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Sample records for atherosclerotic risk factors

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严健华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis(ARAS) in patients undergoing coronary angiography.Methods A total of 2506 patients with suspected and known coronary

  2. ADIPONECTIN LEVELS AND ATHEROSCLEROTIC RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN ON HEMODIALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is the major cause of mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with hemodialysis (HD), even in children. Adiponectin (ADPN) is an adipocyte derived plasma protein having anti-atherogenic properties. ADPN levels are elevated in ESRD but it has been reported that ESRD patients with low plasma ADPN levels have a high risk of cardiovascular death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between ADPN and atherosclerotic risk factors in children on hemodialysis.Twenty-eight children (17 boys and 11girls) with a mean age of 10.6 ± 3.34 years undergoing hemodialysis (HD) for a mean period of 11.96 ± 8.32 months (ranged from 6 to 36 months) and 10 healthy age and sex matched control subjects were enrolled in this study. The acute effect of a hemodialysis session on serum ADPN and other atherosclerotic risk factors , including blood pressure, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed by comparison of pre- and post-hemodialysis determinations. Serum levels of ADPN and TNF-α were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) while CRP was measured by the semi-quantitative latex agglutination assay.The data showed that serum ADPN levels were twice higher in the HD group as compared to the control subjects. Concerning the atherosclerotic risk factors, TNF-α, CRP and triglycerides levels showed significant elevation in the HD group. Meanwhile, serum albumin, cholesterol and phosphorus levels showed significant decreases. The linear regression analysis showed that adiponectin was negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.68,P < 0.0001), and body mass index (r = -0.73, P < 0.0007); ADPN levels are directly related to HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001) and inversely related to triglycerides level (r = -0.63, P < 0.0003). No relationship was found between adiponectin and CRP.It could be concluded that

  3. Colesevelam hydrochloride: reducing atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk factors

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    Harold Bays

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Harold Bays1, Peter H Jones21L-MARC Research Center, Louisville KY, USA; 2Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Colesevelam HCl is a bile acid sequestrant (BAS which has been specifically designed with a unique structure for the purpose of improving tolerability and reducing potential drug interactions compared to older BAS, such as cholestyramine and colestipol. As a class, BAS are known to reduce cholesterol and glucose levels, and to reduce atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD risk as monotherapy, and in combination with other lipid-altering drug therapies. Colesevelam HCl has specifically been shown to reduce total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels, and has been approved as a cholesterol-lowering drug since year 2000. It has also been shown to reduce glucose levels. This discussion reviews mechanisms by which BAS lower cholesterol, and potential mechanisms by which BAS lower glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Finally this paper specifically reviews colesevelam HCl’s pharmacology, lipid and glucose efficacy, safety/tolerability, and clinical use.Keywords: cholesterol, colesevelam HCl, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, glucose, lipids

  4. A focus on inflammation as a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Ida; Holm, Sverre; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a dynamic, pathogenic process in the artery wall, with potential adverse outcome for the host. Acute events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke often result from rupture of unstable atherosclerotic lesions. Understanding the underlying pathology of such lesions and why and when they rupture, is therefore of great interest for the development of new diagnostics and treatment. Inflammation is one of the key drivers of atherosclerotic plaque development and the interplay between inflammation and lipids constitutes the hallmark of atherosclerotic disease. This review summarizes the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis and presents some of the latest discoveries as well as unmet needs regarding the role of inflammation as major risk factor in atherosclerotic disease.

  5. The association between atherosclerotic risk factors and renal function in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, JC; Hillege, HL; Burgerhof, JGM; Gansevoort, RT; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, PE

    2005-01-01

    Background. Generalized atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We questioned to what extent atherosclerotic risk factors determine renal function in the general population. Methods. We used baseline data of the Prevention of Renal and Vasc

  6. Frequency of physical activity, exercise capacity, and atherosclerotic heart disease risk factors in male police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M A; Petratis, M M; Baechle, T R; Ryschon, K L; Campain, J J; Sketch, M H

    1987-07-01

    A total of 171 male police officers volunteered to (1) assess risk factors for developing atherosclerotic heart disease and (2) evaluate the relationship of fitness to risk. Results revealed substantial numbers of officers with elevated risk: 22% were smokers, 76% had elevated cholesterol, 26% had elevated triglycerides, 16% had elevated BP, and 60% had elevated body fat. Increased fitness was associated with decreased risk. Compared with Group II (moderate fitness) or Group III (low fitness), Group I (high fitness) had significantly lower values of body fat, diastolic BP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, lipid ratios, triglycerides, and smoking incidence. Low fitness was associated with the highest prevalence of abnormal exercise tests. The results suggest (1) police officers have a high prevalence of risk and (2) increased fitness is associated with reduced risk.

  7. Serum adiponectin level in hypertensive patients and its association with atherosclerotic risk factors

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    Bülent Uygungelen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by white adipose tissue; it is known to have anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells and macrophages. Methods. A total of 80 individuals including 48 hypertensive and 32 normotensive individuals were included in the study. Groups were separated as obese and non-obese. Results. It was found out that the patient group had statistically higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, high sensitive C reactive protein and microalbuminuria values than the control group while high density lipoprotein values were significantly lower (p<0.05. When adiponectin levels of the groups were compared, the patient group had an adiponectin level of 8.66±2.75 µg/mL and the control group had an adiponectin level of 15.01±3.99 µg/mL. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups (p<0.05. There was a negative correlation between adiponectin level and atherosclerotic risk factors. Conclusion. Adiponectin level was lower in hypertensive group when compared to the control group; there was also a significant association between adiponectin and atherosclerotic risk factors. A low adiponectin level constitutes an important risk for development of atherosclerosis.

  8. Unfavorable Effects of Smoking on Atherosclerotic Risk Factors of Young Individuals

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    Zafer Isilak

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: It was documented that smoking was a significant atherosclerotic risk factor for adults. However reality of the initiation of atherosclerosis at childhood guided us to evaluate the probable effects of smoking on other atherosclerotic risk factors at young ages. METHODS: One hundred sixty four young subjects (age 21.14± 2.06 were enrolled. Participants were grouped as not smoking (n=48, ex-smoking (n=30, 1-3 cigarettes/day (n=26, a half package/day (n=26, a package/day (n=34. Body mass index (BMI of subjects were calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP were measured. Carotid intima media thickness (IMT was measured by Logic5 pro Colour Doppler Device. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of subjects were measured from the serum obtained at 12 hour fasting state. IMT and IVSd were measured by transverse and 3S probes using. Statistical analysis was performed by One-way ANOVA test using SPSS 11.0 for Windows. RESULTS: BMI, SBP, and DBP were not different between groups (p=0.16. HDL cholesterol was significantly lowered whereas LDL cholesterol was significantly increased in group smoking one package/day. Also carotid IMT was increased in patients smoking one package/day compared to others but data was not statistically significant. Triglyceride level group. CONCLUSION: Smoking effects atherosclerotic risk factors unfavorably even at young ages. Thus smoking should be eradicated since earlier ages in order to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 193-198

  9. Atherosclerotic risk factors are increased in clinically healthy subjects with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G;

    1995-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality from atherosclerotic vascular disease were observed in subjects with slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), known as microalbuminuria. Therefore, the association between microalbuminuria and established atherogenic risk factors was studied...... and fasting serum insulin concentration were slightly elevated in the microalbuminuric group but not statistically significant. It is concluded that microalbuminuria in clinically healthy subjects is associated with increased levels of atherogenic risk factors. This may contribute to the increased vascular...... in clinically healthy subjects. All healthy 40-65 year-old participants with microalbuminuria, examined within the first 21 months of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, were invited, and 28 were studied. An age- and sex-matched group of 60 randomly chosen subjects with normoalbuminuria served as control...

  10. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD among a sample in India

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    Ku Melvin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD is increasing in India. Several modifiable risk factors contribute directly to this disease burden. Public knowledge of such risk factors among the urban Indian population is largely unknown. This investigation attempts to quantify knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD as sampled among an Indian population at a large metropolitan hospital. Methods A hospital-based, cross sectional study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, a major tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants (n = 217 recruited from patient waiting areas in the emergency room were provided with standardized questionnaires to assess their knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD. The risk factors specifically included smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Identifying 3 or less risk factors was regarded as a poor knowledge level, whereas identifying 4 or more risk factors was regarded as a good knowledge level. A multiple logistic regression model was used to isolate independent demographic markers predictive of a participant's level of knowledge. Results 41% of the sample surveyed had a good level of knowledge. 68%, 72%, 73% and 57% of the population identified smoking, obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol correctly, respectively. 30% identified diabetes mellitus as a modifiable risk factor of CASHD. In multiple logistic regression analysis independent demographic predictors of a good knowledge level with a statistically significant (p Conclusion An Indian population in a hospital setting shows a lack of knowledge pertaining to modifiable risk factors of CASHD. By isolating demographic predictors of poor knowledge, such as current smokers and persons who do not exercise regularly, educational interventions can be effectively targeted and implemented as primary and secondary prevention strategies

  11. Aspects of haemostatic function in healthy subjects with microalbuminuria--a potential atherosclerotic risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Myrup, B; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1995-01-01

    Microalbuminuria, i.e., slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), notifies increased risk for atherosclerotic disease and may reflect an early generalized vascular abnormality in healthy subjects. This study was designed in order to examine whether such abnormality is associated wi...

  12. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Their Association With Hospital Mortality Among Patients With First Myocardial Infarction (from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction)

    OpenAIRE

    Canto, John G.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Rogers, William J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Frederick, Paul D.; French, William J.; Gibson, C. Michael; Pollack, Charles V; Ornato, Joseph P.; Zalenski, Robert J.; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J.; Greenland, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined associations between atherosclerotic risk factors and short-term mortality after first myocardial infarction (MI). Histories of 5 traditional atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and family history of premature heart disease) and hospital mortality were examined among 542,008 patients with first MIs in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (1994 to 2006). On initial MI presentation, history of hypertens...

  13. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease with carpal tunnel syndrome

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    Liira Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of atherosclerosis in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS has not previously been addressed in population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, and clinical atherosclerotic diseases with CTS. Methods In this cross sectional study, the target population consisted of subjects aged 30 or over who had participated in the national Finnish Health Survey in 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4% were included in our study. Carotid IMT was measured in a sub-sample of subjects aged 45 to 74 (N = 1353. Results Obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-5.4, high LDL cholesterol (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.1 for >190 vs. 200 vs. Conclusions Our findings suggest an association between CTS and cardiovascular risk factors in young people, and carotid IMT and clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease in older people. CTS may either be a manifestation of atherosclerosis, or both conditions may share similar risk factors.

  14. Atherosclerotic risk factors and their association with hospital mortality among patients with first myocardial infarction (from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, John G; Kiefe, Catarina I; Rogers, William J; Peterson, Eric D; Frederick, Paul D; French, William J; Gibson, C Michael; Pollack, Charles V; Ornato, Joseph P; Zalenski, Robert J; Penney, Jan; Tiefenbrunn, Alan J; Greenland, Philip

    2012-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations between atherosclerotic risk factors and short-term mortality after first myocardial infarction (MI). Histories of 5 traditional atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and family history of premature heart disease) and hospital mortality were examined among 542,008 patients with first MIs in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (1994 to 2006). On initial MI presentation, history of hypertension (52.3%) was most common, followed by smoking (31.3%). The least common risk factor was diabetes (22.4%). Crude mortality was highest in patients with MI with diabetes (11.9%) and hypertension (9.8%) and lowest in those with smoking histories (5.4%) and dyslipidemia (4.6%). The inclusion of 5 atherosclerotic risk factors in a stepwise multivariate model contributed little toward predicting hospital mortality over age alone (C-statistic = 0.73 and 0.71, respectively). After extensive multivariate adjustments for clinical and sociodemographic factors, patients with MI with diabetes had higher odds of dying (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.26) than those without diabetes and similarly for hypertension (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11). Conversely, family history (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.73), dyslipidemia (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.64), and smoking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88) were associated with decreased mortality (C-statistic = 0.82 for the full model). In conclusion, in the setting of acute MI, histories of diabetes and hypertension are associated with higher hospital mortality, but the inclusion of atherosclerotic risk factors in models of hospital mortality does not improve predictive ability beyond other major clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:22840346

  15. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic artery. The contribution of different components was measured as the number of voxels within defined ranges of HU values (calcification >130 HU, fibrous tissue 60-130 HU, lipid core <60 HU). Fifty-seven patients had atherosclerotic plaque in the symptomatic carotid artery. The severity of stenosis and PV were moderately correlated. Age and smoking were independently related to PV. Patients with hypercholesterolemia had significantly less lipid and more calcium in their plaques than patients without hypercholesterolemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly related to PV or plaque composition. Luminal stenosis of the carotid artery partly reflects the amount of atherosclerotic carotid disease. Plaque volume and plaque composition are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  16. Atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition in symptomatic carotid arteries assessed with multidetector CT angiography; relationship with severity of stenosis and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozie, S.; Weert, T.T. de; Monye, C. de; Homburg, P.J.; Tanghe, H.L.J.; Lugt, A. van der [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dippel, D.W.J. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the volume and the composition of atherosclerotic plaque in symptomatic carotid arteries and to investigate the relationship between these plaque features and the severity of stenosis and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. One hundred patients with cerebrovascular symptoms underwent CT angiography. We measured plaque volume (PV) and the relative contribution of plaque components (calcifications, fibrous tissue, and lipid) in the symptomatic artery. The contribution of different components was measured as the number of voxels within defined ranges of HU values (calcification >130 HU, fibrous tissue 60-130 HU, lipid core <60 HU). Fifty-seven patients had atherosclerotic plaque in the symptomatic carotid artery. The severity of stenosis and PV were moderately correlated. Age and smoking were independently related to PV. Patients with hypercholesterolemia had significantly less lipid and more calcium in their plaques than patients without hypercholesterolemia. Other cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly related to PV or plaque composition. Luminal stenosis of the carotid artery partly reflects the amount of atherosclerotic carotid disease. Plaque volume and plaque composition are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  17. The association between Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic plaque and major risk factors in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayat, Daryoosh Kamal; Jebeli, Mohammad; Mandegar, Mohammad Hossein; Bagheri, Jamshid; Nabavi, Seyed Abbas; Eghtesadi-Araghi, Payam; Mohammadzadeh, Robabeh; Darehzereshki, Ali; Chitsaz, Sam; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background and aim: This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogen inside the atherosclerotic plaque of patients undergoing CABG by using PCR assay and to determine whether there is any association between the presence of bacteria in atherosclerotic lesions a

  18. Comparison of osteoprotegerin to traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diagnosis of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    (OPG) to clinical and subclinical atherosclerotic disease in a large community-based, cross-sectional population study. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, OPG concentrations were measured in 5,863 men and women. A total of 494 participants had been hospitalized for ischemic heart disease or ischemic...

  19. Pregnancy loss and later risk of atherosclerotic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension.......Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension....

  20. 高脂血症患者CAVI与其他心血管危险因素的关系%Association between Cardio-ankle Vascular index and Atherosclerotic Risk Factors Among Patients with Hyperlipi-demia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴多江; 余朝萍; 杨静; 秦亚录; 曾洪燕; 晏明君; 葛斌; 尹晓华; 刘天虎

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the association between cardio-ankle vascular index ( CAVI ) and conventional athero-sclerotic risk factor in the Patients with hyperlipidemia. Methods 1360 cases of hyperlipidemia group and 1451 cases of non-hyperlipidemia control group according to LDL-C, serum biomarkers were measured in two groups, The association of CAVI with atherosclerotic risk factor was then analyzed. Results There were significantly difference in age, pulse pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterin and ABI between two groups (P0.05。两组分别作相关分析,结果和整体类似,但高脂血症组LDL相关系数r为0.039,P均>0.05;多元逐步回归分析显示,年龄、PP、TG、ABI对两组整体CAVI的影响是显著的,而TC、LDL-C对CAVI影响不显著。结论年龄、PP、TG、TC、ABI是CAVI的决定性因素,高脂血症患者尤其明显。

  1. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  2. Relative risk for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events after smoking cessation: 6–9 years excess risk in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia

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    Kastelein John JP

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking history is often di- or trichotomized into for example "never, ever or current smoking". However, smoking must be treated as a time-dependent covariate when lifetime data is available. In particular, individuals do not smoke at birth, there is usually a wide variation with respect to smoking history, and smoking cessation must also be considered. Methods Therefore we analyzed smoking as a time-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events in a cohort of 2400 individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia who were followed from birth until 2004. Excess risk after smoking-cessation was modelled in a Cox regression model with linear and exponential decaying trends. The model with the highest likelihood value was used to estimate the decay of the excess risk of smoking. Results Atherosclerotic events were observed in 779 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 1569 individuals had a smoking history. In the model with the highest likelihood value the risk reduction of smoking after cessation follows a linear pattern with time and it appears to take 6 to 9 years before the excess risk is reduced to zero. The risk of atherosclerotic events due to smoking was estimated as 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5; 2.9. Conclusion It was concluded that excess risk due to smoking declined linearly after cessation in at least six to nine years.

  3. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

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    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  4. Analysis of risk factors in different gender patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis%不同性别动脉粥样硬化性肾动脉狭窄患者危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 李顺辉; 邓雨晴; 王贵明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between traditional & emerging risk factors and the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) in different gender patients.Methods Selective renal artery angiography was performed immediately after routine coronary angiography in 2060 patients with suspected coronary artery disease.Traditional & emerging risk factors were recorded and compared in different gender patients with ARAS.Results Among the patients with ARAS, smoking (59.18% vs.12.50%, x2 =17.47,P<0.01) and diabetes(28.57% vs 46.87%, x2 =5.64, P<0.05) compared with both genders were significantly differences.There were significant differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB/ApoA 1, HbA1C and Hcy (t =2.62,2.07,-2.83,-2.37,3.74;P< 0.05) in the ARAS patients compared with both genders.Conclusion The main risk factors in different gender patients with ARAS were different.It is important to adopt appropriate control strategies.%目的 分析不同性别患者传统及新兴危险因素与动脉粥样硬化性肾动脉狭窄(ARAS)发病的关系.方法 入选2 060例疑诊冠心病患者行冠状动脉造影后选择性肾动脉造影,记录传统和新兴危险因素,对不同性别ARAS患者传统和新兴危险因素分别进行比较.结果 不同性别ARAS患者中,传统危险因素吸烟(59.18%与12.50%,x2=17.47,P<0.01)和糖尿病(28.57%与46.87%,x2=5.64,P<0.05)比较差异均有统计学意义,而新兴危险因素中高密度指蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、ApoA1、ApoB/ApoA1比值、HbA1C、Hcy水平比较差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为2.62、2.07、-2.83、-2.37、3.74,JP均<0.05).结论 不同性别ARAS患者主要危险因素存在差异,这对制定相应的防治策略具有重要意义.

  5. A prevalência cumulativa de fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular em adolescentes iranianos: IHHP-HHPC Cumulative prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in Iranian adolescents: IHHP-HHPC

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência cumulativa dos fatores de risco para a doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica numa amostra de adolescentes iranianos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1000 meninas e 1000 meninos, com idade entre 11 e 18 anos, selecionados através de uma amostragem aleatória multietapas à base de conglomerados das áreas urbana e rural de três cidades iranianas. RESULTADOS: As taxas de prevalência de inatividade física, dislipidemia, tabagismo, pressão arterial alta e obesidade (índice de massa corporal >P95 foram 66,6, 23,7, 8,7, 5,7 e 2,2%, respectivamente. Dentre os indivíduos estudados, 79,1% apresentaram pelo menos um e 24,6% tiveram dois fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. A prevalência de inatividade física foi significativamente menor entre os meninos que entre as meninas [53,9 contra 79,3%, respectivamente, OR IC95%, 0,44 (0,39-0,51]. A prevalência de tabagismo foi maior nos meninos que nas meninas [13,1 contra 4,2%, respectivamente, OR IC95%, 3,4 (2,4-4,9]. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a alta prevalência de fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular em adolescentes, deve-se garantir intervenções que sejam adequadas à idade e sensíveis a aspectos culturais para que medidas preventivas possam ser tomadas em tempo hábil.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cumulative prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors in a representative sample of Iranian adolescents. METHODS: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 1,000 girls and 1,000 boys, ages 11-18 years, selected by multi stage-random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of three cities in Iran. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity, dyslipidemia, smoking, high blood pressure and obesity (body mass index >95th percentile were 66.6, 23.7, 8.7, 5.7 and 2.2%, respectively. Of subjects studied, 79.1% had at least one and 24.6% had two cardiovascular disease risk factors. The prevalence of physical

  6. Effective risk stratification in patients with moderate cardiovascular risk using albuminuria and atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Sehestedt, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    /mmol in men/women. The composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization for ischemic heart disease was recorded (n = 229). RESULTS: Both elevated UACR (P = 0.002) and atherosclerotic plaques (P ..., Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and Framingham risk score (FRS) groups. Subclinical vascular damage was defined as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity at least 12 m/s, and carotid atherosclerotic plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) at least 90th percentile of 0.73/1.06 mg...

  7. Insulin resistance, small LDL particles, and risk for atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    There is a global epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance (IR) is etiologic for both metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. IR induces a broad range of toxic systemic effects, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, increased production of advanced glycosylation end products, increased inflammatory tone, as well as a prothrombotic and pro-oxidative state. Patients with IR are highly vulnerable to the development of accelerated atherosclerosis as well its clinical sequelae, including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, carotid artery disease and ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and claudication/lower extremity amputation, and coronary mortality. Among the most important risk factors patients afflicted with IR develop is the so-called atherogenic lipid triad: large numbers of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles, hypertriglyceridemia, and low serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Though controversial, much recent evidence suggests that the formation of sdLDL particles in the setting of IR is an important metabolic transition. Some studies suggest that these smaller particles are more atherogenic than their larger, more buoyant counterparts. At least part of the explanation for the apparent augmented atherogenicity of small LDL particles is their reduced systemic clearance by the LDL receptor, increased vulnerability to oxidation rendering them more apt for scavenging by macrophages, and possible increased flux into the subendothelial space of arterial walls. Numerous small studies suggest that sdLDL is highly correlated with cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular medicine is in need of a large prospective, randomized study that would more definitively investigate the impact of small, dense LDL (sdLDL) on risk for cardiovascular disease and whether therapeutic interventions designed to specifically reduce the burden of sdLDL are associated

  8. Effect of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Jun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is closely related with ischemic stroke occurrence, development and recurrence. This study aims to make an evaluation of the effects of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors, serum lipid and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis were given oral administration of rosuvastatin calcium (10 mg once every night, and the course of treatment was 6 months. After treatment, the changes of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and blood lipid were measured, as well as carotid atherosclerotic intima-media thickness (IMT and the calculation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque score. According to the examination results, after 6 months' treatment with rosuvastatin, serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C decreased significantly (P < 0.01, for all, while high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.01; the total number of plaque reduced, while the number of stable plaque increased (P < 0.05; carotid artery IMT and carotid artery plaque score decreased significantly (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between before and after treatment. The results of this study show that rosuvastatin plays a role in anti-inflammation and alleviates the degree of carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

  9. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk and evidence-based management of cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajeet Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An elevated level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is directly associated with development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which may present as coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. The new cholesterol management guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association aim to address a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The new guidelines recommend initiation of heart healthy lifestyle modifications and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor ("statin" therapy in individuals who are at a high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that these guidelines could result in "statin" therapy for one in every three adults in the United States. This article presents a review of the current cholesterol management guidelines, recommendations from relevant randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses obtained from the searches in Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and publications from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service, and the United States Preventive Services Task Force.

