic. The patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using headless compression screws. The operative technique and short term results will be outlined. Results: Fixation appears successful in most cases. Conclusion: This appears to be a repetitive trauma related injury that occurs in young high-level athletes.

  14. Evaluation of the warm-up habits and knowledge levels in amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut Aysan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the warm-up habit and level of knowledge in the amateur athletes.Materials and methods: A total of 510 amateur athletes aged between 17 and 30 years with the mean sport age of 6.2±3.4 years were included. There were 360 males (mean age 22.4±2.0 years and 150 females (mean age 21.2±2.1 years. Warm-up habits of athletes were obtained using by the Likert-type survey questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The reliability coefficient of the survey had been calculated as cronbach alph=0.647, KMO=0.715, Barlett=1968.711 (p<0.05.Results: It was observed that 56.3% of the athletes had sportive success in elite level and 25% of the male athletes and 32% of the female athletes had never injured before. Item of “warm-up has no effect on the performance of the athlete” was rejected with the mean score of 2.70±0.93, item of “warm-up lessens the risk of being injured for the athletes” was accepted by majority (83.9%. Of all athletes, 83.9% of them had been injured more than once. The warm-up habit was found to be performed in 47.8% at pre-training or pre-competition periods, however cool-down habit was found in 17.3% of athletes at the end of activity.Conclusion: There was a common belief that warm-up had a positive effect on the performance of the athletes, reduced the risk of injury, increased the movement angle of joints. But it can be said that habits of the amateurs was not at a sufficient level. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:181-6

  15. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  16. Treating High School Sports Injuries--Are Coaches/Trainers Competent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, P. Joanne; Miller, Lori K.

    1991-01-01

    High school coaches and athletic trainers should know proper first aid techniques, have special knowledge about particular sports injuries, have a good understanding of safety precautions for playing equipment and skill techniques, and understand environmental factors that may affect athletes. (JD)

  17. Clinical characteristics of 4355 patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yu; AO Ying-fang; WANG Jian-quan; MA Yong; ZHANG Xin; WANG Jia-ning; ZHU Jing-xian

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical features of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are important for its prevention,diagnosis and treatment.However,few studies have reported such data,especially in China.The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of ACL injury on a large cohort.Methods Between 1993 and 2007,a total of 4355 ACL deficient inpatients (612 athletes and 3743 non-athletes) were registered.Data were collected using a special database system.And the distributions of characteristics in different groups were compared and analyzed statistically.Results All subjects were confirmed with ACL tear during surgery.Statistical analysis revealed that the percentage of females in Athlete Group was significantly higher than that in Non-athlete Group (56.05% vs.24.95%,P<0.001).This study also found that sports trauma was the main cause of ACL tears.Soccer,basketball,judo,wrestling and track and field were the five most responsible activities for athletes.The average injury time for athletes was significantly shorter than that for non-athletes (413.3 days vs.717.5 days,P<0.001).Three thousand nine hundred and eight cases were ordered ACL reconstruction (76.04% single-bundle,18.30% double-bundle).Three hundred and forty-five patients (7.92%)were combined with other ligaments injuries,2667 (61.24%) were found with various grades of cartilage lesions,and 3377 (77.54%) were found with meniscal injury.Conclusions Sports trauma was the main cause of ACL tears in China,and reconstruction had become the principal surgical choice.In order to restore knee joint stability and reduce the incidence of cartilage and meniscal injury,patienttailored ACL reconstruction should be suggested at the right moment.

  18. The role of ankle bracing for prevention of ankle sprain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael T; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries incurred in recreational and competitive athletics. These injuries have a significant impact in terms of cost, athletic participation, and activities of daily living. Prophylactic ankle braces are often used to reduce the risk of injury recurrence when individuals return to athletic participation. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the literature and provide our own experience relative to the use of prophylactic ankle bracing. Relatively high incidence rates of ankle sprain injury have been reported for basketball and soccer athletes, military trainees, and individuals with a previous history of ankle sprain injury. Semirigid and laced ankle braces have significantly reduced the incidence of initial and recurrent ankle sprain injuries in athletic and military samples. With few exceptions, these braces do not appear to affect functional performance adversely. The prophylactic use of semirigid ankle braces appears warranted to reduce the incidence of initial and, in particular, recurrent ankle sprain injuries for individuals who participate in activities that have the highest risk for these injuries. Additional research is needed to evaluate the many new braces that are available and in use and their influence on the incidence of ankle sprain injury and functional performance. PMID:14620786

  19. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  20. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives. PMID:26991584

  1. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  2. Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

  3. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.

  4. Comparison of the Wii Balance Board and the BESS tool measuring postural stability in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Jill; Aktan, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    Concussions are a major health concern for athletes given the potential for these injuries in a wide range of sport activities. The leading concern for clinicians is that athletes are at risk for devastating consequences if they are not evaluated properly and cleared too early to return to play or competition. The evaluation of postural stability has been identified as an important aspect to the comprehensive management of such injuries. Clinicians are in need of a portable tool they can use in various settings to aid in decision making and health care delivery for concussed athletes. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (Nintendo of America Inc., Redmond, Washington) is a portable, cost-effective tool that has the potential to aid in the evaluation of postural stability in concussed individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Wii Balance Board as an objective, user-friendly, cost effective, valid alternative tool for the measurement of postural stability in college athletes. This study questioned whether the Wii Balance Board, when compared to the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), is an objective tool that can be used as an acceptable measurement of postural stability in college athletes. PMID:26856479

  5. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  6. MRI in acute ligamentous injuries of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ilenia; Azzali, Emanuele; Milanese, Gianluca; Praticò, Francesco Emanuele; Ruggirello, Margherita; Trunfio, Vincenzo; Parziale, Raffaele; Corrado, Michele; Della Casa, Giovanni; Capasso, Raffaella; De Filippo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Ankle sprains are the most common lower limb injuries and affect more frequently young athletes; imaging is needed for an accurate diagnosis of such traumatic injuries. The purpose of this review is to analyse the magnetic resonance (MR) findings of both normal and pathological ankle's ligaments; indeed, MRI is the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute traumatic injuries and is useful for differentiation of the causes of ankle instability as well as for pre-operative planning. PMID:27467862

  7. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation...

  8. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  9. Does Cupping = Success for Olympic Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160301.html Does 'Cupping' = Success for Olympic Athletes? Telltale red circles of ancient Chinese practice ... Eyebrows raised in Rio over the weekend when Olympic athletes like swimmer Michael Phelps started showing up ...