  10. Risk for non-smoking-related cancer in atherosclerotic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and that of cancer have common features, and in addition to tobacco smoking, oxidative stress, diet, and sex hormones have been considered as common etiological factors. To investigate whether there is an association between ath...

  11. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  12. Upstream Transcription Factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants regulate lipoprotein metabolism in women and USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue-Mei; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Oksala, Niku; Levula, Mari; Raitoharju, Emma; Collings, Auni; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Marniemi, Jukka; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Seppälä, Ilkka; Mennander, Ari; Tarkka, Matti; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Salenius, Juha Pekka; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Laitinen, Tomi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Laaksonen, Reijo; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2014-01-01

    Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants significantly influence future risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in females. We investigated sex-specific effects of USF1 gene allelic variants on serum indices of lipoprotein metabolism, early markers of asymptomatic atherosclerosis and their changes during six years of follow-up. In addition, we investigated the cis-regulatory role of these USF1 variants in artery wall tissues in Caucasians. In the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, 1,608 participants (56% women, aged 31.9 ± 4.9) with lipids and cIMT data were included. For functional study, whole genome mRNA expression profiling was performed in 91 histologically classified atherosclerotic samples. In females, serum total, LDL cholesterol and apoB levels increased gradually according to USF1 rs2516839 genotypes TT < CT < CC and rs1556259 AA < AG < GG as well as according to USF1 H3 (GCCCGG) copy number 0 < 1 < 2. Furthermore, the carriers of minor alleles of rs2516839 (C) and rs1556259 (G) of USF1 gene had decreased USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques (P = 0.028 and 0.08, respectively) as compared to non-carriers. The genetic variation in USF1 influence USF1 transcript expression in advanced atherosclerosis and regulates levels and metabolism of circulating apoB and apoB-containing lipoprotein particles in sex-dependent manner, but is not a major determinant of early markers of atherosclerosis. PMID:24722012

  13. Placental growth factor promotes atherosclerotic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, R.; Moons, L; Shafi, S.; A. Luttun; Collen, D; Martin, J. F.; Carmeliet, P.; Zachary, I. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Placental growth factor (PlGF) has been implicated in the pathophysiological angiogenesis and monocyte recruitment that underlie chronic inflammatory disease, but its role in atherosclerosis has not been examined. We investigated the effects of exogenous PlGF, delivered by adenoviral gene transfer, on atherogenic intimal thickening and macrophage accumulation induced by collar placement around the rabbit carotid artery and examined the effects of PlGF deficiency on atherosclerosis...

  14. Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is the most common proximate mechanism of ischemic stroke worldwide. Approximately half of those affected are Asians. For diagnosis of ICAD, intra-arterial angiography is the gold standard to identify extent of stenosis. However, noninvasive techniques including transcranial ultrasound and MRA are now emerging as reliable modalities to exclude moderate to severe (50%–99% stenosis. Little is known about measures for primary prevention of the disease. In terms of secondary prevention of stroke due to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, aspirin continues to be the preferred antiplatelet agent although clopidogrel along with aspirin has shown promise in the acute phase. Among Asians, cilostazol has shown a favorable effect on symptomatic stenosis and is of benefit in terms of fewer bleeds. Moreover, aggressive risk factor management alone and in combination with dual antiplatelets been shown to be most effective in this group of patients. Interventional trials on intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis have so far only been carried out among Caucasians and have not yielded consistent results. Since the Asian population is known to be preferentially effected, focused trials need to be performed to establish treatment modalities that are most effective in this population.

  15. Is carotid artery evaluation necessary for primary prevention in asymptomatic high-risk patients without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim GH

    2015-07-01

    0.780, P=0.012, and carotid plaques (HR =1.993, 95% CI =1.116–3.560, P=0.020 were associated with ASCVD events.Conclusion: The presence of carotid plaques, history of smoking, and statin therapy might be important factors for primary prevention of ASCVD in asymptomatic high-risk patients, especially in middle-aged patients. Therefore, the results suggest that carotid artery parameters may have an additional predictive value for primary prevention of ASCVD in the middle-aged high-risk patients. Keywords: carotid plaque, atherosclerotic cardiovascular event, primary prevention, cholesterol-lowering drug therapy, asymptomatic high-risk patients

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 levels unaltered in symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque patients from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj eKhurana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein(MCP-1 as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis(p<0.05. Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountaineer region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at plain region. We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress independent of these inflammatory molecules. In parallel, risk factor analysis indicates hypertension, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle as the most

  17. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  18. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  19. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  20. Association of Small and Dense Low-density Lipoprotein with the Risk Factors Related to the Formation of the Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque%小颗粒致密低密度脂蛋白与颈动脉斑块形成及危险因素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈昊; 沈国荣; 杨鸿林; 李晓平; 朱同华

    2011-01-01

    risk factors including age, sex, drinking, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and total cholesterol ( TC) , triglyceride ( TG) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDLC ). Logistic regression model was applied in the screening of risk factors. Results The mean age, mean total cholesterol, mean triglyceride, incidences of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly higher in patients with carotid plaques than in patients without by single-factor analysis. No significant difference of sex, drinking, smoking, the mean value of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was found between two groups. Logistic milti-factor regression analysis showed that age (OR = 1. 10, P < 0.01) , hypertension ( OR = 2. 81, P < 0.05 ) , diabetes mellitus (OR = 2. 74, P < 0. 05 ) and sdLDL-C (OR =3.8, P <0. 001) were involved in the regression equation statistically. Conclusions The formation of the carotid atherosclerotic plaque is the interactional result of multiplicate factor. High TG and high TC are the related risk factors of carotid plaque. Age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and sdLDLC are the possible independent risk factors for carotid plaque.

  1. The Cardiovascular Risk Profile of Atherosclerotic Gastrointestinal Ischemia Is Different from Other Vascular Beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Renzo P.; ter Steege, Rinze W. F.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Huisman, Ad B.; Kolkman, Jeroen J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic gastrointestinal ischemia due to atherosclerosis of the splanchnic vessels (chronic splanchnic syndrome) is not well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk factor pattern in patients

  2. [Atherosclerotic renal artery disease management update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Pascal; Haesler, Erik; Teta, Daniel; Qanadli, Salah Dine; Burnier, Michel

    2009-02-01

    In the case of atherosclerotic renal artery disease, the best conclusive results lie principally not in the degree of the stenosis but rather in the degree the renal parenchymal disease beyond the stenosis itself. These determining factors involve the controlling of the patients blood pressure, the improvement in the renal function and the beneficial results to the cardiovascular system. Besides the indispensable medical treatment, a revascularisation by angioplasty may be indicated. This procedure with or without vascular stent often allows satisfactory angiographic results. A treatment by surgical revascularisation is only recommended in the case of extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, complex lesions of the latter or an abdominal aortic aneurism. Although the frequency of restenosis of angioplasty with stent remains extremely low, the risk of cholesterol emboli due to the diffuse atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta, must be considered at the time of each aortic catheterization. The therapeutic approach of atherosclerotic renal artery disease must be dictated by the whole cardiovascular risk factors and by the threat of target organs. The control of the blood pressure and the maintenance of the renal function must be integrated in the decisional algorithm as well as the possible risks in carrying out an eventual revascularisation procedure. Finally, the renal angioplasty should in numerous situations be integrated in the overall assumption of responsibility of the atherosclerotic vascular diseases, and should be part of the medical treatment. Several questions still do exist; at what moment an atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis should and e considered critical, and which procedure should be considered for which patient? The purpose of this review is to propose a decisional tool for individualized treatments in the light of results from randomized and controlled studies. PMID:18815087

  3. Impact of Replacing the Pooled Cohort Equation With Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores on Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Michos, Erin D; Flueckiger, Peter; Blaha, Michael; Sandfort, Veit; Herrington, David M; Burke, Gregory; Yeboah, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    The increase in statin eligibility by the new cholesterol guidelines is mostly driven by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) criterion (≥7.5% 10-year PCE). The impact of replacing the PCE with either the modified Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) on assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment and statin eligibility remains unknown. We assessed the comparative benefits of using the PCE, FRS, and SCORE for ASCVD risk assessment in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Of 6,815 participants, 654 (mean age 61.4 ± 10.3; 47.1% men; 37.1% whites; 27.2% blacks; 22.3% Hispanics; 12.0% Chinese-Americans) were included in analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) and decision curve analysis were used to compare the 3 risk scores. Decision curve analysis is the plot of net benefit versus probability thresholds; net benefit = true positive rate - (false positive rate × weighting factor). Weighting factor = Threshold probability/1 - threshold probability. After a median of 8.6 years, 342 (6.0%) ASCVD events (myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, fatal or nonfatal stroke) occurred. All 4 risk scores had acceptable discriminative ability for incident ASCVD events; (AUC [95% CI] PCE: 0.737 [0.713 to 0.762]; FRS: 0.717 [0.691 to 0.743], SCORE (high risk) 0.722 [0.696 to 0.747], and SCORE (low risk): 0.721 [0.696 to 0.746]. At the ASCVD risk threshold recommended for statin eligibility for primary prevention (≥7.5%), the PCE provides the best net benefit. Replacing the PCE with the SCORE (high), SCORE (low) and FRS results in a 2.9%, 8.9%, and 17.1% further increase in statin eligibility. The PCE has the best discrimination and net benefit for primary ASCVD risk assessment in a US-based multiethnic cohort compared with the SCORE or the FRS. PMID:27445216

  4. Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass for cerebral atherosclerotic disease: factors determining the bypass patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Tateyama, Kojiro; Tamaki, Tomonori; Mizunari, Takayuki; Matsukawa, Hideoshi; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2016-10-01

    Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery for atherosclerotic disease and associated risk factors for loss of patency have rarely been discussed. We retrospectively analyzed long-term patency following STA-MCA bypass and evaluated various demographic and clinical factors to identify the ones predictive of postsurgical loss of patency using records of 84 revascularization procedures (58 patients, 45 males; mean age at surgery 63.6 years, range 31-78 years). Bypass patency was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. The mean follow-up period was 24.7 months (range 6-63 months). Decreased bypass patency was observed in 4 of 58 patients (6.9 %) who collectively underwent 6 bypasses (7.1 %) of 84. All cases of decreased bypass patency were first detected within 6 months of surgery. Bypass patency was not correlated with age, sex, number of anastomoses, postoperative cerebral infarction, or control of postoperative diabetes mellitus. We found a significant association of bypass patency with hyperperfusion (p = 0.01) and postoperative smoking (p = 0.0036). Furthermore, we found a significant association of hyperperfusion with STA diameter (p bypass patency in cerebral atherosclerotic disease patients. Careful monitoring of patency to prevent hyperperfusion and cessation of smoking are recommended, particularly within 6 months of the surgery.

  5. Atherosclerotic geometries exacerbate pathological thrombus formation poststenosis in a von Willebrand factor-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westein, Erik; Meer, van der Andries D.; Kuijpers, Marijke J.E.; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Berg, van den Albert; Heemskerk, Johan W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque causes thrombus formation and precipitates cardiovascular diseases. In addition to the thrombogenic content of a plaque, also the hemodynamic microenvironment plays a major role in thrombus formation. How the altered hemodynamics around a plaque promote

  6. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing ...

  7. Evaluation of the Obesity Genes FTO and MC4R for Contribution to the Risk of Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for large artery atherosclerotic (LAA stroke. The aim of the study was to explore whether obesity genes, such as MC4R and FTO, contribute to LAA stroke risk in the Chinese Han population. Methods: 322 LAA stroke patients and 473 controls were recruited. Gene polymorphism of MC4R (rs17782313 and FTO (rs8050136 and rs9939609 were genotyped. Results: No differences were observed in genotype frequencies of variants of FTO (rs8050136 and rs9939609 or MC4R (rs17782313 between LAA stroke patients and control subjects. However, rs17782313 of the MC4R gene was associated with LAA stroke susceptibility in smokers (rs17782313: p = 0.020, OR (95% CI = 1.55 (1.07-2.23 in the stratified analysis. Furthermore, multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis revealed that the combination of MC4R variant (rs17782313, hypertension and smoking habit was significantly associated with increased risk of LAA stroke (p Conclusion: Our study indicated that the synergistic effects of MC4R variants, hypertension, and smoking habit contribute significantly to the risk of LAA stroke in the Chinese Han population. The finding revealed that obesity gene MC4R contribute to the risk of LAA stroke via a synergistic mechanism, which will provide new insight into the genetic architecture of LAA stroke.

  8. Factors Influencing the Disturbed Flow Patterns Downstream of Curved Atherosclerotic Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyue Liu

    2008-01-01

    Pulsatile blood flows in curved atherosclerotic arteries are studied by com-puter simulations. Computations are carried out with various values of physiological parameters to examine the effects of flow parameters on the disturbed flow patterns downstream of a curved artery with a stenosis at the inner wall. The numerical re-sults indicate a strong dependence of flow pattern on the blood viscosity and inlet flow rate, while the influence of the inlet flow profile to the flow pattem in downstream is negligible.

  9. Association between albuminuria, atherosclerotic plaques, elevated pulse wave velocity, age, risk category and prognosis in apparently healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Blyme, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    .4, 20.6% or 7.9, 8.2, 16.6, 19.5% or 6.6, 7.6, 9.8, 20.0%) increased, all P aged 61 or 71 years, with moderate or very high SCORE or intermediate or high FRS (all P aged 41, 51 or 61 years......, with moderate SCORE or with high-intermediate or high FRS (all P aged 51 years (P aged 51 [hazard ratio 2.7 (1.6-4.8)] and 61...... and especially atherosclerotic plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) at least 0.73/1.06 mg/mmol (men/women) added prognostic information in individuals aged 51 or 61 years or with moderate or intermediate risk....

  10. Risk Factors for Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2002-01-01

    @@ Thrombotic disease is a multifactorial disease, multiple interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.This review summarized some risk factors reported for arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis in recent few years.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  12. EVALUATION OF CORONARY RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh; Rangaswamy

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of death globally. Acute myocardial infarction generally occurs when coronary blood flow decreases abruptly after thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery causing focal or massive necrosis of cardiac muscle. The risk factor concept implies that a person with one risk factor is more likely to develop clinical atherosclerotic event and is more likely to do so earlier than a person with no risk factors. The presen...

  13. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  14. Dialysis modalities as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Tatjana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. First clinical symptoms are usually associated with initial atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels. The aim of this study was ultrasound evaluation of intimae media thickness (IMT of carotid arteries in dialysis patients and its correlation with certain risk factors. Patients and methods IMT was measured in 45 dialysis patients with no signs of cardiovascular diseases:15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients, 30 haemodialysis (HD patients and in 20 healthy controls. IMT was correlated with certain risk factors for atherosclerosis (general parameters - age, gender, duration of dialysis cause of renal diseases, parameters of nutrition, parameters of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, lipid parameters, blood pressure and smoking. Results The mean carotid artery IMT was significantly higher in dialysis patients than in the control group (p<0.05. In addition, the mean IMT was statistically significantly higher in PD than in HD patients (p<0.05. In CAPD patients there was a significant correlation between IMT and total and LDL cholesterol. In the second group (HD patients IMT was significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and smoking. Conclusion Although atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease may not manifest in dialysis patients, IMT of carotid arteries significantly increases. Major risk factors affecting IMT are lipid disturbances in patients on peritoneal dialysis and hypertension, obesity and smoking in HD patients.

  15. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...

  16. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-12-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  17. The level of grammar school students’ knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jaraković Milana; Mihajlović Bojan; Čemerlić Snežana; Ađić Filip; Sladojević Miroslava; Mihajlović Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be...

  18. Discordance between Risk Factors and Coronary Artery Calcium: Implications for Guiding Treatment Strategies in Primary Prevention Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parag H; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Preventive efforts including smoking cessation campaigns, increased awareness of healthy lifestyle habits, risk factor modification, and the appropriate use of statins have been successful in reducing cardiovascular mortality over the last decade. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan has reliably been an additive predictor to traditional risk estimation methods, partly because of the heterogeneity between risk factor burden and atherosclerotic burden. The focus of this review is to highlight this heterogeneity by focusing on groups in which risk factor burden and subclinical atherosclerosis burden, as measured by CAC, are discordant. In high-risk groups with 0 CAC, the event rates are consistently low; in low-risk groups with elevated CAC (CAC>100), the event rates are consistently high. We conclude with our clinical perspective of the considerable heterogeneity between risk factors and atherosclerotic burden in the context of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment and risk assessment guidelines. PMID:25982215

  19. Neonatal Stroke : Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal stroke refers to cerebrovascular events between 28 weeks of gestational age and 28 days postnatal and includes thromboembolic cerebral infarction and all kinds of intracranial haemorrhage. Neonatal stroke may contribute to severe neurological deficit, such as cerebral palsy and even death. International reports suggest the incidence to be approximately 1/4000 live births per year (1). There are several etiological hypothesises regarding risk factors, such as maternal, obstetrical...

  20. Imaging Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Translating Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Grant; Meadows, Judith; Morrison, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Calcification of atherosclerotic lesions was long thought to be an age - related, passive process, but increasingly data has revealed that atherosclerotic calcification is a more active process, involving complex signaling pathways and bone-like genetic programs. Initially, imaging of atherosclerotic calcification was limited to gross assessment of calcium burden, which is associated with total atherosclerotic burden and risk of cardiovascular mortality and of all cause mortality. More recently, sophisticated molecular imaging studies of the various processes involved in calcification have begun to elucidate information about plaque calcium composition and consequent vulnerability to rupture, leading to hard cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. As such, there has been renewed interest in imaging calcification to advance risk assessment accuracy in an evolving era of precision medicine. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the biologic process of atherosclerotic calcification as well as some of the molecular imaging tools used to assess it. PMID:27339750

  1. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  2. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  3. Freqüência de doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica e de seus fatores de risco em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Frequency of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weiss Telles

    2007-06-01

    cardiovasculares deve ser objeto de novos estudos.INTRODUCTION: the pathogenesis of coronary disease in systemic lupus erythematosus patients is not completely understood. Risk factors associated with lupus or its treatment may be associated with traditional risk factors for coronary disease. Such risk factors are more common in patients with lupus. OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency of cardiovascular disease and traditional risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at Rheumatology Division of Hospital das Clínicas of Minas Gerais Federal University. METHODS: 172 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were evaluated. Cardiovascular events, traditional risk factors and clinical-laboratorial findings were investigated in this cross-sectional research. RESULTS: the mean age (SD of the patients was 38.5 years (11.2 years. 95.9% were female and 64.5% were non white. Cardiovascular disease was identified in 8 patients (4.7%, with 11 different diagnoses. Three patients had coronary insufficiency, three had stroke and five had peripheral arterial disease. Systemic arterial hypertension was the most frequent risk factor (48.8%, followed by dyslipidemia in 70 patients (40.7% and hypertriglyceridemia in 51 patients (29.7%. LDL-c > 100 mg/dl was found in 77 patients (44.8%. Among 165 female patients, 67 (40.6% had menopause, 43.3% of them with early menopause. CONCLUSION: the present study describes the frequency of risk factors for coronary artery disease in a Brazilian sample of lupus patients. The impact of recognition and management of those risk factors in prevention of cardiovascular events should be object of others studies.

  4. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  5. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  6. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial.

  7. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  8. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

  9. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  10. Addition of a novel, protective family history category allows better profiling of cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. The Asklepios Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Van daele

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Whereas the importance of family history (FH is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH: presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH, also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. DESIGN: Longitudinal population study. SETTING: Random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care. SUBJECTS: 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35-55 years, free from overt CVD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations. RESULTS: Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted p<0.05. Unlike cFH, eFH remained a significant predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for confounders. Most relations with eFH were not graded but showed clear informational breakpoints, with absence of CVD (including late onset in any first-degree relative being a negative predictor of atherosclerosis, and a particularly interesting phenotype for further study. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, extended FH definition is superior to the conventional definition in profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool.

  11. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  12. Analysis of risk factors related with carotid atherosclerotic arteriosclerosis in a Chinese young and middle-aged population who received health checkup%中青年体检人群颈动脉粥样硬化及相关危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温小恒; 徐腾达; 盖小荣; 孙杰; 莎仁高娃

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between carotid artery atherosclerosis and risk factor in a young and middle-aged population in China who received health checkup.Methods A total of 762 cases of young and middle-aged adult were recruited between April and October in 2013.These subjects had no hypertension,diabetes,coronary heart disease,cerebrovascular disease,and connective tissue disease,etc.Their Blood pressure,serum glucose (Glu),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured and carotid artery ultrasonography was performed.Of the 762 cases,589 were male,173 were female,mean age was (46 ± 9) years.For blood pressure,blood lipids,the t test was performed to detect the difference between arteriosclerosis group and non arteriosclerosis group in different age groups.Logistic regression was performed to reveal the risk factors with carotid arteriosclerosis.Results Of the 762 subjects,205 had carotid artery atherosclerosis; 30.2% (178/589) of them were men and 15.6%(27/173) of them were women,with a significant difference between two groups,(x2=14.522,P=0.000).In the younger than 40 years old group,the diastolic blood pressure has statistical significance between carotid arteriosclerosis and non carotid arteriosclerosis group (t=-2.789,P< 0.05); blood sugar had statistically significant difference between the two groups (t value was-2.256,-2.930,-2.174,respectivly,P<0.05).Multiple regression analysis revealed that the independent risk factors for carotid artery arteriosclerosis were age,sex,DBP,and Glu.The regression coefficients were 0.993,0.711,0.047,0.334 seperately.The ROC curve of age was analyzed,the area under the ROC curve was 0.731,cut-off was 51 years old.Conclusions Routine carotid artery ultrasound should be performed for older than 50 healthy middle-aged men,to determine whether arteriosclerosis exists,especially for people with abnormal blood glucose or elevated DBP.%目的 分

  13. Risk Factors for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güliz Fatma Yavaş; Tuncay Küsbeci; Mustafa Şanlı; Dilek Toprak; Sıtkı Samet Ermiş; Ümit Übeyt İnan; Faruk Öztürk

    2013-01-01

    Pur po se: To evaluate the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in subjects aged over 40 years in Western Turkey and to quantify its association with several systemic risk factors. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The research was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. A total of 1533 subjects aged 40 years or more were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiac disease, obesity, smoki...

  14. Arterial hypertension as risk factor for spontaneous cervical artery dissection. A case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzini, A; Caso, V; Zanferrari, C; Del Zotto, E; Paciaroni, M; Bertolino, C; Grassi, M.(INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma, Italy); Agnelli, G.; Padovani, A

    2006-01-01

    Because of the presumed non‐atherosclerotic pathogenesis, the potential link between spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) and common risk factors for atherosclerosis has never been investigated systematically. Therefore, this prospective, multicentre, case–control study compared the frequency of tobacco use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia among a group of consecutive patients with sCAD (n  =  153), a group of patients with ischaemic stroke, not related to ...

  15. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Risk of Death, Ischemic Stroke, and Cardiac Complications in Patients With Atherosclerotic Disease The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.A. Conijn; R.P. Kloppenborg; A. Algra; W.P.T.M. Mali; L.J. Kappelle; K.L. Vincken; Y. van der Graaf; M.I. Geerlings

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Cerebral small vessel disease may be related to vascular and nonvascular pathology. We assessed whether lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions on MRI increased the risk of vascular and nonvascular death and future vascular events in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Me

  16. Risk Factors for Teenage Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)

  17. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. ... Zora Brown's case, for example, if we had tamoxifen out -- would that have helped? She sure would ...