  10. Helping Athletes Avoid Hazardous Weight Control Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    This article addresses dangerous dieting techniques used by athletes and provides coaches and teachers specific strategies to aid in preventing eating-related disorders among athletes. Symptoms of anorexia and of bulimia are described. (JL)

  11. Pre-Existing Rotator Cuff Tears as a Predictor of Outcomes in National Football League Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Gomberawalla, M. Mustafa; Schroeder, Greg; LaBelle, Mark; Hollett, Brian P.; Saltzman, Matthew; Nuber, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Fifty percent of all athletes at the National Football League (NFL) Combine report having had a shoulder injury at some point during their playing career. Rotator cuff tears are rare injuries in young athletes, but an increasing incidence has been noted amongst competitive football players. It is unknown how pre-existing rotator cuff tears affect career longevity and performance of NFL athletes. In Combine athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears, knowledge of outcomes may help athletes and physicians manage expectations of draft potential, career length and performance. Methods: The written medical evaluations of prospective professional American football athletes from 2003-2011 during the NFL Combine were compiled and evaluated. All players were evaluated for the diagnosis of a pre-existing rotator cuff tear and stratified based on whether or not they underwent surgical intervention. Athletes with rotator cuff tears, who were selected in the NFL draft, were matched by age, position, year, and round drafted to control draftees without significant documented shoulder pathology. Career statistics, including a previously established “Performance Score,” were compiled. The continuous variables of each cohort were compared using a Student's t-test. A Chi Squared test was performed to analyze the categorical data. Statistical significance was accepted with a p-value < 0.05. Results: Between the years of 2003 and 2011, 2,965 consecutive athletes were evaluated. Forty-nine athletes were identified with a pre-existing rotator cuff tear; twenty-two of these athletes underwent surgical intervention for their tear and 27 were treated non-operatively. Those who attended the NFL Combine with a history of a rotator cuff tear were significantly less likely to be drafted than those without a previous injury (55.1% vs. 77.5% respectively, p = 0.002) (Table 1A). The 27 drafted athletes with pre-existing rotator cuff tears played significantly fewer years (4.3 vs

  12. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  13. Adolescent Steroid Use and Intercollegiate Athletic Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Brad R. Humphreys; Jane Ruseski

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between college athletic scholarships and adolescent use of performance enhancing drugs. Annually, 4.5 million male high school athletes compete for about 132,000 athletic scholarships o_ered by NCAA Division I and II universities. Estimates from a probit model of self-reported steroid use among US adolescent males using data from the YRBSS suggest each sanction-related athletic scholarship reduction at NCAA institutions in a state increases the probability that hi...

  14. Athletes Doing Arabesques: Important Considerations in the Care of Young Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Julie C; Quinn, Bridget J; Stratton, Corinne W; Southwick, Heather; MacDonald, James P

    2015-01-01

    Dance is as much a sport as an art form. Sports medicine clinicians seeing dancers in their practice will need to be familiar with the unique characteristics of dance in order to provide proper care. Dance encompasses different forms, which vary in equipment and terminology. The epidemiology of dance injuries has historically focused on ballet, but there is increasing research on other dance forms. Lower extremity and back injuries predominate. Injury prevention, both primary and secondary, is at the heart of dance medicine. Primary prevention includes preseason conditioning, identifying risk factors for injury, and recognizing the female athlete triad. Secondary prevention includes a comprehensive approach to injury rehabilitation, an appreciation for the unique demands of dance, and an understanding of the particulars of the injury being treated. Dancers may have difficulty accessing medical care or following prescribed advice; the proactive clinician will anticipate these situations. PMID:26561765

  15. Minimizing Liability Risks of Head and Neck Injuries in Football

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Weis, Michael P.; Gartland, James M.; Weis, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    Although catastrophic head and neck injuries in football occur infrequently, their occurrence is almost always followed by litigation. The athletic trainer has to be sure he/she has adequate liability insurance to cover the costs of a defense and a possible judgment. General claims filed against athletic staffs usually deal with instruction, equipment, matching of participants, supervision, and/or postinjury care. The defenses to these claims include: statutory immunity, assumption of risk, r...

  16. Citius, Altius, Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes: Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The motto of the Olympic Games is Citius, Altius, Fortius which is Latin for 'Faster, Higher, Stronger'. It is a clarion call to all competitors, including the youngest, to engage in training strategies that prepare athletes to be the best in the world. Existing research indicates that various forms of resistance training can elicit performance improvements in young athletes. Stronger young athletes will be better prepared to learn complex movements, master sport tactics, and sustain the demands of training and competition. An integrative training programme grounded in resistance training and motor skill development can optimise a young athlete's potential to maximise their athletic and sporting performance, while reducing the risk of a sports-related injury. Resistance training may be especially important for modern-day young athletes who are more likely to specialise in one sport at an early age at the expense of enhancing general physical fitness and learning diversified sport skills. Structured interventions that include qualified instruction; targeted movement practice; and strength and conditioning activities that are developmentally appropriate, progressive and technique driven are needed to attain a level of athleticism that is consistent with the Olympic motto. PMID:26089321

  17. Citius, Altius, Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes: Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The motto of the Olympic Games is Citius, Altius, Fortius which is Latin for 'Faster, Higher, Stronger'. It is a clarion call to all competitors, including the youngest, to engage in training strategies that prepare athletes to be the best in the world. Existing research indicates that various forms of resistance training can elicit performance improvements in young athletes. Stronger young athletes will be better prepared to learn complex movements, master sport tactics, and sustain the demands of training and competition. An integrative training programme grounded in resistance training and motor skill development can optimise a young athlete's potential to maximise their athletic and sporting performance, while reducing the risk of a sports-related injury. Resistance training may be especially important for modern-day young athletes who are more likely to specialise in one sport at an early age at the expense of enhancing general physical fitness and learning diversified sport skills. Structured interventions that include qualified instruction; targeted movement practice; and strength and conditioning activities that are developmentally appropriate, progressive and technique driven are needed to attain a level of athleticism that is consistent with the Olympic motto.