  18. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women who believe that having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take ...

  19. [Atypical risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaĭlenko, O Iu

    2013-09-01

    The non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions of the cardiovascular system (C-reactive protein, uric acid, fibrinogen, homocysteine) in blood plasma of patients with manifestative hypothyroidism at the age of 23 to 73 years were assessed in the study. An increase in the average values of C-reactive protein was revealed in patients with hypothyroidism without arterial hypertension (AH), as well as under its presence, and increased BMI. Uric acid level also was increased with the combination of hypothyroidism and hypertension. Average level of fibrinogen was within the values of the control group and increased only in 23.4% of patients with hypothyroidism. Homocysteine content was elevated in 32% of patients and was not associated with the presence of AH. Increased levels of these markers of cardiovascular lesions risk coincided with the increased diameter of the common carotid artery.

  20. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  1. Upstream Transcription Factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants regulate lipoprotein metabolism in women and USF1 expression in atherosclerotic plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yue-Mei; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Oksala, Niku; Levula, Mari; Raitoharju, Emma; Collings, Auni; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Marniemi, Jukka; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Seppälä, Ilkka; Mennander, Ari; Tarkka, Matti; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi

    2014-01-01

    Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) allelic variants significantly influence future risk of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in females. We investigated sex-specific effects of USF1 gene allelic variants on serum indices of lipoprotein metabolism, early markers of asymptomatic atherosclerosis and their changes during six years of follow-up. In addition, we investigated the cis-regulatory role of these USF1 variants in artery wall tissues in Caucasians. In the Cardiovascular Ris...

  2. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... them and their health so much. I do worry that they are at risk and I wish they weren't. Announcer: For women who have the BRCA I gene, the most radical option is a prophylactic mastectomy, where healthy breasts are removed. This is effective in preventing ...

  3. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. Dewitty: In ...

  4. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  5. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  6. In silico analyses of metagenomes from human atherosclerotic plaque samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Suparna; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Alhede, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Through several observational and mechanistic studies, microbial infection is known to promote cardiovascular disease. Direct infection of the vessel wall, along with the cardiovascular risk factors, is hypothesized to play a key role in the atherogenesis by promoting an inflammatory...... response leading to endothelial dysfunction and generating a proatherogenic and prothrombotic environment ultimately leading to clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease, e.g., acute myocardial infarction or stroke. There are many reports of microbial DNA isolation and even a few studies of viable...... a challenge. RESULTS: To investigate microbiome diversity within human atherosclerotic tissue samples, we employed high-throughput metagenomic analysis on: (1) atherosclerotic plaques obtained from a group of patients who underwent endarterectomy due to recent transient cerebral ischemia or stroke. (2...

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  8. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  9. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and others. Heart Disease Risk Factors 09/30/2011 This video—presented ...

  10. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role. PMID:8373546

  11. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  12. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  13. The Study on the Factors of the Formation of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque%颈动脉粥样硬化斑块形成的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓珊; 佘军红; 翁保慧; 阳洪

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颈动脉斑块形成的主要相关因素,以指导临床进行缺血性脑卒中的预防.方法 选择2010年12月至2011年3月期间在广西医科大学第四附属医院住院的患者61例,检测所有患者血三酰甘油、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白、血糖、单核细胞计数、超敏C反应蛋白、肌酐、β2微球蛋白水平;记录患者既往是否有高血压病、糖尿病、吸烟史.采用彩色多普勒超声仪观察颈动脉管壁内膜中层厚度.结果 两组间单因素比较显示斑块组年龄、高血压病发生率、糖代谢异常发生率、超敏C反应蛋白及吸烟水平高于非斑块组;两组间性别、总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白、单核细胞计数、肌酐、β2微球蛋白水平比较差异无统计学意义.Logistic回归分析结果显示年龄、收缩压及吸烟进入回归方程,并有统计学意义.结论 在本研究中发现年龄、收缩压及吸烟是颈动脉斑块形成的独立危险因素.%Objective To investigate the major factors of the formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque so as to prevent cerebral arterial thrombosis. Methods A total of 61 inpatients admitted to Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from December 2010 to March 2011 were included. They were measured the level of some possible risk fators including TG, TC, LDL, blood sugar, monocyte count, supersensitivity C reactive protein, creatinine, (32 microglobulin; the history of past illness including hypertensive disease, diabetes mellitus and smoking were recorded. The diacrisis of the formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque was done according to the color Doppler to investigate layer thickness of endomembrane along the line feed of arteria carotis communis from lengthways and athwartships. Results The mean age, incidences of hypertension, abnormal glycome-tabolism, supersensitivity C reactive protein and smokings were higher in patients with carotid plaques than in

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Vessel Wall Inflammation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients FDG-PET and CT Imaging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bucerius; R. Duivenvoorden; V. Mani; C. Moncrieff; J.H.F. Rudd; C. Calcagno; J. Machac; V. Fuster; M.E. Farkouh; Z.A. Fayad

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We investigated the prevalence and clinical risk factors of carotid vessel wall inflammation by means of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a population consisting of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. BACKGROUND The atherosclerotic disease process is

  15. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  16. Risk factors for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305

  17. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  18. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...

  19. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease: Know your risk Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? ... overall health. Return to top More information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from ...

  20. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  1. The content of copper and zinc in human ulcered atherosclerotic plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radak Đorđe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Copper and zinc have significant antiatherogenic effect influencing activity of antioxidant enzyms (giutathion-peroxidase i superoxid-dismutase, mechanism of apoptosis and other mechanisms. Few studies showed increased copper and zinc concentration in atherosclerotic plaque in comparison to normal vascular tissue. AIM The aim of the study was to compare copper and zinc concentrations in carotid artery tissue without significant atherosclerotic changes and human ulcered atherosclerotic plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study was conducted on 66 patients. Carotid endarterectomy due to the significant carotid atherosclerotic changes with cerebrovascular disorders was performed in 54 patients (81.8%. Control group consisted of 12 patients (18.2% without carotid atherosclerotic changes operated due to the symptomatic kinking and coiling of carotid artery. Operated group consisted of 38 man (62.96% and 16 woman (37.04%. Control group had the same number of patients: six men (50% and six women (50%. Preoperatively, all patients were examined by vascular surgeon, neurologist and cardiologist. Duplex sonografy of carotid and vertebral arteries was performed by Aloca DSD 630 ultrasound with mechanical and linear transducer 7.7 MHz. Indication for surgical treatment was obtained according to non-invasive diagnostic protocol and neurological symptoms. Copper and zinc concentration in human ulcered atherosclerotic plaque and carotid artery segment were estimated by spectophotometry (Varian AA-5. RESULTS Average age of our patients was 59.8±8.1 years. For males average age was 76.1 ±9.8 years. And for females 42.4±5.8 years. In group with carotid endarterectomy female patients were significantly younger than male patients (p<0.01. In group with carotid endarterectomy clinically determined neurological disorders were found in 47 patients (87.03%-35 male (74.47% and 12 female patients (25.53%. Regarding risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, no

  2. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  3. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  4. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  5. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Janice M. Dietert; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  6. The effect of milk and milk proteins on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolecents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina

    This PhD is based on data from an intervention study with milk and milk proteins conducted in Danish adolescents with overweight. There is a high prevalence of overweight in Danish adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors related to overweight and believed to increase the risk...... of type-2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Overweight children have higher concentrations of the metabolic syndrome risk factors than normal weight children and the pathological condition underlying cardiovascular diseases, called atherosclerosis, seems to start in childhood. A well...... skimmed milk, whey, casein or water for three months. The background for the intervention is that milk is an important source of protein in the Western diet and epidemiological studies in children have shown that children drinking low amounts of milk have higher concentrations of the metabolic risk...

  7. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)

  8. Resistin might not be a risk factor for carotid artery atherosclerosis in elderly Chinese males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao WANG; Yu-Tang WANG; Li FAN; Yu-Tao GUO; Yang SHI; Tao TAO; Yue-Xiang ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the serum resistin level and carotid artery atherosclerosis in elderly Chinese males. Methods The study enrolled 235 elderly Chinese males [median age 76 (range 60-97) years] scheduled for ultrasound examination of carotid artery plaque and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). They were divided into carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) and carotid atherosclerotic plaque-free (CAP-free) groups according to the ultrasound results. Their clinical profiles were col-lected, and the serum resistin and other blood biochemistry levels were determined.Results The CAP group was older and had a thicker mean CIMT than the CAP-free group. However, there was no difference in the serum resistin level between the groups. CIMT was positively correlated with age (r = 0.299,P< 0.001). The serum resistin level was not correlated with CIMT, even after controlling for age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.001,P< 0.001) and body mass index (β = 0.002,P= 0.015) were significantly and posi-tively correlated with the mean CIMT. Only age [odds ratio (OR): 1.159; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.078-1.183,P< 0.001] was associ-ated with the presence of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque. The serum resistin level was not correlated with the mean CIMT or associated with the presence of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque.Conclusion The results suggest that resistin might not be a risk factor for atherosclerosis in elderly Chinese males.

  9. Risk factors of transient ischemic attack: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Khare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient ischemic attack (TIA is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused due to loss of blood flow to the brain or spinal cord without acute infarction. Depending on the area of the brain involved, symptoms of TIA vary widely from patient to patient. Since the blockage period in TIA is very short-lived, there is no permanent damage. Risk factors for TIA include family history of stroke or TIA, age above 55 years or older, higher risk of TIA in males than females, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco smoking. Genetics, race, and imbalance in lipid profile are other risk factors of TIA. TIA is usually diagnosed after taking a thorough history and a physical examination. Several radiological tests such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the evaluation of patients who have had a TIA. Ultrasound of the neck and an echocardiogram of the heart are other tests useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of the attack. The treatment following acute recovery from a TIA depends on the underlying cause. Patients who have more than 70% stenosis of the carotid artery, removal of atherosclerotic plaque is usually done by carotid endarterectomy surgery. One-third of the people with TIA can later have recurrent TIAs and one-third can have a stroke because of permanent nerve cell loss. Having a TIA is a risk factor for eventually having a stroke. Educating the patients and inculcating lifestyle modifications in them are initial steps to minimize the prevalence of transient ischemic attack.

  10. Risk factors of transient ischemic attack: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Supreet

    2016-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused due to loss of blood flow to the brain or spinal cord without acute infarction. Depending on the area of the brain involved, symptoms of TIA vary widely from patient to patient. Since the blockage period in TIA is very short-lived, there is no permanent damage. Risk factors for TIA include family history of stroke or TIA, age above 55 years or older, higher risk of TIA in males than females, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco smoking. Genetics, race, and imbalance in lipid profile are other risk factors of TIA. TIA is usually diagnosed after taking a thorough history and a physical examination. Several radiological tests such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the evaluation of patients who have had a TIA. Ultrasound of the neck and an echocardiogram of the heart are other tests useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of the attack. The treatment following acute recovery from a TIA depends on the underlying cause. Patients who have more than 70% stenosis of the carotid artery, removal of atherosclerotic plaque is usually done by carotid endarterectomy surgery. One-third of the people with TIA can later have recurrent TIAs and one-third can have a stroke because of permanent nerve cell loss. Having a TIA is a risk factor for eventually having a stroke. Educating the patients and inculcating lifestyle modifications in them are initial steps to minimize the prevalence of transient ischemic attack.

  11. Race/Ethnic Differences in the Associations of the Framingham Risk Factors with Carotid IMT and Cardiovascular Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystel M Gijsberts

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic. We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.

  12. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  13. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Possible Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects Beyond Glucose Lowering

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Sako, Akahito

    2015-01-01

    The new drug for type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is reversible inhibitor of SGLT-2, leading to reduction of renal glucose reabsorption and decrease of plasma glucose, in an insulin-independent manner. In addition to glucose control, the management of coronary risk factors is very important for patients with diabetes. Here we reviewed published articles about the possible anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond glucose lowering of the SGLT-2 inhibitors. We s...

  14. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  15. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  16. Posttransplant Erythrocytosis and Risk Factors

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    Emre ERDEM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of posttransplant erythrocytosis (PTE. MATERIAL and METHODS: The study included 96 patients who received a renal allograft between 2005-2009 years. PTE was defined as an elevated hematocrit level greater than 51% after renal transplantation in patients receiving an allograft. RESULTS: Of the 96 adult kidney recipients, 15 (15,6% developed PTE. The mean time from transplantation to diagnosis was 7,3 ± 2,8 months ( range, 4,5-13 months . Mean serum creatinine was 1,12 ±0,3 mg/dl (0,8-1,99 mg/dl at the diagnosis of PTE. PTE was more frequent in male patients (p<0.05 and the patients with a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in patient age, donor source, donor age and immunosuppressive therapy on comparing the PTE group and non PTE groups. None of the patients with erythrocytosis experienced thromboembolic events during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PTE developed in the first year after transplantation. Male gender and a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation are risk factors of PTE.

  17. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  18. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies.

  19. Association of Atherosclerotic Peripheral Arterial Disease with Adiponectin Genes SNP+45 and SNP+276: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Gherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We hypothesized that adiponectin gene SNP+45 (rs2241766 and SNP+276 (rs1501299 would be associated with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Furthermore, the association between circulating adiponectin levels, fetuin-A, and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease was investigated. Method. Several blood parameters (such as adiponectin, fetuin-A, and TNF-α were measured in 346 patients, 226 with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD and 120 without symptomatic PAD (non-PAD. Two common SNPs of the ADIPOQ gene represented by +45T/G 2 and +276G/T were also investigated. Results. Adiponectin concentrations showed lower circulating levels in the PAD patients compared to non-PAD patients (P0.05. Conclusion. The results of our study demonstrated that neither adiponectin SNP+45 nor SNP+276 is associated with the risk of PAD.

  20. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  1. Short-term administration of basic fibroblast growth factor enhances coronary collateral development without exacerbating atherosclerosis and balloon injury-induced vasoproliferation in atherosclerotic rabbits with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxiang; Yang, Jian; Feng, Jianzhang; Jennings, Lisa K

    2002-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the extent of atherosclerosis and balloon injury-induced vasoproliferation in atherosclerotic animals with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Fifty-six rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet. Balloon injury of iliac arteries and experimental acute myocardial infarction were induced in the same animals. Rabbits were then randomized to a bFGF group (20 pg/day, intravenously) or a control group (intravenous saline solution). The beneficial effects of bFGF on cardiac function, infarct size, and collateral vessel development, and the possible effect on vasoproliferation of balloon-injured vessels, were measured after 1 and 2 weeks. The extent of atherosclerosis was measured after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Our results showed that bFGF significantly reduced infarct size and increased collateral-vessel density (P atherosclerosis and the vasoproliferation in chronic atherosclerotic vessels induced by balloon injury and cholesterol diet were not significantly different between the two groups. Our results suggest that short-term treatment with bFGF enhances collateral development and produces maximum therapeutic benefits without exacerbating atherosclerosis and cell proliferation in stenotic vessels after AMI in atherosclerotic rabbits. PMID:12228768

  2. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  3. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  4. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Picano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque, iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque, and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque. Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging

  5. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this iss...

  6. Risk factors for vascular disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breteler, M M; Bots, M L; Ott, A; Hofman, A

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that risk factors for vascular disease and stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. This paper reviews current knowledge on the relationship between risk factors for stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The focus will be on 'classical' risk factors, including age and gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, cholesterol, prior cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, cigarette smoking and alcohol use; as well as on factors that more recently have been recognized as putative risk factors, including APOE genotype, serum homocysteine concentration, relative abnormalities in the hemostatic and thrombotic systems, and inflammation.

  7. EVALUATION OF CORONARY RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Cardiovascular disease is the commonest cause of death globally. Acute myocardial infarction generally occurs when coronary blood flow decreases abruptly after thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery causing focal or massive necrosis of cardiac muscle. The risk factor concept implies that a person with one risk factor is more likely to develop clinical atherosclerotic event and is more likely to do so earlier than a person with no risk factors. The presence of multiple risk factors further accelerates th e atherosclerosis. Hence it is important to identify the major risk factors of coronary atherosclerosis in an individual with acute myocardial infarction so that further preventive measures can be taken in the form of lifestyle modification and pharmacothe rapy. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: T his is a hospital based study. This study comprises of 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction admitted in ICCU under the department of medicine and 100 normal healthy controls in the age group of 29 - 85 years. Patients wi th the evidence of acute MI were diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Blood samples collected in vacutainers were analyzed for different biochemical parameters in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. RESULTS: Common risk factors have been evaluated in our study and we found that maximum MI patients were recorded in the age group of 51 - 60 years, with respect to other risk factors history like sex, majority of patients were males (82%, Sedentary life style (44%, Mixed dietary habits (84%, Family history o f IHD (6%, Dyslipidemia and Smoking (46%, Hypertension (31%, Diabetes (37%, Obesity (18%. In our study we found that 81% of the patients of acute MI had multiple risk factors. CONCLUSION: Thus from the study we can conclude that risk factors play a ma jor role in the genesis of coronary heart disease. Modification of these factors by pharmacotherapy, diet, physical exercises and behavioral therapy can improve the

  8. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  9. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  10. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  11. Coronary-Heart-Disease-Associated Genetic Variant at the COL4A1/COL4A2 Locus Affects COL4A1/COL4A2 Expression, Vascular Cell Survival, Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ng, Fu Liang; Chan, Kenneth; Pu, Xiangyuan; Poston, Robin N; Ren, Meixia; An, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruoxin; Wu, Jingchun; Yan, Shunying; Situ, Haiteng; He, Xinjie; Chen, Yequn; Tan, Xuerui; Xiao, Qingzhong; Tucker, Arthur T; Caulfield, Mark J; Ye, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and genetic variation on chromosome 13q34, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism rs4773144 residing in the COL4A2 gene in this genomic region. We investigated the functional effects of this genetic variant. Analyses of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) from different individuals showed a difference between rs4773144 genotypes in COL4A2 and COL4A1 expression levels, being lowest in the G/G genotype, intermediate in A/G and highest in A/A. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by allelic imbalance assays of primary cultures of SMCs and ECs that were of the A/G genotype revealed that the G allele had lower transcriptional activity than the A allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that a short DNA sequence encompassing the rs4773144 site interacted with a nuclear protein, with lower efficiency for the G allele, and that the G allele sequence had lower activity in driving reporter gene expression. Analyses of cultured SMCs from different individuals demonstrated that cells of the G/G genotype had higher apoptosis rates. Immunohistochemical and histological examinations of ex vivo atherosclerotic coronary arteries from different individuals disclosed that atherosclerotic plaques with the G/G genotype had lower collagen IV abundance and thinner fibrous cap, a hallmark of unstable, rupture-prone plaques. A study of a cohort of patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease showed that patients of the G/G genotype had higher rates of myocardial infarction, a phenotype often caused by plaque rupture. These results indicate that the CHD-related genetic variant at the COL4A2 locus affects COL4A2/COL4A1 expression, SMC survival, and atherosclerotic plaque stability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between the genetic variant and CHD

  12. Leukocytosis: a risk factor for myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kotla SK

    2012-01-01

    Suman K KotlaDepartment of Internal Medicine, Memorial Medical Center, Johnstown, PA, USAAbstract: Myocardial infarction commonly results from atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries. Approximately 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction do not have atherosclerotic disease. In this case report, we present an unusual leukostatic complication in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia and extreme hyperleukocytosis who presented with an acute myocardial infarction that resolv...

  13. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm3, 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm3, 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  14. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung; Choi, So Yeon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm{sup 3}, 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm{sup 3}, 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  15. Postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis after local anesthesia: presence of risk factors versus intraoperative shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Hajnic, Hrvoje; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-08-01

    Published data suggest that the regional anesthetic technique used for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) increases the systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate. At the same time local anesthesia reduced the shunt insertion rate. This study aimed to analyze risk factors and ischemic symptomatology in patients with postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis. The current retrospective study was undertaken to assess the results of CEA in 8000 patients who were operated during a five-year period in six regional cardiovascular centers. Carotid color coded flow imaging, medical history, clinical findings and atherosclerotic risk factors were analyzed. Among them, there were 33 patients (0.4%) with postoperative re-occlusion after CEA. The patients with restenosis were re-examined with carotid color coded flow imaging and data were compared with 33 consecutive patients with satisfactory postoperative findings to serve as a control group. In the restenosis group eight risk factors were analyzed (hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, history of stroke, transitory ischemic attack, heart attack and coronary disease), and compared with risk factors in control group. Study results suggested that early postoperative internal carotid artery restenosis was not caused by atherosclerosis risk factors but by intraoperative shunt usage. PMID:20439301

  16. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy a

  17. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors....... This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these...

  18. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  19. Enhanced External Counterpulsation Treatment May Intervene The Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression by Inducing The Variations of Mechanical Factors: A 3D FSI Study Based on in vivo Animal Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianhang; Wang, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidences suggest that long-term enhanced external counter-pulsation (EECP) treatment can inhibit the initiation of atherosclerotic lesion by improving the hemodynamic environment in aortas. However, whether this kind procedure will intervene the progression of advanced atherosclerotic plaque remains elusive and causes great concern in its clinical application presently. In the current paper, a pilot study combining animal experiment and numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the acute mechanical stress variations during EECP intervention, and then to assess the possible chronic effects. An experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic porcine model was developed and the basic hemodynamic measurement was performed in vivo before and during EECP treatment. Meanwhile, A 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of blood vessel with symmetric local stenosis was developed for the numerical calculation of some important mechanical factors. The results show that EECP augmented 12.21% of the plaque wall stress (PWS), 57.72% of the time average wall shear stress (AWSS) and 43.67% of the non-dimensional wall shear stress gradient (WSSGnd) at throat site of the stenosis. We suggest that long-term EECP treatment may intervene the advanced plaque progression by inducing the significant variations of some important mechanical factors, but its proper effects will need a further research combined follow-up observation in clinic. PMID:27263260

  20. Control of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Multinational Patient Population in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohamed; Al-Hinai, Ali T.; Shehab, Abdullah; Al-Tamimi, Omer; Al-Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al-Herz, Shorook; Al-Anazi, Faisal; Al-Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Al-Khadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel R.; Yusufali, Afzal H.; Al-Jassim, Obaid; Al-Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad O.A.S.; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001). PMID:26496982

  1. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  2. Development of cardiometabolic risk in childhood and adolescence. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process leading to cardiovascular disease begins early in life and is influenced over time by several risk factors. Investigating determinants that contribute to an unfavourable cardiometabolic profile in childhood and adolescence is important for specifying time windows suitable

  3. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  4. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, R; Heslinga, S C; van Halm, V P; Nurmohamed, M T

    2016-05-15

    Inflammatory joint disorders (IJD), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (ASp) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are prevalent conditions worldwide with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. IJD are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we present an overview of the literature. Standardised mortality ratios are increased in IJD compared with the general population, that is, RA 1.3-2.3, ASp 1.6-1.9 and PsA 0.8-1.6. This premature mortality is mainly caused by atherosclerotic events. In RA, this CV risk is comparable to that in type 2 diabetes. Traditional CV risk factors are more often present and partially a consequence of changes in physical function related to the underlying IJD. Also, chronic systemic inflammation itself is an independent CV risk factor. Optimal control of disease activity with conventional synthetic, targeted synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs decreases this excess risk. High-grade inflammation as well as anti-inflammatory treatment alter traditional CV risk factors, such as lipids. In view of the above-mentioned CV burden in patients with IJD, CV risk management is necessary. Presently, this CV risk management is still lacking in usual care. Patients, general practitioners, cardiologists, internists and rheumatologists need to be aware of the substantially increased CV risk in IJD and should make a combined effort to timely initiate CV risk management in accordance with prevailing guidelines together with optimal control of rheumatic disease activity. CV screening and treatment strategies need to be implemented in usual care. PMID:26888573

  5. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors. PMID:27618375

  6. The level of grammar school students’ knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraković Milana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be influenced by modification of life-style. Material and Methods. Data from the entrance and exit tests were collected from 197 students attending a grammar school in Novi Sad. Chi-square test and Student T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the statistical difference between categorized variables and the continuous variables, respectively. Results. The difference between the number of correct answers for all the students on the entrance test and exit test was statistically significant (p<0.0005 and the overall knowledge level after lectures was increased by 29.4%. The lowest level of knowledge on the entrance tests was noted among the students of the third grade of grammar school and after the lectures, the student’s knowledge level was increased by 82.3% (p<0.0005. Conclusion. Children and adolescents from Vojvodina and Serbia should be well informed about the cardiovascular disease risk factors and their prevention with special attention paid to the risk factors that can be influenced by changing lifestyle habits.