  18. Risk and trigger factors for the development of eating disorders in female elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1994-04-01

    This study examined risk factors and triggers for eating disorders in female athletes. Subjects included were all of the elite female athletes in Norway (N = 603), ages 12-35 yr, representing six groups of sports: technical, endurance, aesthetic, weight dependent, ball games, and power sports. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used to classify individuals at risk for eating disorders. Of the 117 athletes defined at risk, 103 were administered a structured clinical interview for eating disorders. A comparison group was also interviewed, consisting of 30 athletes chosen at random from a pool not at risk and matched to the at-risk subjects on age, community of residence, and sport. Ninety-two of the at-risk athletes met criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia athletica. The prevalence of eating disorders was higher in sports emphasizing leanness or a specific weight than in sports where these are less important. Compared with controls, eating disordered athletes began both sports-specific training and dieting earlier, and felt that puberty occurred too early for optimal performance. Trigger factors associated with the onset of eating disorders were prolonged periods of dieting, frequent weight fluctuations, a sudden increase in training volume, and traumatic events such as injury or loss of a coach. PMID:8201895

  19. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  20. TIBIAL BONE DENSITY IN ATHLETES WITH MEDIAL TIBIAL STRESS SYNDROME: A CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengizhan Özgürbüz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS is a common overuse injury of the lower extremity predominantly observed in weight bearing activities. Knowledge about the pathological lesions and their pathophysiology is still limited. Only a single study was found to have investigated tibial bone density in the pain region, revealing lower density in athletes with long standing (range, 5-120 month MTSS. In a follow-up study, bone density was determined to return to normal levels after recovery. The purpose of the present study was to investigate tibial bone density in athletes with shorter MTSS history (range, 3-10 weeks. A total of 11 athletes (7 males, 4 females diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome were included in the study. The control group consisted of 11 regularly exercising individuals (7 males, 4 females. Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total calcium intake was calculated by evaluating detailed nutrition history. No statistically significant differences were found in the tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities between the groups. No statistically significant difference was found among groups, considering for calcium intake. Tibial bone densities were not lower in athletes with MTSS of 5.0 weeks mean duration (range, 3-10 weeks compared to the healthy control group. Longitudinal studies with regular tibial bone density measurements in heavily trained athletes are necessary to investigate tibial density alterations in MTSS developing athletes during the course of the symptoms

  1. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: How Vulnerable Are Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses chronic fatigue syndrome as it affects elite athletes, noting that overtraining may mimic it. In some cases, athletes who have it perform exceedingly well in the face of debilitating fatigue. Among athletes and nonathletes, the cause and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)

  2. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  3. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  4. Personality and motivation of top athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the differences in personality structure and the motivational structure of top athletes and athletes and male and female athletes, and we also looked for the interactive effect of sport success and gender. We also investigated anxiety in the mentioned groups. We gathered the results from 385 athletes, divided into two groups according to their success. World class athletes and international class athletes, as categorized according to the Slovenian Olympic committee, were assigned to "top athletes" group, whereas those with the perspective, national and youth class were assigned to the group of "athletes". We found no effect of sport success in the personality structure and anxiety, while we found that successful athletes are more competitive, have stronger win orientation, stronger need for power and stronger need for success and are more self – motivated. Differences between male and female athletes have demonstrated themselves to be significant in all three investigated areas – female athletes are more failure avoidant in the motivational scope of our investigation, express a higher level of state and trait anxiety than male athletes, and are less emotionally stable and are more agreeable as far as personality is concerned. We found no interactive effect of sport success and sex in any of the investigated areas.

  5. Smokeless Tobacco Education for College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia J.

    2001-01-01

    Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…

  6. Intercollegiate Athletics Subsidies: A Regressive Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhart, Matthew; Vedder, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For most colleges and universities in the United States, intercollegiate athletics is a losing financial proposition. The vast majority ICA departments do not break even and require subsidization from the institution as a whole. When schools are forced to heavily subsidize athletics, ICA serves to impose an "athletics tax" on other dimensions of…

  7. Organized Athletics as a Leisure Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Thomas R.; Mendell, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Athletic programs are leisure time delivery systems for the athletes, spectators, and the local community as long as scholarships and extensive media coverage are not involved. College administration should make sure that sports and athletics do not become a delivery sytem for public relations and finance. (CJ)

  8. Stress fractures in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, S; Jormakka, E; Hulkko, A

    1981-01-01

    In a series of 16 cases of stress fractures in 15-year-old and younger athletes 8 fractures occurred in boys and 8 in girls. There were no differences between the sexes in the athletes' training habits. Ten of the fractures were located at the tibia, seven at its upper third and three at the lower part of the bone. Three fractures were found in the fibula, in the metatarsal bones two stress fractures and in the femur one stress fracture. Most stress fractures were caused by endurance type sports. The daily training distances were not particularly high at the time of the onset of the symptoms. In most cases the diagnosis was based on a radiological evaluation. A sufficiently long pause from all athletic activity was enough treatment. Stress fractures in children are very uncommon. PMID:7295000

  9. A Review of Treatments for Iliotibial Band Syndrome in the Athletic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Corey; Flanigan, David

    2013-01-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common injury in runners and other long distance athletes with the best management options not clearly established. This review outlines both the conservative and surgical options for the treatment of iliotibial band syndrome in the athletic population. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria by focusing on the athletic population in their discussion of the treatment for iliotibial band syndrome, both conservative and surgical. Conservative management consisting of a combination of rest (2-6 weeks), stretching, pain management, and modification of running habits produced a 44% complete cure rate, with return to sport at 8 weeks and a 91.7% cure rate with return to sport at 6 months after injury. Surgical therapy, often only used for refractory cases, consisted of excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band or bursectomy. Those studies focusing on the excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band showed a 100% return to sport rate at both 7 weeks and 3 months after injury. Despite many options for both surgical and conservative treatment, there has yet to be consensus on one standard of care. Certain treatments, both conservative and surgical, in our review are shown to be more effective than others; however, further research is needed to delineate the true pathophysiology of iliotibial band syndrome in athletes, as well as the optimal treatment regimen.

  10. A Review of Treatments for Iliotibial Band Syndrome in the Athletic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Beals

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS is a common injury in runners and other long distance athletes with the best management options not clearly established. This review outlines both the conservative and surgical options for the treatment of iliotibial band syndrome in the athletic population. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria by focusing on the athletic population in their discussion of the treatment for iliotibial band syndrome, both conservative and surgical. Conservative management consisting of a combination of rest (2–6 weeks, stretching, pain management, and modification of running habits produced a 44% complete cure rate, with return to sport at 8 weeks and a 91.7% cure rate with return to sport at 6 months after injury. Surgical therapy, often only used for refractory cases, consisted of excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band or bursectomy. Those studies focusing on the excision or release of the pathologic distal portion of the iliotibial band showed a 100% return to sport rate at both 7 weeks and 3 months after injury. Despite many options for both surgical and conservative treatment, there has yet to be consensus on one standard of care. Certain treatments, both conservative and surgical, in our review are shown to be more effective than others; however, further research is needed to delineate the true pathophysiology of iliotibial band syndrome in athletes, as well as the optimal treatment regimen.