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk : uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk management.

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, P.

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty factors (also known as extrapolation or safety factors) are widely used in lower tier ecotoxicological risk management in order to allow for sources of variability and uncertainty for which there is only limited information. From the point of view of probabilistic risk assessment, the rationale underlying both the use of uncertainty factors and the specific values chosen is often unclear. On the other hand, uncertainty factors are a convenient approach to lower tier risk assessme...

  9. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on Wes

  10. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  11. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebe D’Adamo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  12. Modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Gianoulakis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death after cardiac disease and cancer in the developed countries. In patients older than 65 years old, ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of disability. They are also responsible for approximately 4.5 million deaths each year globally.The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.The method οf this study included bibliographic research from both reviews and researches from literature, mainly of the last 8 years. The words used in pub med data base, referred to the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.Results: In the majority of research studies, responsible risk factors for ischemic stroke are classified according to their ability of modification, in modifiable and non–modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors have been fully documented whereas some others need further research. The main modifiable risk factor is hypertension because on the one hand it promotes atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, leads to deteriorative changes and constrictions of small brain vessels. Atrial fibrillation is the most significant risk factor for ischemic stroke, since it is responsible for more than 50% of thromboembolic cases. Also, patients with diabetes mellitus are in higher risk for developing ischemic stroke compared to healthy population, whereas the danger is increasing in insuline-depented individuals. Increase of lipids in blood and disorders of cholesterol are responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary vessels and carotid. More in detail, carotid stenosis >50% in individuals over than 65 years old consist a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke. Though, the relation of smoking to ischemic stroke is still not fully understood, however smokers are in high risk for developing ischemic stroke for the reason that smoking is significantly related to

  13. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  14. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...

  15. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to dr

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  17. Mechanical model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Haijun; ZHANG; Mei; ZHANG; Yun

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events, but the mechanism of plaque rupture is still unknown. We have constructed a model describing the motion of the fibrous cap of the plaque using the theory of elastic mechanics and studied the stability of the plaque theoretically. It has shown that plaque rupture is the result of a dynamic interplay between factors intrinsic to the plaque itself and extrinsic factors. We have proposed a new mechanism of plaque rupture, given a new explanation about the nonlinear dynamic progress of atherosclerosis and suggested a method to identify the vulnerable plaques to manage atherosclerosis.

  18. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment h...

  19. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  20. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...

  1. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  2. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular deme...

  3. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained fi...

  4. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  5. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  6. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  7. A salmon protein hydrolysate exerts lipid-independent anti-atherosclerotic activity in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Parolini

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is considered health beneficial as it decreases cardiovascular disease (CVD-risk through effects on plasma lipids and inflammation. We investigated a salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism and to have anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. 24 female apolipoprotein (apo E(-/- mice were divided into two groups and fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% (w/w SPH for 12 weeks. The atherosclerotic plaque area in aortic sinus and arch, plasma lipid profile, fatty acid composition, hepatic enzyme activities and gene expression were determined. A significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque area in the aortic arch and aortic sinus was found in the 12 apoE(-/- mice fed 5% SPH for 12 weeks compared to the 12 casein-fed control mice. Immunohistochemical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus displayed no differences in plaque composition between mice fed SPH compared to controls. However, reduced mRNA level of Icam1 in the aortic arch was found. The plasma content of arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and oleic acid (C18:1n-9 were increased and decreased, respectively. SPH-feeding decreased the plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and GM-CSF, whereas plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG were unchanged, accompanied by unchanged mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT-activity. These data show that a 5% (w/w SPH diet reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/- mice and attenuate risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders by acting both at vascular and systemic levels, and not directly related to changes in plasma lipids or fatty acids.

  8. A salmon protein hydrolysate exerts lipid-independent anti-atherosclerotic activity in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Vik, Rita; Busnelli, Marco; Bjørndal, Bodil; Holm, Sverre; Brattelid, Trond; Manzini, Stefano; Ganzetti, Giulia S; Dellera, Federica; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål; Sirtori, Cesare R; Nordrehaug, Jan E; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K; Chiesa, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Fish consumption is considered health beneficial as it decreases cardiovascular disease (CVD)-risk through effects on plasma lipids and inflammation. We investigated a salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism and to have anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. 24 female apolipoprotein (apo) E(-/-) mice were divided into two groups and fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% (w/w) SPH for 12 weeks. The atherosclerotic plaque area in aortic sinus and arch, plasma lipid profile, fatty acid composition, hepatic enzyme activities and gene expression were determined. A significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque area in the aortic arch and aortic sinus was found in the 12 apoE(-/)- mice fed 5% SPH for 12 weeks compared to the 12 casein-fed control mice. Immunohistochemical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus displayed no differences in plaque composition between mice fed SPH compared to controls. However, reduced mRNA level of Icam1 in the aortic arch was found. The plasma content of arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and oleic acid (C18:1n-9) were increased and decreased, respectively. SPH-feeding decreased the plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and GM-CSF, whereas plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG) were unchanged, accompanied by unchanged mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-activity. These data show that a 5% (w/w) SPH diet reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice and attenuate risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders by acting both at vascular and systemic levels, and not directly related to changes in plasma lipids or fatty acids.

  9. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    . Rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 2.4) and chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.5) was associated with site-specific osteoporosis by DXA at the total hip. Current use of loop diuretics (OR = 1.7) and glucocorticoid use (OR = 1.04-1.06) were associated with both total hip and femoral neck T-score ... confirms an independent negative association with BMD of many established risk factors, certain comorbidities, and medications. Exercise level, use of loop diuretics, and prevalent chronic pulmonary disease, risk factors not included in fracture risk calculators were associated with osteoporosis by DXA...

  10. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  11. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies. PMID:27082149

  12. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  13. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  14. New assessment for the risk of ischemic stroke or carotid artery stenosis. Prognostic factor analysis in hypercholesterolemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concise and non-invasive methods to detect the risk of cerebrovascular disease in high risk patients are considered useful. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the contribution to ischemic cerebrovascular risk of the Revised Atherosclerotic Index (RAI) which is calculated from the Atherogenic Index (AI), patient's age and number of risk factors of atherosclerotic disease. I studied retrospectively the serum lipid levels, carotid stenosis measured by ultrasonography and cerebral infarction diagnosed from the symptoms and CT in 56 hypercholesterolemic outpatients. I assessed the relation between the RAI and carotid stenoic findings, history of cerebral infarction, and type of cerebral infarction. I also assessed the relation between the RAI and changes in LDL-cholesterol level before and after atorvastatin administration. The RAI was significantly increased in patients with carotid lesions and cerebral infarction, but the AI was not. While the odds ratio of the AI for carotid lesions was high but not significantly so, that of the RAI increased with statistical significance. The odds ratio for cerebral infarction was high for the RAI but not for the AI. Furthermore, the RAI was significantly high in patients with aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction as compared to that in patients without any infarction. The serum lipids were well controlled under administration of atorvastatin and the mean RAI was also significantly decreased; however, more comprehensive control of risk factors might be necessary. The AI adjusted for patient's age and number of risk factors might be useful for assessing the risk of carotid lesion atherosclerosis and aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction. (author)

  15. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...

  16. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on studyi

  17. Endogenous Bioactive Peptides as Potential Biomarkers for Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Hirano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, with high medical costs and rates of disability. It is therefore important to evaluate the use of cardiovascular biomarkers in the early diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. We have screened a variety of recently identified bioactive peptides candidates in anticipation that they would allow detection of atherosclerotic CAD. Especially, we have focused on novel anti-atherogenic peptides as indicators and negative risk factors for CAD. In vitro, in vivo and clinical studies indicated that human adiponectin, heregulin-β1, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, and salusin-α, peptides of 244, 71, 30, and 28 amino acids, respectively, attenuate the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions by suppressing macrophage foam cell formation via down-regulation of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1. Circulating levels of these peptides in the blood are significantly decreased in patients with CAD compared to patients without CAD. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that salusin-α is a more useful biomarker, with better sensitivity and specificity, compared with the others for detecting CAD. Therefore, salusin-α, heregulin-β1, adiponectin, and/or GLP-1, alone or in various combinations, may be useful as biomarkers for atherosclerotic CAD.

  18. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  19. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  1. SEAFARER FATIGUE: A REVIEW OF RISK FACTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; Tu, Mingshan;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The widespread occurrence of fatigue in the maritime industry and the consequences for the health and safety of seafarers have caused concern, and indicates the importance of research into risk factors at sea. This review gives an overview of the currently recognized key determinants...... of seafarer fatigue. Methods: A literature study was conducted aiming to collect publications that address work-related risk factors for fatigue. Due to the limited number of publications that deals with seafarers, experiences from other populations sharing the same exposures (e.g. shift work) were also...... included when appropriate. Results: Work at sea involves multiple external risk factors for fatigue such as work stress, irregular work, sleep quantity and quality, workload, and physical factors such as noise and vessel movements. Vulnerability varies between individuals. Conclusions: Taking into account...

  2. Hyperhomocystenemia is a Risk Factor For Coronary Artery Disease in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ashok Kumar Behera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD is very high amongst the people of Indian subcontinent. Among the Indians more than 60% of the CAD remains unexplained by conventionally risk factor. Recently a number of new cardiovascular risk factors have been identified & homocysteine is one of them. Various clinical studies have shown that higher homocysteine level is a risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Studies on the association of hyperhomocysteinemia as a cardiovascular risk factor in Indian patients have shown conflicting results. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported both in type-1 and type-2 Diabetes mellitus & has been correlated with macro vascular complication in western population. There is very limited number of studies of hyperhomocysteinemia as a cardiovascular risk factor in Indian Diabetic patients. So we undertook this study. Methods: We studied 80 patients of diabetes mellitus with 20 healthy control subjects. Out of 80 patients, 40 patients of diabetes mellitus with CAD (Group-Cand their homocysteine level compared with 40 patients of diabetes mellitus without CAD (Group-B and 20 controls (Group-A. Results: The mean homocysteine level in Group-A is found to be 10.2±1.4 μmol/L, in Group-B is 12.75±4.2 μmol/L where as in Group-C is 19.4±7.5 μmol/L. The mean homocysteine level was significantly high in patients of diabetes mellitus with coronary artery disease in comparison to patients of diabetes mellitus without coronary artery disease and healthy controls at p<0.01. Conclusion: Increased level of homocysteine is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in patients with of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  4. A matrix of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol alone, primes human monocytes/macrophages for excessive endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Role in atherosclerotic inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Christensen, Ole; Nielsen, Claus Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to small amounts of bacterial endotoxin, matrices of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol itself, primed human monocytes/macrophages to a highly augmented (>10-fold) production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α. Priming also sensitized the cells, as 10- to 100-fold lower...... levels of endotoxin were needed for TNF-α production equivalent to that of unprimed cells. The pro-inflammatory effect was selective as endotoxin-induced production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines was unaffected while production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 was diminished. These findings...... suggest that cholesterol matrix formation may play a pathogenic role in atherosclerotic inflammation, and they indicate a mechanism by which bacteria and/or bacterial products may play a role in processes leading to arteriosclerosis....

  5. Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis and Hypertension: Pragmatism, Pitfalls, and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, Chirag; de Leeuw, Peter W; Messerli, Franz H

    2016-06-01

    For many years and even decades, a diagnostic work-up to look for a secondary form of hypertension, particularly of renovascular origin, has been a central tenet in medicine. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is considered the most common cause of renovascular hypertension. However, advances in understanding the complex pathophysiology of this condition and the recently documented futility of renal revascularization bring into question whether atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis truly causes "renovascular hypertension." From a clinical point of view, a clear distinction should be made between hypertension associated with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and hypertension caused by renal artery stenosis-induced activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Most patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis do not have a form of hypertension that is remediable or improved by angioplasty; to expose them to the cost, inconvenience, and risk of a diagnostic work-up add up to little more than a wild goose chase. However, with very few exceptions, medical therapy with antihypertensives and statins remains the cornerstone for the management of patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and hypertension. PMID:26522797

  6. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize Inflammatory Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Dai, Xiaohu; Beebe, Tyler; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Predicting metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions has remained an unmet clinical need. We hereby developed an electrochemical strategy to characterize the inflammatory states of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Using the concentric bipolar microelectrodes, we sought to demonstrate distinct Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) measurements for unstable atherosclerotic plaques that harbored active lipids and inflammatory cells. Using equivalent circuits to simulate vessel impedance at the electrode-endoluminal tissue interface, we demonstrated specific electric elements to model working and counter electrode interfaces as well as the tissue impedance. Using explants of human coronary, carotid, and femoral arteries at various Stary stages of atherosclerotic lesions (n = 15), we performed endoluminal EIS measurements (n = 147) and validated with histology and immunohistochemistry. We computed the vascular tissue resistance using the equivalent circuit model and normalized the resistance to the lesion-free regions. Tissue resistance was significantly elevated in the oxLDL-rich thin-cap atheromas (1.57±0.40, n = 14, p 0.05). Hence, we demonstrate that the application of EIS strategy was sensitive to detect fibrous cap oxLDL-rich lesions and specific to distinguish oxLDL-absent fibroatheroma. PMID:21959227

  7. ATHEROSCLEROTIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN OLDER ADULTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Barzilay, Joshua I.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70 to 74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus Diabetes Mellitus in older age deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age.

  8. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  9. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  10. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijailović Željko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.

  11. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  12. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the laboratory...... factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... is a risk factor for a number of cancers. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk ...

  14. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed I Hussain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is responsible for approximately 10% of all ischemic strokes in the United States. The risk of recurrent stroke may be as high as 35% in patient with critical stenosis greater than 70% in diameter narrowing. Recent advances in medical and endovascular therapy have placed ICAD at the forefront of clinical stroke research to optimize the best medical and endovascular approach to treat this important underlying stroke etiology. Analysis of symptomatic ICAD studies lead to the question that whether angioplasty and or stenting is a safe, suitable and efficacious therapeutic strategy in patients with critical stenoses that are deemed refractory to medical management. Most of the currently available data in support of angioplasty and or stenting in high risk patients with severe symptomatic ICAD is in the form of case series and randomized trial results of endovascular therapy versus medical treatment are awaited. This is a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the endovascular approach with angioplasty and or stenting of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

  15. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  16. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  17. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B;

    2010-01-01

    patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...... regression analysis identified four risk factors for PPP: preoperative AAS score, preoperative pain to tonic heat stimulation, 30-day postoperative pain intensity, and sensory dysfunction in the groin at 6 months (nerve damage) (all P

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  19. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models....... Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed...

  20. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  1. Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in the tropics and its comparison with the western population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myla Yacob; Edwin Stephen; Nupur Bit; Mazda Turel; David Sadhu; Sunil Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify and compare the existence of similar and other risk factors in the perspective of an Indian population. Methods:It was designed as a case control study and was conducted in the Department of General and Vascular Surgery Unit 2 of Christian Medical College, Vellore, India between the periods July 2003 to June 2005. 100 patients with an ABPI<0.9 and 100 controls were studied. Results:Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was found to be commoner among males (87%). While atherosclerosis was the commonest aetiology (54%), the incidence of Thromboangiitis Obliterans was also not uncommon (38%). Smoking was the main risk factor in the Indian context (83%) as compared to hypercholesterolemia (60%) in the West. The patients with atherosclerotic PAD were middle-aged and had concomitant diabetes (50%) and hypertension (30%). Conclusions:Peripheral arterial disease occurs in a relatively younger age group in India as compared to their Western counterparts. Thromboangiitis Obliterans was found to be a significant aetiology for arterial occlusive disease, with smoking as the primary risk factor followed by diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.

  2. RISK FACTORS OF MORTALITY IN NEONATAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infant Mortality Rate (IMR is high in India. Identification of risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness is essential to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR and ultimately the IMR. AIM To identify the risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. SETTING AND DESIGN It was a nested case control study done at the sick neonatal unit of urban tertiary referral centre. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining ethical committee approval, retrospective analysis of 150 out born neonatal case records of babies admitted during the period from October 2015 to December 2015 was done. Data such as demographic features, maternal details, referral details, perinatal events, clinical features, laboratory reports and outcome were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS These risk factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and P value calculated for the same to find out significant risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. RESULTS Neonatal mortality rate was 22%. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1, death occurred more commonly in female neonates (23.1%. Home deliveries carried more risk of mortality. Birth order 4 and above had 25% mortality. Neonates of mother who had primary education and below had higher mortality. Perinatal asphyxia and sepsis were the most common causes of neonatal mortality. By univariate analysis, preterms had 4.9 times increased risk of mortality than term babies. Apnoeic spells, chest retractions and shock had 8 times, 3 times and 3.6 times increased risk of mortality respectively. By multivariate analysis, birth weight below 2 kilograms (kg carried 11.8 times more risk of mortality with a p value 0.00 (95% C.I 3.2, 30.4 and poor maternal intake of iron and folic acid tablets was 3.9 times more risk p value 0.003 (95% C.I 1.6, 9.6, apnoeic spells were 5.8 times more risk of mortality with p value 0.02 (95% C.I 1.3, 26.2. CONCLUSION Birth weight below 2 kg, poor maternal intake of iron and folic

  3. Risk Factors for Wound Complications Following Abdominoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K. Jabaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient’s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately

  4. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C

    1995-01-01

    Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...

  5. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  6. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harmesh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking, asthma in the family seasonal variation etc. Statistical analysis: percentages

  7. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  8. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  9. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  10. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  11. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular...

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  13. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  14. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  15. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  16. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  17. Risk Factors of γ-Hydroxybutyrate Overdosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Korf; T. Nabben; A. Benschop; K. Ribbink; J.G.C. van Amsterdam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat

  18. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  19. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  20. Epidemiology and risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameez, Mohammed H; Mayberry, John F

    2015-03-01

    The highest incidence and prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus is in western countries. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and hiatus hernia, increasing age and use of oral bisphosphonates. This article discusses the significance of these findings. PMID:25761802

  1. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  2. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  3. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  4. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  5. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for pl

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  7. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  8. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  9. Selected atherosclerosis risk factors in youth aged 13–15 years 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Michalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.

  10. Risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by obstruction and vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries following pulmonary embolism. Risk factors that predispose patients to CTEPH include the size of the initial thrombus and numerous associated host or medical conditions. Haemostatic risk factors include elevated levels of factor VIII and phospholipid antibodies or intrinsic abnormalities in fibrinogen. Medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of CTEPH include a history of splenectomy, cancer, ventriculoatrial shunt, chronic inflammatory disease, antiphospholipid antibodies and hypothyroidism. Although CTEPH is potentially curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA, up to 40% of patients evaluated for PEA may be denied surgery depending on the level of surgical experience and disease accessibility after pre-operative assessment. Furthermore, an estimated 10–15% of patients are at risk for residual pulmonary hypertension following PEA surgery, due to significant concomitant small-vessel disease. However, pre-operative identification of small-vessel involvement remains a challenge. The current medications effective in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension have not demonstrated efficacy in CTEPH. Accordingly, identification of CTEPH, followed by early referral for evaluation and treatment by an experienced PEA centre, is recommended.

  11. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  12. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  13. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  14. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  15. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  16. Cerebrovascular Risk Factors - In View of Stroke Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Angela K.; Haberl, Roman L.

    2001-01-01

    Stroke risk factors can be divided into those with evidence-based relationship and those with supposed relationship to ischemic stroke, and into potentially treatable risk factors and risk factors with no therapeutic options. Age, gender and race are risk factors with no therapeutic options, while among treatable stroke risk factors most important are high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, patent foramen ovale, cardiac disorders, diabetes mellitus, hiperhomocysteinemia, hiperlipidemia, and...

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media complex thickness in women of childbearing age with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Polyakova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency and significance of traditional risk factors of cardiovascular pathology development and to assess features of carotids atherosclerotic damage in women of reproductive age with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 85 women with RA (mean age 42,1±6,8 years and 32 healthy women (mean age 43,2±6,7 years were included. Traditional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were examined. Blood lipid spectrum was assessed by content of total cholesterol (CTC, triglycerides (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and atherogenity index (AI were calculated. To reveal subclinical forms of atherosclerosis common carotid arteries (CCA duplex scanning with measurement of intima-media complex (IMC was performed using ultrasound system “Acuson 128/XP10” (USA by linear sensor with 7 MHz frequency. C- reactive protein (CRP was assessed by immuno-enzyme assay. Results. Hypertension and lipid metabolism disturbance were the most prevalent risk factors of development and progression of CVD in women of reproductive age with RA. Subclinical atherosclerosis characterized by thickening of IMC was more frequent in RA pts than in healthy women (p<0,001. Presence of extra-articular RA manifestations was accompanied by significant IMC thickening in the region of carotid artery bulb and internal carotid artery (p<0,001, p=0,003. Carotid artery IMC was significantly increased at 3rd RA activity degree in comparison with 1st activity degree (p=0,016 and in the presence of rheumatoid factor in serum (p=0,026. RA pts had IMC thickening irrespectively from CVD history. Conclusion. RA activity as well as HDLC, LDLC and CRP concentration are predictors of vascular atherosclerotic damage in RA

  18. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  19. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...

  20. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  1. Lipid peroxidation-derived etheno-DNA adducts in human atherosclerotic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Jagadeesan [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); De Flora, Silvio [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Izzotti, Alberto [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: h.bartsch@dkfz.de

    2007-08-01

    Atherosclerosis and cancer are characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation and share common risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, dietary habits and ageing. Growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerotic plaques may result from DNA damage, caused either by exogenous mutagens or by agents endogenously generated due to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major LPO product, binds covalently to cellular DNA to form the exocyclic etheno-DNA-base adducts, 1,N {sup 6}-ethenodeoxyadenine ({epsilon}dA) and 3,N {sup 4}-ethenodeoxycytosine ({epsilon}dC). By applying an ultrasensitive {sup 32}P-postlabeling-immunoaffinity method, {epsilon}dA and {epsilon}dC were quantified in abdominal aorta SMCs from 13 atherosclerotic patients and 3 non-smoking subjects without atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of etheno-adducts ranged for {epsilon}dA from 2.3 to 39.6/10{sup 8} dA and for {epsilon}dC from 10.7 to 157.7/10{sup 8} dC, with a high correlation between {epsilon}dA and {epsilon}dC (r = 0.84, P = 0.0001). Etheno-adduct levels were higher in atherosclerotic smokers than in ex-smokers for both {epsilon}dA (means 15.2 versus 7.3, P = 0.06) and {epsilon}dC (71.9 versus 51.6, not significant). {epsilon}dC levels were higher in either ex-smokers (P = 0.03) or smokers (P = 0.07) than in non-smokers. There was a poor correlation between either {epsilon}dA or {epsilon}dC and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, whereas significant positive correlations were detected with the levels of several postlabeled bulky aromatic DNA adducts. In conclusion, two different types of DNA damage may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression: (i) bulky aromatic compounds, to which aorta SMCs are chronically exposed in smokers, can either covalently bind to DNA, induce redox-cycling via quinone intermediates and/or activate local chronic inflammatory processes in the arterial wall; ii) this in turn leads to a self perpetuating

  2. Psychological Risk Factors in Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouva M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.