  11. Mandatory mouthguard rules for high school athletes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    High school athletes seem particularly predisposed to dental injury, but athletic mouthguards have an excellent track record of success in reducing the severity and incidence of dental injuries in sports. Therefore, it has been suggested that mouthguards be made mandatory for high school athletes who participate in sports with risk of injury. The National Federation of State High School Associations currently recommends that mouthguards be mandated for high school football, lacrosse, ice hockey, and field hockey players as well as for wrestlers who are wearing orthodontic appliances. Different states have tried to mandate additional sports with varying degrees of success. This article summarizes the process that leads to rule changes for high school athletes at the national level and discusses the history of 4 states--Minnesota, Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts--that have tried to mandate mouthguards for different sports. Common complaints that lead to the cessation of mouthguard rules, such as speech considerations, breathing ability, and cleanliness, are discussed. PMID:26545273

  12. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I; Rideout, Candice A

    2004-01-01

    With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss. PMID:15212753

  13. Pathologies of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon and its investments in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    Those who have dedicated significant time to the study and care of stick-and-ball athletes have an appreciation for the unique anatomy, unusual forces, and proclivity for injury. It is imperative that hand surgeons involved in the care of baseball, hockey, tennis, and golf athletes appreciate the anatomic and mechanical elements of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) pathology. It is necessary to maintain a high level of suspicion for ECU problems, among other ulnar wrist pathologies, as well as acute diagnostic skill and a portfolio of therapeutic alternatives for their treatment. PMID:22883879

  14. Basketball players' experience of dental injury and awareness about mouthguard in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenli

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe the occurrence of orofacial, particularly dental injuries in basketball, and to survey the athletes' awareness concerning the use of mouthguards during basketball training and competition. A pilot questionnaire was designed and tested with basketball players. Two hundred and thirty-six male athletes were surveyed. Seventy-seven players were professional players. Exactly 80.6% professionals and 37.7% semi-professional athletes had an experience of oral soft tissue laceration and dental injuries in basketball practice. The difference between the two groups is significant. The incidence of dental and oral injuries was related to the length of training time. About 59% of the athletes ranked the risk of orofacial and dental injury in basketball as medium. Although the awareness of mouthguards among the basketball players was very high (80.1%), only one of them had used the custom-made mouthguard. Most of the athletes gained the knowledge about mouthguards from foreign players (33.5%), media (24.8%) and teammates/classmates (24.3%). The influence of dentists was very weak. Athletes should be informed about the high risk of oral injuries when participating in contact sports. Dentists should play a more significant role in the program of promoting mouthguard use to prevent the occurrence of oral injury in sport participation. PMID:18721342

  15. COMPOSITION OF THE ATHLETES DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Salaj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with many of research papers published annually. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health. The aim of this article is to summarize knowledges about sports nutrition, especially intake of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary supplements and their influence on the performance and recovery of the athlete.doi:10.5219/126 

  16. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p BJJ athletes.

  17. Sports causing most injuries in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K M; Yuan, Y; Li, C K; Chien, P; Tsang, G

    1993-12-01

    A prospective survey was carried out on 2293 patients attending the Sports Injury Clinic in the Prince of Wales Hospital between May 1984 and December 1990. A Sports Injury Report Form was completed for each patient. Subjects in this study represent a group of nonprofessional and non-élite athletes in a metropolitan area. Soccer, basketball, volleyball, long-distance running and cycling in descending order were the five most common sports causing injury. Different sports produced different injury patterns. In four of the five sports, the knee (27.27-50.47%) and the ankle (16.78-24.67%) were the commonest sites of injury. In cycling, the face (19.46%) was the commonest site of injury. There was a higher injury rate to the lower than the upper limb in soccer, basketball, volleyball and long-distance running, with a ratio of upper- to lower-limb injury ranging from 1:1.13 to 1:46.10. In cycling, upper limb injury was more frequent (upper- to lower-limb injury ratio was 1:0.53). Sprain was the commonest injury overall (44.60%). It was also the commonest injury condition in volleyball (55.15%), basketball (55.34%), soccer (51.41%) and long-distance running (39.33%). In cycling, abrasion (24.83%) was commonest. PMID:8130966

  18. Imaging of hamstring injuries: therapeutic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though recent research into the diagnosis and management of hamstring disorders has resulted in early and accurate recognition of injury, hamstring strain remains the most common form of muscle injury in the active population. With prompt recognition of hamstring strain, an appropriate rest and rehabilitation routine may be devised by the sports clinician in the hope of avoiding future and possibly more debilitating injury. As such, imaging has played a pivotal role in assisting athletes, both elite and recreational, in returning to activity expeditiously. (orig.)

  19. Management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Bedi, Asheesh; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are among the most common shoulder girdle injuries in athletes and most commonly result from a direct force to the acromion with the arm in an adducted position. Acromioclavicular joint injuries often present with associated injuries to the glenohumeral joint, including an increased incidence of superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears that may warrant further evaluation and treatment. Anteroposterior stability of the acromioclavicular joint is conferred by the capsule and acromioclavicular ligaments, of which the posterior and superior ligaments are the strongest. Superior-inferior stability is maintained by the coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid) ligaments. Type-I or type-II acromioclavicular joint injuries have been treated with sling immobilization, early shoulder motion, and physical therapy, with favorable outcomes. Return to activity can occur when normal shoulder motion and strength are obtained and the shoulder is asymptomatic as compared with the contralateral normal extremity. The management of type-III injuries remains controversial and is individualized. While a return to the previous level of functional activity with nonsurgical treatment has been documented in a number of case series, surgical reduction and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction has been associated with a favorable outcome and can be considered in patients who place high functional demands on their shoulders or in athletes who participate in overhead sports. Surgical management is indicated for high-grade (≥type IV) acromioclavicular joint injuries to achieve anatomic reduction of the acromioclavicular joint, reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and repair of the deltotrapezial fascia. Outcomes after surgical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments have been satisfactory with regard to achieving pain relief and return to functional activities, but further improvements in the biomechanical strength of these

  20. The special olympics healthy athletes experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Special Olympics is the largest sports organization in the world serving athletes with intellectual disabilities. Because of their unique needs, Special Olympics has designed a multitude of programs specifically for athletes with intellectual disabilities, including the world's largest public health screening program for people with intellectual disabilities, known as the Special Olympics Healthy Athletes Program. This article describes the Healthy Athletes program and some of the results of the program within the context of impacting health care professional education with respect to athletes with intellectual disabilities.

  1. Dual career pathways of transnational athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Ronkainen, Noora;

    2015-01-01

    a conceptual framework for the taxonomy of transnational dual careers (DC). Design and method Narrative inquiry from the life story perspective was used to elicit and analyze career narratives of six transnational athletes (3 male and 3 female), generating about five interview hours per athlete......Objectives Transnationalism, as part of the globalization processes, has transformed the lifestyle and the course of athletes' careers. This presents previously unexplored challenges encountered by student-athletes in combining athletic and academic pursuits. In this article, we propose...