  3. Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death : Risk Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Niemeijer (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSCD is a common cause of death, with around four to five million cases annually worldwide. Determining which persons are at high risk for SCD remains difficult, due to lack of knowledge on individual risk factors and because in the majority of cases, SCD is the first manifestation of

  4. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingFan Xu; ChaoZhao Liang; Julia Lipianskaya; XianGuo Chen; Song Fan; Li Zhang; Jun Zhou; Sheng Tai; ChangQin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This case‑controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid‑eastern China. Aquestionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The ifnal database included 193cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism(9.8%). Ten patients(5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including ifve families(2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers>35 (odds ratio[OR] =1.47) and<18(OR=2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol(OR=2.67), used drugs(OR=1.53) and had an infection(OR=1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers(OR=1.68) and fathers(OR=1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

  5. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    OpenAIRE

    Janicijevic Katarina; Kocic Sanja; Todorovic Dusan; Sarenac Vulovic Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma). We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glauc...

  6. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  7. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. In spite of major advances in medical technology, the etiology of CP is still not well understood. There is growing evidence that brain damage leading to CP development occurs during pregnancy and that maternal phenotype contributes to this intrauterine environment. We hypothesized that maternal factors such as infections, smoking, comorbidities and genetics can increase the risk of CP in children. Additionally...

  8. Domestic violence. Risk factors, diagnostic & psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Degtyaryov A.V.

    2012-01-01

    In this article theme of domestic violence & sexual abuse against children is being considered from the cultural-historical, social-economic & psychological paradigms. Foreign authors approaches specialized on the work with children’s abuse & their practical results are presented herein. The risk factors of impact of cruel treatment & different forms of child’s mental development abuse are analyzed. The examples of prevention & psychotherapy work with the abused children are given. The articl...

  9. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  10. Social risk factors in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are social risk factors that can rebound negatively in the functional capacity of elder people thus they associate to an enchancement of the vulnerability to have them develop a state of fragility and necessity. A descriptive investigation was done with the objective of determinig the social risk factors of elder people in the dispensaries 28 of policlinic ll from Jatibonico municipality from january 1 st to december 31 st, 2009 .The sample was conformed by 103 older people. Different variables were used like: age, sex, marital status, associated desease and basic components of the family functions disminished or null. It prevailed the 60-64 and 70-74 year old group (24.3%, female sex (60.2%, the elder widow women (20,3 %, the hypertension (60,2% and family comprehension about conduct and elderly points of view (50,4%. There was a high incidence of the social risk factors associated to the presence of old women, alone and widows, the lessen of economic resources, the retirement, the incomprehension of elder people by their families and the presence of non transmisible chronic desease.

  11. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  12. The BioImage Study: novel approaches to risk assessment in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease--study design and objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muntendam, Pieter; McCall, Carol; Sanz, Javier;

    2010-01-01

    The identification of asymptomatic individuals at risk for near-term atherothrombotic events to ensure optimal preventive treatment remains a challenging goal. In the BioImage Study, novel approaches are tested in a typical health-plan population. Based on certain demographic and risk characteris......The identification of asymptomatic individuals at risk for near-term atherothrombotic events to ensure optimal preventive treatment remains a challenging goal. In the BioImage Study, novel approaches are tested in a typical health-plan population. Based on certain demographic and risk...... characteristics on file with Humana Inc, a total of 7,687 men 55 to 80 years of age and women 60 to 80 years of age without evidence of atherothrombotic disease but presumed to be at risk for near-term atherothrombotic events were enrolled between January 2008 and June 2009. Those who met the prespecified...... brachial index. Participants with one or more abnormal screening test results underwent advanced imaging with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for carotid and aortic plaques, contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography for luminal stenosis and noncalcified plaques, and 18F...

  13. Risk Factors for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz Fatma Yavaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in subjects aged over 40 years in Western Turkey and to quantify its association with several systemic risk factors. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The research was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. A total of 1533 subjects aged 40 years or more were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiac disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habitus (meat, chicken, and fish consumption were asked. Level of blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin B12, and thyroid-stimulating-hormone were determined. Ophthalmic examination was performed, and intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen. Subjects with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more and/or with a cupping/disc ratio of 0.3 or more were told to come to the clinic for visual field analysis and gonioscopy. Subjects with a typical glaucomatous visual field defect and an open angle were recorded as POAG. Risk factors for POAG were determined by chi-square test. Re sults: Prevalence of POAG was found to be 2% (30 subjects and the only associated risk factor was age (p=0.05. Dietary habitus was also not associated with glaucoma (p>0.05. Dis cus si on: This study provides a population-based data about the prevalence and risk factors of POAG in Turkey. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 87-90

  14. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  15. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Fbn1C1039G(+/-) mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  16. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  17. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants.......002) and younger women (P = 0.02). Persons with high vital exhaustion gained approximately 2 kg more during follow-up compared to those with no vital exhaustion. Women with high vital exhaustion were also more likely to become obese during follow-up (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-5.03). There were no clear patterns...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  18. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  19. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor in Non-Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Nesar Hoseini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is responsible for much mortality across the w orld, especially in our country .The conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis are well understood, but they can account for only about 50 to 70% of atherosclerotic events in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between prevalent Coronary Artery Disease (CAD and clinical periodontal disease in patients with angiographic ally proven coronary artery disease. 152 consecutive patients w ith angiographically proven coronary artery disease will be included in this study, who received a complete periodontal examination during visit. Patients with normal coronary, average plaque index (1.6±1.02 Index of bleeding (1.51±0.92, mean adhesion level (3.57±1.18. But patients with coronary artery disease, the mean plaque index (2.46±0.62 Index of bleeding (1.86±0.92, mean adhesion level (4.13±1.45. These differences are statistically significant. (p<0.05 In this study, average depth of probe entrance on the surface of teeth has had little relation w ith cardiovascular disease (p = 0.051. According to the results of this study, in peoples over 40 years, who had coronary artery disease proved by coronary angiography, gingival inflammation (periodentitis has a significant relation as a risk factor.

  20. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  1. Predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of limb arteries according to cardioangiological screening of the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of arteries identified through a multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS. Material and methods. Simultaneous survey of 441 rural residents over 40 years old was performed. Synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP on four limbs using MCVS was fulfilled, and differences in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm and legs (ΔSBPleg were calculated. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was also evaluated. │ΔSBParm│≥15 mm Hg or │ΔSBPleg│≥15 mm Hg or ABI≤0.9 were considered as the markers of atherosclerotic arterial disease. Results. A significant asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mmHg was found in 7.7% [95% confidence interval (CI 5.5-10.6%] of patients in the upper limbs and in 6.8% (95 % CI 4.89.6% of patients in the lower extremities. The relative risk of asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mm Hg in the upper limbs increased in hypertension and obesity, and in the lower limbs in men and diabetes. Various quantitative risk factors of the onset and progression of atherosclerosis (age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, BP level had a positive correlation with the level of asymmetry of SBP on the limbs. Using MCVS and the appropriate combinations of features (SBP asymmetry or ABI≤0.9 allowed us at the stage of screening to find out blood flow disturbances in the arteries of the extremities in 14.7% (95% CI 11.7-18.4% of patients. This detection frequency was significantly higher than that when using only ABI. Conclusion. Identification of significant SBP asymmetry (≥15 mm Hg in the limbs may improve the diagnosis of atherosclerotic arterial disease at the stage of screening.

  2. Predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of limb arteries according to cardioangiological screening of the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Khokhlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the predictors of atherosclerotic lesions of arteries identified through a multi-channel volume sphygmography (MCVS. Material and methods. Simultaneous survey of 441 rural residents over 40 years old was performed. Synchronous registration of blood pressure (BP on four limbs using MCVS was fulfilled, and differences in systolic BP between arms (ΔSBParm and legs (ΔSBPleg were calculated. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was also evaluated. │ΔSBParm│≥15 mm Hg or │ΔSBPleg│≥15 mm Hg or ABI≤0.9 were considered as the markers of atherosclerotic arterial disease. Results. A significant asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mmHg was found in 7.7% [95% confidence interval (CI 5.5-10.6%] of patients in the upper limbs and in 6.8% (95 % CI 4.89.6% of patients in the lower extremities. The relative risk of asymmetry of SBP (≥15 mm Hg in the upper limbs increased in hypertension and obesity, and in the lower limbs in men and diabetes. Various quantitative risk factors of the onset and progression of atherosclerosis (age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, BP level had a positive correlation with the level of asymmetry of SBP on the limbs. Using MCVS and the appropriate combinations of features (SBP asymmetry or ABI≤0.9 allowed us at the stage of screening to find out blood flow disturbances in the arteries of the extremities in 14.7% (95% CI 11.7-18.4% of patients. This detection frequency was significantly higher than that when using only ABI. Conclusion. Identification of significant SBP asymmetry (≥15 mm Hg in the limbs may improve the diagnosis of atherosclerotic arterial disease at the stage of screening.

  3. Associations and Risk Factors of Diabetic Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Ali, M; Naher, Z U; Akhanda, A H; Motaleb, M A; Uddin, M S; Islam, M R

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is characterised by increased capillary leakage in the main retinal vessels and by alterations in the microcirculation of the macula. Maculopathy occurs frequently in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence is higher in type 2 than in type 1 diabetic patients. Factors associated with the development of maculopathy are mostly unknown. As maculopathy is the main cause of vision deprivation in diabetic patients it is essential to know the associations and risk factors of diabetic maculopathy so that appropriate measures can be taken to prevent as well as treat diabetic maculopathy. We started the research work to find out the relation between diabetic maculopathy and various associated factors and risk factors for patients with diabetic retinopathy with maculopathy. This cross-sectional observational study done at the Department of Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka & National Institute of Ophthalmology & Hospital (NIO & H), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2006 to June 2006. In this study out of 50 patients, diabetes was controlled in 20(40%) patients and uncontrolled in 30(60%). A significant percentage of patients (40%) had elevated blood pressure. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 24% cases and polyneuropathy was observed in 36% cases. It is evident that diabetic maculopathy has association with dyslipidaemia, abnormal renal function due to nephropathy. This study lighted on the association of diabetic maculopathy with diabetic nephropathy, cardiac abnormalities and diabetic neuropathy. PMID:27277354

  4. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P < 0.001), with peak risk among persons born in winter. Relative to persons born in summer (June-August), incidence rate ratios for AML were 1.72 (95 % CI 1.25-2.38; P = 0.001) for winter (December-February), 1.37 (95 % CI 0.99-1.90; P = 0.06) for spring (March-May), and 1.27 (95 % CI 0.90-1.80; P = 0.17) for fall (September-November). Other risk factors for AML included high fetal growth, high gestational age at birth, and low maternal education level. These findings did not vary by sex or age at diagnosis. Sex, birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML.

  5. The BioImage Study: novel approaches to risk assessment in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease--study design and objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muntendam, Pieter; McCall, Carol; Sanz, Javier;

    2010-01-01

    characteristics on file with Humana Inc, a total of 7,687 men 55 to 80 years of age and women 60 to 80 years of age without evidence of atherothrombotic disease but presumed to be at risk for near-term atherothrombotic events were enrolled between January 2008 and June 2009. Those who met the prespecified...

  6. Integrating information from novel risk factors with calculated risks : the critical impact of risk factor prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, A.J.; Kostende, P.J.; Groenewold, J.; Thijs, A.; Sattar, N.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Case vignette: a 60-year-old man visits his physician for assessment of his 10-year cardiovascular risk. On the basis of his systolic blood pressure, lipid profile, smoking status, and the fact that he is nondiabetic, the Framingham risk score estimates his risk to be 8%. The physician wonders if he

  7. Determinants of Risk Factors for Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Busse

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of risk factors for the development of asthma, including genetic and environmental components. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that a variety of genes are associated with the features of asthma, such as persistent wheezing, airway responsiveness and chronic bronchial inflammation. However, for expression of these features, other factors must also come into play. This paper focuses on the importance of environmental factors in the development of asthma, including allergens and respiratory infections. From current evidence, it appears that in subjects with the appropriate genetic make-up, infections and allergens induce a proinflammatory cytokine response that causes airway inflammation and that in turn leads to the initiation and persistence of altered airway function.

  8. Potential Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Diseases in Patients Receiving Treatment for Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Joonhong; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Min; Oh, Yong-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the hypertension (HTN) patients undergo appropriate medical treatment, and traditional risk factors are highly controlled. Therefore, potential risk factors of atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD) and venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in HTN should be reconsidered. We investigated thrombophilic genetic mutations and existing biomarkers for AVD or VTE in HTN patients receiving treatment. Methods A total of 183 patients were enrolled: AVD with HTN (group A, n=45), VTE with HTN (group B, n=62), and HTN patients without any vascular diseases (group C, n=76). The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) levels, D-dimers, fibrinogen, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) were evaluated. Prothrombin G20210A, Factor V G1691A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C were analyzed. Results All patients revealed wild type prothrombin G20210A and Factor V G1691A polymorphisms. The frequency of MTHFR polymorphisms was 677CT (n=84, 45.9%); 677TT (n=46, 25.1%); 1298AC (n=46, 25.1%); and 1298CC (n=2, 1.1%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to increase the odds ratio (OR) to AVD events in HTN patients (OR 2.648, confidence interval 0.982-7.143, P=0.05). The group A demonstrated significantly higher Hcy levels (P=0.009), fibrinogen (P=0.004), and platelet counts (P=0.04) than group C. Group B had significantly higher levels of D-dimers (P=0.0001), platelet count (P=0.0002), and aCL (P=0.02) frequency than group C. Conclusions The MTHFR 677TT genotype and Hcy level could be potential risk factors associated with development of AVD in HTN patients receiving treatment. D-dimer and aCL might be useful to estimate the occurrence of VTE in them. PMID:26915609

  9. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia;

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...... was to determine if viable oral bacteria could be isolated from atherosclerotic lesions and if DNA from periodontal pathogens could be detected by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques....

  10. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  11. Risk factors of γ-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

  12. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. PMID:25894059

  13. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar;

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  14. Not at random location of atherosclerotic lesions in thoracic aorta and their prognostic significance in relation to the risk of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracic aortic calcium deposits are frequently detected on tomography of the chest, and in other imaging modalities. Numerous studies indicated the correlation of hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress in relation to distribution aortic calcifications. This publication discusses similarities and differences of two distinct pathomechanisms of arterial calcifications: intimal associated with atherosclerosis and medial knows as Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis. This review also analyzes the frequent coexistence of aortic calcification and coronary artery disease in terms of risk of cardiovascular events

  15. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  16. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  17. Preventing delirium in dementia: Managing risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community. It is likely that there is a differential effect of specific interventions in those with cognitive impairment (e.g. people with dementia may respond better to simpler, more pragmatic interventions rather than complex procedures) but this cannot be determined from the existing data. Targeted interventions focussed on hydration, medication rationalization and sleep promotion may also be effective in reducing the incidence of delirium, as well as the active involvement of family members in the care of the elderly hospitalized patient. Hospitalization itself is a potential risk factor for delirium and promising data are emerging of the benefits of home-based care as an alternative to hospitalization but this is restricted to specific sub-populations of patients and is reliant on these services being available. PMID:27621236

  18. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  19. [Risk factors of ischemic heart disease in various occupational groups. II. Complex analysis of risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałuszka, Z; Kolarzyk, E; Stepniewski, M; Salwińska-Ciećkiewicz, B; Szpak, D

    1991-01-01

    Four hundred four men aged 30 to 59 years, belonging to one of 4 occupational groups were investigated in a standard clinical conditions. Two from those groups were characteristic for steel mill professions: 121 blast furnace workers; exerting strenuous physical effort and working in hot microclimate. 131 operators (the second group) performed work in comfort microclimate conditions not demanding much effort. The third group comprised 73 executives of industry. The fourth group consisted of 79 monks. For all subjects of investigations 8 selected risk factors of ischemic heart disease were evaluated. They included: age, sex, family history, habit of smoking, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood cholesterol level, obesity index and professional physical activity. The level of each risk factor had numerical value in a span from "0" to "8". The sum of all points was decisive to which of 3 groups of risk given man should be accounted. Those 3 groups were arbitrary divided into "low, intermediate and high risk". The highest risk was found for the executives group, and the lowest for blast furnace workers. From the risk factors under investigation highest overall influence on incidence of ischemic heart disease had habit of smoking and obesity. Described here point classification system seems to be very simple and useful for estimation of risk of ischemic heart disease in a given population. PMID:1845321

  20. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  1. Management of atherosclerotic renovascular disease after Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Sandra M S; Saad, Ahmed; Textor, Stephen C

    2015-03-01

    Many patients with occlusive atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial and the Stent Placement and Blood Pressure and Lipid-Lowering for the Prevention of Progression of Renal Dysfunction Caused by Atherosclerotic Ostial Stenosis of the Renal Artery (STAR) and ASTRAL. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Although hemodynamically significant, ARVD can reduce renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate; adaptive mechanisms preserve both cortical and medullary oxygenation over a wide range of vascular occlusion. Progression of ARVD to severe vascular compromise eventually produces cortical hypoxia, however, associated with active inflammatory cytokine release and cellular infiltration of the renal parenchyma. In such cases ARVD produces a loss of glomerular filtration rate that no longer is reversible simply by restoring vessel patency with technically successful renal revascularization. Each of these trials reported adverse renal functional outcomes ranging between 16 and 22% over periods of 2-5 years of follow-up. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of ARVD for clinical nephrologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials and experimental research. PMID:24723543

  2. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosewell Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  3. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P arthritis, ASO, and CIC may be associated with higher rates of uveitis in AS. The results of this comprehensive analysis suggest that the possible occurrence of uveitis in AS should not be neglected if the patients have those concomitant risk factors. PMID:27428230

  4. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pociot, Flemming; Lernmark, Åke

    2016-01-01

    that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment...... of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis....

  5. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  6. Risk factors associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Rong; Guo Yuna; Chen Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of an emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) as a lifesaving measure to manage intractable postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) appears to be increasing recently around the world,and the indications for EPH have changed.The object of this study is to identify risk factors associated with EPH.Methods We conducted a case-control study of 21 patients who underwent EPH because of intractable PPH between January 1,2005 and June 30,2013,at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University,School of Medicine (IPMCH).The parametric t-test,chi-square tests and Logistic regression models were used for analysis to identify the risk factors.The results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05.Results There were 89 178 deliveries during the study period.Twenty-one women had an EPH,with an incidence of 24 per 100 000 deliveries.The loss of blood during postpartum hemorrhage of the EPH group was (5 060.7±3 032.6)ml,and that of the control group was (2 040.8±723.5) ml.There was a significant difference of PHH between the EHP group and the control group (P=0.001).Independent risk factors for EPH from a logistic regression model were:disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (OR:9.9,95% CI 2.8-34,P=0.003),previous cesarean section (OR:5.27;95% CI:1.48-17.9,P=0.009),placenta previa (OR:6.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.9,P=0.008),the loss of PPH (OR:1.001; 95% CI 1.001-1.002,P=0.002),placenta accreta (OR:68; 95% CI 10-456,P=0.004),the use of tocolytic agents prenatally (OR:6.55,95%CI 1.34-32.1,P=0.049),and fetal macrosomia (OR:6.9,95% CI 1.25-38,P=0.049).Conclusion Significant risk factors of EPH are DIC,placenta previa,PPH,previous cesarean delivery,and placenta accrete,the use of tocolytic agents prenatally,and fetal macrosomia.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.

  8. Relationship between coronary atherosclerotic stenosis and cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaping Wei; Shenmao Li; Zhiyong Zhang; Feng Ling; Kang Li; Hong Zhao; Jifang He; Liqing Xu; Jing Wen; Chunyan Zhou; Xiaoguang Wu; Jiarui Wang

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between severity of cerebrovascular atherosclerosis stenosis and that of coronary atherosclerosis stenosis.Methods Cerebral angiography and coronary angiography were performed in 34 patients who had coronary disease with cerebral ischemia.Patients were divided into 3 subgroups according to the degree ofstenosis on angiography,concomitant diseases,risk factors and biochemical data.Results The follow-up study showed that the incidence of cardiac and cerebrovascular death increased significantly in patients with moderate to severe stenosis of coronary and cerebral arteries;the severity of stenosis in the coronary artery parallels that in the solitary carotid artery,or dual carotid and vertebral arteries.Conclusions Patients with coronary and cerebral artery stenosis,especially those with multi-risk factors,such as hypertension,diabetes and cigarette smoking,should receive intensive treatment to reduce cardiac and cerebrovascular events.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2008;5:227-229)

  9. Risk factors in stage III breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five-year follow-up data of 100 patients with stage III breast cancer treated by primary irradiation from 1977 to 1981 are presented. The 5-year overall survival rate for the entire group was 38% with a median survival time of 33 months. The data were analysed to determine factors associated with prognosis. Patients with shorter premedical history and premenopausal status had a modest survival advantage. Response to radiation therapy, primary tumor status, regional lymph node condition, postirradiation histologic findings in axillary lymph nodes proved to have a prognostic value. Disease which was not controlled by radiotherapy also tended to be resistant to chemotherapy and the 5-year survival in this group was zero. Risk factors have to be taken into consideration for the combined modality treatment for stage III breast cancer. However, further studies are needed to define the indication and appropriate sequence of systemic treatment in this stage of the disease. (orig.)

  10. The developmental 'risk factor' model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R M; Fearon, P

    1999-01-01

    There is no single cause for schizophrenia. We believe that, as with other common chronic diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, the appropriate aetiological model is one involving multiple genes and environmental risk factors; the latter can be divided into (a) predisposing and (b) precipitating. Our model is that genetic and/or early environmental factors cause the development of anomalous neural networks. We postulate that these interact in the growing child with inherited schizotypal traits to establish a trajectory towards an increasingly solitary and deviant life style. This ultimately projects the individual across the threshold for expression of schizophrenia, sometimes by causing the drug abuse and social adversity that appear to precipitate the psychosis. PMID:10628525

  11. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  12. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  13. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  14. Patient risk factors for pressure ulcer development: Systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, S.; Gorecki, C.; Nelson, E.A.; Closs, S.J.; Defloor, T.; Halfens, R.; Farrin, A.; Brown, J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Nixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors independently predictive of pressure ulcer development in adult patient populations? DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research was undertaken, based upon methods recommended for effectiveness questions but adapted to identify observational risk factor studie

  15. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-01-01

    This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for proje...

  16. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML. PMID:26113060

  17. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)

  18. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Joachim Raabe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  19. [Prevalence and influence of risk factors on coronary shunting operations in patients with aterosclerosis of abdominal aorta and peripheral vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, B A; Bazylev, V V; Belov, Iu V; Kizyma, A G

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective study analysis concerning the prevalence of risk factors for unfavorable outcomes after coronary operations in patients with peripheral arterial atherosclerosis is presented. Meta-analysis of individual risk factors was carried out. Frequency of complications after coronary shunting in patients with various concomitant diseases is evaluated. The multifactorial relative risk affecting hospital lethality is defined. The study includes 131 patients with generalized atherosclerosis, which have underwent myocardial revascularization at the first stage (the main group) and at the second stage have been operated on abdominal aorta and peripheral arteries. 1128 patients without peripheral arterial atherosclerosis have made the control group. They underwent only coronary shunting. All patients were treated from December of 1994 till June of 2006. Relying on the results of the study cumulative relative risk for unfavorable outcomes after revascularization is 1.8 times higher in patients from the main group than in patients from the control group, and the risk for primary complications is 2.03 times higher. Concomitant atherosclerotic arterial involvement among cardiosurgical patients is associated with high risk for stroke in postoperative period. In case of chronic renal failure risk factors are cumulated. In the main group lethality made 5% , which was higher as compared with the control group. Correlation of such risk factors as heart failure and renal failure (creatinine level more than 1.8 mg/dl) with lethality has been revealed among patients from the main group. Lethality risk raises in 5.30 times in the presence of heart failure in medical history, and raises in 13.15 times in case of initially elevated creatinine level. Age of patient didn't have any influence on lethality in early postoperative period.

  20. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  1. Post biopsy pneumothorax: Risk factors and course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The was to study the natural course of pneumothorax produced after aspiration biopsy in the attempt to differentiate those cases that will resolve spontaneously from those that will require drainage, and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the development of this entity. Eighty-nine CT-guided aspiration biopsies were performed in 80 patients. Control CT was done immediately after the procedure and 24 hours later. When pneumothorax persisted, CT was repeated at 48 h, 72 h, day 5 and day 7 or until a drainage tube was introduced. The cases of pneumothorax were classified as minimal, anterior or anterolateral. Seven variables were assessed as possible risk factors for its occurrence. Pneumothorax developed on 29 occasions (32.5%), requiring drainage in 12 cases (13.5%). In 20 patients (22%), pneumothorax occurred immediately, while in the remaining 9 (10%) it was detected in the 24 h CT scan. When studied according to type, drainage was required in 3 of the 19 cases of minimal or anterior pneumothorax (15%) and in 9 or the 10 cases of anterolateral location (90%) (p<0.0005). The mean thickness of the parenchyma punctured was 3.4 cm +- 2.2. cm when pneumothorax developed and 1.3 cm+- 2 cm when it did not (p<0.0001). There is a statistically significant association between the development of anterolateral pneumothorax and the need for chest drainage. The thickness of the punctured parenchyma is associated with the production of pneumothorax. 16 refs

  2. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: risk factors and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alikari V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritonitis is the most frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis. It is the main cause of failure of the method and inclusion of patients in hemodialysis Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis as well as the acute and long-term effects of peritonitis on peritoneal membrane function and success of the method. Methods: Literature review of relevant articles in the database Pubmed as well as the official website of the International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD was carried out. The search included articles published during the period 1986 -2012.Results: Lack of patient compliance with the peritoneal changes protocol, lack of social support, systemic diseases and connection systems are risk factors of peritonitis. Peritonitis causes transient increase of peritoneum permeability, loss of the ability of the peritoneum for ultrafiltration and, consequently, overhydration. Long-term, recurrent episodes of peritonitis resulting in permanent loss of peritoneum capacity for ultrafiltration even fibrosis that leads to failure of the method. Finally, its effect on the reduction of the residual renal function seems to be remarkable. Conclusions: Peritonitis is the most common infectious complication of peritoneal dialysis and the main cause of morbidity associated with the method. Moreover, it is the major cause of failure of the method and patients accession in hemodialysis. Any attempt to prevent peritonitis passes through the careful patient selection and effective patient education on compliance with the rules of asepsis during peritoneal changes.

  3. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁKOS NÉMETH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.

  4. Sexting; your definition, risk factors and consecuences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Tomasa Mercado Contreras

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of the technology in communications has led to social networking sites fulfill an important role in society. Among the most used and known is Facebook, that social network allows to make public certain information and provides the opportunity to hold private conversations. This new trend of talks, and the natural desire to explore sexuality has led young people interested at phenomenon known as sexting. This phenomenon, from some of the negative consequences became public, has attracted the interest from parents, teachers, researchers and health workers, however, have not been universally well defined. This lack of unanimous conceptualization has led to confusion within the psychological, social and legal area. That is why in the present article presents results of a systematic review of articles that speak about sexting. The select articles were those that were published from 2009 to 2014, in which work was focused to adolescents and speak about risk factors and consequences of the phenomenon. The articles were analyzed by looking at the similarities and differences in their definition of sexting and their results, identifying risk factors and consequences related considered. With the analysis was possible to categorize their limitations and finally offer a possible definition of sexting.

  5. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  6. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads;

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  7. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen; Peter Damm; Anil Kapur; Vijayam Balaji; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Veerasamy Seshiah; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP...

  8. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    James Martinez; Jeremy Tost; Larry Hilgert; Tracy Woodard-Meyers

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood...

  9. Risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Mo Yang; Xiao-Dong Tian; Yan Zhuang; Wei-Min Wang; Yuan-Lian Wan; Yan-Ting Huang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors for pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to evaluate whether duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy could reduce the risk of pancreatic leakage.METHODS: Sixty-two patients who underwent PD at our hospital between January 2000 and November 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The primary diseases of the patients included pancreas cancer, ampullary cancer, bile duct cancer, islet cell cancer, duodenal cancer, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cystadenoma, and gastric cancer.Standard PD was performed for 25 cases, PD with extended lymphadenectomy for 27 cases, pylorus-preserving PD for 10 cases. A duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy was performed for patients with a hard pancreas and a dilated pancreatic duct, and a traditional end-to-end invagination pancreaticojejunostomy for patients with a soft pancreas and a non-dilated duct. Patients were divided into two groups according to the incidence of postoperative pancreaticojejunal anastomotic leakage: 10 cases with leakage and 52 cases without leakage. Seven preoperative and six intraoperative risk factors with the potential to affect the incidence of pancreatic leakage were analyzed with SPSS10.0 software. Logistic regression was then used to determine the effect of multiple factors on pancreatic leakage.RESULTS: Of the 62 patients, 10 (16.13%) were identified as having pancreatic leakage after operation. Other major postoperative complications included delayed gastric emptying (eight patients), abdominal bleeding (four patients), abdominal abscess (three patients) and wound infection (two patients). The overall surgical morbidity was 43.5% (27/62). The hospital mortality in this series was 4.84% (3/62), and the mortality associated with pancreatic fistula was 10% (1/10). Sixteen cases underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy and 1 case (1/16, 6.25%) devel-oped postoperative pancreatic leakage, 46 cases underwent invagination pancreaticojejunostomy and 9

  10. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  11. Associations Between Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Mittleman, Murray A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have examined the associations of individual clinical risk factors with risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD), but the combined effects of these risk factors are largely unknown. Objective To estimate the degree to which the 4 conventional cardiovascular risk factors of sm

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency: Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, M.H.; de Boer, R.A.; Stolk, Ronald; Slaets, J.P J; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Navis, Ger Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the pre

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for gallbladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    2011-01-01

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the pre

  17. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia;

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...

  18. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  19. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.)

  20. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasu, Junichiro (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.).

  1. Evaluation of atherosclerotic findings in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Afshin Mohammadi1, Ali Bazazi2, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad21Department of Radiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, West-Azerbaijan, Iran; 2Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, West-Azerbaijan, IranBackground: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, a highly prevalent condition, is a feature of metabolic syndrome and is characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between NAFLD and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis.Methods: We examined 250 consecutive patients with ultrasonographically confirmed NAFLD and 85 age-matched and gender-matched controls with normal parenchymal liver echogenicity for determination of CIMT and presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque.Results: Compared with control subjects, patients with NAFLD showed an increased mean CIMT (0.81 ± 0.14 mm compared with control subjects (0.58 ± 0.15 mm. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001. After performing multivariate analysis, the presence of NAFLD was associated with abnormal CIMT independent of other atherogenic risk factors or its association with metabolic syndrome.Conclusion: NAFLD can be an independent risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. Therefore, NAFLD with and without metabolic syndrome can be associated with increased CIMT and increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with NAFLD incidentally diagnosed on abdominal ultrasonography.Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, carotid intima media thickness, risk factor

  2. Environmental risk factors of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Gehanno, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a complex pathogenesis. Although, there is a growing evidence that environmental factors have an impact on alterations and modulation of epigenetic determinants, resulting in SSc onset and progression. A marked correlation has thus been found between SSc onset and occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the following organic solvents: white spirit, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene, and ketones; the risk associated with high cumulative exposure to silica and organic solvents further appears to be strongly increased in SSc. Altogether, occupational exposure should be systematically checked in all SSc patients at diagnosis, as (1) exposed patients seem to develop more severe forms of SSc and (2) the identification of the occupational agents will allow its interruption, which may lead to potential improvement of SSc outcome. By contrast, based on current published data, there is insufficient evidence that exposure to other chemical agents (including notably pesticides as well as personal care such as silicone and hair dye), physical agents (ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, electric and magnetic fields), and biological agents (infections and diet, foods, and dietary contaminants) is a causative factor of SSc. Further investigations are still warranted to identify other environmental factors that may be associated with SSc onset and progression. PMID:26141606

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  4. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  5. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-03-26

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  6. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  7. Is hyperuricemia a risk factor for arteriosclerosis? Uric acid and arteriosclerosis in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakuda, Hirokazu; Uchida, Shinya; Ikeda, Masahiko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    Although hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes increase the risk of arteriosclerosis, it is not clear whether hyperuricemia increases the risk of arteriosclerosis or not. We examined the effects of uric acid and curative drugs for hyperuricemia on atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6J apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Male apoE(-/-) mice (age: 6 weeks) were fed a normal diet (normal diet group) or a uric acid-enriched diet. Mice fed the uric acid-enriched diet were divided into three groups and administered a drinking vehicle (high uric acid diet group), allopurinol (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), or benzbromarone (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 10 weeks. Serum uric acid concentrations were higher in the high uric acid diet group than in the normal diet group, and concentrations in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups were lower than in the high uric acid diet group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the allopurinol group than in the high uric acid diet group. Oxidative stress was lower in the benzbromarone group than in the high uric acid diet group. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were smaller in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups than in the high uric acid diet group. Thus, hyperuricemia may not be an independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis; however, the administration of allopurinol and benzbromarone prevented the development of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice fed a uric acid-enriched diet. The anti-atherosclerotic effect was in part due to lower total cholesterol and oxidative stress in the serum. Other possible mechanisms underlying this effect should be investigated.

  8. Cardiovascular risk in lupus nephritis: Do renal disease-related and other traditional risk factors play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoshi Atukorala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT in a Sri Lankan cohort of lupus nephritis (LN patients and to identify associations between traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD and LN-related risk factors with increased CIMT. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LN were evaluated for conventional CVD risk factors, renal parameters and extent of organ involvement in this cross-sectional study. Current disease activity and damage were assessed by the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR damage index, respectively. CIMT was assessed by B Mode grey scale ultrasonography. Increased CIMT was defined as CIMT more than the 75th percentile based on cutoffs from the "Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study." Forty patients (98% female, with a mean age of 38 years (age range of 20-50 and of South Asian descent, were evaluated. The mean duration of disease of 6.15 years (SD = 4.66. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular events was low and included previous acute coronary syndromes in 7.5%, stable angina in 5%, cerebrovascular accidents in 7.5% and transient ischemic attacks in 2.5% of the patients; 72.5% had hypertension (HTN [mean blood pressure (BP 140/80 mm Hg]; 32.5% had dyslipidemias (mean serum cholesterol 5.9; SD = 5.6 and 25% had diabetes (mean blood sugar 103.7; SD = 15.6. Forty percent were obese and 20% were overweight (Asian cutoffs. Increased CIMT (57.5% and atherosclerotic plaques (15.36% indicated a high CVD risk in this cohort. Diabetes (P = 0.016, HTN (P = 0.002, dyslipidemia (P = 0.002 and obesity (P = 0.048 were associated with thickened CIMT. The only LN-related risk factor associated with thickened CIMT (P <0.05 was the SLICC/ACR damage index. The independent predictors of thickened CIMT determined by logistic regression analysis were HTN and dyslipidemia.

  9. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  10. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  11. Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  12. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  13. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  14. Familial Recurrence of Cerebral Palsy with Multiple Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence P. Richer; Dower, Nancy A.; Norma Leonard; Chan, Alicia K. J.; Robertson, Charlene M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The recurrence of cerebral palsy in the same family is uncommon. We, however, report on two families with two or more affected siblings. In both families, numerous potential risk factors were identified including environmental, obstetric, and possible maternal effects. We hypothesize that multiple risk factors may lead to the increased risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy in families. Intrinsic and maternal risk factors should be investigated in all cases of cerebral palsy to properly counsel...

  15. Is there an effect of folic acid supplementation on the coagulation factors and C-reactive protein concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mierzecki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Folic acid (FA may delay the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Increased plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF are observed in cardiovascular disease, which leads to higher risk of thrombosis. Fibrinogen (Fb is a well-documented risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FA supplementation on the Fb, VWF and C-reactive protein (CRP plasma concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors.Material/Methods:The study enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, 64 F with atherosclerosis risk factors – family history of premature ischaemic stroke, arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia, overweight and obesity, cigarette smoking and low physical activity. The participants were asked to take FA in the low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for three months.Results:After FA supplementation a significant reduction of the VWF concentrations in females (76.6 vs 72.3�20p=0.028 and in males (75.5 vs 66.9�20p=0.001 was observed. Among women and men with dyslipidaemia concentrations of VWF decreased after FA supplementation (76.8�0vs 69.6�20p=0.003 and 76.7�0vs 67.8�20p=0.001 respectively. Among females and males with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 concentrations of VWF decreased only in men (77.6�0vs 66.5�20p=0.001. In female and male smokers supplementation of FA decreased VWF concentrations (82.5�0vs 74.4�20p=0.012 and 76.6�0vs 69.5�20p=0.036 respectively.Discussion:The results of our study suggest that there is an effect of FA supplementation on VWF concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors

  16. Impact of different ratios of Omega-6 polyundaturated fatty acids to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on atherosclerotic lesion formation and inflammatory factors in the LDL receptor knockout mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to assess the effect of different ratios of omega-6 to EPA plus DHA on atherosclerotic lesion formation and plasma inflammatory markers in LDLr-/- mice. Mice (n=10/group) were fed the following diets for 32 weeks: high fat (20% w/w) without EPA and DHA (HF omega-6), and high fat wi...

  17. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  18. Association between depression and anxiety symptoms and major atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychological variables, such as depression and anxiety, are known as independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), suggesting the interaction of psychological and physiological factors in the development of CAD. In the present study, we analyzed the possible association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and major atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with chest pain warranting coronary angiography. The patients without CAD (n=159) and those with CAD (n=155) were evaluated for the severity of depression and anxiety by the symptom scales; high scores indicate severe symptoms. Age, male/female ratio, prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), and depression level were significantly higher in the CAD group. Among a total of 314 patients with chest pain, the mean depression score was higher in patients with DM (16.01±8.12 vs 13.01±9.6, p=0.01) and those with hypercholesterolemia (15.43±9.61 vs 12.53±9.61, p=0.02). The mean anxiety score was also higher in patients with DM (20.81±12.85 vs 16.51±12.09, p=0.008), hypercholesterolemia (20.67±13.11 vs 15.29±11.36, p=0.002), or hypertension (20.74±12.94 vs 14.1±10.8, p=0.001). Thus, DM and hypercholesterolemia are associated with depression and anxiety, while hypertension is only related to anxiety. In contrast, smoking and family history of atherosclerosis are not related to depression and anxiety scores. These results suggest depression and anxiety symptoms may contribute to the development and progression of CAD, especially in patients with DM or hypercholesterolemia. (author)

  19. Pharmacological undertreatment of coronary risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis have increased prevalence of coronary risk factors and limited recent results have suggested that these risk factors are undertreated in patients with psoriasis. This may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases observed in patients with psoriasis....

  20. Risk Factors of Entry in Out-of-Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Ejrnæs, Niels Morten; Frederiksen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    . The mother’s characteristics are more important risk factors than the corresponding risk factors of the father. The results, the applied method and the epidemiological inspired analysis make an opportunity to discuss the central concepts and methods of calculation of statistical association, risk, prediction...

  1. Risk of aspiration in care home residents and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Baat, C. de; Schols, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five experi

  2. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2014-01-01

    consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively...

  3. Analyzing Risk and Performance Using the Multi-Factor Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Vermeulen (Erik); J. Spronk (Jaap); N. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present a new model to analyze the risk and the expected level of firm performance. This model is based on the multi-factor approach to risk, in which unexpected performance is explained through sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Instead of using the m

  4. Progression and regression of the atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feyter, P J; Vos, J; Deckers, J W

    1995-08-01

    In animals in which atherosclerosis was induced experimentally (by a high cholesterol diet) regression of the atherosclerotic lesion was demonstrated after serum cholesterol was reduced by cholesterol- lowering drugs or a low-fat diet. Whether regression of advanced coronary arterly lesions also takes place in humans after a similar intervention remains conjectural. However, several randomized studies, primarily employing lipid-lowering intervention or comprehensive changes in lifestyle, have demonstrated, using serial angiograms, that it is possible to achieve less progression, arrest or even (small) regression of atherosclerotic lesions. The lipid-lowering trials (NHBLI, CLAS, POSCH, FATS, SCOR and STARS) studied 1240 symptomatic patients, mostly men, with moderately elevated cholesterol levels and moderately severe angiographic-proven coronary artery disease. A variety of lipid-lowering drugs, in addition to a diet, were used over an intervention period ranging from 2 to 3 years. In all but one study (NHBLI), the progression of coronary atherosclerosis was less in the treated group, but regression was induced in only a few patients. The overall relative risk of progression of coronary atherosclerosis was 0 x 62 and 2 x 13, respectively. The induced angiographic differences were small and did not produce any significant haemodynamic benefit. The most important result was tht the disease process could be stabilized in the majority of patients. Three comprehensive lifestyle change trials (the Lifestyle Heart study, STARS and the Heidelberg Study) studied 183 patients, who were subjected to stress management, and/or intensive exercise, in addition to a low fat diet, over a period ranging from 1 to 3 years. All three trials demonstrated less progression, and more regression with overall relative risks of 0 x 40 and 2 x 35 respectively, in the intervention groups. Angiographic trials demonstrated that retardation or arrest of coronary atherosclerosis was possible

  5. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Definition: The Konjac plant comes from the genus Amorphophallus. Japanese food uses Konjac cake. Konjac contains almost no calories and a great amount of dietary fiber. Here, we reviewed possible anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, using the search Pubmed ®. Konjac ingestion is likely beneficially associated with obesity, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism. However, evidence is lacking on the relationship between konjac ingestion and development of atherosclerotic diseases. To more fully understand the anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, future studies, preferably with larger numbers of subjects, will be performed.

  6. The Protective Effect of Apamin on LPS/Fat-Induced Atherosclerotic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jung Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apamin, a peptide component of bee venom (BV, has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanisms by which apamin prevents atherosclerosis are not fully understood. We examined the effect of apamin on atherosclerotic mice. Atherosclerotic mice received intraperitoneal (ip injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg to induce atherosclerotic change and were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Apamin (0.05 mg/kg was administered by ip injection. LPS-induced THP-1-derived macrophage inflammation treated with apamin reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, as well as the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway. Apamin decreased the formation of atherosclerotic lesions as assessed by hematoxylin and elastic staining. Treatment with apamin reduced lipids, Ca2+ levels, and TNF-α in the serum from atherosclerotic mice. Further, apamin significantly attenuated expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, and fibronectin in the descending aorta from atherosclerotic mice. These results indicate that apamin plays an important role in monocyte/macrophage inflammatory processing and may be of potential value for preventing atherosclerosis.

  7. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  8. Correlation of common carotid intima media thickness with atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and affect the quality of life. Atherosclerosis, which is the major underlying risk factor, is accelerated in diabetes. To reduce morbidity and mortality, identification of patients with a high risk for development of vascular events is necessary. Apart from other risk prediction models, detection of subclinical atherosclerosis at common carotid site by B-mode ultrasonography which is a noninvasive and reliable method, can add to the benefit and improve risk prediction. Population based studies have revealed that increased Common Carotid Intima Media Thickness (CCIMT) is associated with prevalent coronary artery disease and is a surrogate marker of cardiovascular events. Aim was to evaluate whether increased CCIMT is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 90 patients with type 2 diabetes who were included in the study, were divided in two groups. Group 1: without vascular events and group 2: with vascular events. Apart from patient's demographics, detailed history of events physical examination, through blood analysis for fasting, post postprandial blood sugar, serum cholesterol, TG, renal function test glycosylated Hb, chest x-ray, ECG were recoded. CCIMT was measured by B-mode ultrasonography using high frequency linear transducer, by a specialist radiologist (blind to all clinical and laboratory findings) by standard protocol as described in literature. Mean of the three readings in each side were used for statistical analysis. Our results showed that of the 90 patients studied, 45 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients had atherosclerotic events and significantly higher CCIMT value (mean value of 1.005 +- 0.17 mm) whereas as 45 comparable DM patients without sclerotic events and lower CCIMT values (0.798 +- 0.12 mm) (p0.99 mm) had a statistically significant association with high odds ratios for

  9. FEBRILE SEIZURE: RECURRENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TALEBIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Febrile Convulsion is the most common convulsive disorder in children,occurring in 2 to 4% of the pediatric population and recurring in 30-50% of cases. Considering the varying recurrence rates reported, thisstudy was conducted at the pediatric ward of the Shaheed BeheshtiGeneral Hospital, between 2000-2001 to determine the frequencyof recurrence and related risk factors in children presenting with theirfirst episode of febrile convulsionMaterials & Methods:A two–year cohort study was performed on 50 children presentingwith the first attack of febrile convulsion. Patient demographic dataincluding age, sex, type and duration of seizure, family history offebrile seizure or epilepsy and the interval between fever onset andoccurrence of seizure were recorded in questionnaires. Those patients,for whom prophylactic medication was not administered, werefollowed at three–month intervals for up to one year. Findings werestatistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact testResults:Recurrence was observed in twelve children (24% out of the fifty,being most common in patients aged less than one year (54.4%.Recurrence rates among children with a positive family history offebrile convulsion, presence of complex febrile seizure and positivefamily history of epilepsy were 42.1%, 42.8% and 25% respectively.From among those children with a “less than one hour” intervalbetween fever onset and occurrence of seizure, recurrence occurredin 43-7% of cases, while in those with a “more than one hourinterval”, 14.7% experienced recurrence.Conclusion:Recurrence rates are increased by certain factors including age-belowone year-, positive family history of febrile convulsion, and a “lessthan one hour” interval between time of fever onset and seizureoccurrence.

  10. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  11. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  13. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Lifestyle, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the results of studies aiming to identify risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are described. A population-based case-control design was used to perform (1) epidemiological risk factor studies, examining lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, and (2) genetic st

  14. Risk factors for sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Li; Ang Li; Yibing Weng; Shuwen Zhang; Meili Duan

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse and acute cerebral dysfunction caused by sepsis. Many sepsis patients exhibit acute deterioration in mental status during the early stage of disease, and central nervous system dysfunction has been shown to increase patient mortality. The present study selected 284 sepsis patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January to December 2009. The patients were assigned to SAE and non-SAE patient groups according to SAE occurrence. SAE incidence was 37.68%, and mortality was significantly greater in SAE patients compared with non-SAE patients (41.12% vs. 17.51%, P < 0.01). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated lower arterial partial pressure of oxygen and greater alanine aminotransferase and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores in the SAE group compared with the non-SAE group. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen, alanine aminotransferase, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were determined to be potential risk factors for SAE.