  2. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p injuries that occurred in training sessions (χ = 14.53; p injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had injuries in the lower limbs in the last year. A poor FMS score was observed, and lower scores in the FMS were associated with a higher risk of injury in BJJ athletes. PMID:26808855

  3. Assessment of balance among adolescent track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Adam C; Holmes, Megan E; Chander, Harish; Kimble, Amari; Stewart, Joshua Ty

    2016-06-01

    Track and field events place different demands on athletes and may have an effect on balance. This study investigated the effects of event specialty, gender, and leg dominance on balance among adolescent track and field athletes. Forty healthy adolescent track and field athletes (male = 23, female = 17) categorised into three different groups (sprinter = 20, distance runners = 13, throwers = 7) had their single leg static balance measured with the eyes open and the eyes closed using an AMTI force platform. Dependent variables included average displacement (cm) of the centre of pressure (COP) in the anterior/posterior direction and medial/lateral directions, the average velocity of the COP (cm/s) and the 95% ellipse area (cm(2)). Variables were analysed using a 3 (event specialty) × 2 (gender) × 2 (leg) ANOVA with repeated measures on the leg variable (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the average displacement of the COP in the medial/lateral direction for both the eyes open and closed condition, with the non-dominant leg demonstrating greater displacement than the dominant leg. This might increase the risk of injury for the non-dominant leg, but additional data should be collected and analysed on both dynamic balance and performance.

  4. Assessment of balance among adolescent track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Adam C; Holmes, Megan E; Chander, Harish; Kimble, Amari; Stewart, Joshua Ty

    2016-06-01

    Track and field events place different demands on athletes and may have an effect on balance. This study investigated the effects of event specialty, gender, and leg dominance on balance among adolescent track and field athletes. Forty healthy adolescent track and field athletes (male = 23, female = 17) categorised into three different groups (sprinter = 20, distance runners = 13, throwers = 7) had their single leg static balance measured with the eyes open and the eyes closed using an AMTI force platform. Dependent variables included average displacement (cm) of the centre of pressure (COP) in the anterior/posterior direction and medial/lateral directions, the average velocity of the COP (cm/s) and the 95% ellipse area (cm(2)). Variables were analysed using a 3 (event specialty) × 2 (gender) × 2 (leg) ANOVA with repeated measures on the leg variable (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the average displacement of the COP in the medial/lateral direction for both the eyes open and closed condition, with the non-dominant leg demonstrating greater displacement than the dominant leg. This might increase the risk of injury for the non-dominant leg, but additional data should be collected and analysed on both dynamic balance and performance. PMID:27111401

  5. Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ezechieli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE. The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE. Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.

  6. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  7. [Injury pattern in a sports club with its own sports physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredberg, U; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, P

    1997-05-19

    As the first Danish athletic association, TST-79 in 1995 appointed a permanent sports doctor for use by all its members. We publish the results of the first year. Seventeen percent of all handball players and 11% of all football players were seen in the consultation. The athletes were between 10 and 69 years old. Seventy-eight percent of the injured athletes could be diagnosed, instructed and, if necessary, treated after one consultation. Eight percent were sent for further examination at a hospital. Ultrasound examinations were necessary for establishing the diagnosis in 10% of the injured athletes. Some of the injuries were serious, and would probably not have been seen if the athletes did not have the possibility of consulting a sports doctor. This would increase the risk of chronic injury. It is suggested that a permanent arrangement with a sports doctor is an economically reasonable investment. PMID:9199001

  8. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  9. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  10. The Institution's Obligations to Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda A.; Sheilley, Holly K.

    2008-01-01

    Many commentators have noted that growing commercialization of college sports has made it increasingly difficult for universities to reconcile the gap between college sports and the fundamental mission of higher education. This article considers those individuals who choose to be a student athlete in good faith, and suggests strategies that can be…

  11. Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

  12. Collegiate Athletes and Career Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Jennifer L.; Strear, Molly M.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Henderson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Given the unique experiences of collegiate athletes and the need to facilitate their transition as they complete postsecondary education and join the workforce, the present study sought to evaluate a group-administered career development program at a US university focused on preparing students for the transition into professional life upon…

  13. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  14. Athletic Excellence and National Glory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Athens Olympic Games marked a watershed in Chinesesporting history. China's remarkable achievements, second only tothose of America, placed indelibly it on the list of powerful sportingnations. More important, China's most celebrated athlete, 110-meterhurdle gold medallist Liu Xiang, banished forever the myth that Asianathletes do not measure up to those of Europe or the USA.

  15. Paralympic Athletes and "Knowing Disability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article explores non-disabled young people's understandings of Paralympic athletes and the disability sports they play. The article examines how society has come to know disability by discussing medical and social model views of disability. The conceptual tools offered by Pierre Bourdieu are utilised as a means of understanding the nature and…

  16. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Dragoo

    2011-01-01

    .80 ng/mL, and those not using hormonal contraceptives (6.99 ng/mL, P < 0.0001.Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between serum progesterone and SRC and an attenuation of SRC with hormonal contraceptive use. Our results underscore the significant role that hormonal contraceptives can play in decreasing relaxin levels, if future investigations establish a link between relaxin levels and ligamentous injury among female athletes.Keywords: hormones, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle

  17. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  18. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  20. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  1. Spectrum of injuries associated with paediatric ACL tears: an MRI pictorial review

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob L Jaremko; Ghuenter, Zachary D; Jans, Lennart; MacMahon, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are well known, but most published reviews show obvious examples of associated injuries and give little focus to paediatric patients. Here, we demonstrate the spectrum of MRI appearances at common sites of associated injury in adolescents with ACL tears, emphasising age-specific issues. Methods Pictorial review using images from children with surgically confirmed ACL tears after athletic injury. Res...

  2. The Incidence of Injury Among Male and Female Intercollegiate Rugby Players

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Karen Y.; Johnston, Dana A.; Owens, Brett D.; Cameron, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The National Collegiate Athletic Association classifies women’s rugby as an emerging sport. Few studies have examined the injury rates in women’s collegiate rugby or compared injury rates between sexes. Hypothesis: Injury rates will differ between female and male intercollegiate club rugby players. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Five years of injury data were collected from the men’s and women’s rugby teams at a US service academy using the institution’s...