  15. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.

  16. Characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques of chronic lipid apheresis patients as assessed by In Vivo High-Resolution CMR - a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Jochen M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Components of carotid atherosclerotic plaques can reliably be identified and quantified using high resolution in vivo 3-Tesla CMR. It is suspected that lipid apheresis therapy in addition to lowering serum lipid levels also has an influence on development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic lipid apheresis (LA on the composition of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Methods 32 arteries of 16 patients during chronic LA-therapy with carotid plaques and stenosis of 1–80% were matched according to degree of stenosis with 32 patients, who had recently suffered an ischemic stroke. Of these patients only the asymptomatic carotid artery was analyzed. All patients underwent black-blood 3 T CMR of the carotids using parallel imaging and dedicated surface coils. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Morphology and composition of carotid plaques were evaluated. For statistical evaluation Fisher’s Exact and unpaired t-test were used. A p-value Results Patients in the LA-group were younger (63.5 vs. 73.9. years, p2, p Conclusion Results of this study suggest that, despite a severer risk profile for cardiovascular complications in LA-patients, chronic LA is associated with significantly lower lipid content in carotid plaques compared to plaques of patients without LA with similar degrees of stenosis, which is characteristic of clinically stable plaques.

  17. Diabetes and other vascular risk factors for dementia : Which factor matters most? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenborg, Raoul P.; van den Berg, Esther; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2008-01-01

    Vascular risk factors, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia often co-occur. Each of these factors has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, but it is uncertain which factor imposes the greatest risk. Moreover, the effect of age at time of exposure may differ

  18. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  19. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  20. CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS WITH HPE GRADING IN BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Rudramurthy; Pradeep Kumar; Avanthi; Ira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate risk factors for breast cancer with Histopathological grading. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A four year retrospective study was carried out from 2009-2012. 46 cases which were reported as breast cancer in due course were reviewed with histopathological (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson) grade of the tumor and familial, hormonal and acquired risk factors. The correlation of risk factors and the histopathological grade is done by using‘t’ test. RESULTS: Among 46 cases of breast cancer, a...

  1. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...

  2. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  3. Diffuse Dermal Angiomatosis: A Clue to the Diagnosis of Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tueboon Sriphojanart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse dermal angiomatosis (DDA is a benign, acquired, reactive vascular proliferation. DDA is clinically characterized by painful purpuric plaque with central ulceration. The histopathologic hallmark is diffuse proliferation of endothelial cells that are arranged interstitially between collagen bundles of the reticular dermis. DDA has been reported in association with peripheral atherosclerotic disease, arteriovenous fistula and heavy smoking. We report the case of a 49-year-old Asian male with DDA who presented with a painful stellate-shaped purpuric patch on the right thigh. Histopathologic examination showed proliferation of CD34-positive spindle cells in the dermis. Our patient underwent vascular bypass surgery along with tight control of cardiovascular risk factors, which yielded successful results.

  4. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement surgery......, hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...... creatinine. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, high BMI, gender, and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors....

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors encountered during medical examination in athletic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cis Spoturno, Adela C; Paz-Sauquillo, María T; López-Zea, Matilde; Fernández-Rostello, Eduardo A

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors can predispose to cardiovascular disease in adults or lead to cardiovascular events while practicing sports. The objectives of this study were: 1) to estimate the distribution of individual cardiovascular risk factors; 2) to establish a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents or grandparents and the children's clinical condition. This was a retrospective study to assess overweight, obesity and hypertension in 1021 child athletes. The family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke was studied. Out of the studied children, 22.1% (n= 226) were obese and 2.1% (n= 21) had hypertension. Obesity was the most common family risk factor (30%).

  6. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  7. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  8. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  9. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER: prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicheto Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain. Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4, (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2, females 5.3% (4.6-6.0; p Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44; inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68 for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16 for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58 for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58 for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65; diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83; previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15; hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18; hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19. Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87 and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94 were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight.

  10. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group .The malondialdehyde (MDA oxidized-LDL (oxLDL fibrinogen factor VII apolipoprotein A (ApoA and apolipoprotein B (ApoB were measured before the experiment and at the end period (2month. At the end of study using Chekanov method fatty streak formation in aorta artery was determined in all groups. Results: Using both doses of apple cider vinegar significantly decreased fibrinogen oxLDL MDA ApoB ApoB/ApoA VIIlevels in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet (P0.05. Also consumption of apple cider vinegar induced significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesions in aorta artery compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion: This study suggests that apple cider vinegar (as an antioxidant might have some protective effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis.

  11. David M. Hume memorial lecture. In situ vein bypass in the treatment of femoropopliteal atherosclerotic disease: a ten year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K V; Rostad, H

    1978-08-01

    The in situ vein bypass technic for femoropopliteal atherosclerotic disease is described. Several factors influence the long-term results, the most important being a history of myocardial disease, the size of the vein graft, and sufficient runoff.

  12. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  13. Comparison of common carotid artery intima-media thickness between Brazilian Euro-descendants and Afro-descendants with atherosclerosis risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Benaduce Casella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT between the two major Brazilian ethnic groups (those of African descent and those of European descent among individuals with one or more risk factors for atherosclerotic disease. METHOD: Two hundred and six patients with one or more risk factors for atherosclerotic disease were evaluated in a cross-sectional study in which their clinical, ethnic and Demographic characteristics were collected. All patients underwent duplex ultrasound examination of their carotid vessels to obtain IMT measurements. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-three patients (74.3% had a carotid IMT greater than 1.0 mm at one or more point of measurement in at least one common carotid artery. There was a significant correlation between older age and mean carotid wall thickness (R=0.479 / P<0.01. Multivariate analysis identified male sex, arterial hypertension and older age as variables associated with increased IMT (P<0.05 for all variables. When IMT was compared between the two ethnic groups in this study, no significant differences were noted. Euro-descendants and Afro-descendants had similar IMT values, even when the groups were stratified by degree of IMT (normal vs. increased and presence of stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (yes vs. no. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors associated with increased common carotid artery IMT in Brazilian individuals are similar to those in previously described populations. No differences were observed between the two main Brazilian ethnic groups. Longitudinal studies are required for a better evaluation of the incidence, etiologic factors and evolution of carotid intimomedial thickening in this population.

  14. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L; Lindqvist, P G; Jakobsson, M;

    2016-01-01

    National health registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data. RESULTS: A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single...... most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence...

  15. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades. Even though the prevalence of vascular risk factors has changed, hypertension is still prevalent and the burden of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia will continue to increase. Asia remains a high tobacco-consuming area. Although indicators of awareness and management of vascular risk factors have increased in many East Asian countries, their rates still remain low. Here we review the burdens of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in East Asia. We will also discuss the different associations between these vascular risk factors and stroke in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:27733028

  16. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  17. Awareness of risk factors for loneliness among third agers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, T.

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of risk factors for loneliness is a prerequisite for preventive action. Many risk factors for loneliness have been identified. This paper focuses on two: poor health and widowhood. Preventive action by developing a satisfying social network requires time and effort and thus seems appropria

  18. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oncocytoma , which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Kidney Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  20. FAMILY RISK FACTORS AS INDICATORS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS WITH YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko KOVACHEVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This project researches whether risk factors within family have any predictive power in describing youth behavioural problems. Family risk factors such as family functioning problems and conflicts within family have the strongest predictive power. Preventive actions and treatment must be directed toward the youth living in risky families.

  1. Incidence and risk factors of neonatal thrombocytopenia: a pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kusumasari

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 12.2%. Significant risk factor of mother that caused thrombocytopenia was pre-eclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:31-7].

  2. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo;

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  3. Risk factors for clinical anastomotic leakage after right hemicolectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Mikkel; Nerstrøm, Malene; Wilbek, Therese Emilie;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anastomotic leakage (AL) after right hemicolectomy is a devastating complication, and risk factors for AL in this setting are rarely investigated exclusively. Recent reports suggest that anastomotic type may influence the rate of AL in ileocolic anastomoses. We investigated risk factors ...

  4. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels. PMID:26478562

  5. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  6. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  7. The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate associated nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigen, Elif Tükenmez; Koltka, E. Nursen; Dogru, Arzu; Gura, Melek; Vahabaoglu, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) associated nephrotoxicity are important. Our study attempts look into the prevalence of CMS-associated nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2010 and April 2012 on 55 patients who underwent CMS treatment. Nephrotoxicity risk was defined based on the Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage kidney disease criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients included in the study. A total of 22 (40%) patients developed nephrotoxicity. The correlation was detected between nephrotoxicity and patients over 65 with a high Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. APACHE II score was revealed an independent risk factor for nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Advanced age and a high APACHE II score are significant risk factors in the development of nephrotoxicity at ICUs following CMS use. Patient selection and close monitoring are critical when starting CMS treatment. PMID:27390460

  8. The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate associated nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tükenmez Tigen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS associated nephrotoxicity are important. Our study attempts look into the prevalence of CMS-associated nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs, and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2010 and April 2012 on 55 patients who underwent CMS treatment. Nephrotoxicity risk was defined based on the Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage kidney disease criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients included in the study. A total of 22 (40% patients developed nephrotoxicity. The correlation was detected between nephrotoxicity and patients over 65 with a high Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score. APACHE II score was revealed an independent risk factor for nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Advanced age and a high APACHE II score are significant risk factors in the development of nephrotoxicity at ICUs following CMS use. Patient selection and close monitoring are critical when starting CMS treatment.

  9. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  10. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  11. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Sandra; Bakker, Mirjam I; Hatta, Mochammad; Pauline F D Scheelbeek; Dwiyanti, Ressy; Usman, Romi; Sultan, Andi R.; Sabir, Muhammad; Tandirogang, Nataniel; Amir, Masyhudi; Yasir, Yadi; Pastoor, Rob; van Beers, Stella; Henk L. Smits

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua) in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Methods We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of ...

  12. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  13. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.sallsten@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas, E-mail: niklas.forsgard@vgregion.se [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Östling, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.ostling@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Persson, Margaretha, E-mail: margaretha.persson@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Borné, Yan, E-mail: yan.borne@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); and others

    2015-01-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear.

  14. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear

  15. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  16. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  17. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP, i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP, increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP.The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India.Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed.HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP. Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10-2.93; p = 0.019, whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP.The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening.

  18. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil; Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening. PMID:26991305

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  20. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A.; Kirichenko, Tatyana V.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Orekhova, Varvara A.; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  1. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A; Kirichenko, Tatyana V; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhova, Varvara A; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  2. Risk Factors of Dyslexia in Pre-school Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tūbele, Sarmīte

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to actualize early risk factors of dyslexia in pre-school children.There are a lot of research about dyslexia and its impact on the child/pupil's development, learning and other areas of life. Part of the research concerns the development of a child in pre-school age determining, what factors influence acquisition of reading skills and predict potential difficulties. The article is devoted to reveal early risk factors of specific reading disorder (dyslexia), touches dia...

  3. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa; André Luiz Dantas Bezerra; Branca Maria de Oliveira Santos; José Eduardo Zaia; Dernival Bertoncello; Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the s...

  4. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    OpenAIRE

    En XU; Hai-xia WEN

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia...

  5. FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Y CALIDAD DE VIDA EN MUJERES REVASCULARIZADAS CON STENT CORONARIOS / Cardiovascular risk factors and quality of life in women who under-went revascularization with coronary stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Castillo Núñez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción: Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular son responsables directos de la elevada mortalidad por enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica en la mujer. Objetivo: Describir dichos factores, la evolución clínica y la calidad de vida en las féminas tras realizarle angioplastia coronaria. Método: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo en 62 mujeres revascularizadas con angioplastia e implante de stent en el período de enero a junio de 2011. Se realizó seguimiento clínico durante 180 días a través de las consultas médicas. Resultados: La edad media fue de 52,8 años y el factor de riesgo cardiovascular más frecuente, la hipertensión arterial (66,1 %, y la diabetes (24,2 %, el menos prevalente. La enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica de un vaso fue la de mayor frecuencia (87,1 % y la de tres vasos (1,6 %, la menos representada. En 75,8 % de los pacientes se utilizó un stent, solo uno requirió de tres. El 83,9 % de ellos valoraron su calidad de vida como buena, 14,5 % la consideraron aceptable y uno la estimó como pobre. En 93,5 % de los pacientes no se evidenciaron acontecimientos cardiovasculares durante el seguimiento clínico. La diabetes y la categoría calidad de vida pobre, mostraron una asociación estadísticamente significativa con la extensión de la enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica, el número de stents utilizados y los acontecimientos cardiovasculares. Conclusiones: Las mujeres con enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica, revascularizadas con stents coronarios, tienen una elevada frecuencia de factores de riesgo, una evolución clínica favorable y un predominio de las percepciones positivas sobre su calidad de vida. / Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular risk factors are directly responsible for the high mortality from atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in women. Objective: To describe these risk factors, the clinical course and quality of life in women after coronary angioplasty. Method: A

  6. Risk Allocation in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Project: A Review on Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Alkaf Abd Karim

    2011-01-01

    It is important for the public and private sectors to establish effective risk allocation strategies for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. According to Malaysia’s PPP Guideline, one of the key feature or characteristics is to optimal sharing of risk whereby risk is allocated to the party who is the best able to manage. This mean that in PPP itself, it emphasis risk allocation in construction project. This paper presents on reviewing the risk factors of PPP construction project by map...

  7. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt Jon C; James Katherine M; Sinicrope Pamela S; Eton David T; Costello Brian A; Carey Jantey; Lane Melanie A; Ehlers Shawna L; Erwin Patricia J; Nowakowski Katherine E; Murad Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Em...

  8. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial f

  9. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes......, and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29) in fully adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that onset of sleep disturbances rather than short or long sleep mark an increase in physiological risk factors, which may partly explain the higher risk of CVD observed among impaired sleepers. COMMENTARY...

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FINANCIAL RISKS MANAGEMENT OF BUDGETARY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rustamovna Mubarakshina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In article such concepts are considered as the risk, budgetary risk, necessity of formation of system thinking at civil servants working in budgetary process. In article the concept of professional motivation for civil servants is considered. As in article necessity of the account of various psychological factors for managerial process by budgetary risks is proved and these factors are considered. In article risks in the field of public finances and a role of civil servants in the course of control over performance of the federal budget parameters and effective and target use of budgetary funds are considered. In article the urgency of the account of psychological factors at each stage of management by risks of budgetary process, in the answer constantly changing environmental conditions is proved.Aim: to reveal and characterize budgetary process risks. Object of research: psychological factors of financial risks. Result: Substantiation of necessity of the account of psychological factors such as style of thinking, the person, professional motivation of the employee at revealing and the analysis of risks of budgetary process and decrease in influence degree of risks on budgetary process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-37

  11. Fuzzy MCDM Model for Risk Factor Selection in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejman Rezakhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk factor selection is an important step in a successful risk management plan. There are many risk factors in a construction project and by an effective and systematic risk selection process the most critical risks can be distinguished to have more attention. In this paper through a comprehensive literature survey, most significant risk factors in a construction project are classified in a hierarchical structure. For an effective risk factor selection, a modified rational multi criteria decision making model (MCDM is developed. This model is a consensus rule based model and has the optimization property of rational models. By applying fuzzy logic to this model, uncertainty factors in group decision making such as experts` influence weights, their preference and judgment for risk selection criteria will be assessed. Also an intelligent checking process to check the logical consistency of experts` preferences will be implemented during the decision making process. The solution inferred from this method is in the highest degree of acceptance of group members. Also consistency of individual preferences is checked by some inference rules. This is an efficient and effective approach to prioritize and select risks based on decisions made by group of experts in construction projects. The applicability of presented method is assessed through a case study.

  12. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2014-01-01

    and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established......Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...

  13. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk.

  14. Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources

  15. [Is psoriasis a dependent cardiovascular risk factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakkee, M.; Jong, E.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects approximately 2% of the Dutch population. It has been hypothesized that chronic inflammation occurring in psoriasis patients is more than skin deep, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Some observational studies have confirmed thi

  16. Contribution of Individual Risk Factor Changes to Reductions in Population Absolute Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated. Results. Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females was 63.7 (6.4 years. High cholesterol (57% was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53% and high blood pressure (26%. Smoking (57% made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26% and raised cholesterol (17%. After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%, high blood pressure (68%, and high cholesterol (53% was removed. Conclusion. Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  18. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Sehrish; Iacoviello, Brian M; Charney, Dennis S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic experiences can lead to a range of mental health problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading as the most documented disorder following trauma. Epidemiological research has found the rate of exposure to trauma to far outweigh the prevalence of PTSD. Indicating that most people do not develop PTSD following a traumatic event, this phenomenon has led to an interest in evaluating risk factors to determine who develops PTSD. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure fall into three categories: pre-trauma, peri-trauma and post-trauma factors. Pre-trauma factors can include age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, prior psychopathology, and neurobiological factors. Peri-trauma factors can include the duration/severity of trauma experience and the perception that the trauma has ended. Post-trauma factors can include access to needed resources, social support, specific cognitive patterns, and physical activity. To date, several important risk factors have been found to impact the risk of developing PTSD including gender, age, education, IQ, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, pre-trauma psychopathology, prior trauma exposure, familial psychiatric history, and neurobiological factors. This article outlines the state of research findings on pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic risk factors for the development of PTSD and associated psychopathology following trauma. PMID:26206108

  19. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

  20. Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation.

  1. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En XU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, obesity, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, alcoholism, metabolic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc. Meanwhile, hypertension is the most important one in the above-mentioned risk factors. It would effectively reduce or postpone the onset of cerebrovascular diseases through proper intervention and management on those risk factors. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.006

  2. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Info For Families Bullying Info for Health Professionals Info for Education Professionals ... that likely occurs as a result of the effects of multiple genes interacting with other factors in ...

  3. Effects of Disasters: Risk and Resilience Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long-lasting mental health issues. Certain factors increase resilience after disasters: Social support Social support is one of the keys to recovery after any trauma, including disaster. Social support increases ...

  4. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie A Molodecky; Gilaad G. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune res...

  5. Risk factors for idiopathic dystonia in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2014-12-01

    It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (prisk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  6. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  7. Computed Tomography Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring Review of Evidence Base and Cost-effectiveness in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Morris, Pamela B.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factor-scoring algorithms may fall short in identifying asymptomatic individuals who will subsequently suffer a coronary event. It is generally thought that evaluation of the extent of the atherosclerotic plaque and total plaque burden can improve cardiovascular risk stratificati

  8. Interactions between rs5498 polymorphism in the ICAM1 gene and traditional risk factors influence susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Zak, Iwona; Krauze, Jolanta

    2009-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Adhesion molecules are markers of endothelium dysfunction. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) interacts with leukocyte integrins and promotes atherosclerotic process at the surface of endothelial cells. The aim of the study was to assess the association between ICAM1 rs5498 polymorphism and CAD and to establish whether there are any interactions between this polymorphism and traditional risk factors in determining the risk of CAD. We studied 191 cases with angiographically documented CAD and 203 controls with no signs of cardiovascular diseases. The ICAM1 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. Data were analyzed with the STATISTICA 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares. We did not observe significant differences in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of rs5498 between cases and controls. We only found a tendency to a higher prevalence of G allele carriers (AG + GG) in patients compared to controls (68 vs. 64%, P = 0.399). A synergistic effect of G allele carrier-state and smoking that had influenced the risk of CAD [synergy index multiplicative (SIM = 2.09)] was observed. Smoking carriers of G allele compared to non-smoking AA were more prevalent in CAD group (39.8%) than among controls (13.3%, P < 0.0001, OR 4.81). Moreover, there was also a synergistic effect between G allele carrier-state and an elevated level of triacylglycerols (TG) (SIM = 1.28) increasing the risk of CAD. There is a synergistic interaction between rs5498 genotype and smoking that increases the risk of CAD. PMID:19048183

  9. Stability across cohorts in divorce risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Jay D

    2002-05-01

    Over the past quarter-century, many covariates of divorce have been identified. However, the extent to which the effects of these covariates remain constant across time is not known. In this article, I examine the stability of the effects of a wide range of divorce covariates using a pooled sample of data taken from five rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth. This sample includes consistent measures of important predictors of divorce, covers marriages formed over 35 years (1950-1984), and spans substantial historical variation in the overall risk of marital dissolution. For the most part, the effects of the major sociodemographic predictors of divorce do not vary by historical period. The one exception is race. These results suggest that the effects associated with historical period have been pervasive, simultaneously altering the risk of divorce for most marriages.

  10. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, A; Niemann, J; Engberg, Jørgen H;

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  11. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24...

  12. Risk Factors for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jing; Han, Zhenhui; Li, Xueying; Ochs, Todd; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Jinyan; Liu, Ping; Xiong, Zhenyu; Gai, Yong; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Background Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is prevalent in children and adolescents and has a great impact on health. But its risk factors have not been fully understood. This study aimed to explore possible risk factors for children and adolescents with POTS. Methods and Findings 600 children and adolescents (test group) aged 7–18 (11.9±3.0) years old, 259 males and 341 females, were recruited for identifying its risk factors. Another 197 subjects aged from 7 to 18 (11.3±2.3) years old ...

  13. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  14. Diabetes Risk Factor Knowledge Varies Among Multiracial College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongiello, Lorraine Laccetti; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Jones, Hollie

    2016-10-01

    All racial/ethnic groups are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes compared to whites, but it is unknown if young adults recognize their risk. Risk knowledge and individual risk perception were examined in 1579 multiracial urban college students. Students have little knowledge of diabetes risk factors; identifying less than three of ten. Considerable variation exists in the understanding of risk; only .02 % of Asian, 14.0 % of Hispanic and 22.8 % of black students recognized that their race increased risk. Among those with ≥3 risk factors (n = 541) only 39 % perceived their risk. These under-estimators had lower knowledge scores (p = .03) than those who acknowledged their risk; indicating that the cause of under-estimating risk may be, at least, in part due to a lack of information. There is a pressing need to heighten understanding of type 2 diabetes risk among young adults to decrease the future burden of this disease. PMID:26169506

  15. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Joachim Raabe; Dietmar eSpengler

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation...

  16. Engaging Physicians in Risk Factor Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Springrose, James V.; Friedman, Felix; Gumnit, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    OptumHealth tested the feasibility of physician-directed population management in 3 primary care practices and with 546 continuously insured patients who exhibited claims markers for coronary artery disease, diabetes, and/or hypertension. During the intervention portion of the study, we asked physicians to improve the following health measurements: blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and smoking status. We offered a modest pay-for-outcomes incentive for each risk fac...