  3. Restoration from Taishan Ganoderma after repetitive motion injury and repair of skeletal muscle micro-movement of Wushu athletes fatigue%从泰山赤灵芝对重复运动后骨骼肌微损伤修复探讨武术运动员的运动疲劳的恢复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 吕晨曦

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Discussion Taishan Ganoderma variation in rat skeletal muscle injury after high intensity micro repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise)restoration,study of martial arts athletes in training to give appropriate treatment of skeletal muscle micro amount of Taishan Ganoderma lucidum drug intervention to help sport rehabilitation and sports injury fatigue recovery. Methods:Male 52 SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group,the experimental group. Animal model of repetitive motion:Rats in a treadmill downhill running speed 18m/min,the slope of -16 degrees,the re-petitive motion of the high-intensity( exhaustive exercise). Set up an experimental group( feeding Taishan Ganoderma lu-cidum decoction),the control group,the same repeated exhaustive exercise,at the same time point the control group,the experimental group after the high-intensity repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise)femoral four muscle,while the experi-mental group therapeutic dose Taishan Ganoderma lucidum feeding study drug would affect the skeletal muscle micro-inju-ry variation of the repetitive motion of the high-intensity,observe the control group,the experimental group high intensity exercise( repetitive motion)under rat skeletal muscle ultrastructure study the variation. The results supplement Taishan Ganoderma repetitive motion training in rat skeletal muscle ultrastructure variation studies have shown that:the use of the same high - intensity repetitive motion( exhaustive exercise ) TEM supplement Taishan Ganoderma lucidum rats,the process of bone the degree of muscle ultrastructural changes be seen that the rat quadriceps micro damage have significantly improved,but still showed irregular arrangement myofibrillar sarcomere incomplete,Z line thinning,muscle wire curl. Conclusion:intensity exercise skeletal muscle ultrastructure spectrum variation and skeletal muscle micro-injury or fatigue adaptive mechanism can complement the Taishan Ganoderma process,at the same time bring

  4. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your testicles might get hit or kicked, like football, hockey, soccer, or karate. An athletic supporter, or ... a Guy. How Can I Talk to My Female Doctor About Certain Things? Testicular Exams How to ...

  5. Effect of shoulder taping on maximum shoulder external and internal rotation range in uninjured and previously injured overhead athletes during a seated throw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jenny; Donnelly, Cyril; Hamner, Samuel; Dunne, James; Besier, Thor

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether shoulder taping affects shoulder kinematics in injured and previously injured overhead athletes during a seated throw. Twenty-six overhead college athletes threw a handball three times with and without tape, while seated on a chair. An 8-camera Vicon Motion Capture system recorded markers placed on the upper limb and trunk during each of the throwing conditions. Scaled musculoskeletal models of the upper limb were created using OpenSim and inverse kinematics used to obtain relevant joint angles. Shoulder taping had no main effect on external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation range (ROM) of the shoulder, but a significant interaction effect was found (p = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively), depending on previous injury status, whereby both the ER and IR ROM of the shoulder in the group of previously injured athletes decreased when taped (143-138° and 54-51°, respectively), but increased in the group who had never been injured (131-135° and 42-44°, respectively). Maximum abduction range and ball velocity were not affected by the application of shoulder taping, regardless of previous injury status. Thus, application of shoulder taping has a differential effect on maximum shoulder ER and IR ROM during throwing depending on previous injury status. These findings have implications for returning athletes to sport after injury and for screening athletes at risk of injury. PMID:21437968

  6. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Peter D; Kocher, Mininder S

    2016-10-01

    Dramatic increases in youth competitive athletic activity, early sport specialization, and year-round training and competition, along with increased awareness of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children, have led to a commensurate increase in the frequency of ACL tears in the skeletally immature. Recent understanding of the risks of nonoperative treatment and surgical delay have supported a trend toward early operative treatment. This article discusses treatment strategies for ACL injuries in children and adolescents, and offers our preferred treatment strategy for skeletally immature youth athletes with ACL tears. PMID:27637664

  7. Hip adductors' strength, flexibility, and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2009-08-01

    The hip adductor muscle group plays an important role in both movement and stability at the hip joint in many athletic pursuits. Injury to this muscle group has been reported in a number of sports, among them, ice hockey, soccer, Australian football, and swimming. The identification of muscle characteristics that predispose a muscle to injury is an important step in developing conditioning programs to reduce injury risk. Muscle strength and range of motion are 2 parameters that may influence injury risk. The aim of this review was to examine the relationship between hip adductors' strength, flexibility, and injury risk. Strength testing has involved isokinetic or hand-held dynamometry. Flexibility has usually been assessed by goniometry during maximal hip abduction. An association has been reported between adductor strength deficits and injury for ice hockey players. Low adductor flexibility has also been identified as a risk factor for injury in soccer players. An intervention program that strengthened the hip adductors had some success in reducing injury risk for ice hockey players. There is some low- to moderate-level evidence from cohort studies to suggest that flexibility and strength are related to injury risk in particular sports and that an intervention program may be effective in reducing injury risk. Higher level evidence from randomized controlled trials is required to firmly establish the link between hip adductor flexibility, strength, and injury. PMID:19620912

  8. Sports injuries to the upper extremity. How to recognize and deal with some common problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, W P

    1984-09-15

    Upper extremity syndromes caused by a single stress or by repetitive microtrauma occur in a variety of sports. The throwing motion, long-distance swimming, bowling, golf, gymnastics, basketball, volleyball, and field events can repetitively stress the hand, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. The biomechanical evaluation of racquet handling, throwing, and swimming motions has progressed considerably, and the future looks promising for better identification and prevention of sports injuries due to stress. These insights will help the physician more adequately understand and treat athletic injuries. As for the present, we must recognize athletic injuries for what they are--debilitating single or repetitive trauma to active persons who want a rapid return to their sport. The goal of both the injured athlete and the treating physician must be 100% recovery; compromise in treatment is not warranted. To achieve the best results, the physician should emphasize to the athlete, coach, and parent that healing is a matter of time. PMID:6473225

  9. Attention and Reaction Time in Shotokan Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António VencesBrito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS, Choice Reaction Time (TRE, Decision Time (TD and the Distributed Attention (AD. Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 yr and more than 35 yr, level of graduation (9th to 4th kyu, 3rd to 1st kyu, DAN and by gender (male and female. Male athletes present significant differences from female athletes in height, weight, years of practice and body fat mass. In relation to TRS all groups tend to a value near to 300 ms without significant differences among them, but the TRE and the TD are significantly higher in the Dan athletes and in the +35 yrs athletes than in the other groups. On the other hand the Dan and +35 yrs athletes tend to do less mistakes. Gender does not influence significantly the reaction time in the Shotokan karate athletes, but it seems that women tend to have smaller reaction times than men. Athletes with more years of practice and more graduation need more time to reply to the stimulus than the other athletes, but they tend to do fewer mistakes on their choices than other subjects. As for distributed attention, no significant differences were found in function of the athlete graduation, nor in function of gender. However, for distributed attention, we found statistical significant differences in function of the age, with the oldest athletes presenting lower levels of distributed attention. Our results seem to show that is necessary to do some modifications in the training process of Portuguese Shotokan karate athletes.

  10. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP and return to activity criteria (RTAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logerstedt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  11. The relationship between Taekwondo training habits and injury: a survey of a collegiate Taekwondo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covarrubias N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Covarrubias,1 Subir Bhatia,2 Luis F Campos,3 Dahn V Nguyen,2,3 Eric Y Chang1,4,51Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 2School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, Irvine, CA, USA; 4Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 5Reeve-Irvine Research Center, Irvine, CA, USA Objective: To correlate training habits of Taekwondo (TKD athletes to risk for injury. Background: TKD is a Korean marital art that has been growing in popularity, with nearly 2 million individuals practicing the sport in the United States. Because of the combative nature of the sport, injuries are an inherent risk. However, data on proper training habits, types of injuries sustained during training, and recommendations for athletes to avoid injury are lacking. Frequently, studies of TKD evaluate athletes’ injuries during tournaments, but most do not evaluate athletes in training. Hypothesis: Increased training would potentially create more injuries secondary to increased exposure. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational survey of 72 collegiate TKD athletes from the Pacific West Sanctioned Taekwondo Tournaments in the 2008–2009 season. Variables analyzed during training and competitions were training sessions per week, workout habits, belt level, years of experience, and characteristics of injury (location, type, mechanism, situation, treatment, and days missed. Results: TKD training habits of individuals who practiced four or more times per week (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; P=0.005 or sparred for more than 2 hours (OR, 8.7; P=0.003 were associated with significantly increased odds (risk of sustaining an injury. Those who had more than 3 years of tournament experience were more likely to sustain an injury (OR, 0.198; P=0.020. Conclusion: Increased risk for injury

  12. Contemporary Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics--An Annotated Bibliography and Proposed Course Outline: "Contemporary Issues in Collegiate Sports."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Although sport has reached the pinnacle of success, there remain serious questions regarding the role it plays in education. An annotated bibliography of athletics and a course outline are presented with topics including: history, amateurism, violence, injuries,and the mass media. (MLW)

  13. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention.

  14. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. PMID:27621677

  15. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. PMID:27621677

  16. Sex-based differences in knee ligament biomechanics during robotically simulated athletic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-06-14

    ACL injury rates are greater in female athletes than their male counterparts. As female athletes are at increased risk, it is important to understand the underlying mechanics that contribute to this sex bias. The purpose of this investigation was to employ a robotic manipulator to simulate male and female kinematics from athletic tasks on cadaveric specimens and identify sex-based mechanical differences relative to the ACL loading. It was hypothesized that simulations of female motion would generate the higher loads and ligament strains associated with in vivo ACL injury risk than simulations of male motion. A 6-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator articulated cadaveric lower extremity specimens from 12 donors through simulations of in vivo kinematics recorded from male and female athletic tasks. Simulation of female kinematics exhibited lower peak lateral joint force during the drop vertical jump and lower peak anterior and lateral joint force and external joint torque during the sidestep cut (Pdrop vertical jump was 6.27% and 6.61% for the female and male kinematic simulations, respectively (P=0.86). Peak ACL strain during a sidestep cut was 4.33% and 7.57% for female and male kinematic simulations respectively (P=0.21). For the tasks simulated, the sex-based loading and strain differences identified were unlikely to have a significant bearing on the increased rate of ACL injures observed in female athletes. Additional perturbation may be necessary to invoke the mechanisms that lead to higher rates of ACL injury in female populations. PMID:27083058

  17. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723

  18. Tibial bone density in athletes with medial tibial stress syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgürbüz, Cengizhan; Yüksel, Oğuz; Ergün, Metin; Işlegen, Cetin; Taskiran, Emin; Denerel, Nevzad; Karamizrak, Oğuz

    2011-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injury of the lower extremity predominantly observed in weight bearing activities. Knowledge about the pathological lesions and their pathophysiology is still limited. Only a single study was found to have investigated tibial bone density in the pain region, revealing lower density in athletes with long standing (range, 5-120 month) MTSS. In a follow-up study, bone density was determined to return to normal levels after recovery. The purpose of the present study was to investigate tibial bone density in athletes with shorter MTSS history (range, 3-10 weeks). A total of 11 athletes (7 males, 4 females) diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome were included in the study. The control group consisted of 11 regularly exercising individuals (7 males, 4 females). Tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Total calcium intake was calculated by evaluating detailed nutrition history. No statistically significant differences were found in the tibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities between the groups. No statistically significant difference was found among groups, considering for calcium intake. Tibial bone densities were not lower in athletes with MTSS of 5.0 weeks mean duration (range, 3-10 weeks) compared to the healthy control group. Longitudinal studies with regular tibial bone density measurements in heavily trained athletes are necessary to investigate tibial density alterations in MTSS developing athletes during the course of the symptoms. Key pointsTibial, femoral and vertebral bone densities were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.No differences were found between the MTSS group (MTSS history 3-10 weeks) and the healthy athletes group.

  19. Against Genetic Tests for Athletic Talent: The Primacy of the Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loland, Sigmund

    2015-09-01

    New insights into the genetics of sport performance lead to new areas of application. One area is the use of genetic tests to identify athletic talent. Athletic performances involve a high number of complex phenotypical traits. Based on the ACCE model (review of Analytic and Clinical validity, Clinical utility, and Ethical, legal and social implications), a critique is offered of the lack of validity and predictive power of genetic tests for talent. Based on the ideal of children's right to an open future, a moral argument is given against such tests on children and young athletes. A possible role of genetic tests in sport is proposed in terms of identifying predisposition for injury. In meeting ACCE requirements, such tests could improve individualised injury prevention and increase athlete health. More generally, limitations of science are discussed in the identification of talent and in the understanding of complex human performance phenotypes. An alternative approach to talent identification is proposed in terms of ethically sensitive, systematic and evidence-based holistic observation over time of relevant phenotypical traits by experienced observers. Talent identification in sport should be based on the primacy of the phenotype. PMID:26121951