  17. Symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) with concurrent contralateral vertebral atherosclerotic diseases in 88 patients treated with the intracranial stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi-Liang [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Gao, Bu-Lang [Department of Medical Research Shijiazhuang First Hospital, Hebei Medical University (China); Li, Tian-Xiao, E-mail: litianxiaod@163.com [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Cai, Dong-Yang; Zhu, Liang-Fu; Bai, Wei-Xing; Xue, Jiang-Yu; Li, Zhao-Shuo [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis can be treated with intracranial stenting. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis is safe and effective. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis can prevent long-term stroke. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the safety, effect and instent restenosis rate of Wingspan stenting in treating patients with intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (70–99%) concurrent with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients with severe symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases were treated with the Wingpsan stent. All the baseline, cerebral angiography, success rate, perioperative complications, clinical and imaging follow-up data were prospectively analyzed. Results: The success rate of stenting was 100%, and the mean stenotic rate was reduced from prestenting (84.9 ± 6.8)% to poststenting (17.2 ± 5.9)%. The perioperative stroke rate was 1.1%. Among eighty patients (90.9%) with clinical follow-up 8-62 months (mean 29.3 ± 17.2) poststenting, five (6.3%) had posterior circulation TIA only, three (3.8%) had mild stroke in the posterior circulation but recovered completely, and another five patients greater than 70 years old died of non-ischemic stroke. Imaging follow-up in 46 patients (52.3%) 5–54 months (mean 9.9 ± 9.9) following stenting revealed instent restenosis in 12 patients (26.1%) including 7 (58.3%) symptomatic restenosis. Age and residual stenosis were the two factors to significantly (P < 0.05) affect instent restenosis. Conclusion: Wingspan stenting in the intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases has a low perioperative stroke rate and a good preventive effect on long-term ischemic stroke, but the instent restenosis

  18. Symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) with concurrent contralateral vertebral atherosclerotic diseases in 88 patients treated with the intracranial stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis can be treated with intracranial stenting. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis is safe and effective. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis can prevent long-term stroke. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the safety, effect and instent restenosis rate of Wingspan stenting in treating patients with intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (70–99%) concurrent with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients with severe symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases were treated with the Wingpsan stent. All the baseline, cerebral angiography, success rate, perioperative complications, clinical and imaging follow-up data were prospectively analyzed. Results: The success rate of stenting was 100%, and the mean stenotic rate was reduced from prestenting (84.9 ± 6.8)% to poststenting (17.2 ± 5.9)%. The perioperative stroke rate was 1.1%. Among eighty patients (90.9%) with clinical follow-up 8-62 months (mean 29.3 ± 17.2) poststenting, five (6.3%) had posterior circulation TIA only, three (3.8%) had mild stroke in the posterior circulation but recovered completely, and another five patients greater than 70 years old died of non-ischemic stroke. Imaging follow-up in 46 patients (52.3%) 5–54 months (mean 9.9 ± 9.9) following stenting revealed instent restenosis in 12 patients (26.1%) including 7 (58.3%) symptomatic restenosis. Age and residual stenosis were the two factors to significantly (P < 0.05) affect instent restenosis. Conclusion: Wingspan stenting in the intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases has a low perioperative stroke rate and a good preventive effect on long-term ischemic stroke, but the instent restenosis

  19. Statin-centric versus low-density lipoprotein-centric approach for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease prevention: a Singapore perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peter; Tan, Eng Kiat Kevin; Choo, Jason Chon Jun; Liew, Choon Fong Stanley; Lau, Titus; Waters, David D

    2016-01-01

    The link between cholesterol levels and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is well-established. In Singapore, there is an increasing prevalence of risk factors for ASCVD. Like many Asian countries, Singapore’s population is rapidly ageing and increasingly sedentary, which predisposes individuals to chronic health problems. Current international and local guidelines recommend statin therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, despite the effectiveness of statin therapy, some studies have highlighted that Asian patients with cardiovascular disease are not achieving target lipid goals. Furthermore, it is widely believed that the responses of Asians (both patients and physicians) to statin therapy are different from those of their Western counterparts. Experts convened in 2014 to determine the impact of current guidelines on clinical practice in Singapore. This review summarises the key findings and recommendations of these guidelines, and presents key principles to aid clinicians to manage the cardiovascular risk of their patients more effectively. PMID:27439304

  20. Risk factors for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast-conserving therapy has been widely accepted as a standard treatment for early breast cancer both in Western countries and in Japan. In Western countries, many studies have investigated the risk factors for local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy (BCT), but few such studies have been done in Japan. To determine the risk factors for local recurrence in 399 breast cancer patients (stage I and II, n=396; stage III, n=3) who had undergone BCT with or without postoperative radiation therapy, we evaluated their clinicopathological features by univariate and multivariate analyses. The patients were treated at Osaka National Hospital between February 1988 and December 1997. Univariate analysis showed that a young age (≤45 years; P=0.0005) was a significant risk factor for local recurrence, while radiation therapy (P=0.0058) and adjuvant endocrine therapy (P=0.0041) significantly reduced the risk of local recurrence. In patients with BCT, without radiation therapy a positive surgical margin significantly increased the risk of local recurrence (P=0.0470). Multivariate analysis showed that a young age (P=0.0285) was a significant independent risk factor for local recurrence, while radiation therapy (P=0.0457) significantly decreased recurrence. In patients with a negative surgical margin, radiation therapy (P=0.0158) and adjuvant endocrine therapy (P=0.0421) significantly reduced the relative risk of local recurrence, to 0.160 and 0.366, respectively. In patients with a positive surgical margin, radiation therapy marginally significantly (P=0.0756) reduced the relative risk of local recurrence, to 0.181, and adjuvant endocrine therapy significantly (P=0.0119) reduced the risk, to 0.076. Young age and lack of radiation therapy or adjuvant endocrine therapy were risk factors for local recurrence in breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy, with surgical margin status also being a possible risk factor. (author)

  1. Genesis and growth of extracellular-vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L.; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification areas. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque’s collagen content--two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability--are interlinked.

  2. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Barnard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption, as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption, or as part of a broader dietary pattern.

  3. Magnetic force microscopy of atherosclerotic plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeeva T.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work by methods of scanning probe microscopy, namely by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy the fragments of atherosclerotic plaque section of different nature were investigated. The fragments of atherosclerotic vessels with elements of immature plaque were taken during the coiled artery bypass surgery by alloprosthesis. As the result of investigation we found magnetically ordered phase of endogenous origin in the fragment of solid plaque of mixed structure. This phase is presents biogenic magnetic nanoparticles and their clusters with average size characteristic of 200-400 nm.

  4. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors.

  5. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  6. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms as risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurnić Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of death in Western world. Development of atherosclerotic plaque involves accumulation of inflammatory cells, lipids, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix proteins in the intima of the vascular wall. Apolipoprotein E participates in the transport of exogenous cholesterol, endogenouly synthesized lipids and triglycerides in the organism. Apolipoprotein E gene has been identified as one of the candidate genes for atherosclerosis. Previous studies in different populations have clearly implicated apolipoprotein E genetic variation (ε polymorphisms as a major modulator of low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data considering apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in relation to carotid atherosclerosis gave results that are not in full compliance. The aim of present study was to investigate the apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in association with carotid plaque presence, apolipoprotein E and lipid serum levels in patients with carotid atherosclerosis from Serbia. Methods. The study group enrolled 495 participants: 285 controls and 210 consecutive patients with carotid atherosclerosis who underwent carotid endarterectomy. Genotyping of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms were done using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results. Patients had significantly decreased frequency of the ε2 allele compared to controls. Patients who carry at least one ε2 allele had a significantly higher level of serum apolipoprotein E and significantly lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to those who do not carry this allele. Conclusion. Our results suggest protective effect of apolipoprotein E ε2 allele on susceptibility for carotid plaque presence as well as low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering effect in Serbian patients with carotid atherosclerosis. Further research of multiple gene and environmental factors that contribute to the

  7. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jiong-Liang Qiu; Yang Zhang; Yu-Wan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the risk factors for colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: A meta-analysis of the risk factors of colorectal cancer was conducted for 14 case-control studies, and reviewed 14 reports within 13 years which included 5034cases and 5205 controls. Dersimonian and Laird random effective models were used to process the results.RESULTS: Meta analysis of the 14 studies demonstrated that proper physical activites and dietary fibers were protective factors (pooled OR<0.8), while fecal mucohemorrhage,chronic diarrhea and polyposis were highly associated with colorectal cancer (all pooled OR>4). The stratified results showed that different OR values of some factors were due to geographic factors or different resourses.CONCLUSION: Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers. The suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.

  8. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  9. Dynamical tendencies of health consequences caused by competitive risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the generalized probabilistic approach for analyzing health consequences caused by various exposure factors. Formally basing on the competitive risk theory, it is introduced a general risk model for analysis the influence of environmental risk factors to human health. The usefulness of the model approach is in the opportunity of taking into account: time delay of impact and consequence manifestation; easy comparisons of exposure factors with different nature and various consequences (morbidity and mortality, carcinogenic and genetic); social and environmental components in overall mortality. Preliminary examples of comparative risk analysis are demonstrated on the Russian demography and environmental data with the attempt of characterizing the dynamical tendencies and evolution of introduced risk index. The prospects of the probabilistic approach and the results obtaining on this basis are discussed. (author)

  10. OSA – a risk factor for stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan CM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh M RyanCentre for Sleep Health and Research, University of Toronto/Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder characterized by recurrent and intermittent hypoxia with continued respiratory effort against a closed glottis. The result of this is a cascade of acute and chronic systemic pathophysiological responses that cause endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article focuses on the clinical evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea and stroke and on the specific mechanisms perpetuating stroke risk in this population.Keywords: stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, brain injury, atherosclerosis, continuous positive airway pressure, outcomes

  11. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik;

    1997-01-01

    .6-3.1 PCE/pry and 6.0-6.9 MCE/pry). Finally Pathology, Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a considerable risk (0.8-1.3 PCE/pry and 1.3-2.9 MCE/pry). Potential risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Employment as senior as compared to junior doctor was associated with a higher risk......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish......Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6...

  12. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, P. G. C.; de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W.; Donders, R.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints

  13. Risk Factors for Late Diagnosis of Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-01-01

    Investigators at Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Stony Brook, New York; University of California, San Diego; and other centers determined the type of physician who makes the Rett syndrome (RTT) diagnosis and identified risk factors for delayed diagnosis.

  14. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and other...

  15. Prognostic risk factors for stroke-associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Han

    2010-01-01

    Stroke impacts patient's quality of life,but most stroke patients die of complications,such as pulmonary infections,rather than the original stroke.Stroke-associated pneumonia(SAP)is a common complication of acute stroke,but the risk factors are poorly understood.SAP can significantly affect neurological recovery after stroke and markedly prolong the hospital stay.The present study analyzed the risk factors for SAP to improve prevention and treatment outcomes.Age,diabetes mellitus,states of consciousness,nasal feeding,gastric mucosa protective drugs,and prophylactic use of antibiotics are risk factors for SAP.In addition,smoking,cardiovascular disease,stroke location and properties,and dehydrating agents are associated with SAP,but are not risk factors.

  16. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  17. Risk factors for medical complications of acute hemorrhagic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jangala Mohan Sidhartha; Aravinda Reddy Purma; Nagaswaram Krupa Sagar; Marri Prabhu Teja; Meda Venkata subbaiah; Muniswami Purushothaman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors leading to medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Methods: We conducted an observational study in neurology, emergency and general medicine wards at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kadapa. We recruited hemorrhagic stroke patients, and excluded the patients have evidence of trauma or brain tumor as the cause of hemorrhage. We observed the subjects throughout their hospital stay to assess the risk factors and complications. Results: During period of 12 months, 288 subjects included in the study, 89% of them identified at least 1 prespecified risk factor for their admission in hospital and 75% of them experienced at least 1 prespecified complication during their stay in hospital. Around 47% of subjects deceased, among which 64% were females. Conclusions: Our study has assessed that hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Female mortality rate was more when compared to males.

  18. Risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve neuropraxia postthyroidectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Despite preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), transient vocal cord paralysis (VCP) occurs after 1.2% to 10.9% of thyroidectomies. The objective of this study was to study risk factors for transient VCP after thyroidectomy.

  19. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  1. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for hypertension after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J.J.; Sep, S.J.; Balen, V.L. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolic and obstetric risk factors associated with hypertension after preeclampsia. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and clinical data from a postpartum screening (blood pressure, microalbuminuria and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) from 683 pri

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  3. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinton, Louise A; Cook, Michael B; McCormack, Valerie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium.......41; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.86). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent findings across case-control and cohort investigations, complemented by pooled analyses, indicated important roles for anthropometric and hormonal risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancer. Further investigation should focus on potential roles...... significantly associated with risk, relations that were independent of BMI. Diabetes also emerged as an independent risk factor (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.37). There were also suggestive relations with cryptorchidism (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.94) and orchitis (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1...

  4. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » What are the risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  6. Vascular risk factors and adipocyte dysfunction in metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajer, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The cluster of vascular risk factors closely associated with obesity, consists of fasting and postprandial dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, also known as metabolic syndrome, is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, adipose tissue in conc

  7. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total knee joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Basim K; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram B

    2015-12-01

    Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total knee joint replacement. A retrospective study was conducted among 702 consecutive primary knee joint replacements performed between January 2009 and December 2012 in our department. Increased postoperative serum creatinine was considered indicative of postoperative renal injury according to RIFLE criteria. Sixty three patients (9.7%) had significant moderate or severe postoperative renal dysfunction in which 8 patients (1.2%) ended with severe and permanent renal impairment. Advanced age, low intraoperative blood pressure, hypertension, general anaesthesia, and prophylactic dicloxacillin were identified as significant risk factors. Male gender and BMI were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum creatinine. Smoking, female gender, diabetes mellitus and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors. PMID:26790786

  8. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  9. Mental vulnerability--a risk factor for ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Jørgensen, Torben; Birket-Smith, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine whether mental vulnerability is a risk factor for the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) after adjustment for well-established risk factors. METHODS: In three prospective cohort studies in Copenhagen County, Denmark, we recorded the level...... of mental vulnerability and possible risk factors to IHD at baseline. For follow-up, the sample was linked to relevant registries to identify all cases of fatal and nonfatal IHD. The relationship between mental vulnerability and IHD was examined using both Kaplan-Meir and Cox proportional hazard models...... adjusting for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: Mental vulnerability was significantly associated with the risk for IHD (medium mental vulnerability: hazard ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.91; and high mental vulnerability: hazard ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.46-2.88), after...

  10. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  11. Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior. A Biopsychosocial Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The price of crime is enormous. In addition to the monetary costs of the investigative process and the criminal procedure, crime often leads to health and social problems for victims and perpetrators. Approximately 5% of the population is responsible for a sizeable portion of the total amount of crime; thus, preventing high-risk individuals from developing into offenders can provide society with significant savings. To track high-risk individuals and tailor prevention programs, risk factors f...

  12. Risk factors and novel biomarkers in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fourkala, E.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts continue to identify and validate novel risk factors / biomarkers for breast cancer and improve current risk prediction models in the general population due to ongoing issues with sensitivity and specificity. The overall goal of this PhD study is to add to this effort. Specific aims are to (1) examine which is the best source of getting notified for breast cancer diagnosis in the general population since accurate data is crucial for risk assessment studies (2) investigate the assoc...

  13. Factors Influencing Physical Risk Taking in Rock Climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Marcus K.; Gould, Daniel R.; Hardy, Lew; Woodman, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate factors influencing physical risk taking in the sport of rock climbing. Specifically, the relationships between physical risk taking, sensation seeking, spheres of control, and desirability of control were examined. One hundred five rock climbers from the United States completed a series of surveys measuring each of the above-mentioned psychological variables. As predicted, physical risk taking demonstrated significant positive relationships to both tota...

  14. Financial risks and factors affecting them on Finnish farms

    OpenAIRE

    Pyykkonen, Perttu; Yrjola, Tapani; Latukka, Arto

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of rapid structural change and new investment support scheme agricultural debts have increased and concentrated heavily in Finland. In addition, New Basel Accord (Basel II) regulating the bank business requires more in-depth credit risk assessment from banks. Therefore, there are both endogenous and exogenous reasoning for researching the agricultural credit risks. The purpose of the study is to find out the factors that affect financial risks in agriculture as well as possib...

  15. Coronary Artery Disease: A Descriptive Analysis of Risk Factors: Before and After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dinkar, Suresh Rao, M Vakamudi, R Saldanha, KR Balakrishnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing life span of man, the number of ageing people is also increasing, and along with that the number of diseases affecting them is also increasing. Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is one of them. Coronary revascularization was started in 1960s through the pioneering efforts of David Sabiston and Kolessov. This is a retrospective descriptive study. A total number of 1050 Patients were operated on beating heart surgery from 1998 to Nov. 2002 out of which 852 patients were analysed to know the results and prognostic outcomes. Mean age was 57.8 years (range 31 - 80years with M:F ratio of 7:1. The pre-operative parameters studied were DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, family history of CAD, smoking and past history of MI. other parameters included pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, CVA, APD, PVD etc. 55.75% patients were diabetic, 53.99% were hypertensive and 24.4% had history of hyperlipidemia. Family history was positive in 12.9% of the patients, 25% were smokers and 44% had history of previous MI. average number of diseased vessels was 2.34 with triple vessel disease being most common. 6.6% had history of pulmonary diseases, 7.4% had pre-operative renal failure and 2% had past history of CV stroke. Overall in-hospital mortality was 1.4%. relative risk for mortality, morbidity, new onset of renal failure, CVA, arrhythmias, CCF were calculated. Mean hospital stay was 9.83days (range 6 - 41years, mean ICU stay was 74.3 hours (range 73 - 700years. Usage of blood and blood products was significantly less. Freedom from complications was 93%. LVEF<40%, age >70 years, high diastolic PA pressure> 15mm Hg were found to be significant risk factors for mortality. Females were found to be 2.6 times more at risk for mortality and development of complications as compared to males. Patients with previous history of MI were found to be more at risk of developing complications increasing their hospital and ICU stay.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  17. Risk Factors for Bereavement Outcome: A Multivariate Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Houwen, Karolijne; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; van den Bout, Jan; Wijngaards-De Meij, Leoniek

    2010-01-01

    Bereavement increases the risk of ill health, but only a minority of bereaved suffers lasting health impairment. Because only this group is likely to profit from bereavement intervention, early identification is important. Previous research is limited, because of cross sectional designs, small numbers of risk factors, and use of a single measure…

  18. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  19. Risk Factors of Endocarditis in Patients with Enterococcus faecalis Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Lauridsen, Trine K; Arpi, Magnus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis (EF) bacteremia. We aim to validate an adapted version of the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE...

  20. Influence of Perinatal Risk Factors on Premature Labor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamurad A. Orazmuradov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, for the first time, the problem of premature labor (PL is considered from the standpoint of the concept of perinatal obstetric risk. The obtained results show that the optimal choice of the mode of delivery must be based on gestational age and perinatal risk (PR factors with calculation of their intrapartum gain (IG.

  1. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  2. Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disturbance in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskentausta, T.; Iivanainen, M.; Almqvist, F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher risk for psychiatric disturbance than their peers with normal intelligence, but research data on risk factors are insufficient and partially conflicting. Method: The subjects comprised 75 children with ID aged 6-13 years. Data were obtained from case files and the following four…

  3. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  4. Metabolic risk factors in depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, Arianne Klaartje Beraldine van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to clarify which aspects of depression and anxiety are related to an increased metabolic risk, and which factors contribute to these associations. Taken together, our findings indicate that people with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety are at particular risk o

  5. Tests of risk premia in linear factor models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Kleibergen

    2009-01-01

    We show that statistical inference on the risk premia in linear factor models that is based on the Fama-MacBeth (FM) and generalized least squares (GLS) two-pass risk premia estimators is misleading when the β’s are small and/or the number of assets is large. We propose novel statistics, that are ba

  6. Tests of risk premia in linear factor models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Kleibergen

    2005-01-01

    We show that inference on risk premia in linear factor models that is based on the Fama-MacBeth and GLS risk premia estimators is misleading when the ß’s are small and/or the number of assets is large. We propose some novel statistics that remain trustworthy in these cases. The inadequacy of Fama-Ma

  7. Vascular Cognitive Impairment: risk factors and brain MRI correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y.D.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease plays an important role in the development of dementia, also in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, are associated with a two-fold increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. The development of cogni

  8. Multiple Risk Factor Clustering and Risk of Hypertension in the Mongolian Ethnic Population of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether the clustering of risk factors, both environmental and genetic, increases the risk of essential hypertension (EH) and the accumulation of risk factors influences the blood pressure level in normotensives. Methods On the basis of a prevalence survey, 501 subjects of Mongolian ethnicity (243hypertensives and 258 normotensives) who were not related to each other were selected to conduct a case-control study.All subjects were interviewed with questionnaires and their blood specimens were collected. Renin gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, a new genetic marker, was genotyped with PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Overweight, alcohol consumption, and renin gene I/D polymorphism were significant risk factors of EH (P<0.05). The odds ratios (OR) for the number of risk factors were 2.39 (95%CI: 0.98-6.74) for one risk factor, 5.03 (95%CI: 2.06-14.18) for two, and 6.09 (95%CI: 1.85-22.38) for three respectively after adjusting for age and sex. In normotensives, age- and sex-adjusted mean blood pressures increased with more accumulation of risk factors.However, there were no significant differences among the different blood pressure levels according to the number of risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion Overweight, alcohol consumption, and renin gene I/D polymorphism are risk factors of EH in the Mongolian ethnic population of China. The accumulation of the risk factors causes a sharp increase of the risk of EH.

  9. Early modifiable risk factors for childhood and adolescent mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Cherry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health is a major public health concern. Childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem can predispose children to future depression. Mental health issues often emerge in adolescence making examination of potential early modifiable risk factors for these three mental health indicators crucial. Potential risk factors for mental health issues often reflect findings from Western settings where confounding by low socioeconomic position may occur, making it diffi...

  10. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  11. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were i...

  12. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Lacher, Simone; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    PRINCIPLES Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. METHODS Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to...

  13. Multiple jeopardy: Risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring

    OpenAIRE

    LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; CUSHING, GRETTA; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attribut...

  14. Distribution of Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Amirkhosro Ghaseminejad; Pedram Niknafs

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the distribution and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants referred to neonates intensive care unit (NICU) of central hospital of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, to obtain primary information on ROP in Kerman, Iran. Methods In a cross sectional prospective study, data of premature infants screened for ROP including possible risk factors and eye examination results were recorded during 2006-2008 and analyzed...

  15. Exercise and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Korpelainen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine lifestyle risk factors for low bone mass, falls and fractures, and to determine the effect of 30-month exercise trial on bone mass, balance, muscle strength and gait in elderly women. Reliability of an inclinometric method for assessing postural sway was evaluated. Data on risk factors, falls and fractures were collected by questionnaires, and calcaneus and radius bone mass were measured from 1,222 women. Lifetime physical activity, low occ...

  16. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular...

  17. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  18. Is Procidentia a Distinct Disease? Comparison of Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Total prolapse%u2014in other words, procidentia%u2014refers to the complete eversion of the total length of the vagina. Age, pregnancy, delivery, previous pelvic surgery, and conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure, such as chronic pulmonary disease, constipation, and obesity are risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse. This study aims to assess the incidence of anterior, posterior, apical, and total prolapse and to determine differences in the risk factors for different vaginal...

  19. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen:a review

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundStudies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. MethodsA search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and ...

  20. Correlation between B type natriuretic peptide and metabolic risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wen-hua; Chen, Li-Ying; Dai, Hong-Lei; CHEN, JIAN-HUA; Yan CHEN; Fang, Li-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been shown that B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level can indicate cardiovascular disease. However, the association between BNP and metabolic risk factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and metabolic risk factors. Material and methods A total of 11,508 subjects were selected from those who underwent health examinations in our hospital. NT-proBNP, waist circumference, blood ...