  20. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Status and Baseline Neurocognitive Performance in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Christine M; Dean, Preston; LoGalbo, Anthony; Dougherty, Michael; Field, Melvin; Webbe, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 136,000 concussions occur annually in American high school sports. Neuropsychological data indicate that children with preexisting cognitive difficulties, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may have protracted recovery from concussion. ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in youth, may increase an athlete's vulnerability to sustaining sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). The preponderance of evidence focusing on TBI and ADHD has derived from motor vehicle accidents rather than sports-related incidents. Thus, it is paramount to explore how ADHD may relate to injury in the sports concussion context, as well as to assess how ADHD may affect baseline neurocognitive testing. Adolescent athletes with ADHD (n = 256) demonstrated significantly reduced Verbal Memory, Visual Motor, and Impulse Control index scores compared with their peers without ADHD (n = 256). Athletes with ADHD were nearly twice as likely to have sustained a prior concussion (ADHD, 14.1%; non-ADHD, 7.8%). Knowledge regarding the unique neurocognitive profile of athletes with ADHD may enhance clinical management decisions. PMID:26980407

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of delayed and non-union stress fractures in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1991-01-01

    Stress fractures in athletes usually heal well with merely rest and conservative treatment. It has been estimated that in Finland 400-500 athletic stress fractures occur annually per year. In sports clinic series stress fractures comprise 3.3 to 4.6 per cent of all overuse injuries. Delayed and non-union have been reported to occur in athletes quite often, up to 10 per cent of athletic stress fractures in Finland. The reason is on the one hand delayed diagnosis due to late consultation of expert physicians, and on the other hand too short a rest from hard physical activity. Delayed and non-union are most often seen in the hallux sesamoids, mid-tibial staft, base of fifth metatarsal, tarsal navicular and olecranon. The pars articularis of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebra is a site of stress fracture and spondylolysis. In this report the diagnosis, symptoms and findings as well as the operative treatment of these overuse injuries is discussed. PMID:1897885

  2. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC)

    OpenAIRE

    David Logerstedt; Amelia Arundale; Andrew Lynch; Lynn Snyder-Mackler

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and ...

  3. Review of MRI Technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the “sports hernia”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality.

  4. Review of MRI Technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the “sports hernia”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullens, Frank E. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zoga, Adam C., E-mail: Adam.zoga@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Morrison, William B. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Meyers, William C. [Chairman of Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality.

  5. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance. PMID:27003630

  6. Medical considerations for the master athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlis-Mayor, Stephanie

    2012-09-01

    As the American population ages, older adults are likely to continue their active lifestyles including participation in high-level competitive sports. Physicians caring for the older athlete will need to guide activity and return-to-play to optimize the athlete's performance, as well as safely support their physical and mental health. Many medical concerns of the older athlete have the same etiology and treatment as those of their younger counterpart However, there are medical considerations of the mature athlete that are unique to this population. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the medical considerations that may arise in the care of the older athlete. For the purpose of this review, the mature athlete is de!ned as an individual over the age of 40, who participates in sport at a competitive level.

  7. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Dadgostar Haleh; Razi Mohammad; Aleyasin Ashraf; Alenabi Talia; Dahaghin Saeideh

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same popu...

  8. Apophyseal damage in adolescent athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demands on the adolescent athlete in high perfomance sports puts high biomechanical stress on the growing structures of the active and passive locomotor system. The ''growing factor'' itself increases stretching forces on tendon insertions, which are often overloaded when a physical demanding sport is performed additionally. The apophysis is an ossification nucleus near the tendon insertion, which appears before the growing age resumes and these apophysis finally fuses with the adjacent bone. The tensile forces from vigorous sports activity leads to a chronic or acute avulsion of the ossifying tendon insertion. The radiological appearance of this apophyseal damage with ossification and osteolytic processes is sometimes difficult with respect to differential diagnoses. Apophyseal impairment is associated with pain, tenderness to palpation and decreased muscle function. If it is not diagnosed and treated properly it can lead to end of career in many adolescent athletes. (orig.)

  9. Career development workshop for athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Michel J.

    1985-01-01

    The Career Development Workshop For Athletes was designed to aid in the comprehensive career development effort at Virginia Tech. The pilot research project involved 40 active freshman varsity football players enrolled during Fall and Winter quarters of the 1984-85 school year. The 40 students were randomly selected from a pool of 65 freshman football players. The experimental design was a two stage stratification. The first stage was selection and the second stage was as...

  10. Recognition and Management of Athletic Pubalgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul R. Geisler; Ed.D; ATC

    2011-01-01

    Whether termed “sports hernias”,“hockey groin”,or “athletic pubalgia”,insidious onset and vague groin and hip maladies seem to be on the rise in the last few years,creating much confusion as to the best way to diagnosis and treat the multifaceted and complex conditions.Because of the vague nature of their clinical presentation,sports hernias and athletic pubalgia are complicated and multifaceted problems for clinicians and athletes to manage.

  11. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  12. Academic and Athletic Motivation as Predictors of Academic Performance of Division I College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…

  13. Examining Academic and Athletic Motivation among Student Athletes at a Division I University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston-Gayles, Joy L.

    2004-01-01

    Academic motivation as a predictor of academic performance for college athletes has been debated in the literature. This study examined the utility of academic and athletic motivation as a key variable in predicting academic performance among 211 college athletes at a Division I institution in the Midwest. After controlling for background…

  14. Academic Comparison of Athletes and Non-Athletes in a Rural High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Holt

    1998-01-01

    Compares academic performance, behavior, and commitment of basketball and volleyball athletes and nonathletes in a rural Canadian high school. Compares mid-term and final grades in each school discipline, disciplinary visits to administrators, and misbehavior demerits. Estimates athletes' mean weekly time commitment in each sport. Athletes matched…

  15. Undergraduate Athletic Training Education Program Directors' Perceptions of the Nature of Coupling with Intercollegiate Athletic Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Some research exists relative to the personnel relationship between athletic training education programs (ATEPs) and intercollegiate athletic departments, yet little research has examined program directors' general perceptions of coupling or coupling related to the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) standards of…

  16. Support Services for Student-Athletes: Assessing the Differences in Usage among Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rates of support services for student-athletes at a small, private college in the southeast with membership in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), in efforts to understand how universities and sport organizations can assist in the challenges student-athletes face when…

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Collegiate Athletes: Validation of the Athlete Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Kubas, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    Female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating than their nonathletic peers, but the psychological antecedents of this dysfunctional behavior in athletes have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to develop an athletics-oriented measure of psychological predictors of disordered eating and to test its initial…

  18. Misperceptions of the Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among College Students: Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Roland, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use and perceptions of the prevalence of marijuana use was assessed in a sample of intercollegiate athletes and a separate sample of primarily first-year non-athlete students at a northwestern public university. Marijuana use prevalence in the non-athlete sample was higher than the prevalence found in nationwide surveys…

  19. Injuries and overuse syndromes in competitive and elite bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J

    2014-10-01

    Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal.

  20. Injuries and overuse syndromes in competitive and elite bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J

    2014-10-01

    Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal. PMID:24886919